MMWR News Synopsis

Friday, October 4, 2019

National Trends in Hepatitis C Infection by Opioid Use Disorder Status Among Pregnant Women at Delivery Hospitalization — United States, 2000–2015

CDC Media Relations

The rate of hepatitis C infection among women at delivery – both with and without opioid use disorder – increased significantly between 2000 and 2015. CDC examined the relationship between the opioid crisis and national trends in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among women during hospital deliveries. Overall, the U.S. rate of HCV infection at delivery increased from 0.8 infections per 1,000 live births in 2000 to 4.1 in 2015. During this time period, among those women with opioid use disorder, the rates of HCV infection increased from 87 to 217 per 1,000 deliveries. Among those without opioid use disorder, the rate of HCV infection increased from 0.7 to 2.6 per 1,000 deliveries. Treatment of opioid use disorder should include screening and referral for related conditions such as HCV infection

Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle- and High-School Students — United States, 2014–2018

Michael Felberbaum
Press Officer
Office Phone: 240-402-9548
Cell phone: 202-906-0229

Flavored e-cigarette use increased among high school students during 2014-2018; among middle school students, it decreased during 2014-2015 and increased during 2015-2018. The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits characterizing flavors (e.g., candy and fruit) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes – but characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products at the federal level. Flavored tobacco products can appeal to youth and young adults and influence initiation and establishment of tobacco-use patterns. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed data from the 2014-2018 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS) to determine prevalence of current (past 30 day) use of flavored tobacco products among U.S. middle-school (grades 6-8) and high-school (grades 9-12) students. They found that flavored e-cigarette use increased among high-school students during 2014-2018; among middle-school students, it decreased during 2014-2015 and increased during 2015-2018.

Trends and Characteristics in Marijuana Use Among Public School Students — King County, Washington, 2004–2016

Hilary N. Karasz, PhD
Public Information Officer Public Health—King County Seattle
Office Phone: 206-263-8705

While King County youth use rates have decreased or remained steady since legalization of retail marijuana sales in Washington state, perception of harm has decreased. Decreases in perception of harm is concerning due to known and potential effects of marijuana on the developing brain and its availability in multiple products and highly potent forms. Despite legalization of the retail sale of marijuana to adults in Washington in 2012, evidence from the biennial Washington State Healthy Youth Survey indicates that the prevalence of past 30–day marijuana use among King County students in grades 10 and 12 began to decline that year. The decline continued in 2016 among grade 10 students and did not change significantly among grade 12 students. However, while use rates have fallen or remained steady across surveyed grades, the proportion of students reporting perception of great risk of harm from regular marijuana use declined over time, with older students reporting the lowest perceived risk of harm. This change in perception of harm is notable and should be monitored as a potential factor in youth marijuana use uptake.

Evaluation of Infection Prevention and Control Readiness at Frontline Health Care Facilities in High-Risk Districts Bordering Ebola Virus Disease–Affected Areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo — Uganda, 2018

CDC Media Relations

During an Ebola outbreak, frontline healthcare facilities must have the capacity to rapidly identify suspected Ebola cases and refer suspected Ebola cases for treatment in order to protect patients, staff, and visitors. The 2014–2016 West Africa Ebola outbreak demonstrated the importance of strengthening infection prevention and control (IPC) capacity at frontline healthcare facilities to prevent healthcare–associated transmission. Shortly after the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was declared, Uganda initiated Ebola preparedness activities in districts bordering DRC. IPC assessments revealed gaps in screening, isolation, and notification practices at four frontline healthcare facilities. Rapid scale-up of IPC preparedness activities at facilities where the risk of encountering patients with Ebola is high must be undertaken to ensure that these facilities have the capacity to rapidly identify suspected Ebola cases and refer patients for treatment to protect patients, staff, and visitors.

Progress Toward Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Control and Elimination — Worldwide, 2000–2018

CDC Media Relations

Rubella is being eliminated country by country. For the first time, more than half of the world’s infants are protected against rubella. Since 2011, there has been an acceleration in the efforts to introduce rubella-containing vaccine using a strategy that can result in elimination. In 2018, more than half (69%) of the world’s infants were vaccinated for rubella. This is the highest-ever infant vaccination rate for rubella. Because of vaccination activities, 81 (43%) countries have stopped endemic rubella transmission, ending birth defects due to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in those countries. CRS is a condition that occurs after a mother is infected with rubella during pregnancy and can cause birth defects. Rubella and CRS are preventable through vaccination.

E-cigarette Product Use, or Vaping, Among Persons with Associated Lung Injury — Illinois and Wisconsin, April–September 2019

Surveillance Summaries

The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) can help identify populations particularly affected by fatal violence. NVDRS not only provides details on the manner of violent death, but also identifies common risk factors for multiple forms of violence. As NVDRS data demonstrate, the majority of violent deaths are suicides, making suicide prevention an important priority. CDC’s suicide prevention technical package identifies strategies that have the greatest potential to prevent suicide and to reduce the immediate and long-term consequences of suicidal behavior.



CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.

Page last reviewed: October 3, 2019