Issue 35, September 1, 2017

CDC Science Clips: Volume 9, Issue 35, September 5, 2017

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

This week, Science Clips is pleased to collaborate with CDC Vital Signs by featuring scientific articles from the September Vital Signs ( The articles marked with an asterisk are general review articles which may be of particular interest to clinicians and public health professionals seeking background information in this area.

  1. CDC Vital Signs
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions – Stroke
      1. *Factors influencing the decline in stroke mortality: a statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke AssociationExternal
        Lackland DT, Roccella EJ, Deutsch AF, Fornage M, George MG, Howard G, Kissela BM, Kittner SJ, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Schwamm LH, Smith EE, Towfighi A.
        Stroke. 2014 Jan;45(1):315-53.

        BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke mortality has been declining since the early 20th century. The reasons for this are not completely understood, although the decline is welcome. As a result of recent striking and more accelerated decreases in stroke mortality, stroke has fallen from the third to the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. This has prompted a detailed assessment of the factors associated with the change in stroke risk and mortality. This statement considers the evidence for factors that have contributed to the decline and how they can be used in the design of future interventions for this major public health burden. METHODS: Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair and co-chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council’s Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writers used systematic literature reviews, references to published clinical and epidemiological studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize evidence and to indicate gaps in current knowledge. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on this document and approved the final version. The document underwent extensive American Heart Association internal peer review, Stroke Council leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. RESULTS: The decline in stroke mortality over the past decades represents a major improvement in population health and is observed for both sexes and for all racial/ethnic and age groups. In addition to the overall impact on fewer lives lost to stroke, the major decline in stroke mortality seen among people <65 years of age represents a reduction in years of potential life lost. The decline in mortality results from reduced incidence of stroke and lower case-fatality rates. These significant improvements in stroke outcomes are concurrent with cardiovascular risk factor control interventions. Although it is difficult to calculate specific attributable risk estimates, efforts in hypertension control initiated in the 1970s appear to have had the most substantial influence on the accelerated decline in stroke mortality. Although implemented later, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia control and smoking cessation programs, particularly in combination with treatment of hypertension, also appear to have contributed to the decline in stroke mortality. The potential effects of telemedicine and stroke systems of care appear to be strong but have not been in place long enough to indicate their influence on the decline. Other factors had probable effects, but additional studies are needed to determine their contributions. CONCLUSIONS: The decline in stroke mortality is real and represents a major public health and clinical medicine success story. The repositioning of stroke from third to fourth leading cause of death is the result of true mortality decline and not an increase in mortality from chronic lung disease, which is now the third leading cause of death in the United States. There is strong evidence that the decline can be attributed to a combination of interventions and programs based on scientific findings and implemented with the purpose of reducing stroke risks, the most likely being improved control of hypertension. Thus, research studies and the application of their findings in developing intervention programs have improved the health of the population. The continued application of aggressive evidence-based public health programs and clinical interventions is expected to result in further declines in stroke mortality.

      2. *Recent trends in cardiovascular mortality in the United States and public health goalsExternal
        Sidney S, Quesenberry CP, Jaffe MG, Sorel M, Nguyen-Huynh MN, Kushi LH, Go AS, Rana JS.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2016 Aug 01;1(5):594-9.

        IMPORTANCE: Heart disease (HD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death in the United States. During the first decade of the 21st century, HD mortality declined at a much greater rate than cancer mortality and it appeared that cancer would overtake HD as the leading cause of death. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether changes in national trends had occurred in recent years in mortality rates due to all cardiovascular disease (CVD), HD, stroke, and cancer and to evaluate the gap between mortality rates from HD and cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research data system was used to determine national trends in age-adjusted mortality rates due to all CVD, HD, stroke, and cancer from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2011, and January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2014, overall, by sex, and by race/ethnicity. The present study was conducted from December 30, 2105, to January 18, 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Comparison of annual rates of change and trend in gap between HD and cancer mortality rates. RESULTS: The rate of the decline in all CVD, HD, and stroke mortality decelerated substantially after 2011, and the rate of decline for cancer mortality remained relatively stable. Reported as percentage (95% CI), the annual rates of decline for 2000-2011 were 3.79% (3.61% to 3.97%), 3.69% (3.51% to 3.87%), 4.53% (4.34% to 4.72%), and 1.49% (1.37% to 1.60%) for all CVD, HD, stroke, and cancer mortality, respectively; the rates for 2011-2014 were 0.65% (-0.18% to 1.47%), 0.76% (-0.06% to 1.58%), 0.37% (-0.53% to 1.27%), and 1.55% (1.07% to 2.04%), respectively. Deceleration of the decline in all CVD mortality rates occurred in males, females, and all race/ethnicity groups. For example, the annual rates of decline for total CVD mortality for 2000-2011 were 3.69% (3.48% to 3.89%) for males and 3.98% (3.81% to 4.14%) for females; for 2011-2014, the rates were 0.23% (-0.71% to 1.16%) and 1.17% (0.41% to 1.93%), respectively. The gap between HD and cancer mortality persisted. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Deceleration in the decline of all CVD, HD, and stroke mortality rates has occurred since 2011. If this trend continues, strategic goals for lowering the burden of CVD set by the American Heart Association and the Million Hearts Initiative may not be reached.

      3. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014External
        Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL.
        Jama. 2016 Jun 07;315(21):2284-91.

        IMPORTANCE: Between 1980 and 2000, the prevalence of obesity increased significantly among adult men and women in the United States; further significant increases were observed through 2003-2004 for men but not women. Subsequent comparisons of data from 2003-2004 with data through 2011-2012 showed no significant increases for men or women. OBJECTIVE: To examine obesity prevalence for 2013-2014 and trends over the decade from 2005 through 2014 adjusting for sex, age, race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and education. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional, nationally representative health examination survey of the US civilian noninstitutionalized population that includes measured weight and height. EXPOSURES: Survey period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Prevalence of obesity (body mass index >/=30) and class 3 obesity (body mass index >/=40). RESULTS: This report is based on data from 2638 adult men (mean age, 46.8 years) and 2817 women (mean age, 48.4 years) from the most recent 2 years (2013-2014) of NHANES and data from 21,013 participants in previous NHANES surveys from 2005 through 2012. For the years 2013-2014, the overall age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 37.7% (95% CI, 35.8%-39.7%); among men, it was 35.0% (95% CI, 32.8%-37.3%); and among women, it was 40.4% (95% CI, 37.6%-43.3%). The corresponding prevalence of class 3 obesity overall was 7.7% (95% CI, 6.2%-9.3%); among men, it was 5.5% (95% CI, 4.0%-7.2%); and among women, it was 9.9% (95% CI, 7.5%-12.3%). Analyses of changes over the decade from 2005 through 2014, adjusted for age, race/Hispanic origin, smoking status, and education, showed significant increasing linear trends among women for overall obesity (P = .004) and for class 3 obesity (P = .01) but not among men (P = .30 for overall obesity; P = .14 for class 3 obesity). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this nationally representative survey of adults in the United States, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity in 2013-2014 was 35.0% among men and 40.4% among women. The corresponding values for class 3 obesity were 5.5% for men and 9.9% for women. For women, the prevalence of overall obesity and of class 3 obesity showed significant linear trends for increase between 2005 and 2014; there were no significant trends for men. Other studies are needed to determine the reasons for these trends.

