MMWR News Synopsis for January 11, 2018

Frequent Exertion and Frequent Standing at Work, by Industry and Occupation Group – United States, 2015

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There are large differences in the prevalence of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work among 20 major industry groups and 22 major occupation groups. Nearly 40 percent of U.S. adult workers report both frequent exertion and frequent standing at work. Research has linked repeated exposure to occupational ergonomic hazards, such as frequent exertion and frequent standing, to injuries and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers. To determine the industry and occupation groups that have the highest prevalence rates of frequent exertion at work and frequent standing at work, NIOSH researchers analyzed 2015 National Health Interview Survey data. The results showed large differences among the groups. Among the 20 major industry groups, the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting group had the highest prevalence of both frequent exertion and standing at work (70.9%). Among the 22 major occupation groups,the construction and extraction group had the highest prevalence of both frequent exertion and standing at work (76.9 percent). The large differences between groups indicate a need for targeted interventions to reduce workplace exposure.

Tobacco Product Use Among Military Veterans — United States, 2010–2015

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Evidence-based tobacco-control interventions targeting both current and former military members are important to reduce tobacco use among veterans. To monitor tobacco-product use among U.S. military veterans, CDC analyzed current (past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars/cigarillos/little cigars, roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco). Veterans had a higher prevalence of any tobacco product use than non-veterans within all subgroups of age and sex, except males aged ≥50 years. Overall, 29.2 percent of veterans reported current use of any of the assessed tobacco products. Current use among veterans was highest for cigarettes (21.6 percent), followed by cigars (6.2 percent), smokeless tobacco (5.2 percent), roll-your-own tobacco (3.0 percent), and pipes (1.5 percent). Among veterans, current use of any of the assessed tobacco products was higher among those with no health insurance, those living in poverty, those ages 18–25 years, those reporting serious psychological distress, those with annual family income <$20,000, and those with less than a high school diploma.

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases – United States, 2016

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Arboviral diseases cause severe illness in the United States each year. Public health surveillance is important to identify outbreaks and guide prevention strategies. This MMWR article summarizes surveillance data for arboviruses (viruses spread to people by mosquitoes and ticks) reported to CDC for 2016. West Nile virus was the most common arboviral disease spread in the continental United States. South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, and Colorado had the highest rates of severe West Nile virus disease. La Crosse virus was the most common arboviral disease among children. Eastern equine encephalitis was the most severe arboviral disease, with three deaths among seven reported cases. Although still very rare, there was an increase in reported cases of Powassan virus in 2016. Communities can prevent arboviral diseases by implementing vector control measures and screening blood donations. Individuals can protect themselves by using air conditioning, putting screens on windows and doors, applying insect repellents, and wearing protective clothing.

Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections – United States, 2014

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Some antibiotics linked to birth defects are commonly prescribed to pregnant women with urinary tract infections in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthcare providers should be familiar with the recommendations about prescribing specific antibiotics to pregnant women or those who might become pregnant in the near future. Pregnant women are typically screened for urinary tract infections (UTIs) during early pregnancy as untreated UTIs can have serious health consequences. Some antibiotic treatments for UTIs, such as nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, have been linked to birth defects. About 4 in 10 privately insured women with UTIs during early pregnancy filled a prescription for nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 2014. It is recommended that women avoid these antibiotic treatments in early pregnancy if possible.

HIV Infection and HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs – 20 Cities, United States, 2015

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There is an ongoing need for effective and comprehensive HIV prevention services among people who inject drugs. In 2015, people who inject drugs continued to report high levels of injection and sexual risk behaviors placing them at increased risk for HIV acquisition. CDC researchers analyzed data collected from people who inject drugs in 20 U.S. cities through CDC’s National HIV Behavioral Surveillance activities. Researchers found that 27 percent of HIV-negative participants reported receptive sharing of syringes and that only 58 percent of HIV-negative participants received an HIV test during the past 12 months. Researchers also found that 52 percent received syringes from syringe services programs, and 34 percent received all syringes only from sterile sources during the past 12 months. The analysis highlights the ongoing need for effective and comprehensive prevention services among people who inject drugs.

Status of HIV Epidemic Control Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Aged 15–24 Years — Seven African Countries, 2015–2017

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Once adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) are diagnosed with HIV, national programs are successfully initiating and maintaining them on effective treatment. However, national efforts to diagnose HIV-positive AGYW as early as possible and rapidly link them to treatment are needed to reduce the number of new HIV infections within this population and accelerate progress toward epidemic control. A new CDC analysis revealed that among HIV-positive AGYW, 86 percent reported being on treatment and 82 percent on treatment were virally suppressed. Despite these encouraging findings, the study also revealed that fewer than half of AGYW (46 percent) in these countries knew their HIV status. In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV prevalence among AGYW is more than double that of their male peers. To accelerate progress toward epidemic control, the study authors suggest there is a critical need for global efforts to diagnose HIV-positive AGYW and link them to treatment. These findings come from Population-based HIV Impact Assessments supported by CDC and partners through the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.

Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for Use of a Third Dose of Mumps Virus-Containing Vaccine in Persons at Increased Risk for Mumps During an Outbreak

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The purpose of the recommendation for a third dose of mumps vaccine is to improve protection of people in outbreak settings against mumps disease and mumps-related complications. Even though the use of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine has drastically reduced mumps cases in the United States, mumps outbreaks have been reported since 2006. Furthermore, there has been a substantial increase in the number of mumps outbreaks and overall number of cases from outbreaks since late 2015. Mumps outbreaks have mainly occurred where there is close and prolonged contact between people, such as at college campuses or in close-knit communities. In October 2017, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a third dose of a mumps virus-containing vaccine (i.e., MMR or MMRV which includes varicella) for people who previously received two doses and are identified by public health authorities as being part of a group or population at increased risk for getting mumps because of an outbreak.

Notes from the Field:

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Page last reviewed: January 11, 2018