MMWR News Synopsis for February 5, 2015
- HIV Testing and Service Delivery Among Blacks/African Americans — 61 Jurisdictions, United States, 2013
- Mortality Among Adult and Adolescent Blacks or African Americans with HIV Infection — United States, 2008–2012
- Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Age 19 Years or Older — United States, 2015
HIV Testing and Service Delivery Among Blacks/African Americans — 61 Jurisdictions, United States, 2013
NCHHSTP Media Team
African Americans accounted for nearly half of people reached by CDC-funded HIV testing efforts and more than half of all new HIV diagnoses in 2013, according to a new analysis of CDC-funded testing efforts in 61 U.S. areas. Data underscore the disproportionate HIV burden among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). To assess the impact of CDC-funded HIV testing and service delivery efforts, researchers examined data submitted by 61 health department jurisdictions and 151 directly-funded community-based organizations through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system. In 2013, African Americans accounted for 45 percent of CDC-funded testing events (defined as one or more HIV tests performed to determine a person’s infection status), the largest proportion of any racial/ethnic group. Additionally, African Americans accounted for 54.9 percent of all new diagnoses, and among African Americans, MSM accounted for 37.3 percent of new diagnoses. Data indicate that gaps in HIV service delivery persist after diagnosis. For instance, just over half (53.6 percent) of newly diagnosed African Americans were referred to HIV prevention services. Despite progress in testing, 15 percent of African Americans with HIV are unaware of their infection and many who have been diagnosed are not receiving care and treatment. Authors call for continued efforts to expand HIV testing efforts, particularly among hard-hit populations, like MSM, and to increase linkage to care and behavioral prevention activities to help those with HIV improve their health and prevent transmission to their partners.
Mortality Among Adult and Adolescent Blacks or African Americans with HIV Infection — United States, 2008–2012
NCHHSTP Media Team
According to a new CDC analysis, death rates among African Americans with HIV declined 28 percent from 2008 to 2012 – more than among any other race/ethnicity. While disparities between races/ethnicities have narrowed, death rates remain higher among African Americans with HIV than among those of other races/ethnicities. To better understand mortality among African Americans with HIV, researchers analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System for 2008 through 2012. Because immune suppression caused by HIV infection can result in fatal co-illnesses, authors estimated deaths due to all causes, rather than limiting their analysis to deaths resulting directly from HIV infection. This method allowed researchers to capture the fullest picture of mortality among African Americans with HIV. From 2008-2012, the death rate per 1,000 blacks living with HIV decreased 28 percent, more than the overall decline (22 percent) observed among all persons living with HIV and more than declines observed among other races/ethnicities (13 percent for whites and 25 percent for Hispanics). Despite these declines, the death rate per 1,000 blacks living with HIV in 2012 was 13 percent higher than the rate for whites and 47 percent higher than the rate for Hispanics. Authors conclude that these data support continued focus on efforts to improve HIV prevention and care outcomes among African Americans, who represent just 12 percent of the population, but more than a third of people living with HIV.
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedule for Adults Age 19 Years or Older — United States, 2015
CDC Media Relations
Vaccines are recommended for adults throughout their lifetime based on their age, health conditions, prior vaccinations and other factors. All adults are recommended to receive the influenza vaccine yearly, at least one dose of Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis) vaccine, shingles vaccine at age 60 years, and two different pneumococcal vaccines at age 65 (sometimes earlier depending on medical conditions). Other vaccines may also be needed based on an adult’s medical conditions and prior vaccinations or travel. Adults should talk to their healthcare providers about which vaccines they might need. Vaccines are recommended for adults throughout their lifetime. Which vaccines adults need depend on their age, prior vaccinations, health conditions, travel, occupation, and other factors. CDC updates the adult immunization schedule annually. The 2015 immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older is now available. There are two major changes from the 2014 schedule: (1) the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is now recommended for all adults who are 65 years-old or older in series with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and (2) the age group eligible for the egg-free, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) has been expanded from persons 18–49 to persons 18 years and older.
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Age 0 Through 18 Years — United States, 2015
CDC Media Relations
In October 2014, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons age 0 through 18 years for 2015. These schedules may be accessed from this article. Each year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviews the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years to ensure that the schedules reflect current recommendations for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-licensed vaccines. In October 2014, ACIP approved the recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0 through 18 years for 2015, which include several changes from the 2014 immunization schedules. These immunization schedules are approved by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html), the American Academy of Pediatrics (http://www.aap.orgexternal icon), the American Academy of Family Physicians (http://www.aafp.orgexternal icon), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (http://www.acog.orgexternal icon).
Vaccination Coverage Among Adults, Excluding Influenza Vaccination — United States, 2013
CDC Media Relations
Vaccines are available to protect adults from potentially life-threatening infectious diseases, but vaccination rates among adults remain low. CDC urges adults to get recommended vaccines and advises healthcare providers to assess which vaccines their adult patients need and offer them. Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent infectious diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey to assess vaccination among United States adults age ≥19 years for selected vaccines. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults age >19 years, herpes zoster vaccination among adults age ≥60 years, and HPV vaccination among males age 19–26 years. Coverage among adults for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic gaps in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed. Providers should recommend and offer vaccination.