      4. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and strokes in younger adultsExternal
        George MG, Tong X, Bowman BA.
        JAMA Neurol. 2017 Jun 01;74(6):695-703.

        Importance: While stroke mortality rates have decreased substantially in the past 2 decades, this trend has been primarily limited to older adults. Increasing trends in stroke incidence and hospitalizations have been noted among younger adults, but there has been concern that this reflected improved diagnosis through an increased use of imaging rather than representing a real increase. Objectives: To determine whether stroke hospitalization rates have continued to increase and to identify the prevalence of associated stroke risk factors among younger adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Hospitalization data from the National Inpatient Sample from 1995 through 2012 were used to analyze acute stroke hospitalization rates among adults aged 18 to 64 years. Hospitalization data from 2003 to 2012 were used to identify the prevalence of associated risk factors for acute stroke. Acute stroke hospitalizations were identified by the principal International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code and associated risk factors were identified by secondary International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for each hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trends in acute stroke hospitalization rates by stroke type, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, as well as the prevalence of associated risk factors by stroke type, age, and sex. Results: The 2003-2004 set included 362339 hospitalizations and the 2011-2012 set included 421815 hospitalizations. The major findings in this study are as follows: first, acute ischemic stroke hospitalization rates increased significantly for both men and women and for certain race/ethnic groups among younger adults aged 18 to 54 years; they have almost doubled for men aged 18 to 34 and 35 to 44 years since 1995-1996, with a 41.5% increase among men aged 35 to 44 years from 2003-2004 to 2011-2012. Second, the prevalence of stroke risk factors among those hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke continued to increase from 2003-2004 through 2011-2012 for both men and women aged 18 to 64 years (range of absolute increase: hypertension, 4%-11%; lipid disorders, 12%-21%; diabetes, 4%-7%; tobacco use, 5%-16%; and obesity, 4%-9%). Third, the prevalence of having 3 to 5 risk factors increased from 2003-2004 through 2011-2012 (men: from 9% to 16% at 18-34 years, 19% to 35% at 35-44 years, 24% to 44% at 45-54 years, and 26% to 46% at 55-64 years; women: 6% to 13% at 18-34 years, 15% to 32% at 35-44 years, 25% to 44% at 45-54 years, and 27% to 48% at 55-65 years; P for trend < .001). Finally, hospitalization rates for intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage remained stable, with the exception of declines among men and non-Hispanic black patients aged 45 to 54 with subarachnoid hemorrhage (13.2/10000 to 10.3/10000 hospitalizations and 15.8/10000 to 11.5/10000 hospitalizations, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: The identification of increasing hospitalization rates for acute ischemic stroke in young adults coexistent with increasing prevalence of traditional stroke risk factors confirms the importance of focusing on prevention in younger adults.

      5. Contributors to the excess stroke mortality in rural areas in the United StatesExternal
        Howard G, Kleindorfer DO, Cushman M, Long DL, Jasne A, Judd SE, Higginbotham JC, Howard VJ.
        Stroke. 2017 Jul;48(7):1773-1778.

        BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke mortality is 30% higher in the rural United States. This could be because of either higher incidence or higher case fatality from stroke in rural areas. METHODS: The urban-rural status of 23 280 stroke-free participants recruited between 2003 and 2007 in the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) was classified using the Rural-Urban Commuting Area scheme as residing in urban, large rural town/city, or small rural town or isolated areas. The risk of incident stroke was assessed using proportional hazards analysis, and case fatality (death within 30 days of stroke) was assessed using logistic regression. Models were adjusted for demographics, traditional stroke risk factors, and measures of socioeconomic status. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic factors and relative to urban areas, stroke incidence was 1.23-times higher (95% confidence intervals, 1.01-1.51) in large rural town/cities and 1.30-times higher (95% confidence intervals, 1.03-1.62) in small rural towns or isolated areas. Adjustment for risk factors and socioeconomic status only modestly attenuated this association, and the association became marginally nonsignificant (P=0.071). There was no association of rural-urban status with case fatality (P>0.47). CONCLUSIONS: The higher stroke mortality in rural regions seemed to be attributable to higher stroke incidence rather than case fatality. A higher prevalence of risk factors and lower socioeconomic status only modestly contributed to the increased risk of incident stroke risk in rural areas. There was no evidence of higher case fatality in rural areas.

      6. Where to focus efforts to reduce the black-white disparity in stroke mortality: Incidence versus case fatality?External
        Howard G, Moy CS, Howard VJ, McClure LA, Kleindorfer DO, Kissela BM, Judd SE, Unverzagt FW, Soliman EZ, Safford MM, Cushman M, Flaherty ML, Wadley VG.
        Stroke. 2016 Jul;47(7):1893-8.

        BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: At age 45 years, blacks have a stroke mortality approximately 3x greater than their white counterparts, with a declining disparity at older ages. We assess whether this black-white disparity in stroke mortality is attributable to a black-white disparity in stroke incidence versus a disparity in case fatality. METHODS: We first assess if black-white differences in stroke mortality within 29 681 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort reflect national black-white differences in stroke mortality and then assess the degree to which black-white differences in stroke incidence or 30-day case fatality after stroke contribute to the disparities in stroke mortality. RESULTS: The pattern of stroke mortality within the study mirrors the national pattern, with the black-to-white hazard ratio of approximately 4.0 at age 45 years decreasing to approximately 1.0 at age 85 years. The pattern of black-to-white disparities in stroke incidence shows a similar pattern but no evidence of a corresponding disparity in stroke case fatality. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the black-white differences in stroke mortality are largely driven by differences in stroke incidence, with case fatality playing at most a minor role. Therefore, to reduce the black-white disparity in stroke mortality, interventions need to focus on prevention of stroke in blacks.

      7. Trends in acute ischemic stroke hospitalizations in the United StatesExternal
        Ramirez L, Kim-Tenser MA, Sanossian N, Cen S, Wen G, He S, Mack WJ, Towfighi A.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2016 May 11;5(5).

        BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have revealed declining acute ischemic stroke (AIS) hospitalization rates in the United States, but no study has assessed recent temporal trends in race/ethnic-, age-, and sex-specific AIS hospitalization rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Temporal trends in hospitalization for AIS from 2000 to 2010 were assessed among adults >/=25 years using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Age-, sex-, and race/ethnic-specific and age-adjusted stroke hospitalization rates were calculated using the weighted number of hospitalizations and US census data. From 2000 to 2010, age-adjusted stroke hospitalization rates decreased from 250 to 204 per 100 000 (overall rate reduction 18.4%). Age-specific AIS hospitalization rates decreased for individuals aged 65 to 84 years (846 to 605 per 100 000) and >/=85 years (2077 to 1618 per 100 000), but increased for individuals aged 25 to 44 years (16 to 23 per 100 000) and 45 to 64 years (149 to 156 per 100 000). Blacks had the highest age-adjusted yearly hospitalization rates, followed by Hispanics and whites (358, 170, and 155 per 100 000 in 2010). Age-adjusted AIS hospitalization rates increased for blacks but decreased for Hispanics and whites. Age-adjusted AIS hospitalization rates were lower in women and declined more steeply compared to men (272 to 212 per 100 000 in women versus 298 to 245 per 100 000 in men). CONCLUSIONS: Although overall stroke hospitalizations declined in the United States, the reduction was more pronounced among older individuals, women, Hispanics, and whites. Renewed efforts at targeting risk factor control among vulnerable individuals may be warranted.

