MMWR News Synopsis for January 25, 2018

Short Sleep Duration Among Middle School and High School Students – United States, 2015

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Almost 58 percent of middle-school students in nine states and nearly 73 percent of high-school students nationally do not get the recommended hours of sleep for good health, putting them at an increased risk for several chronic conditions. This is the first report to provide state-level estimates of short sleep duration among middle- and high-school students using age-specific recommendations from the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. A majority of both middle- and high-school students in each state and large urban school district included in this report gets less than the recommended amount of sleep. Children and adolescents who do not get enough sleep are at an increased risk for obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, and attention and behavior problems. The large percentage of students who do not get enough sleep on school nights presents an opportunity for promoting sleep health in schools and at home and delaying school start times to allow students adequate time for sleep.

Population-Based Surveillance of Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection – 15 States and U.S. Territories

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Zika remains a threat to mothers and babies in the United States. Though the relationship between the increase in birth defects in certain areas and local Zika virus transmission has not been confirmed, this increase highlights the critical need for strong and rapid public health surveillance systems to identify babies with birth defects. About 3 out of every 1,000 babies born in 15 U.S. states and territories in 2016 had a birth defect meeting the case definition for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Areas with local Zika virus transmission in the U.S. had a 21 percent increase in the birth defects most strongly linked to Zika virus infection during pregnancy in the last half of 2016 compared with the first half. It is not known if this increase is due to local transmission of Zika virus alone, or if there are other contributing factors. These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for early identification of birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.

State-Specific Prevalence of Tobacco Product Use Among Adults – United States, 2014-2015

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In light of the ever-changing tobacco control landscape, it is essential to expand evidence-based tobacco prevention and control measures to cover the range of tobacco products being marketed and used among youth and adults. To assess tobacco product use among adults in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (D.C.), researchers analyzed self-reported use of six tobacco product types: cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco products, regular pipes, water pipes, and e-cigarettes. Prevalence of current (every day or some days) use of any tobacco product ranged from 10.2 percent (California) to 27.7 percent (Wyoming). Cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product in all states and D.C. Among current cigarette smokers, the proportion who also used one or more tobacco products other than cigarettes ranged from 11.5 percent (Delaware) to 32.3 percent (Oregon). Differences in tobacco product use across states underscore the importance of implementing proven population-based interventions to reduce tobacco use, including comprehensive smoke-free policies, tobacco product price increases, high-impact anti-tobacco mass-media campaigns, and barrier-free access to clinical smoking-cessation resources.

Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of Herpes Zoster Vaccines

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Vaccination is our best tool to prevent shingles, and Shingrix® is now the preferred shingles vaccine. Every year in the U.S., about 1 million people get shingles – and the vast majority are older than 50. On October 25, 2017, the CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that the Shingrix® vaccine is the preferred vaccine to prevent shingles. This new vaccine is more than 90 percent effective, even among the elderly, and maintained high protection during the four years of clinical trials. Previously, Zostavax® had been the only vaccine for seniors to prevent shingles. For adults 60 years and older, Zostavax is about 51 percent effective in preventing shingles. Zostavax is less protective in the elderly and protection wanes over time. Shingrix is now recommended as the preferred vaccine to prevent shingles for adults 50 and older. Eligible adults should get Shingrix even if they previously received Zostavax.

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Page last reviewed: January 25, 2018