MMWR News Synopsis for November 30, 2017
- Scale-Up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention - 12 Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, 2013-2016
- Synthetic Cannabinoid and Mitragynine Exposure of Law Enforcement Agents During the Raid of an Illegal Laboratory - Nevada, 2014
- Fractional-Dose Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Campaign - Sindh Province, Pakistan, 2016
Scale-Up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention – 12 Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, 2013 – 2016
CDC Media Relations
A substantial increase in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) through CDC-supported programs is helping to prevent the spread of HIV in the world’s most heavily affected countries. The latest data show that meeting the global target of 27 million circumcisions by 2021 will require redoubling current efforts and developing new strategies to increase the number of men seeking circumcisions. New data show that a substantial increase in voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) through CDC-supported programs is helping to prevent the spread of HIV in the world’s most heavily affected countries – and that more needs to be done. The number of circumcisions supported by CDC has increased from over 1 million in nine countries during 2010–2012 to nearly 5 million during 2013–2016 in 12 Southern and Eastern African countries. VMMC reduces a man’s risk of heterosexually acquired HIV by 60 percent. As a key agency for the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), CDC supports VMMC in 12 Eastern and Southern African countries with high HIV prevalence and low male circumcision rates. While millions of men have successfully accessed this prevention intervention, the number of VMMCs decreased during 2016.
Synthetic Cannabinoid and Mitragynine Exposure of Law Enforcement Agents During the Raid of an Illegal Laboratory – Nevada, 2014
CDC Media Relations
The levels of synthetic cannabinoid (SC) exposure that cause health effects are unknown. Law enforcement agencies must implement policies to protect agents from SC exposure when raiding illicit laboratories and collecting and processing evidence. Recommendations include: 1) requiring protective gloves and disposable clothing, 2) prohibiting food and drink in evidence processing areas, 3) training agents on the use and disposal of personal protective equipment and on handling and storing contaminated evidence, and 4) providing agents showers and locker rooms to reduce contamination and prevent take-home exposure. CDC’s National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH) was asked to evaluate law enforcement agents’ work exposures to SCs, or “spice,” because agents reported irritability and feeling “high” after raiding illegal spice laboratories and processing SC evidence. NIOSH investigators measured SCs and mitragynine (a plant material with opium-like effects) in the air, on surfaces, and in agents’ urine during raid activities. SCs were detected on one lab surface and. although none were detected in air, six of nine agents had SCs or mitragynine in their urine after the raid and SC processing. Investigators observed inconsistencies in policies and in use of personal protective equipment. Law enforcement agency staff could be better protected from SC exposure by proper forensic facility design, good hygiene practices, and a minimum level of personal protective equipment to avoid skin contact or inadvertent ingestion.
Fractional-Dose Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Campaign – Sindh Province, Pakistan, 2016
CDC Media Relations
Countries should weigh the potential benefits of using fractional-dose intradermal inactivated polio vaccine (fIPV) against the operational challenges associated with its use. In response to isolation of type 2 vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV2) from sewage samples taken from Hyderabad, Pakistan, fIPV was used in a polio vaccination campaign targeting children ages 4-23 months. The vaccine coverage rate during the campaign was relatively high; however, operational challenges related to the use of an intradermally injected vaccine were encountered during the campaign. Countries that decide to use fIPV should undertake meticulous planning and preparation to address operational challenges and to ensure judicious use of fIPV due to the limited global stock of IPV.
Notes from the Field:
- Absence of Asymptomatic Mumps Virus Shedding Among Vaccinated College Students During a Mumps Outbreak – Washington, February-June 2017
- Percentage of Adults Aged 20-64 Years With a Fasting Test in the Past 12 Months for High Blood Sugar or Diabetes, by Race/Ethnicity – National Health Interview Survey, 2011 and 2016
CDC works 24/7 protecting America’s health, safety, and security. Whether diseases start at home or abroad, are curable or preventable, chronic or acute, stem from human error or deliberate attack, CDC is committed to respond to America’s most pressing health challenges.