      8. Disaggregation of cause-specific cardiovascular disease mortality among Hispanic subgroupsExternal
        Rodriguez F, Hastings KG, Boothroyd DB, Echeverria S, Lopez L, Cullen M, Harrington RA, Palaniappan LP.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2017 Mar 01;2(3):240-247.

        Importance: Hispanics are the largest minority group in the United States and face a disproportionate burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and low socioeconomic position. However, Hispanics paradoxically experience lower all-cause mortality rates compared with their non-Hispanic white (NHW) counterparts. This phenomenon has been largely observed in Mexicans, and whether this holds true for other Hispanic subgroups or whether these favorable trends persist over time remains unknown. Objective: To disaggregate a decade of national CVD mortality data for the 3 largest US Hispanic subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: Deaths from CVD for the 3 largest US Hispanic subgroups-Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans-compared with NHWs were extracted from the US National Center for Health Statistics mortality records using the underlying cause of death based on coding from the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (I00-II69). Mortality data were evaluated from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012. Population estimates were calculated using linear interpolation from the 2000 and 2010 US Census reports. Data were analyzed from November 2015 to July 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality due to CVD. Results: Participants included 688074 Mexican, 163335 Puerto Rican, 130397 Cuban, and 19357160 NHW individuals (49.0% men and 51.0% women; mean [SD] age, 75 [15] years). At the time of CVD death, Mexicans (age, 67 [18] years) and Puerto Ricans (age, 68 [17] years) were younger compared with NHWs (age, 76 [15] years). Mortality rates due to CVD decreased from a mean of 414.2 per 100000 in 2003 to 303.3 per 100000 in 2012. Estimated decreases in mortality rate for CVD from 2003 to 2012 ranged from 85 per 100000 for all Hispanic women to 144 per 100000 for Cuban men, but rate differences between groups vary substantially, with Puerto Ricans exhibiting similar mortality patterns to NHWs, and Mexicans experiencing lower mortality. Puerto Ricans experienced higher mortality rates for ischemic and hypertensive heart disease compared with other subgroups, whereas Mexicans experienced higher rates of cerebrovascular disease deaths. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in CVD mortality rates and changes over time were found among the 3 largest Hispanic subgroups in the United States. Findings suggest that the current aggregate classification of Hispanics masks heterogeneity in CVD mortality reporting, leading to an incomplete understanding of health risks and outcomes in this population.

      9. Association of get with the guidelines-stroke program participation and clinical outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries with ischemic strokeExternal
        Song S, Fonarow GC, Olson DM, Liang L, Schulte PJ, Hernandez AF, Peterson ED, Reeves MJ, Smith EE, Schwamm LH, Saver JL.
        Stroke. 2016 May;47(5):1294-302.

        BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke is a national, hospital-based quality improvement program developed by the American Heart Association. Although studies have suggested improved processes of care in GWTG-Stroke-participating hospitals, it is not known whether this improved care translates into improved clinical outcomes compared with nonparticipating hospitals. METHODS: From all acute care US hospitals caring for Medicare beneficiaries with acute stroke between April 2003 and December 2008, we matched hospitals that joined the GWTG-Stroke program with similar hospitals that did not. Using a difference-in-differences design, we analyzed whether hospital participation in GWTG-Stroke was associated with a greater improvement in clinical outcomes compared with the underlying secular change. RESULTS: The matching algorithm identified 366 GWTG-Stroke-adopting hospitals that cared for 88 584 acute ischemic stroke admissions and 366 non-GWTG-Stroke hospitals that cared for 85 401 acute ischemic stroke admissions. Compared with the Pre period (18-6 months before program implementation), in the Early period (0-6 months after program implementation), GWTG-Stroke hospitals had accelerated increases in discharge to home and reduced mortality at 30 days and 1 year. In the Sustained period (6-18 months after program implementation), the accelerated reduction in mortality at 1 year was sustained, with a trend toward sustained accelerated increase in discharge home. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital adoption of the GWTG-Stroke program was associated with improved functional outcomes at discharge and reduced postdischarge mortality.

      10. Hypertension prevalence and control among adults: United States, 2011-2014External
        Yoon SS, Carroll MD, Fryar CD.
        NCHS Data Brief. 2015 Nov(220):1-8.

        KEY FINDINGS: Hypertension is a public health challenge in the United States because it directly increases the risk for cardiovascular disease (1). National and regional health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, the Million Hearts Initiative, and the Community Preventive Services Task Force, have sought to increase public awareness of the health benefits of improving blood pressure control (2-4). This report presents updated estimates for the prevalence and control of hypertension in the United States for 2011-2014.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Breastfeeding and breast cancer risk reduction: Implications for black mothersExternal
        Anstey EH, Shoemaker ML, Barrera CM, O’Neil ME, Verma AB, Holman DM.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep;53(3s1):S40-s46.

        Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and a leading cause of death from cancer among U.S. women. Studies have suggested that breastfeeding reduces breast cancer risk among parous women, and there is mounting evidence that this association may differ by subtype such that breastfeeding may be more protective of some invasive breast cancer types. The purpose of this review is to discuss breast cancer disparities in the context of breastfeeding and the implications for black mothers. Black women in the U.S. have lower rates of breastfeeding and nearly twice the rates of triple-negative breast cancer (an aggressive subtype) compared with white women. In addition to individual challenges to breastfeeding, black women may also differentially face contextual barriers such as a lack of social and cultural acceptance in their communities, inadequate support from the healthcare community, and unsupportive work environments. More work is needed to improve the social factors and policies that influence breastfeeding rates at a population level. Such efforts should give special consideration to the needs of black mothers to adequately address disparities in breastfeeding among this group and possibly help reduce breast cancer risk. Interventions such as peer counseling, hospital policy changes, breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments, group prenatal education, and enhanced breastfeeding programs have been shown to be effective in communities of color. A comprehensive approach that integrates interventions across multiple levels and settings may be most successful in helping mothers reach their breastfeeding goals and reducing disparities in breastfeeding and potentially breast cancer incidence.

      2. Estimation of breast cancer incident cases and medical care costs attributable to alcohol consumption among insured women aged <45 years in the U.SExternal
        Ekwueme DU, Allaire BT, Parish WJ, Thomas CC, Poehler D, Guy GP, Aldridge AP, Lahoti SR, Fairley TL, Trogdon JG.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep;53(3s1):S47-s54.

