MMWR News Synopsis
Friday, August 2, 2019
- Injection Practices and Sexual Behaviors Among Persons with Diagnosed HIV Infection Who Inject Drugs — United States, 2015–2017
- Threefold Increases in Population HIV Viral Load Suppression Among Men and Young Adults — Bukoba Municipal Council, Tanzania, 2014–2017
- Candida auris in a U.S. Patient with Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms and Recent Hospitalization in Kenya
- Notes from the Field
Injection Practices and Sexual Behaviors Among Persons with Diagnosed HIV Infection Who Inject Drugs — United States, 2015–2017
CDC Media Relations
Focusing HIV prevention strategies on both sexual and injection behaviors among people with HIV who inject drugs might reduce transmission risk. CDC analyzed 2015-2017 data from a nationally representative survey to assess injection and sexual behaviors among people with HIV who injected drugs in the past 12 months. Overall, 3% of people with diagnosed HIV reported injecting drugs. Of those, over 10% shared used injection equipment with another person and more than half needed drug or alcohol treatment, among whom more than one-third did not receive treatment. People with HIV who injected drugs were more likely to have had a detectable viral load and to have engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors than people with HIV who did not inject drugs. These findings underscore the importance of implementing a multipronged approach to decrease HIV transmission risk among people with HIV who inject drugs, including expanding access to sterile injection equipment, education around harm reduction and condom use, and access to substance use treatment.
Threefold Increases in Population HIV Viral Load Suppression Among Men and Young Adults — Bukoba Municipal Council, Tanzania, 2014–2017
CDC Media Relations
Findings from the Bukoba Combination Prevention Evaluation (BCPE) suggest that comprehensive facility- and community-based HIV-testing strategies, combined with Test and Start and recommended linkage and defaulter-tracing services, can substantially increase viral load suppression (VLS) and reduce VLS-associated sex and age-group disparities in a relatively short time. A new CDC study describes results from an HIV intervention program in Bukoba, Tanzania, that more than doubled the number of HIV-positive residents ages 18-49 who achieved viral load suppression (VLS). The BCPE scaled up new testing, linkage to care, and retention on antiretroviral therapy (ART) interventions during October 2014–March 2017. Although participants received only 6 months of Test and Start (ART for all HIV-positive persons), overall VLS rose from 28.6% to 64.8%. VLS increased threefold among HIV-positive men and young adults (ages 18-29), groups that typically have low VLS. BCPE findings suggest that comprehensive testing, linkage, and retention interventions, combined with Test and Start, can substantially increase VLS prevalence for all people with HIV in a relatively short time.
Candida auris in a U.S. Patient with Carbapenemase-Producing Organisms and Recent Hospitalization in Kenya
CDC Media Relations
To improve early detection of Candida auris and prevent spread, patients with a history of hospitalization outside the U.S. should be screened for C. auris, especially if they also have infection or colonization with a carbapenemase-producing organism (CPO). Recent hospitalization abroad is a risk factor for CPOs and Candida auris. Once introduced into the U.S. healthcare system, these organisms can spread quickly. In September 2018, the Maryland Department of Health was notified of a hospitalized resident with CPOs and recent hospitalization in Kenya. Because of this history, the patient was screened for C. auris and found to be colonized. This case is a reminder that healthcare facilities should develop strategies to consistently and reliably identify patients with international healthcare exposure upon evaluation so they can be appropriately screened for multidrug resistant organisms, and that patients should inform their healthcare providers about any health care received abroad to inform their care.
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.