MMWR News Synopsis for February 01, 2019

HIV Partner Service Delivery Among Blacks or African Americans — United States, 2016

CDC Media Relations

New data from the CDC support the idea that prevention efforts that consistently include partner services might increase early diagnosis and improve HIV-related health outcomes among African Americans. HIV partner services are offered to people with diagnosed HIV infection and their sex/needle-sharing partners. Among the services provided to those who are notified of their potential HIV exposure is HIV testing, mental health support, housing assistance, and substance misuse treatment. In order to better understand the impact of HIV partner services among African Americans, CDC analyzed 2016 data submitted by state and local health departments. The analysis found that slightly more (76 percent) African Americans diagnosed with HIV were interviewed for partner services relative to all people diagnosed with HIV infection. Among African American partners identified through partner services, 78 percent were notified of their potential HIV exposure. Of those, 47 percent were tested for HIV, and 17 percent of those tested received a new HIV diagnosis. The rate of new HIV diagnosis was particularly high among black partners who were men who had sex with men (MSM, 37 percent) or transgender (38 percent). Findings support the idea that prevention efforts that include partner services might increase early diagnosis and improve HIV-related health outcomes among African Americans.

Use of Toothpaste and Toothbrushing Patterns Among Children and Adolescents — United States, 2013–2016

CDC Media Relations

CDC recommends parents begin brushing their baby’s teeth with a soft-bristled toothbrush and water as soon as the first tooth erupts. A new CDC study found that nearly 80 percent of parents aren’t brushing their baby’s teeth as early as recommended and nearly 40 percent of children aged 3 to 6 years used too much toothpaste. CDC recommends that children begin using a smear of fluoride toothpaste at age 2 years, and children ages 3 through 6 years should use no more than a pea-sized amount so that they do not swallow more than the recommended amount of fluoride. The findings of this CDC study highlight the importance of recommendations that parents establish good brushing practices early and supervise young children during brushing. Parents, caregivers, and healthcare professionals can play a role in ensuring that children are brushing early enough and using the right amount of toothpaste.

Postlicensure Safety Surveillance of Recombinant Zoster Vaccine (Shingrix) — United States, October 2017–June 2018

CDC Media Relations

Healthcare providers and patients can be reassured by early results from a post-licensure safety study of the Shingrix recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV). Serious adverse events were rare, and no unexpected patterns were detected. This is the first report covering post-licensure safety monitoring of the recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV; Shingrix, GSK) in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during the initial eight months of use in the United States. From October 2017-June 2018, VAERS received 4,381 adverse event reports related to Shingrix; 4,251 (97%) were classified as non-serious. During that timeframe, about 3.2 million doses of Shingrix were distributed in the United States. The most common signs and symptoms reported were fever, injection site pain and redness. These findings are consistent with pre-licensure clinical trial data, and no unexpected patterns were detected. Clinicians should counsel patients to expect common reactions such as pain, swelling, and redness at the injection site, along with possible body aches, fever, and chills. These reactions usually resolve on their own in two to three days.

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Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019