        INTRODUCTION: This study estimated the percentage of breast cancer cases, total number of incident cases, and total annual medical care costs attributable to alcohol consumption among insured younger women (aged 18-44 years) by type of insurance and stage at diagnosis. METHODS: The study used the 2012-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, cancer incidence data from two national registry programs, and published relative risk measures to estimate the: (1) alcohol-attributable fraction of breast cancer cases among younger women by insurance type; (2) total number of breast cancer incident cases attributable to alcohol consumption by stage at diagnosis and insurance type among younger women; and (3) total annual medical care costs of treating breast cancer incident cases attributable to alcohol consumption among younger women. Analyses were conducted in 2016; costs were expressed in 2014 U.S. dollars. RESULTS: Among younger women enrolled in Medicaid, private insurance, and both groups, 8.7% (95% CI=7.4%, 10.0%), 13.8% (95% CI=13.3%, 14.4%), and 12.3% (95% CI=11.4%, 13.1%) of all breast cancer cases, respectively, were attributable to alcohol consumption. Localized stage was the largest proportion of estimated attributable incident cases. The estimated total number of breast cancer incident alcohol-attributable cases was 1,636 (95% CI=1,570, 1,703) and accounted for estimated total annual medical care costs of $148.4 million (95% CI=$140.6 million, $156.1 million). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol-attributable breast cancer has estimated medical care costs of nearly $150 million per year. The current findings could be used to support evidence-based interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in younger women.

      3. Use of outpatient cardiac rehabilitation among heart attack survivors – 20 states and the District of Columbia, 2013 and four states, 2015External
        Fang J, Ayala C, Luncheon C, Ritchey M, Loustalot F.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Aug 25;66(33):869-873.

        Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States (1). Each year, approximately 790,000 adults have a myocardial infarction (heart attack), including 210,000 that are recurrent heart attacks (2). Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) includes exercise counseling and training, education for heart-healthy living, and counseling to reduce stress. Cardiac rehab provides patients with education regarding the causes of heart attacks and tools to initiate positive behavior change, and extends patients’ medical management after a heart attack to prevent future negative sequelae (3). A systematic review has shown that after a heart attack, patients using cardiac rehab were 53% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41%-62%) less likely to die from any cause and 57% (95% CI = 21%-77%) less likely to experience cardiac-related mortality than were those who did not use cardiac rehab (3). However, even with long-standing national recommendations encouraging use of cardiac rehab (4), the intervention has been underutilized. An analysis of 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data found that only 34.7% of adults who reported a history of a heart attack also reported subsequent use of cardiac rehab (5). To update these estimates, CDC used the most recent BRFSS data from 2013 and 2015 to assess the use of cardiac rehab among adults following a heart attack. Overall use of cardiac rehab was 33.7% in 20 states and the District of Columbia (DC) in 2013 and 35.5% in four states in 2015. Cardiac rehab use was underutilized overall and differences were evident by sex, age, race/ethnicity, level of education, cardiovascular risk status, and by state. Increasing use of cardiac rehab after a heart attack should be encouraged by health systems and supported by the public health community.

      4. Tracking of BMI z scores for severe obesityExternal
        Freedman DS, Berenson GS.
        Pediatrics. 2017 Aug 22.

        BACKGROUND: Although the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) growth charts are widely used in studies of childhood obesity, BMI z scores are known to be inaccurate at values greater than the 97th percentile. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from 6994 children in the Bogalusa Heart Study who were examined multiple times to compare tracking of 3 BMI metrics: BMI-for-sex/age z score (BMIz), BMI expressed as a percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMIp95), and levels of BMI z score that adjust for the compression of very high z scores (adjusted z score [BMIaz]). The later 2 metrics, unlike BMIz, do not have an upper limit. The mean interval between examinations was 2.8 years. We were particularly interested in these metrics among children with obesity or severe obesity (%BMIp95 >/=120%). RESULTS: Although there was little difference in the tracking of the 3 metrics in the overall sample, among 247 children with severe obesity, the correlation of BMIz levels between examinations (r = 0.46) was substantially weaker than those for BMIaz and %BMIp95 (r = 0.65 and 0.61). Age-stratified analyses indicated that the weak tracking of BMIz was particularly evident before the age of 10 years (r = 0.36 vs 0.57 and 0.60). Several children with severe obesity showed BMIz decreases between examinations despite having BMI increases of over 5. CONCLUSIONS: Among children with severe obesity, the tracking of BMIz is weak. This is because of the constraints in converting very high BMIs into z scores based on the CDC growth charts. Rather than using BMIz, it would be preferable to express very high BMIs relative to the CDC 95th percentile or to use BMIaz.

      5. Cancer prevention during early adulthood: Highlights from a meeting of expertsExternal
        Holman DM, White MC, Shoemaker ML, Massetti GM, Puckett MC, Brindis CD.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep;53(3s1):S5-s13.

        Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life. A number of social, behavioral, and environmental factors during early adulthood influence cancer risk, including dietary patterns, physical inactivity, medical conditions (e.g., obesity, diabetes, viral infections), circadian rhythm disruption, chronic stress, and targeted marketing of cancer-causing products (e.g., tobacco, alcohol). Suggestions for translating research into practice are framed in the context of the four strategic directions of the National Prevention Strategy: building healthy and safe community environments; expanding quality preventive services in clinical and community settings; empowering people to make healthy choices; and eliminating health disparities. Promising strategies for prevention among young adults include collaborating with a variety of community sectors as well as mobilizing young adults to serve as advocates for change. Young adults are a heterogeneous demographic group, and targeted efforts are needed to address the unique needs of population subgroups that are often underserved and under-represented in research studies.

      6. Mental health problems and cancer risk factors among young adultsExternal
        Massetti GM, Thomas CC, King J, Ragan K, Buchanan Lunsford N.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep;53(3s1):S30-s39.

        INTRODUCTION: Chronic mental health problems often emerge in young adulthood, when adults begin to develop lifelong health behaviors and access preventive health services. The associations between mental health problems and modifiable cancer risk factors in young adulthood are not well understood. METHODS: In 2016, the authors analyzed 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data on demographic characteristics, health service access and use, health status, and cancer risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol use, overweight or obesity, physical activity, and sleep) for 90,821 young adults aged 18-39 years with mental health problems (depressive disorder or frequent mental distress) compared to other young adults. RESULTS: Mental health problems were associated with white race; less than a high school education; lower income; being out of work or unable to work; being uninsured (for men only); poor health; previous diagnosis of asthma, skin cancer, or diabetes; and not having a recent checkup. After controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status, mental health problems among young adults were associated with smoking, binge drinking, inadequate sleep, having no leisure time physical activity, and being overweight or obese (among women only). Cervical cancer screening was not associated with mental health problems after controlling for demographic characteristics, health service use, and health status. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems in young adulthood were associated with potentially modifiable factors and behaviors that increase risk for cancer. Efforts to prevent cancer and promote health must attend to mental health disparities to meet the needs of young adults.

      7. Alcohol screening and brief intervention: A potential role in cancer prevention for young adultsExternal
        McKnight-Eily LR, Henley SJ, Green PP, Odom EC, Hungerford DW.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep;53(3s1):S55-s62.

