MMWR News Synopsis
Thursday, March 15, 2018
- Trends in Hospitalizations for Acute Kidney Injury - United States, 2000-2014
- Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising Among Middle and High School Students - United States, 2014-2016
- Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Three Provinces, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017
- Emergence of Monkeypox - West and Central Africa, 1970-2017
- Notes from the Field
CDC Media Relations
The rate of hospitalizations for acute kidney injury has increased significantly in men and women in the United States from 2000 to 2014, irrespective of diabetes status. Diabetes, hypertension, and advanced age are important risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI), which is being increasingly recognized among hospitalized people. AKI leads to long-term care, higher in-hospital mortality, and higher health care costs. To estimate trends in AKI hospitalizations, CDC analyzed nationally representative data in the United States from 2000 to 2014. During that period, hospitalizations increased significantly: by 139 percent among adults with diabetes, and by 230 percent among those without diabetes. However, in 2014, people with diabetes were four times more likely to have AKI hospitalizations than those without diabetes. Improved awareness of risk factors for AKI by health care providers can prevent its occurrence and improve management of underlying conditions, particularly among older people and hospitalized or long-term care patients.
Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising Among Middle and High School Students – United States, 2014-2016
CDC Media Relations
Exposure to e-cigarette advertisements increased among U.S. middle and high school students during 2014–2016. Youth who are exposed to tobacco-product advertising, including ads for e-cigarettes, are more likely to use these products. In 2016, nearly 4 in 5 (20.5 million) U.S. middle and high school students were exposed to e-cigarette advertisements, a 13 percent increase over 2014. Nearly 7 in 10 youths were exposed to e-cigarette advertising in retail stores in 2016, while approximately 2 in five were exposed on the Internet or on TV, and nearly 1 in 4 were exposed in newspapers and magazines. Approaches to reduce youth access to e-cigarettes and exposure to advertising could include regulation of youth-oriented marketing, restrictions on youth access to tobacco product retailers, and high-impact tobacco education campaigns. These approaches, coupled with well-funded, comprehensive state tobacco control programs, have the potential to prevent and reduce youth use of all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.
Public Information Officer
In 2017 (as of 8 March 2018) the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) reported 25 cases of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). DRC health officials and Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners are collaborating to strengthen population immunity and surveillance with the goal of interrupting virus transmission. The last confirmed wild poliovirus case in the DRC occurred in December 2011; however, the country continues to report cases of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). VDPVs can emerge from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and spread within populations with low immunity to the virus. In 2017 (as of 8 March 2018), 25 cases of VDPV were reported in three provinces. In response to these cases, supplementary immunization activities were conducted June – December 2017. Because of limitations in surveillance and poor immunization activities, VDPV circulation will likely continue in 2018, requiring additional immunization programs. DRC health officials and Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners are increasing human and financial resources to improve all aspects of the response.
CDC Media Relations
Monkeypox has re-emerged in Africa during the past decade, leading to more reports of human monkeypox cases in people. Many of these cases have been reported in countries that have not reported monkeypox in 40 years. During the past decade, cases of human monkeypox have been reported from more countries than in the previous 40 years. Since 2016, confirmed cases have occurred in Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, and Sierra Leone; and captive chimpanzees were infected in Cameroon. Monkeypox causes significant illness and death in people and other animals; no specific treatment exists. The World Health Organization and CDC are developing updated guidance and regional trainings to improve capacity for laboratory-based surveillance, detection, and prevention of monkeypox as well as improved patient care and outbreak response.
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, or from human activity or deliberate attack, CDC responds to America’s most pressing health threats. CDC is headquartered in Atlanta and has experts located throughout the United States and the world.