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MMWR News Synopsis for January 19, 2017


Inpatient Hospitalization Costs Associated with Birth Defects Among Persons of All Ages — United States, 2013

CDC Media Relations

Hospitalizations related to birth defects cost the U.S. healthcare system about $23 billion in 2013. Birth defects hospitalizations accounted for 3 percent of all hospitalizations and 5 percent of total hospital costs for people of any age. Costs were particularly high for hospitalizations related to congenital heart defects, the most common type of birth defect. These hospitalizations cost more than $6 billion in 2013. The cost of birth-defects-related hospitalizations was highest for patients younger than one year of age, totaling about $9 billion in 2013. Estimates of the cost of birth defect hospitalizations offer important information on the impact of birth defects on the healthcare system, and also reinforces the importance of birth-defect-prevention strategies.

Association Between The Real Cost Media Campaign and Smoking Initiation Among Youths — United States, 2014–2016

CDC Media Relations

The Food and Drug Administration’s first national tobacco-focused public education campaign, The Real Cost, has been effective by preventing nearly 350,000 youth ages 11 to 18 from initiating smoking. In February 2014, the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Tobacco Products launched its first tobacco-focused public education campaign aimed at reducing youth smoking. The findings in this report indicate that exposure to The Real Cost campaign was associated with preventing approximately 350,000 U.S. youth ages 11 to 18 from initiating smoking from 2014 to 2016. These findings are based on an analysis of a large, nationally representative, longitudinal survey of youth in 75 media markets. As most cigarette smoking begins during adolescence, campaigns such as The Real Cost can have long-term effects on future rates of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. These findings align with previous research that found targeted mass media campaigns, delivered with sufficient intensity and duration, can decrease smoking initiation and prevalence.

West Nile Virus and Other Nationally Notifiable Arboviral Diseases — United States, 2015

CDC Media Relations

Domestic arboviral diseases continue to be a source of severe illness in the United States each year. Surveillance remains important for identifying outbreaks and guiding prevention strategies. Arboviruses cause substantial morbidity in the U.S. each year. In 2015, West Nile virus remained the most common cause of arboviral disease in U.S. states. There was a concurrent outbreak of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in Arizona, and four new states reported cases of Jamestown Canyon virus. Health care providers should consider arboviral infections in the differential diagnosis of cases of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis. Prevention depends on community and household efforts to decrease vector populations, personal protective measures to decrease exposure to mosquitoes and ticks, and blood donor screening.

Coverage with Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine and Influenza Vaccine Among Pregnant Women — Minnesota, March 2013–December 2014

CDC Media Relations

This study demonstrates demographic disparities in Tdap and influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women in Minnesota, including by race, maternal birth country or region, maternal educational attainment, insurance coverage at delivery, and adequacy of prenatal care. Additional studies are needed to identify barriers to vaccination faced by women in different demographic groups to inform the development of effective strategies to address these disparities. This study measured the rates of Tdap and influenza vaccination among pregnant women in Minnesota using data from Minnesota’s immunization information system and the Office of Vital Records. Overall, coverage with Tdap vaccine was 58.2% and with influenza vaccine was 45.9%. Coverage was higher for each vaccine among women who received adequate prenatal care compared with those who received inadequate or intermediate care. Coverage also varied by mother’s race, country of birth, and other demographic characteristics. Further study is needed to better understand the maternal vaccination disparities found in this study and inform future public health efforts.

Notes from the Field:

  • Use of Social Media as a Communication Tool During a Mumps Outbreak — New York City, 2015
  • Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in a Migrant Farm Worker — Colorado, 2016


  • Percentage of Adults Aged ≥18 Years Who Have Seen or Talked to a Doctor or Other Health Care Professional About Their Own Health in the Past 12 Months, by Sex and Age Group —National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2015




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