        Excessive or risky alcohol use is a preventable cause of significant morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and worldwide. Alcohol use is a common preventable cancer risk factor among young adults; it is associated with increased risk of developing at least six types of cancer. Alcohol consumed during early adulthood may pose a higher risk of female breast cancer than alcohol consumed later in life. Reducing alcohol use may help prevent cancer. Alcohol misuse screening and brief counseling or intervention (also called alcohol screening and brief intervention among other designations) is known to reduce excessive alcohol use, and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that it be implemented for all adults aged >/=18 years in primary healthcare settings. Because the prevalence of excessive alcohol use, particularly binge drinking, peaks among young adults, this time of life may present a unique window of opportunity to talk about the cancer risk associated with alcohol use and how to reduce that risk by reducing excessive drinking or misuse. This article briefly describes alcohol screening and brief intervention, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s recommended approach, and suggests a role for it in the context of cancer prevention. The article also briefly discusses how the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working to make alcohol screening and brief intervention a routine element of health care in all primary care settings to identify and help young adults who drink too much.

      8. Prevalence of modifiable cancer risk factors among U.S. adults aged 18-44 yearsExternal
        White MC, Shoemaker ML, Park S, Neff LJ, Carlson SA, Brown DR, Kanny D.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep;53(3s1):S14-s20.

        INTRODUCTION: Carcinogen exposure and unhealthy habits acquired in young adulthood can set the stage for the development of cancer at older ages. This study measured the current prevalence of several cancer risk factors among young adults to assess opportunities to intervene to change the prevalence of these risk factors and potentially reduce cancer incidence. METHODS: Using 2015 National Health Interview Survey data (analyzed in 2016), the prevalence of potential cancer risk factors was estimated among U.S. adults aged 18-44 years, based on responses to questions about diet, physical activity, tobacco product use, alcohol, indoor tanning, sleep, human papillomavirus vaccine receipt, and obesity, stratified by sex, age, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: The prevalence of some risk factors varied by age and race/ethnicity. Obesity (one in four people) and insufficient sleep (one in three people) were common among men and women. Physical inactivity (one in five men, one in four women); binge drinking (one in four men, one in eight women); cigarette smoking (one in five men, one in seven women); and frequent consumption of red meat (one in four men, one in six women) also were common. More than half of the population of adults aged 18-44 years consumed sugar-sweetened beverages daily and processed meat at least once a week. Most young adults had never had the human papillomavirus vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Findings can be used to target evidence-based environmental and policy interventions to reduce the prevalence of cancer risk factors among young adults and prevent the development of future cancers.

      9. Unexplained variation for hospitals’ use of inpatient rehabilitation and skilled nursing facilities after an acute ischemic strokeExternal
        Xian Y, Thomas L, Liang L, Federspiel JJ, Webb LE, Bushnell CD, Duncan PW, Schwamm LH, Stein J, Fonarow GC, Hoenig H, Montalvo C, George MG, Lutz BJ, Peterson ED, Bettger JP.
        Stroke. 2017 Aug 22.

        BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rehabilitation is recommended after a stroke to enhance recovery and improve outcomes, but hospital’s use of inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) or skilled nursing facility (SNF) and the factors associated with referral are unknown. METHODS: We analyzed clinical registry and claims data for 31 775 Medicare beneficiaries presenting with acute ischemic stroke from 918 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals who were discharged to either IRF or SNF between 2006 and 2008. Using a multilevel logistic regression model, we evaluated patient and hospital characteristics, as well as geographic availability, in relation to discharge to either IRF or SNF. After accounting for observed factors, the median odds ratio was reported to quantify hospital-level variation in the use of IRF versus SNF. RESULTS: Of 31 775 patients, 17 662 (55.6%) were discharged to IRF and 14 113 (44.4%) were discharged to SNF. Compared with SNF patients, IRF patients were younger, more were men, had less health-service use 6 months prestroke, and had fewer comorbid conditions and in-hospital complications. Use of IRF or SNF varied significantly across hospitals (median IRF use, 55.8%; interquartile range, 34.8%-75.0%; unadjusted median odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 2.44-2.77). Hospital-level variation in discharge rates to IRF or SNF persisted after adjustment for patient, clinical, and geographic variables (adjusted median odds ratio, 2.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.68-3.11). CONCLUSIONS: There is marked unexplained variation among hospitals in their use of IRF versus SNF poststroke even after accounting for clinical characteristics and geographic availability. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: identifier: NCT02284165.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. The prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in women in Morocco, 1995-2016: Model-based estimation and implications for STI surveillanceExternal
        Bennani A, El-Kettani A, Hancali A, El-Rhilani H, Alami K, Youbi M, Rowley J, Abu-Raddad L, Smolak A, Taylor M, Mahiane G, Stover J, Korenromp EL.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(8):e0181498.

        BACKGROUND: Evolving health priorities and resource constraints mean that countries require data on trends in sexually transmitted infections (STI) burden, to inform program planning and resource allocation. We applied the Spectrum STI estimation tool to estimate the prevalence and incidence of active syphilis in adult women in Morocco over 1995 to 2016. The results from the analysis are being used to inform Morocco’s national HIV/STI strategy, target setting and program evaluation. METHODS: Syphilis prevalence levels and trends were fitted through logistic regression to data from surveys in antenatal clinics, women attending family planning clinics and other general adult populations, as available post-1995. Prevalence data were adjusted for diagnostic test performance, and for the contribution of higher-risk populations not sampled in surveys. Incidence was inferred from prevalence by adjusting for the average duration of infection with active syphilis. RESULTS: In 2016, active syphilis prevalence was estimated to be 0.56% in women 15 to 49 years of age (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.3%-1.0%), and around 21,675 (10,612-37,198) new syphilis infections have occurred. The analysis shows a steady decline in prevalence from 1995, when the prevalence was estimated to be 1.8% (1.0-3.5%). The decline was consistent with decreasing prevalences observed in TB patients, fishermen and prisoners followed over 2000-2012 through sentinel surveillance, and with a decline since 2003 in national HIV incidence estimated earlier through independent modelling. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic population-based surveys allowed Morocco to estimate syphilis prevalence and incidence trends. This first-ever undertaking engaged and focused national stakeholders, and confirmed the still considerable syphilis burden. The latest survey was done in 2012 and so the trends are relatively uncertain after 2012. From 2017 Morocco plans to implement a system to record data from routine antenatal programmatic screening, which should help update and re-calibrate next trend estimations.

      2. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, asymptomatic malaria parasitemia, and infectious morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed, uninfected infants in Malawi: The BAN StudyExternal
        Davis NL, Wiener J, Juliano JJ, Adair L, Chasela CS, Kayira D, Hudgens MG, Van Der Horst C, Jamieson DJ, Kourtis AP.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2017 15 Aug;65(4):575-580.

        Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants are disproportionately at risk of morbidity and mortality compared with their HIV-unexposed counterparts. The role of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) in reducing leading causes of infectious morbidity is unclear. Methods We used data from the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) clinical trial (conducted 2004-2010, Malawi) to assess the association of (1) CPT and (2) asymptomatic malaria parasitemia with respiratory and diarrheal morbidity in infants. In June 2006, all HIV-exposed infants in BAN began receiving CPT (240 mg) from 6 to 36 weeks of age, or until weaning occurred and HIV infection was ruled out. All HIV-exposed, uninfected infants (HEIs) at 8 weeks of age (n = 1984) were included when CPT was the exposure. A subset of HEIs (n = 471) were tested for malarial parasitemia using dried blood spots from 12, 24, and 36 weeks of age. Cox proportional hazards models for recurrent gap-time data were used to examine the association of time-varying exposures on morbidity. Results CPT was associated with a 36% reduction in respiratory morbidity (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64 [95% confidence interval {CI},.60-.69]) and a 41% reduction in diarrheal morbidity (HR, 0.59 [95% CI,.54-.65]). Having asymptomatic malaria parasitemia was associated with a 40% increase in respiratory morbidity (HR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.13-1.74]) and a 50% increase in diarrheal morbidity (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.09-2.06]), after adjusting for CPT. Conclusions CPT may have an important role to play in reducing the leading global causes of morbidity and mortality in the growing population of HEIs in malaria-endemic resource-limited settings.

