MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, October 25, 2019
- Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2018
- Novel Treatment of Vaccinia Virus Infection from an Occupational Needlestick — San Diego, California, 2019
- Proficiency Testing of Viral Marker Screening in African Blood Centers — Seven African Countries, 2017
- Early Release: E-cigarette Use, or Vaping, Practices and Characteristics Among Persons with Associated Lung Injury — Utah, April–October 2019
CDC Media Relations
A new CDC report shows that global vaccine coverage falls well short of achieving the Global Vaccine Action Plan’s 2020 goal. To close this gap, countries and global health partners will have to create strategies that address local challenges to receiving vaccines on schedule and to target hard-to-reach and hard-to-vaccinate populations. CDC reports global, regional, and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends, including vaccination dropout. In 2018, global coverage for third-dose diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) and first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) was 86%. Nine out of 10 children received at least one dose of DTP vaccine. However, major challenges remain. In 2018, 19.4 million children were not fully vaccinated, leaving them vulnerable to disability and death from vaccine-preventable diseases. Only 66% of countries reached the Global Vaccine Action Plan’s 2011-2020 (GVAP) target of 90% or greater DTP3 coverage, and only 61% of countries reached the GVAP 2020 target of ≥90% national coverage for MCV1. To meet these goals, governments and global health partners need context-specific strategies to address regional differences in vaccination coverage and dropout rates.
Novel Treatment of Vaccinia Virus Infection from an Occupational Needlestick — San Diego, California, 2019
CDC Media Relations
This was the first use of tecovirimat for a case where a lab worker became accidentally infected with vaccinia virus, which is used for smallpox vaccination. Though the medication had only mild side effects, the patient’s illness course was similar to that of patients whose illnesses were untreated. This case highlights the importance of vaccination for scientists working with vaccinia virus in a laboratory setting. After a lab scientist was accidentally stuck with a needle containing vaccinia virus, the scientist was treated with tecomirivat, the first FDA-approved antiviral for the treatment of smallpox. Tecomirivat can also be used in collaboration with CDC under an investigational new drug protocol for the treatment of vaccinia virus infections. CDC recommends that lab scientists be vaccinated against vaccinia virus (using the smallpox vaccine) before working with vaccinia virus able to replicate in human cells. In case of accidental exposure lab workers should wash wounds promptly with soap and water and follow all established needlestick injury protocols for their place of work.
Proficiency Testing of Viral Marker Screening in African Blood Centers — Seven African Countries, 2017
Title: UCSF public affairs
Office Phone: 415-476-3163
Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
The accuracy of blood bank testing for HIV and hepatitis B and C viruses in sub-Saharan Africa previously has been shown to be deficient. While sensitivity has improved for HIV, sensitivity for hepatitis B and C viruses remains suboptimal. Resources should be allocated to enable all blood center laboratories to use only good quality rapid tests or avoid their use entirely. The current study asked whether proficiency has improved following international investments in blood transfusion safety and whether national blood transfusion services had better performance than hospital-based blood banks. While testing for HIV has improved (mean sensitivity 97%) compared to past studies, sensitivity for hepatitis B virus (76%) and hepatitis C virus (80%) remains suboptimal. For hepatitis viruses, poor sensitivity was linked to the use of rapid diagnostic assays which were used predominantly by the hospital based blood centers.
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.