MMWR News Synopsis for April 14, 2016
- Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2011–2015
- Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance — Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2012–2015
- Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus – Texas, January 2016
Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students — United States, 2011–2015
CDC Media Relations
Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical window for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use. Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, among U.S. youth. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million students – more than 3.8 million in high school and 880,000 in middle school – reported current use (use on 1 or more days in the past 30 days) of any tobacco product. From 2011 to 2015, substantial increases were observed in e-cigarette and hookah use among high-school and middle-school students, while significant decreases were observed in the use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, and bidis. This resulted in no change in overall tobacco use among middle- and high-school students during 2011-2015. In 2015, e-cigarettes remained the most commonly used tobacco product among middle- and high-school students. Between 2014 and 2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle-school students, while current use of hookahs decreased among high-school students. There was no change in use of other tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco, among middle- and high-school students.
Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance — Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2012–2015
CDC Media Relations
Foodborne infections continue to be an important public health problem in the United States. Progress in reducing foodborne illness has been limited or mixed in recent years. Diagnostic testing practices for enteric pathogens are rapidly moving away from culture-based methods. The percentage of infections diagnosed only by culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDT) increased markedly in 2015. The continued shift from culture-based methods to CIDTs affects the ability of public health surveillance to accurately count cases and monitor progress towards prevention. Expanded case definitions and strategies for obtaining bacterial isolates are crucial during this transition period.
Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus – Texas, January 2016
CDC Media Relations
Sexual transmission is an emerging mode of Zika virus transmission that might contribute to more illness than anticipated. A case of Zika virus transmission associated with sexual contact between a male traveler (patient A) who returned to Dallas, Texas from an area of active Zika virus transmission and his male non-traveling partner (patient B) is supported by epidemiological, laboratory, and environmental investigations by Dallas County Health and Human Services and CDC. Plaque-reduction neutralization tests indicated that patient A had been infected with Zika virus and/or dengue virus serotype 1, but that patient B had been infected only with Zika virus. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay of semen collected 17 and 24 days after illness onset in the non-traveler and traveler were negative and equivocal, respectively. Identification and investigation of cases of definitive sexual transmission of Zika virus in non-endemic areas presents valuable opportunities to expediently inform interim recommendations to prevent sexual Zika virus transmission.
Notes from the Field:
- Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Infections Linked to Pork — Washington, 2015
- Health Care–Associated Outbreak of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis — West Virginia,
- Percentage of Adults with Fair or Poor Health, by Home Ownership Status and Age Group — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2014