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The MMWR is embargoed until NOON ET, Thursdays.
Synopsis for September 12, 2003
Severe Acute Pneumonitis Among Deployed U.S. Military Personnel — Southwest Asia, March–August 2003
Summary not available.
Injuries Associated with Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance — Afghanistan, 1997–2002
Unexploded ordnance (UXO) in Afghanistan is as serious a problem as landmines, especially for children.
Landmines and UXO remain to be a serious public health threat in Afghanistan. Afghanistan is among the most heavily mined countries and has the highest number of reported landmine and UXO victims in the world. Over half of recorded victims are children under 18 years of age. Many people (including children) get injured while engaged in basic activities of economic necessity – farming, herding, traveling. Adults get injured mostly by landmines, whereas children and adolescents get injured predominantly by UXO. UXO usually lay on the surface, and thus are visible easier to avoid, but they pose a specific threat to children who like to play or tamper with strange objects. Mine risk education programs should focus on UXO hazards to children and landmine hazards to adults, and address age-specific risk behaviors.
Increasing Infant Mortality Among Very Low Birthweight Infants — Delaware, 1994–2000
In Delaware, very low birthweight infants born to traditionally lower-risk women are experiencing increasing infant mortality.
Delaware's increase in infant mortality was linked to increasing mortality among very low birthweight (<1,500g/3.3lb) infants. It appeared that these infants were born to women who are not in traditionally high-risk groups; instead, they were older, married, suburban, more educated, and they had early prenatal care and private insurance. Possible explanations for why these infants' mortality increased at a greater rate include risks associated with delayed childbearing, infertility treatments, changes in prenatal care practices, and changes in underlying maternal health. While this study examined the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Delaware, it was unable to determine whether ART was a contributing factor to Delaware's increasing infant mortality. More research is needed to determine the risks associated with increased infant mortality in Delaware.
Rapid Point-of-Care Testing for HIV-1 During Labor and Delivery — Chicago, Illinois, 2003
CDC study concludes that rapid HIV tests performed by obstetrics staff during labor and delivery can offer fast and accurate results.
For the first six months of 2002, three Chicago hospitals allowed obstetric staff to perform rapid HIV testing among women with unknown HIV status who were in labor. A fourth hospital in Chicago sent HIV testing specimens from women in labor to the on-site hospital lab. In the three hospitals where obstetric staff were responsible for testing, turn around time (time between taking blood sample and delivering results) was about 45 minutes – four times shorter than the three and a half hour turn around time in the hospital that sent specimens to the lab. Rapid test results at each hospital were confirmed to be 100% accurate. Study authors note that HIV rapid testing is of particular importance in labor and delivery settings, since even small delays can result in a woman not receiving timely drug treatment that can prevent HIV transmission to her baby.
Global Progress Toward Universal Childhood Hepatitis B Vaccination, 2003
Many countries have introduced hepatitis B vaccination into their national immunization programs.
During the past decade, substantial progress has been made toward preventing hepatitis B virus infection through vaccination. By 2003, approximately 80% of countries had implemented routine childhood hepatitis B immunization programs. Through these programs, approximately one third the world’s children have been fully vaccinated against hepatitis B virus infection, a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Despite this progress, efforts are needed to increase the number of children vaccinated and the number of countries with hepatitis B vaccination programs.
West Nile Virus Activity — United States, September 4–10, 2003
No summary available.
This page last reviewed September 11, 2003
Disease Control and Prevention