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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Pneumonia Hospitalizations Among Young Children After Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

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(404) 639-3286

The updated findings from national hospital discharge data suggest that previously observed reductions in all–cause pneumonia hospitalizations after routine pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) use among U.S. children aged <2 years have been sustained. These results also confirm that pneumococcus is a major cause of childhood pneumonia and indicate the need for continued monitoring of the immunization program’s effects on pneumonia hospitalizations in children. Pneumonia accounts for an estimated 8 percent of all childhood hospital admissions. The bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading bacterial cause of childhood pneumonias. Routine childhood immunization with the PCV7 began in 2000 and substantial declines in hospital admissions for pneumonia in young children were previously reported through 2004. CDC monitors the effects of PCV7 immunization program on pneumonia hospitalizations using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. This report provides an updated analysis through 2006. In 2006, the rate for all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children aged <2 years was 8.1 per 1,000 children, 35 percent lower than the rate before PCV7 introduction. This reduction represents an estimated 36,300 fewer annual pneumonia hospitalizations in 2006 compared with before PCV7.

Possible Congenital Infection with La Crosse Encephalitis Virus — West Virginia, 2006-2007

Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286

Because of the potential for congenital infection, pregnant women in areas where La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is endemic should avoid mosquitoes by wearing protective clothing and repellents; health-care providers should monitor for LACV infection and sequelae among infants born to women infected with LACV during pregnancy. The mosquitoborne LACV is found throughout the eastern U.S. and can cause severe neurologic disease and possible long-term sequelae, particularly in children. The effects of LACV infection during pregnancy and potential for congenital infection and adverse birth or developmental outcomes are unknown. The first reported case of LACV infection in a pregnant woman was investigated, identifying evidence of possible asymptomatic congenital infection with LACV in her infant. Further investigation is needed to confirm the potential for intrauterine LACV transmission and to identify health risks posed to the infant.

Updated Guidelines for the Use of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
(404) 639-8895

CDC has updated its tuberculosis (TB) testing recommendations to reflect the increasing use of the nucleic acid amplification (NAA) test for pulmonary TB. The new guidelines recommend that NAA testing be performed on patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB for whom a diagnosis is being considered but not yet established. Guidelines for the use of NAA tests were last updated in 2000; since then NAA testing has become more common in healthcare and laboratory settings. CDC and the Association of Public Health Laboratories convened a panel last summer to review existing guidelines and make recommendations to regularly incorporate the use of these tests into standard practice. The NAA tests can confirm pulmonary TB weeks earlier than the test that is conventionally used. The guidelines also include revised procedures for testing and interpreting results, and provide advice for clinicians to ensure cost savings and accuracy in interpretation of NAA test results. Increasing the proper use of NAA tests is a critical step towards increasing our ability to diagnosis and treat TB early. Faster confirmation of TB can prompt earlier treatment, improve patient outcomes, increase opportunities to interrupt transmission, and provide more effective public health interventions.



  • Historical Document: January 15, 2009
  • Content source: Office of Enterprise Communication
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