MMWR News Synopsis for February 26, 2015
- Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Associated with Surgical Procedures — New Jersey 2010 and Wisconsin 2011
- CDC Grand Rounds: Preventing Youth Violence
- Rapid Intervention Reduces Ebola Transmission in a Remote Village — Gbarpolu County, Liberia, 2014
- Community Quarantine to Interrupt Ebola Virus Transmission in Rural Liberia — Mawah Village, Bong County, Liberia, August–October, 2014
Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Associated with Surgical Procedures — New Jersey 2010 and Wisconsin 2011
For Wisconsin Division of Public Health
Office of Communications
For New Jersey Department of Health
Dawn Thomas, Deputy Director Communications
Office of Communications, Department of Health
Strict adherence to established infection prevention and patient safety protocols are paramount to preventing serious adverse events during patient care. Breaches in infection control in the operating room can lead to transmission of serious infectious diseases such as hepatitis C, but such incidents are preventable if basic infection prevention steps are followed. All operating room staff members should be involved in ensuring the safest surgical patient care possible by working together as a team and in collaboration with the institution’s infection prevention department.
CDC Grand Rounds: Preventing Youth Violence
CDC Media Relations
Youth violence is a serious, but preventable, public health problem in the United States. Primary prevention efforts can reduce the number of deaths and injuries attributable to youth violence; lower the risk for other health problems; and result in cost savings for the justice, education, and healthcare systems. Youth violence is a significant public health problem in the U.S. In 2013, 4,481 youths aged 10-24 years were homicide victims and another estimated 547,260 youths were treated in U.S. emergency departments for nonfatal physical assault-related injuries. Victims of youth violence are at greater risk for other physical and mental health problems. Youth violence affects entire communities by increasing health care costs, decreasing property values, and disrupting social services. Fortunately, youth violence is preventable. Effective prevention approaches can work by modifying individual factors such as problem-solving and communication skills, or relationship factors such as parental supervision and consistent discipline. A growing body of research is showing the promise of approaches that modify community factors such as physical environments and norms about violence.
Rapid Intervention Reduces Ebola Transmission in a Remote Village — Gbarpolu County, Liberia, 2014
CDC Media Relations
Rapid public health intervention is critical to control Ebola outbreaks in isolated communities. Persons with Ebola can travel with the infection and seed outbreaks in remote areas. These outbreaks can cause illness and death in the absence of public health interventions. In October 2014, CDC, the Liberian Ministry of Health, and other partners investigated an outbreak in Geleyansiesu, Liberia, a community accessible only by canoe and foot, to confirm the outbreak and begin intervention. Ambulance support to help those patients who managed to walk out of the community reach an Ebola treatment unit was established; this intervention removed many patients from the community and contributed to the resolution of the outbreak. Lessons learned from this outbreak were employed in planning for subsequent outbreaks in isolated communities, improving response times, and helping to shorten the course of outbreaks.
Community Quarantine to Interrupt Ebola Virus Transmission in Rural Liberia — Mawah Village, Bong County, Liberia, August–October, 2014
CDC Media Relations
Involving community members during planning and implementation helped support a safe and effective community quarantine in Mawah. During September–October 2014, multiple partners responded to a growing outbreak of Ebola in Mawah, Liberia. County officials proposed community quarantine. Local traditional leaders were integrated into response planning and raised concerns about availability of medical care and food. Community quarantine was implemented, and responders arranged to reopen a local clinic, deliver food, and provide psychosocial support. Following removal of symptomatic patients and implementation of quarantine, Mawah reported no new Ebola cases. Community quarantine in a low-resource setting can restrict access to critical goods and services. Involving local leaders during planning and implementation can help ensure community needs are met.
Implementation of Ebola Case-Finding Using a Village Chieftaincy Taskforce in a Remote Outbreak — Liberia, 2014
CDC Media Relations
By working with community leaders and members, simple solutions can be found to the challenges of responding to Ebola outbreaks in geographically remote or logistically difficult settings. A simple system for detecting cases of Ebola was developed and implemented during an outbreak in a very remote region in Liberia, where contact tracing is very challenging. This region lacks basic telephone access, most villages are inaccessible by road, and residents move frequently from village to village. The system may be useful for investigators looking for cases in other very remote areas with Ebola outbreaks. Involving village leaders and residents in the system for detecting Ebola cases also appeared to help the communities be more receptive to messages about how to prevent Ebola.
Revised Device Labeling for the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF Assay for Detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis
FDA Office of Media Affairs
Use of the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF Assay will allow patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis to be removed from airborne infection isolation more rapidly, resulting in more effective patient care and better use of valuable medical resources while also improving diagnosis. FDA has cleared expanded labeling for the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF Assay for use as an aid in deciding whether patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis require continued airborne infection isolation precautions. Compared to traditional microscopy-based methods, use of the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay allows physicians to more rapidly determine that patients do not require airborne isolation, freeing up valuable hospital resources and removing restrictions on patient movement and interactions. In addition, because the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay is more sensitive for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis than traditional microscopy-based methods, patients with less contagious forms of pulmonary tuberculosis can be detected more quickly and started on treatment. Although approximately 9,500 persons were identified with active tuberculosis in the US in 2013, the number of patients who require airborne infection isolation for suspected pulmonary tuberculosis is far greater.
Notes from the Field:
Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Consumption of Unpasteurized Goat Milk — Idaho, 2014