MMWR News Synopsis

Friday, June 7, 2019

Receipt of Breast Milk by Gestational Age — United States, 2017

CDC Media Relations

Breast milk is especially beneficial for premature infants. These estimates suggest that many infants, particularly high-risk infants, may not be receiving breast milk. This CDC study is the first to provide estimates of newborn feeding practices by gestational age across the United States. For the nearly 1 in 10 infants born prematurely in the United States annually, breast milk is especially beneficial, helping prevent infection and promoting brain development. CDC analyzed 2017 birth certificate data from 48 states and the District of Columbia to describe receipt of breast milk during the first few days of life. Term infants were more likely to have received breast milk than preterm infants, and receipt of breast milk increased with gestational age (extremely preterm: 71%, early preterm: 76%, late pre-term: 77%, and term: 85%). Hospitals can implement policies and practices to ensure that all mothers receive support for breast milk feeding.

Annual Out-of-Pocket Expenditures and Financial Hardship Among Cancer Survivors Aged 18–64 Years — United States, 2011–2016

CDC Media Relations

The population of cancer survivors is growing and many struggle to pay for the costs of their medical care. As a result, 25% of survivors have financial hardships and 34% have psychological hardships. Cancer diagnosis is no longer an immediate death sentence. Today, more than 16.9 million Americans are cancer survivors (i.e., those who have received a cancer diagnosis) and living longer. These survivors face many challenges including substantial out-of-pocket expenditures and financial hardship. In a year, cancer survivors ages 18-64 years will incur average out-of-pocket costs of $1000 in medical care, while people without a cancer history will incur average out-of-pocket costs of $622. Cancer survivors were more likely to suffer material hardships (such as having to borrow money, going into debt, filing for bankruptcy, or being unable to pay their medical bills) and psychological hardships (worrying about large medical bills). Survivors without insurance coverage have more financial hardships than those with private insurance coverage.

Community Assessments for Mosquito Prevention and Control Experiences, Attitudes, and Practices — U.S. Virgin Islands, 2017 and 2018

Jahnesta Ritter
Director of Public Relations
U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Health
Office number: 340-718-1311
Cell number: 340-626-6290

Vector control programs can use community assessments to provide rapid, actionable information to advise community education and mosquito control during outbreak responses, disaster responses, and routine operations. Integrated vector management is important to reduce mosquito-borne disease transmission.  Community assessments are rarely used to inform mosquito management or understand community perceptions.  Community assessments conducted in the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Zika response, hurricane response, and hurricane recovery provided rapid, actionable information to advise and inform community education and mosquito control. For example, it was found that support for mosquito spraying by the U.S. Virgin Islands Department of Health was supported similarly throughout all assessments, but support for specific spray methods varied. Concern about acquiring Zika changed over time. Community assessments can also be used by vector control programs during non-response periods to enhance routine operations.

Progress Toward Measles Elimination — Pakistan, 2000–2018

CDC Media Relations

Pakistan, with a population of over 200 million people, remains endemic for measles and needs to increase the number of people with two doses of measles vaccine coverage to 95%. This will require continued strengthening of the immunization program with a particular focus on reaching children in rural areas and poor communities. A new report describes progress toward measles elimination in Pakistan during 2000-2018. Before 2000, fewer than 57% of children had received the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV), and there were on average 3,500 to 28,000 measles cases per year. Estimated first-dose MCV coverage increased from 57% to 76% during 2000–2017, and second-dose MCV coverage increased from 30% to 45% during 2009–2017. Over 232.5 million children received MCV through vaccination campaigns during 2005–2018. Despite these efforts, confirmed measles cases increased during 2010–2018, with 33,007 cases in 2018. To achieve measles elimination, efforts are needed to increase MCV1 and MCV2 coverage; reach communities not accessing immunization services; and improve case detection, reporting and investigation.



CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.

Page last reviewed: June 6, 2019