MMWR News Synopsis for October 15, 2015
- Trends in Quit Attempts among Adult Cigarette Smokers — United States, 2001–2013
- Cigarette, Cigar, and Marijuana Use Among High School Students — United States, 1997–2013
- Use of Surveillance Systems in Detection of a Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Outbreak — Orange County, Florida, 2014
- State and Territorial Ebola Screening, Monitoring, and Movement Policy Statements — United States, August 31, 2015
Trends in Quit Attempts among Adult Cigarette Smokers — United States, 2001–2013
CDC Media Relations
The proportion of cigarette smokers who report having made a quit attempt in the past year varies by state and may be attributed to a variety of factors, including differences in population demographics; tobacco control program infrastructure, programs, and policies; and awareness, availability, accessibility, and use of evidence-based smoking cessation treatments. To assess progress made toward the Healthy People 2020 target of increasing the proportion of U.S. adult cigarette smokers who made a quit attempt during the past year to >80 percent, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the years 2001–2010 and 2011–2013 to provide updated state-specific trends in quit attempts among adult smokers. During 2001–2010, the proportion of smokers who reported a quit attempt during the preceding 12 months increased in 29 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands. During 2011–2013, quit attempts increased in Hawaii and Puerto Rico and decreased in New Mexico. In 2013, almost two thirds of smokers had made a quit attempt in the past year, ranging from 56.2 percent (Kentucky) to 76.4 percent (Puerto Rico and Guam).
Cigarette, Cigar, and Marijuana Use Among High School Students — United States, 1997–2013
CDC Media Relations
Despite significant declines since 1997, approximately 30 percent of white, black, and Hispanic U.S. high school students were current users of cigarettes, cigars, or marijuana in 2013. Policy and programmatic efforts might benefit from approaches that focus on reducing the use of tobacco and marijuana among youths. From 1997 to 2013, a 64 percent decrease occurred in the percentage of U.S. white, black, and Hispanic high school students overall who used cigarettes or cigars exclusively. However, the percentage of white, black, and Hispanic students overall who were exclusive marijuana users more than doubled from 4 percent to 10 percent, and marijuana use among cigarette or cigar users also increased from 51 percent to 62 percent, with considerable increases identified among black and Hispanic students toward the end of the study period. Additionally, any cigarette, cigar, or marijuana use decreased overall from 46 percent to 30 percent. Thus, public health advances in adolescent health resulting from lower cigarette and cigar use might be attenuated by increases in marijuana use, which vary by racial/ethnic group.
Use of Surveillance Systems in Detection of a Ciguatera Fish Poisoning Outbreak — Orange County, Florida, 2014
Benjamin G. Klekamp, Epidemiologist
Florida Department of Health in Orange County
Development and use of public health surveillance systems is a best practice to identify and investigate foodborne illness outbreaks, including those caused by ciguatera fish poisoning. Ciguatera fish poisoning is a foodborne illness acquired by consumption of predatory reef fish that have accumulated through their diet naturally occurring ciguatoxins found in several dinoflagellate (algae) species. No clinical test has been FDA-approved to detect ciguatera intoxication. Obtaining a complete patient history with symptomology and potential exposures is imperative for diagnosis, administration of supportive medical care, and reporting to public health to facilitate source-food traceback efforts. Development and use of public health surveillance systems is a best practice to identify and investigate foodborne illness outbreaks, including those caused by ciguatera fish poisoning. Public health source-food traceback efforts assist in gathering distribution and harvest data on the implicated fish to better understand the risk of acquiring ciguatera fish poisoning and inform consumer decisions.
State and Territorial Ebola Screening, Monitoring, and Movement Policy Statements — United States, August 31, 2015
CDC Media Relations
By August 31, 2015, 30 percent of states and territories had Ebola monitoring and movement policies that were more restrictive than CDC recommendations, 62.5 percent were equivalent to CDC guidance, and none were less restrictive; the remainder were either unclear or did not have publically available policies. Shortly after CDC provided updated guidance on the monitoring and movement of people who might have been exposed to Ebola last fall, states began announcing state-specific policies. Because of concerns about the potential impact of inconsistencies between state policies and federal guidance, CDC’s Public Health Law Program (PHLP) evaluated publically available Ebola policies for each state and territory. PHLP found that as of August 31, 2015, 17 states and the District of Columbia had policies that were more restrictive than CDC guidance, 35 states and territories were equivalent to CDC guidance, none were less restrictive, 1 territory had an unclear policy, and 2 territories did not have publicly available monitoring and movement policies.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage among School Girls in a Demonstration Project — Botswana, 2013
CDC Media Relations
Problem-solving to sustainably deliver the multi-dose HPV vaccine to all girls who should be vaccinated (including providing three doses to HIV-infected girls) is still a work in progress for developing countries. To successfully provide primary prevention for cervical cancer, monitoring and evaluation efforts using a continuous quality improvement approach must be essential components of HPV vaccination programs. Girls and women in Botswana face a dual epidemic of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV prevalence among women aged 15-49 years is 28 percent; and cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women of this age and the leading cause of cancer mortality among Botswanan women. HPV infection is common and aggressive in persons infected with HIV. Primary prevention of HPV infection and cervical cancer through introduction of HPV vaccination of 9– to 13-year-old girls is therefore a critical life-saving intervention for the girls and women of Botswana. Sustainably and routinely delivering a multi-dose vaccine to all girls who should be vaccinated is a new and challenging public health activity but it is one that deserves to be solved. The 2013 HPV vaccine demonstration project was the initial step in problem-solving towards a national HPV vaccination program.
Notes from the Field:
- A Cluster of Ocular Syphilis Cases — Seattle, Washington, and San Francisco, California, 2014–2015
- Percentage of Children Aged 5–17 years with Diagnosed Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), by Poverty Status and Sex — National Health Interview Survey, 2011–2014