      3. Methods to obtain a representative sample of Ryan White-funded patients for a needs assessment in Los Angeles County: Results from a replicable approachExternal
        Dierst-Davies R, Wohl AR, Pinney G, Johnson CH, Vincent-Jones C, Perez MJ.
        J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2017 Jul/Aug;16(4):383-395.

        The Health Resources and Services Administration requires that jurisdictions receiving Ryan White (RW) funding justify need, set priorities, and provide allocations using evidence-based methods. Methods and results from the 2011 Los Angeles Coordinated HIV/AIDS Needs Assessment-Care (LACHNA-Care) study are presented. Individual-level weights were applied to expand the sample from 400 to 18 912 persons, consistent with the 19 915 clients in the system. Awareness, need, and utilization for medical outpatient care were high (>90%). Other services (eg, child care) had limited awareness (21%). Majority of participants reported at least 1 service gap (81%). Lack of insurance (risk ratio [RR] = 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-6.2), substance use (RR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.3-6.4), and past lapses in medical care (RR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.9) were associated with gaps. Within clusters, past incarceration was associated with gaps for housing (RR = 13.5, 95% CI: 3.5-52.1), transportation (RR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.4), and case management (RR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.3-12.2). Applied methods resulted in representative data instrumental to RW program planning efforts.

      4. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) among pregnant women who participated in a national HIV surveillance activity in HaitiExternal
        Domercant JW, Jean Louis F, Hulland E, Griswold M, Andre-Alboth J, Ye T, Marston BJ.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Aug 18;17(1):577.

        BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), one the most common causes of genital ulcers, appears to increase both the risk of HIV acquisition and HIV transmission. HSV-2/HIV co-infection among pregnant women may increase the risk of perinatal transmission of HIV. This study describes rates of HSV-2 among pregnant women in Haiti and HSV-2 test performance in this population. METHODS: Unlinked residual serum specimens from the 2012 National HIV and Syphilis Sentinel Surveillance Survey among pregnant women in Haiti were tested using two commercial kits (Focus HerpeSelect, Kalon) for HSV-2 antibodies. We evaluated rates of HSV-2 seropositivity and HSV-2/HIV co-infection, associations between HSV-2 and demographic characteristics using multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling, and HSV-2 test performance in this population. RESULTS: Serum samples from 1000 pregnant women (all 164 HIV positive and 836 random HIV negative) were selected. The overall weighted prevalence of HSV-2 was 31.4% (95% CI: 27.7-35.4) and the prevalence of HIV-positivity among HSV-2 positive pregnant women was five times higher than the prevalence among HSV-2 negative women (4.8% [95% CI: 3.9-6.0] vs. 0.9% [95% CI: 0.6-1.3], respectively). Factors significantly associated with HSV-2 positivity were HIV-positivity (PR: 2.27 [95% CI: 1.94-2.65]) and older age (PRs: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.05-1.91] for 20-24 years, 1.71 [95% CI:1.13-2.60] for 30-34 years, and 1.55 [95% CI: 1.10-2.19] for 35 years or greater]), while rural residence was negatively associated with HSV-2 positivity (PR 0.83 [95% CI: 0.69-1.00]), after controlling for other covariables. For this study a conservative Focus index cutoff of 3.5 was used, but among samples with a Focus index value >/=2.5, 98.4% had positive Kalon tests. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HSV-2 is relatively high among pregnant women in Haiti. Public health interventions to increase access to HSV-2 screening in antenatal services are warranted.

      5. Clinical characteristics and outcomes among older women with HIVExternal
        Frazier EL, Sutton MY, Tie Y, Collison M, Do A.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017 Aug 24.

        OBJECTIVES: To inform the development of HIV care strategies for older women with HIV infection, an understudied group, we compared the psychosocial, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of HIV-positive women aged >/=50 (older women) with those aged 18-49 (younger women). METHODS: We examined factors among HIV-positive women in care using data from the 2009 through 2013 cycles of a nationally representative sample of HIV-positive adults in care (Medical Monitoring Project). We compared psychosocial, clinical, and behavioral factors among women aged >/=50 years at interview versus those aged <50 years. We calculated weighted frequency estimates and performed logistic regression to compute adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the comparison of characteristics among women aged >/=50 versus <50 years. RESULTS: Of 22,145 participants, 6186 were women; 40.7% (CI 39.1-42.3) were >/=50 years, and 35.2% of older women reported being sexually active. Compared with women <50 years, women aged >/=50 years were more likely to be dose adherent (aPR = 1.19; CI 1.07-1.33), prescribed antiretroviral therapy and have sustained viral load suppression (aPR = 1.03; CI 1.00-1.18), and were less likely to report any depression (aPR = 0.92; CI 0.86-0.99), to report condomless sex with a negative or unknown partner if sexually active (aPR = 0.56; CI 0.48-0.67), and to have received HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention counseling from a healthcare provider (aPR = 0.82; CI 0.76-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that older women in HIV care have more favorable outcomes in some clinical areas, but may warrant increased HIV/STI prevention counseling from their care providers, especially if sexually active.

      6. Antimicrobial resistance determinants and susceptibility profiles of pneumococcal isolates recovered in Trinidad and TobagoExternal
        Hawkins PA, Akpaka PE, Nurse-Lucas M, Gladstone R, Bentley SD, Breiman RF, McGee L, Swanston WH.
        J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2017 Aug 14.

        INTRODUCTION: In Latin America and the Caribbean, pneumococcal infections were estimated to account for 12,000-18,000 deaths, 327,000 cases of pneumonia, 4,000 cases of meningitis and 1,229 cases of sepsis each year in children under five years old. Resistance of pneumococci to antimicrobial agents has evolved into a worldwide health problem in the last few decades. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 98 pneumococcal isolates collected in Trinidad and Tobago and associated genetic determinants. METHODS: Whole genome sequences were obtained from 98 pneumococcal isolates recovered at several regional hospitals, including 83 invasive and 15 non-invasive strains, recovered before (n=25) and after (n=73) the introduction of two pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A bioinformatics pipeline was used to identify core genomic and accessory elements that conferred antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, including beta-lactam non-susceptibility. RESULTS: and discussion: Forty-one (41.8%) isolates were predicted as resistant to at least one antimicrobial class, including 13 (13.3%) isolates resistant to at least three classes. The most common serotypes associated with antimicrobial resistance were 23F (n=10), 19F (n=8), 6B (n=6), and 14 (n=5). The most common serotypes associated with penicillin non-susceptibility were 19F (n=7) and 14 (n=5). Thirty-nine (39.8%) isolates were positive for PI-1 or PI-2 type pili: 30 (76.9%) were PI-1+, 4 (10.3%) were PI-2+, and 5 (12.8%) were positive for both PI-1 and PI-2. Of the 13 isolates with multidrug resistance, 10 belonged to globally distributed clones PMEN3 and PMEN14 and were isolated in the post-PCV period, suggesting a clonal expansion.

