MMWR News Synopsis for June 28, 2018

Outbreaks Associated with Untreated Recreational Water — United States, 2000–2014

CDC Media Relations
404-639-3286

Enjoy the fun of swimming with family and friends by taking steps to reduce the chance of getting sick. Swim Healthy. Stay Healthy. Officials from 35 states and Guam reported 140 outbreaks linked to swimming in lakes, rivers, and the ocean during 2000–2014. More than half of the outbreaks occurred in July. Most outbreaks were outbreaks of diarrhea, most frequently caused by norovirus, E. coli, Shigella, or Cryptosporidium. These germs make people sick when they swallow water contaminated with poop. Swimmers should avoid swallowing the water they swim in to help keep themselves healthy. The types of germs in lakes, rivers, and the ocean that can make swimmers sick – and how they are spread – can vary greatly. Beach managers and public health officials should determine and communicate which healthy-swimming precautions swimmers and parents of young swimmers should take in a particular body of water.

Geographic Variation in Pediatric Cancer Incidence — United States, 2003–2014

CDC Media Relations
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This report may help hospitals, researchers, and state public health departments assess needs and better connect children and adolescents with cancer to the healthcare resources they need – both during treatment and afterwards for those with side effects from treatment. This may be especially true in states in which people must travel long distances to pediatric oncology centers. CDC looked at the rate of all cancers among children and adolescents aged 0-19 years from 2003 to 2014 and found that the rate of each type of childhood cancer differs slightly in every state. The rates of pediatric cancer were highest in the Northeast U.S. Census region (188 per million people) and were lowest in the South (168). Rates were highest in New Hampshire, the District of Columbia, and New Jersey, and were lowest in South Carolina and Mississippi. Rates were highest in counties in the top 25th percentile by economic status and in metropolitan areas with population of 250,000 or more. Among non-Hispanic whites and blacks, rates of pediatric cancer were highest in the Northeast, while among Hispanics, rates were highest in the South. Geographic variation also differed by cancer type. The highest rates of leukemia were in the West and the highest rates of brain tumor and lymphoma were in the Northeast. This study could inform future research that aims to better understand why these differences exist by state and location within each state.

Prevalence and Predictors of Provider-Initiated HIV Test Offers Among Heterosexual Persons at Increased Risk for Acquiring HIV Infection — Virginia, 2016

Lauren Cunningham
Public Relations Coordinator
Virginia Department of Health
Email: lauren.cunningham@vdh.virginia.gov
Office: (804) 864-7963
Cell: (804) 335-6847

Provider-initiated HIV test offers are an important strategy for increasing HIV testing among heterosexual populations. There is a need for increased provider-initiated HIV screening among heterosexual adults seeking care, especially males, who were less likely than females to be offered HIV screening in this study. Since 2006, CDC has recommended routine, provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening for all patients aged 13–64 years in all health care settings. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data from Virginia were used to examine the prevalence and predictors of provider-initiated HIV test offers to heterosexual adults at increased risk for HIV acquisition. In a sample of 333 health care-seeking adults, 194 (58%) reported not receiving an HIV test offer during the 12 months before the NHBS interview. HIV test offer prevalence was significantly lower among males than females (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.72, 95% confidence interval=0.53–0.97). Results indicate the need for increased provider-initiated HIV screening among heterosexual adults seeking care, and suggest that males are less likely than females to be offered HIV screening.

Fatal Sepsis Associated with Bacterial Contamination of Platelets — Utah and California, August 2017

CDC Media Relations
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Blood suppliers and hospitals should consider additional strategies to minimize risks of bacterial contamination of platelets. In August 2017, CDC and the Utah and California state health departments used whole-genome-sequencing technology to link fatal sepsis in three patients to transfusion of bacterially contaminated platelet products. Clinical staff should closely monitor patients receiving transfusions for platelet-transmitted bacterial infections. Adverse reactions should be immediately reported to blood suppliers and public health agencies. Though platelets are currently tested using bacterial culture methods, contamination with very low levels of bacteria might not be detected and subsequent sepsis in recipients can still occur. Blood suppliers and hospitals can consider additional strategies to further minimize risks of bacterial contamination of platelets, which may include pathogen inactivation, rapid bacterial detection devices, or modified bacterial culture protocols to increase the likelihood that bacteria will be identified.

Update of Recommendations for Use of Once-Weekly Isoniazid-Rifapentine Regimen To Treat Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

CDC Media Relations
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Tuberculosis (TB) elimination in the U.S. is possible. Since most cases of TB disease result from reactivated latent TB infection, treating people with latent TB infection can protect people from developing TB disease in the future. Treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) is essential to controlling and eliminating TB in the United States. In 2011, CDC recommended a short-course combination regimen of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 weeks (3HP) by directly observed therapy – a strategy in which a health care worker watches the TB patient take each dose of the prescribed drugs for treatment of LTBI. This update expands the previous recommendation to include: 1) use of 3HP in children 2-11 years old; 2) use of 3HP in persons co-infected with HIV/AIDS and LTBI; and 3) use of 3HP by self-administration. Currently, 3HP is the shortest of several available regimens recommended for treating LTBI. CDC encourages the use of short-course treatment regimens, like 3HP, to improve completion of treatment. The 3HP regimen has the potential to remove existing barriers to latent TB treatment for both patients and providers by offering practical advantages such as a shorter timeframe and the option for some individuals to self-administer medications.

Notice to Readers: Ongoing Analysis of Suicide Rates Data by Occupational Group from Results Reported in MMWR

CDC Media Relations
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Recently, MMWR Editors were informed by the authors of “Suicide Rates by Occupational Group — 17 States, 2012” that some results and conclusions might be inaccurate as a result of coding errors for certain occupational groups. The authors are undertaking a thorough reanalysis of the data. This notice is to alert readers about the coding errors while the reanalysis is conducted to assess the validity of results and conclusions in the publication.

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Page last reviewed: June 28, 2018