MMWR News Synopsis for March 13, 2014
- Likely Female-to-Female Sexual Transmission of HIV — Texas, 2012
- Alcohol-Attributable Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost — 11 States, 2006–2010
Likely Female-to-Female Sexual Transmission of HIV — Texas, 2012
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Although the risk of sexual transmission of HIV between women who have sex with women (WSW) is low, the potential for transmission exists because HIV can be transmitted when certain bodily fluids (e.g., menstrual blood; vaginal fluids; etc.) come into contact with a mucus membrane or a cut or abrasion. This report documents a case with unique circumstances pointing to likely sexual transmission between female partners. In this case, the discordant couple (one HIV-infected partner and one uninfected partner) routinely had direct sexual contact – without using barrier methods for protection – that involved the exchange of blood through abrasions received during sexual activity. Because all other HIV risk exposures were ruled out for the newly infected partner, it is likely she was infected by her female partner. The authors note that, although HIV transmission between women is possible, it remains rare. This report underscores the need for all couples – including WSW – to take steps to prevent transmission, including avoiding all contact between HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated bodily fluids and broken skin, wounds or mucus membranes.
Alcohol-Attributable Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost — 11 States, 2006–2010
Sara D. Ramey, M.Ed.
Director of Marketing & Communications
Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists
Excessive alcohol use is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States, particularly among working-age adults. Evidence-based strategies for reducing excessive drinking, such as those recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force, could help reduce the health and economic impact of this leading health risk behavior. Excessive alcohol use is a leading cause of preventable death and years of potential life lost in states, according to a new study released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In the 11 states studied, there were a median of 1,600 deaths and 43,000 years of life lost annually due to excessive drinking. About 70 percent of these deaths and 80 percent of the years of life lost involved working-aged adults. Of the 11 states, the highest death rate due to excessive drinking was in New Mexico, and the lowest was in Utah. Although most deaths were among white non-Hispanics, the median death rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives was twice as high as for any other racial or ethnic group.
Prevalence of Influenza-like Illness and Seasonal and Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccination Coverage among Workers — United States, 2009–10 Influenza Season
CDC Media Relations
Adults employed in certain industries and occupations may be at a higher risk for influenza infection compared with other workers. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, when a global pandemic of novel influenza A (H1N1) was underway, adults employed in certain industries and occupations were more likely to report experiencing influenza-like illness compared with other workers. These groups included Real Estate and Rental and Leasing, Accommodation and Food Services, and Community and Social Services. Among these same groups, relatively low proportions of workers received seasonal or H1N1 influenza vaccination. Employers should evaluate risk levels in workplace settings and implement control measures that include influenza vaccination programs, education on hand hygiene and cough etiquette, policies that encourage workers to stay home from work when ill, and provision of personal protective equipment.
Notes from the Field
- Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Live Poultry from a Mail-Order Hatchery in Ohio — March–September 2013