      7. Chest radiographic features of human metapneumovirus infection in pediatric patientsExternal
        Hilmes MA, Daniel Dunnavant F, Singh SP, Ellis WD, Payne DC, Zhu Y, Griffin MR, Edwards KM, Williams JV.
        Pediatr Radiol. 2017 Aug 22.

        BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 215 HMPV-positive subjects enrolled at our tertiary care children’s hospital, 68 had chest radiographs obtained by the treating clinician that were available for review. Two fellowship-trained pediatric radiologists, independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated these chest radiographs for their radiographic features. RESULTS: Parahilar opacities were the most commonly observed abnormality, occurring in 87% of children with HMPV. Hyperinflation also occurred frequently (69%). Atelectasis (40%) and consolidation (18%) appeared less frequently. Pleural effusion and pneumothorax were not seen on any radiographs. CONCLUSION: The clinical presentations of HMPV include bronchiolitis, croup and pneumonia. Dominant chest radiographic abnormalities include parahilar opacities and hyperinflation, with occasional consolidation. Recognition of the imaging patterns seen with common viral illnesses like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and HMPV might facilitate diagnosis and limit unnecessary antibiotic treatment.

      8. Development of a district-level programmatic assessment tool for risk of measles virus transmissionExternal
        Lam E, Schluter WW, Masresha BG, Teleb N, Bravo-Alcantara P, Shefer A, Jankovic D, McFarland J, Elfakki E, Takashima Y, Perry RT, Dabbagh AJ, Banerjee K, Strebel PM, Goodson JL.
        Risk Anal. 2017 Jun;37(6):1052-1062.

        All six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have now set goals for measles elimination by or before 2020. To prioritize measles elimination efforts and use available resources efficiently, there is a need to identify at-risk areas that are offtrack from meeting performance targets and require strengthening of programmatic efforts. This article describes the development of a WHO measles programmatic risk assessment tool to be used for monitoring, guiding, and sustaining measles elimination efforts at the subnational level. We outline the tool development process; the tool specifications and requirements for data inputs; the framework of risk categories, indicators, and scoring; and the risk category assignment. Overall risk was assessed as a function of indicator scores that fall into four main categories: population immunity, surveillance quality, program performance, and threat assessment. On the basis of the overall score, the tool assigns each district a risk of either low, medium, high, or very high. The cut-off criteria for the risk assignment categories were based on the distribution of scores from all possible combinations of individual indicator cutoffs. The results may be used for advocacy to communicate risk to policymakers, mobilize resources for corrective actions, manage population immunity, and prioritize programmatic activities. Ongoing evaluation of indicators will be needed to evaluate programmatic performance and plan risk mitigation activities effectively. The availability of a comprehensive tool that can identify at-risk districts will enhance efforts to prioritize resources and implement strategies for achieving the Global Vaccine Action Plan goals for measles elimination.

      9. Barriers to treatment access for chronic hepatitis C virus infection: A case seriesExternal
        Millman AJ, Ntiri-Reid B, Irvin R, Kaufmann MH, Aronsohn A, Duchin JS, Scott JD, Vellozzi C.
        Top Antivir Med. 2017 Jul/Aug;25(3):110-113.

        Restrictive policies on access to new, curative hepatitis C treatments represent a substantial barrier to treating patients infected with hepatitis C. This case series demonstrates challenges experienced by patients and practitioners in accessing these treatments and highlights several strategies for navigating the treatment preauthorization process.

      10. HIV testing among transgender women and men – 27 states and Guam, 2014-2015External
        Pitasi MA, Oraka E, Clark H, Town M, DiNenno EA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Aug 25;66(33):883-887.

        Transgender persons are at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; in a recent analysis of the results of over nine million CDC funded HIV tests, transgender women* had the highest percentage of confirmed positive results (2.7%) of any gender category. Transgender men, particularly those who have sex with cisgender section sign men, are also at high risk for infection. HIV testing is critical for detecting and treating persons who are infected and delivering preventive services to those who are uninfected. CDC recommends that persons at high risk for HIV infection be screened for HIV at least annually, although transgender persons are not specified in the current recommendations. CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to describe HIV testing among transgender women and men and two cisgender comparison groups in 27 states and Guam. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, transgender women and men had a lower prevalence of ever testing and past year testing for HIV (35.6% and 31.6% ever, and 10.0% and 10.2% past year, respectively) compared with cisgender gay and bisexual men (61.8% ever and 21.6% past year) and instead reported testing at levels comparable to cisgender heterosexual men and women (35.2% ever, and 8.6% past year). This finding suggests that transgender women and men might not be sufficiently reached by current HIV testing measures. Tailoring HIV testing activities to overcome the unique barriers faced by transgender women and men might increase rates of testing among these populations.

      11. Risk factors associated with blood exposure for sporadic hepatitis E in Dhaka, BangladeshExternal
        Sazzad HM, Luby SP, Labrique AB, Kamili S, Hayden TM, Kamili NA, Teo CG, Gurley ES.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Aug 14.

        Fecal contamination of drinking water is associated with large hepatitis E virus (HEV) outbreaks of genotypes 1 and 2 in endemic areas. Sporadic transmission of HEV genotypes 3 and 4 in high-income countries has been associated with exposure to blood and animal contact. The objective of the study was to identify the risk factors for hepatitis E and the genotype(s) causing sporadic hepatitis E in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We selected, from a diagnostic center in Dhaka between November 2008 and November 2009, cases presenting with jaundice and anti-HEV IgM antibodies and age-matched controls were defined as those with no history of jaundice and normal blood test results. Serum samples were tested for HEV RNA using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction followed by a sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. A total of 109 cases and 109 controls were enrolled. The cases were more likely to be male (adjusted matched odds ratios [mOR] 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9; P = 0.01), or have reported contact with another person’s blood or blood product, or contact with blood-contaminated sharp instruments (adjusted mOR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.1; P = 0.03) than controls. There were no significant differences between the cases and the controls in terms of reported high-risk sexual intercourse, consumption of undercooked meat, or contact or drinking fecally-contaminated water. The sera from three cases carried HEV RNA, all belonging to genotype 1. Findings from this study suggest that contact with human blood and sharing sharp instruments may transmit sporadic hepatitis E in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Efforts to prevent the transmission of blood-borne pathogens may also prevent sporadic HEV transmission in this endemic setting.

