MMWR News Synopsis for February 2, 2017
- HIV Care Outcomes Among Blacks with Diagnosed HIV – United States, 2014
- Changes in the Disparity of HIV Diagnosis Rates Among Black Women — United States, 2010–2014
- Multiple Fentanyl Overdoses — New Haven, Connecticut, June 23, 2016
HIV Care Outcomes Among Blacks with Diagnosed HIV – United States, 2014
CDC Media Relations
The proportion of African Americans receiving the care and treatment needed to sustain healthy lives, keep the virus under control, and prevent transmission of HIV falls short of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) goals. The NHAS recommends actions to reduce disparities and sets targets to measure outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS. CDC researchers examined data in 33 jurisdictions from the National HIV Surveillance System to describe HIV care outcomes among African Americans living with HIV and to assess progress toward achieving NHAS goals. Results show that among the 12,269 African Americans who received a diagnosis of HIV infection during 2014, more than 1 in 5 (21.9 percent) had an infection classified as AIDS at the time of diagnosis. Among all blacks living with HIV at the end of 2013, 53.5 percent were retained in care and 48.5 percent had achieved viral suppression. When measured against the NHAS goals, which calls for 90 percent of people with diagnosed HIV to be retained in care and 80 percent of people living with diagnosed HIV to have an undetectable viral load by 2020, it is clear that urgent improvements are needed. Efforts should be focused on increasing routine HIV testing among African Americans and ensuring everyone has access to the care and treatment services needed to improve health outcomes.
Changes in the Disparity of HIV Diagnosis Rates Among Black Women — United States, 2010–2014
CDC Media Relations
In recent years there has been progress in decreasing new HIV infections among women. In the past decade, African American women have achieved the largest decreases in HIV diagnosis rates, with a 42 percent decline from 2005-2014. Despite the decline, in 2015 black women represented 61 percent of diagnoses among women and were about 16 times more likely to receive a diagnosis of HIV infection than white women. While there currently is not a standard method for measuring disparity, the authors of this study used three different measures – absolute rate difference, the diagnosis disparity rate ratio and the Index of Disparity (ID) – to quantify changes in the disparities of HIV diagnoses among black, Hispanic and white women between 2010 and 2014. The absolute rate difference between the group with the highest rate, black women, and the group with the lowest rate, white women, decreased annually from 36.9 in 2010 to 28.3 in 2014. The diagnosis disparity ratio for black women decreased from 1.7 in 2010 to 1.2 in 2014. The ID increased from 2010 to 2011, and then decreased each year from 2012 to 2014. The data provides further evidence that while progress has been made in reducing new HIV diagnoses, disparities continue to exist, particularly among African American women. Culturally-tailored prevention strategies and interventions could contribute to closing the remaining gaps.
Multiple Fentanyl Overdoses — New Haven, Connecticut, June 23, 2016
CDC Media Relations
Since fentanyl and its analogs are potent and may cause rapid, persistent respiratory depression and death, distribution of naloxone to persons at risk for opioid overdose, their families, and friends might help prevent fatal fentanyl overdoses. Additionally, this outbreak of severe opioid intoxication among patients who were cocaine users, but not chronic opioid users, suggests that distributing naloxone and offering training to all illicit drug users, their friends, and family members might prevent such opioid-associated morbidity and mortality. An illicit white powder was sold as cocaine in New Haven, CT. Within eight hours, 12 patients who used the powder were brought to the emergency department at Yale New Haven Hospital with apparent opioid overdose. The powder contained fentanyl, an opioid 50 times as potent as heroin. Some of those resuscitated required multiple doses of the opioid antidote naloxone, and several patients revived by naloxone later developed respiratory failure. Three patients required mechanical ventilation and three patients died. The event triggered a rapid response to limit further use or distribution of the fentanyl and to replace/increase naloxone supply for emergency medical services crews. Naloxone distribution to opioid users and their contacts was accelerated. Collaborative community action prevented potential subsequent episodes and expanded the target group for community naloxone distribution.
Trends in Beverage Consumption Among High School Students — United States, 2007–2015
CDC Media Relations
Although the significant downward trends in daily non-diet soda consumption are encouraging, there is a continued need to help adolescents shift beverage consumption patterns to more healthful options. During 2007–2015, daily non-diet soda consumption (at least once per day) among U.S. high school students decreased from 34% to 21%. Although the significant downward trends in daily non-diet soda consumption suggest that interventions encouraging reduced consumption of soda are working, overall prevalence of daily soda consumption remains high. Multiple efforts are needed to address adolescents’ beverage consumption, and should reach settings where adolescents spend their time, such as homes, schools, and the community at large.
Notes from the Field:
- Cluster of Tuberculosis Among Marshallese Persons Residing in Arkansas — 2014–2015
- Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15–19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2007 and 2015
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