MMWR News Synopsis for December 14, 2017

State Laws Regarding Indoor Public Use, Retail Sales, and Prices of Electronic Cigarettes – United States, Guam, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands, September 30, 2017

CDC Media Relations

The Surgeon General has recommended actions to uphold and accelerate strategies proven to prevent and reduce tobacco smoking among youth’s and adults, while simultaneously preventing young people’s use of emerging tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. E-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youth. A comprehensive approach to reduce youth initiation of e-cigarette use and population exposure to e-cigarette aerosol that combines state-level strategies coupled with federal regulation could help reduce health risks to young people. As of September 30, 2017, eight states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico (PR) prohibited indoor e-cigarette use and smoking in indoor areas of restaurants, bars, and worksites. Sixteen states, DC, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) required a retail license to sell e-cigarettes; 26 states prohibit e-cigarette self-service displays; five states, DC, and Guam had tobacco-21 laws; and eight states, DC, PR, and the USVI tax e-cigarettes. Sixteen states had none of the assessed laws.

Health and Development at Age 19–24 Months of 19 Children Who Were Born with Microcephaly and Laboratory Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection During the 2015 Zika Virus Outbreak — Brazil, 2017

CDC Media Relations

Children with congenital Zika infection and microcephaly are now getting older and falling far behind their age-appropriate milestones, showing the need for long-term followup and support. These children will continue to require specialized care from many types of healthcare providers and their caregivers as they age. A new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) investigation shows that children born with microcephaly (small head size for age) and evidence of congenital Zika virus infection face complex health and developmental challenges at ages 19-24 months, including an inability to sit independently, difficulties with sleeping and feeding, seizures, and hearing and vision problems. A majority of the 19 children in this investigation face challenges in multiple areas.

Large Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C — Nigeria, December 2016–June 2017

CDC Media Relations

Although the most recent meningococcal serogroup C outbreak in Nigeria is now fully controlled, improved surveillance and outbreak preparedness at all levels of the public health system are needed. Additionally, urgently expanding the availability of vaccines effective against multiple strains of the bacteria might help reduce the risk of outbreaks in Nigeria and other high-risk countries. From December 2016-June 2017, Nigeria experienced the largest global outbreak of meningitis caused by a new strain of the bacteria N. meningitidis serogroup C (NmC); 14,542 suspected cases and 1,166 deaths were reported. Nigeria, a country in the sub-Saharan “meningitis belt,” previously experienced large outbreaks caused by meningococcal A serogroup, which declined dramatically following the introduction in 2013 of meningococcal A vaccines. National and regional evaluations of the outbreak response outlined recommendations for improving meningitis outbreak prevention, timely detection, and response. Implementing these recommendations and expanding the availability of multivalent vaccines effective against non-A serogroups will reduce future meningitis outbreaks.

Introduction of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Elimination of Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis — Beijing, China, 2014–2016

Li Lu
Deputy Director EPI division
Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention

High population coverage with the sequential inactivated polio vaccine/oral poliovirus vaccine (IPV/OPV) schedule in Beijing resulted in the successful introduction of IPV in Beijing and the elimination of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). IPV Introduction using a sequential IPV/ OPV schedule in Beijing was associated with a good safety record, no occurrence of VAPP or other serious adverse events, and maintenance of >95 percent coverage with polio vaccines. Strong public health leadership, good operational planning, and secured resources and budget were critical to successful IPV introduction in Beijing, assuring public confidence in the safety of OPV, assuring the availability of 1-dose IPV access, and helping improve the current routine immunization system.

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Page last reviewed: December 14, 2017