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MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. West Nile Virus and Other Arboviral Diseases — United States, 2012

CDC Media Relations

There was a large multistate outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012, with more cases reported nationally than in any year since 2003. A total of 5,674 WNV disease cases were reported, including 2,873 cases of neuroinvasive disease (e.g., meningitis, encephalitis, and acute flaccid paralysis) and 286 deaths. More than half of the WNV neuroinvasive disease cases were reported from just four states: Texas, California, Illinois, and Louisiana. After WNV, the next most commonly reported cause of neuroinvasive arboviral disease was La Crosse virus, followed by Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, and St. Louis encephalitis virus. West Nile virus and other arboviruses continue to be a source of severe illness each year for substantial numbers of persons in the United States. Arboviral diseases can be prevented by reducing exposure to mosquitoes and ticks through use of repellents, wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and eliminating tall grass and standing water near homes.

2. HIV and Syphilis Infection Among Men Who Have Sex with Men — Bangkok, Thailand, 2005–2011

Dr. Anupong Chitwarakorn
Thai Ministry of Public Health

The prevalence and incidence of HIV and syphilis increased between 2005 and 2011 among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok, Thailand, according to an analysis by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health – U.S. CDC Collaboration with the Thai Red Cross Research Center. Analyzing data collected at the Silom Community Clinic (SCC), researchers found significant increases from 2005-2011 in the percentage of MSM living with HIV (from 24.6 percent to 29.4 percent) and syphilis (from 5.0 percent to 12.5 percent). The number of new HIV and syphilis infections also increased significantly during those years (from 2.8 new infections per 100 MSM to 7.9 per 100 MSM; and from 0.0 new infections per 100 MSM to 7.1 per 100 MSM, respectively). Over the entire period, HIV incidence was highest among those 21 years and younger (12.2 new infections per 100 MSM ≤ 21 years compared to 3.2 new infections per 100 MSM among those ≥ 30 years). Notably, at their first visit to the SCC, fewer than half of the men in the study (42.7 percent) reported having ever been tested for HIV. Because the heavy burden of HIV and syphilis among MSM likely reflects continued risk behavior and lack of awareness of infection. This research underscores the need to reach more MSM with effective evidence-based prevention interventions. This should include efforts to increase HIV testing and early access to care, as well as improved STI diagnosis and treatment.

3. Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Among Children Aged 6–18 Years with Immunocompromising Conditions: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

CDC Media Relations

On February 20, 2013 the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) for children aged 6–18 years with immunocompromising conditions, functional or anatomic asplenia, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, or cochlear implants who have not previously received PCV13. This recommendation reflects a policy change from permissive and off-label recommendation of PCV13 in the pediatric immunocompromised population. Recommendations for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) use for children in this age group remain unchanged. The report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP to make this recommendation and reviews the recommendations for use of PCV13 and PPSV23 for children aged 6–18 years. CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that children aged 6–18 years with immunocompromising conditions, functional or anatomic asplenia, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, or cochlear implants and who have not received 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should receive one dose of PCV13 first followed by the previously recommended doses of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax 23) for the prevention of pneumococcal disease.

4. Notes from the Field

Occupationally Acquired Salmonella I 4,12:i:1,2 Infection in a Phlebotomist — Minnesota, January 2013



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