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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. Hepatitis A Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 24-35 Months – United States, 2006 and 2007

Press Contact: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
Phone: (404) 639-8895

CDC reports hepatitis A vaccination coverage increased following 2006 childhood immunization recommendation updates. Routine vaccination of children with two-doses of hepatitis A vaccine is an effective way to prevent infection and reduce illness from hepatitis A. Each year CDC monitors U.S. immunization coverage through the National Immunization Survey. This article provides a first look at hepatitis A coverage in the United States since the 2006 Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendation that all children between 12 through 23 months of age be immunized against hepatitis A. Previously, routine hepatitis A immunization was only recommended for children living in areas where hepatitis A rates were consistently above the national average.  The 2006 recommendation also lowered the age for hepatitis A vaccine from ≥24 months to 12 through 23 months of age. One-dose hepatitis A vaccination coverage among 24 through 35 month olds increased from 26.3 percent in 2006 to 47.4 percent in 2007. Vaccination coverage rates rose most dramatically in areas where hepatitis A vaccination was not previously recommended.  While analysis of one-dose coverage indicates efforts to implement the recommendation are well underway, subsequent reporting of hepatitis A vaccination coverage of two or more doses in children will provide a more complete picture of  how well children are being protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. 

2. Recurring Norovirus Outbreaks in a Long-Term Residential Treatment Facility – Oregon, 2007

Press Contact: Paul Cieslak, MD
Acute and Communicable Disease Program Manager, Oregon Public Health Division
Phone: (971) 673-1111

Timely implementation of effective infection control measures (e.g., asking employees to stay at home when infectious) is important to prevent and control norovirus outbreaks in long-term residential treatment facilities.  This report summarizes an in-depth epidemiologic investigation of three norovirus outbreaks that occurred in a long-term residential treatment facility in Oregon in 2007. Each of the three outbreaks was caused by a different norovirus strain. Risk factors for norovirus infection among facility employees and multiple infection control barriers and lapses have been identified.  The findings of this report highlight the importance of timely implementation of standard infection control practices and targeted norovirus control measures as recommended by both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Oregon Public Health Division to prevent and control norovirus outbreaks in large residential treatment facilities. When inconsistent use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is identified, CDC recommends a thorough evaluation of the workplace PPE program. 



  • Historical Document: July 1, 2009
  • Content source: Office of Enterprise Communication
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