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MMWR Reports & Recommendations
Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections
Contact: Michele Pearson, MD, MPH
Synopsis for August 9, 2002
West Nile Virus Activity ― United States, July 31–August 7, 2002, and Louisiana, January 1–August 7, 2002This report summarizes West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance data reported to CDC through ArboNET and by states and other jurisdictions as of August 7, 2002.
During 2002, a total of 112 human cases with laboratory evidence of recent WNV infection have been reported from Louisiana (n=71), Mississippi (n=28), Texas (n=12), and Illinois (n=one). Five deaths have been reported, all from Louisiana. Among the 98 cases with available data, 59 (60%) occurred among men; the median age was 55 years (range: 3–88 years), and the dates of illness onset ranged from June 10 to July 29. Surveillance for WNV has been ongoing in Louisiana since spring 2000 and involves testing of dead birds, sick horses, mosquito pools, and sentinel chicken flocks.
Outbreak of Salmonella Serotype Javiana Infections ― Orlando, Florida, June 2002Clinicians should consider salmonellosis among ill transplant recipients who attended the 2002 U.S. Transplant Games.
On July 16, 2002, two cases of Salmonella serotype Javiana (S. Javiana) infection were identified among persons who had attended the 2002 U.S. Transplant Games, held at a theme park in Orlando, Florida between June 25 and 29. The Transplant Games is an athletic competition that was attended by approximately 6000 people, including 1500 transplant recipient athletes. The results of an ongoing investigation have identified 141 illnesses in 32 states among persons who attended the Transplant Games. Preliminary findings have implicated diced Roma tomatoes supplied to the theme park as the likely vehicle for this outbreak. Physicians should consider salmonellosis among ill transplant recipients who attended the 2002 U.S. Transplant Games, particularly because persons with impaired immune systems are at increased risk of severe infection.
Childhood Lead Poisoning Associated with Tamarind Candy and Folk Remedies ― California, 1999 –2000Tamarind candies and home remedies such as greta and azarcon may contain lead.
Some folk remedies may contain lead and some Mexican tamarind candies have been contaminated by lead. These can be a source for lead poisoning among children who consume these cultural remedies and candies. Health care providers should be aware of the potential hazards of certain food products and folk remedies and if they think a child may have been exposed, should test the child's blood lead level. Parents and community members should be educated about potential sources of lead poisoning.
Human Rabies ― California, 2002
This report describes a case of human rabies caused by a Mexican free-tailed bat in California.
In March 2002, a 28-year-old man residing in Glen County, California died from rabies encephalitis. The patient's family reported that he had killed a bat in his house on March 10. During 1990-2000, a total of 24 (75%) of 32 human rabies cases were attributed to variants of rabies virus associated with bats. Because bats have small teeth, a bite might go undetected or be minor. In this investigation, 4 household members, 2 other family members, and 12 social contacts received post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) because of possible exposure to the patient through saliva. In addition, 28 healthcare workers who had contact with the patient also received PEP.
Outbreak of Tularemia Among Commercially Distributed Prairie Dogs, 2002
Tularemia has been identified recently as the cause of a die-off in captured wild prairie dogs at a commercial exotic animal distributor in Texas.
Potentially infected prairie dogs were distributed to wholesalers, retailers, and persons in Arkansas, Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Mississippi, Nevada, Ohio, Texas, Washington, and West Virginia and exported to Belgium, the Czech Republic, Japan, The Netherlands, and Thailand. States and countries that received shipments of potentially infected animals have been notified. Unusually high numbers of sick or dead prairie dogs were reported from Texas and the Czech Republic. Tularemia is caused by infection with Francisella tularensis. The incubation time in humans is normally 2–6 days but can be 1–14 days. The disease usually begins suddenly with high fever, chills, head and muscle aches, and a feeling of weakness. Chest discomfort and a dry cough are common. Other symptoms might appear depending on how the infection is acquired.
This page last reviewed August 8, 2002
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention