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MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day — October 15, 2009 (Box)

CDC Division of News and Electronic Media
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No Summary Available

2. Estimated Lifetime Risk for Diagnosis of HIV Infection Among Hispanics/Latinos — 37 States and Puerto Rico, 2007

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
News Media Team
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A new CDC analysis estimates that 1 in 36 Hispanic/Latino males and 1 in 106 Hispanic/Latino females have a risk for diagnosis with HIV in their lifetime; overall, 1 in 52 Hispanics/Latinos have an estimated lifetime risk (ELR) of HIV diagnosis. Using several sources of data, including 2007 HIV surveillance data from 37 states and Puerto Rico, researchers determined the ELR of a diagnosis of HIV by race/ethnicity and sex. The study found that while the overall ELR of an HIV diagnosis among Hispanics/Latinos was lower than that for blacks (among whom the ELR of an HIV diagnosis was 1 in 22), it was more than three times that of whites (1 in 170). Furthermore, the ELR of HIV diagnosis for Hispanic/Latino males was three times as high as that of white males (1 in 102), while the ELR of diagnosis for Hispanic/Latino females was five times as high as that of white females (1 in 538). Authors believe an increased focus on culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions, as well as increased access to HIV testing, prevention, care and treatment services would not only reduce the number of new infections, but would also ultimately lower the ELR of HIV diagnosis for Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

3. Tetanus Vaccination Coverage (Including Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years — United States, 1999 and 2008

CDC Division of News and Electronic Media
(404) 639-3286

The recent spike in pertussis cases across the United States underscores the importance of vaccination. Yet data released by the CDC today suggest that early vaccination uptake of the newly available pertussis vaccine for adults was suboptimal. During 2008, approximately three years after being first recommended by CDC, the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine—which serves as a one-time substitution for the traditional 10-year booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria (Td) vaccine—had been given to only about 5.9 percent of recommended adults. Vaccination with Tdap protects adults against pertussis, but can also reduce the likelihood of transmission to infants who have not completed their primary pertussis vaccination series (generally those less than 6 months of age), nine of whom have died during the 2010 outbreak in California. Targeted efforts are needed to increase Tdap vaccination coverage among adult populations, especially among health care personnel and adults who are contacts or caretakers of unvaccinated infants.

4. Progress Toward Control of Rubella and Prevention of Congenital Rubella Syndrome — Worldwide, 2009

CDC Division of News and Electronic Media
(404) 639-3286

Rubella is usually a mild, febrile rash illness in children and adults; however, infection early in a woman's pregnancy, particularly during the first 16 weeks, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, or an infant born with birth defects, referred to as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Progress has been made globally in rubella control and CRS prevention, with two-thirds of all countries using rubella vaccine in their national routine vaccination programs. As of December 2009, a total of 130 World Health Organization (WHO) member states have introduced rubella-containing vaccine (RCV), a 57 percent increase from 83 member states in 1996. Two of six WHO regions (the Americas, European) have established goals for the elimination of rubella by 2010 and 2015, respectively. During 2009, a total of 121,344 rubella cases were reported from 167 member states to WHO, a 82 percent decrease from the 670,894 cases reported in 2000 from 102 member states. With the significant morbidity and cost resulting from infants born with CRS and the ease of introduction of RCV into the routine vaccination program, member states and regions that have not introduced RCV are encouraged to assess their burden of CRS and rubella and to determine whether introduction of RCV is appropriate.



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