MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, September 20, 2019
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men — 23 Urban Areas, 2017
CDC Media Relations
To expand use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), interventions to increase PrEP awareness, should encourage health care providers to discuss PrEP, destigmatize PrEP use, and promote racial/ethnic equity in PrEP access. PrEP is a daily oral pill that reduces the risk for sexual acquisition of HIV by about 99% when taken daily as prescribed. Black men and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are significantly less likely than white MSM to have discussed PrEP with a health care provider. Increased use of PrEP would help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV incidence rates among MSM and support the “U.S. Ending HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America” initiative. CDC analyzed data from more than 10,100 interviews with MSM at high risk for HIV in 23 U.S. cities. The analysis found white MSM (58%) were significantly more likely than Hispanic (44%) and Black (43%) MSM to have reported they discussed PrEP with a health care provider in the past year. A little more than half (55%) of the Black MSM who reported they discussed PrEP with their health care provider also reported they used PrEP, compared with about two-thirds of those who were Hispanic (62%) and who were white (68%). These findings highlight the critical need to address racial and ethnic disparities in PrEP awareness, PrEP discussions with health care providers, and PrEP use among MSM.
From 2002-2017, bovine tuberculosis, a type of tuberculosis more commonly found in animals, was found in three hunters and linked to diseased deer. Hunters are encouraged to take simple precautions to prevent hunting-related diseases. An animal version of tuberculosis can spread to humans who are in close contact with infected animals. Doctors can be on the lookout for this disease in people who have hunted in certain geographic areas. Hunters can take simple precautions to protect themselves, like wearing gloves while field dressing, cleaning hands after handling wild game or fowl, and avoiding contact with animals that appear ill. Hunters should check with their local Department of Natural Resources to find out more about the prevalence of this disease where they hunt.
In some counties in Arizona and California, as many as 1 in 500 people had reported cases of Valley Fever. The number of reported cases increased nearly 75% from 2014 (8,233 cases) to 2017 (14,364) with most cases occurring in Arizona and California. Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever), a disease caused by a fungus that lives in soil, is an important public health threat in the United States. Nearly 100,000 cases were reported to CDC during 2011-2017. Although reported cases declined from 2011-2014, they increased nearly 75% from 2014 (8,232 cases) to 2017 (14,364). Arizona and California reported more than 95% of cases. However, all 27 health departments with public health surveillance reported cases, indicating both wider distribution of this disease and the role of travel to areas in which Valley fever can be acquired. Reasons for the recent increase in reported cases are unclear, but might include environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation; changes in surveillance; land use changes; and changes in the population at risk for the infection.
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.