      12. Missing data create challenges for determining progress made in linking HIV-positive persons to HIV medical care. Statistical methods are not used to address missing program data on linkage. In 2014, 61 health department jurisdictions were funded by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and submitted data on HIV testing, newly diagnosed HIV-positive persons, and linkage to HIV medical care. Missing or unusable data existed in our data set. A new approach using multiple imputation to address missing linkage data was proposed, and results were compared to the current approach that uses data with complete information. There were 12,472 newly diagnosed HIV-positive persons from CDC-funded HIV testing events in 2014. Using multiple imputation, 94.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): [93.7%, 94.6%]) of newly diagnosed persons were referred to HIV medical care, 88.6% (95% CI: [88.0%, 89.1%]) were linked to care within any time frame, and 83.6% (95% CI: [83.0%, 84.3%]) were linked to care within 90 days. Multiple imputation is recommended for addressing missing linkage data in future analyses when the missing percentage is high. The use of multiple imputation for missing values can result in a better understanding of how programs are performing on key HIV testing and HIV service delivery indicators.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. Are you ready? Crisis leadership in a hyper-VUCA environmentExternal
        Alkhaldi KH, Austin ML, Cura BA, Dantzler D, Holland L, Maples DL, Quarrelles JC, Weinkle RK, Marcus LJ.
        J Emerg Manag. 2017 May/Jun;15(3):139-155.

        The current hyper-volatile, -uncertain, -complex, and -ambiguous (VUCA) threat environment demands a more cohesive support structure for crisis leaders who may be faced with crises of increasing magnitude and frequency and, in some instances, multiple crisis events simultaneously. The project team investigates the perceptions of crisis leaders regarding establishing a crisis leader advisor position for crisis leaders to benefit from their experience while prosecuting crisis response activities. The team linked hyper-VUCA crises, crisis response frameworks, meta-leadership, crisis leader attributes, and advisor attributes. The overall goal of the project is to increase the ability of the crisis leaders to more effectively and efficiently navigate crisis events resulting in more efficient and effective response and recovery. Three research questions were developed to assess the following: thoughts of integrating a crisis leader advisor position; development of a crisis leader advisor certification program; and attributes of crisis leader advisors. A qualitative research methodology using a phenomenological approach was employed. Forty-one participants were purposefully selected and administered a short, on-line survey consisting of 11 questions. Data were analyzed using percentage analysis,weighted sums, and inductive thematic analysis. The project team found an overwhelming support for the crisis leader advisor position and the crisis leader advisor certification program. Additionally, experience and trustworthiness ranked among the top sought after attributes of a crisis leader advisor. The team recommendations included (1) implement a crisis leaders advisor guide/framework; (2) create a formal crisis leader advisor position in national incident management system; (3) implement a crisis leader advisor certification framework; (4) benchmark established advisor programs; and (5) implement a framework to match leaders and advisors.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Comparison of vector efficiency of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from the northeast and upper midwest of the United States for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia mayoniiExternal
        Eisen L, Breuner NE, Hojgaard A, Hoxmeier JC, Pilgard MA, Replogle AJ, Biggerstaff BJ, Dolan MC.
        J Med Entomol. 2017 Jan;54(1):239-242.

        Borrelia mayonii, a recently recognized species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and found to be associated with Lyme disease in the Upper Midwest. This spirochete has, to date, not been documented from the Northeast, but we previously demonstrated that I. scapularis ticks originating from Connecticut are capable of serving as a vector of B. mayonii In this follow-up study, we compared the vector efficiency for B. mayonii (strain MN14-1420) of I. scapularis ticks originating from Minnesota in the Upper Midwest and Connecticut in the Northeast. CD-1 outbred white mice previously infected with B. mayonii via tick bite were exposed to simultaneous feeding by Minnesota and Connecticut larvae contained within separate feeding capsules. We found no difference in the ability of Minnesota and Connecticut larvae to acquire B. mayonii from infected mice and pass spirochetes to the nymphal stage (overall nymphal infection rates of 11.6 and 13.3%, respectively). Moreover, the efficiency of transmission of B. mayonii by single infected nymphs was similar for the Minnesota and Connecticut ticks (33 and 44%, respectively). We conclude that the examined I. scapularis ticks from the Upper Midwest and Northeast did not differ in their efficiency as vectors for B. mayonii.

      2. Local knowledge of when humans are at elevated risk for exposure to tick vectors of human disease agents is required both for the effective use of personal protection measures to avoid tick bites and for implementation of control measures to suppress host-seeking ticks. Here, we used previously published data on the seasonal density of host-seeking Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls nymphs, the primary vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western USA, collected across a broad habitat and climate gradient in northwestern California to identify predictors of periods of time within the year when questing nymphal density is elevated. Models based on calendar week alone performed similarly to models based on calendar week and woodland type, or meteorological variables. The most suitable model for a given application will depend on user objectives, timescale of interest, and the geographic extent of predictions. Our models sought not only to identify when seasonal host-seeking activity commences, but also when it diminishes to low levels. Overall, we report a roughly 5-7 month period in Mendocino County during which host-seeking nymphal densities exceed a low threshold value.

      3. Egyptian rousette bats maintain long-term protective immunity against Marburg virus infection despite diminished antibody levelsExternal
        Schuh AJ, Amman BR, Sealy TK, Spengler JR, Nichol ST, Towner JS.
        Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 18;7(1):8763.

        Although bats are natural reservoir hosts for numerous zoonotic viruses, little is known about the long-term dynamics of the host immune response following infection and how these viruses are maintained in nature. The Egyptian rousette bat (ERB) is a known reservoir host for Marburg virus (MARV). Following infection of ERBs with MARV, virus-specific IgG antibodies are induced but rapidly wane and by 3 months post-infection the bats are seronegative. To determine whether reinfection of ERBs plays a role in MARV maintenance, we challenge groups of ERBs that were “naturally” or experimentally infected with MARV 17-24 months prior. No bats in either group exhibit evidence of MARV replication or shedding and all bats develop virus-specific secondary immune responses. This study demonstrates that infection of ERBs with MARV induces long-term protective immunity against reinfection and indicates that other factors, such as host population dynamics, drive MARV maintenance in nature.

    • Drug Safety
      1. A statewide evaluation of seven strategies to reduce opioid overdose in North CarolinaExternal
        Alexandridis AA, McCort A, Ringwalt CL, Sachdeva N, Sanford C, Marshall SW, Mack K, Dasgupta N.
        Inj Prev. 2017 Aug 23.

        BACKGROUND: In response to increasing opioid overdoses, US prevention efforts have focused on prescriber education and supply, demand and harm reduction strategies. Limited evidence informs which interventions are effective. We evaluated Project Lazarus, a centralised statewide intervention designed to prevent opioid overdose. METHODS: Observational intervention study of seven strategies. 74 of 100 North Carolina counties implemented the intervention. Dichotomous variables were constructed for each strategy by county-month. Exposure data were: process logs, surveys, addiction treatment interviews, prescription drug monitoring data. Outcomes were: unintentional and undetermined opioid overdose deaths, overdose-related emergency department (ED) visits. Interrupted time-series Poisson regression was used to estimate rates during preintervention (2009-2012) and intervention periods (2013-2014). Adjusted IRR controlled for prescriptions, county health status and time trends. Time-lagged regression models considered delayed impact (0-6 months). RESULTS: In adjusted immediate-impact models, provider education was associated with lower overdose mortality (IRR 0.91; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.02) but little change in overdose-related ED visits. Policies to limit ED opioid dispensing were associated with lower mortality (IRR 0.97; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.07), but higher ED visits (IRR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12). Expansions of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) were associated with increased mortality (IRR 1.22; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.37) but lower ED visits in time-lagged models. CONCLUSIONS: Provider education related to pain management and addiction treatment, and ED policies limiting opioid dispensing showed modest immediate reductions in mortality. MAT expansions showed beneficial effects in reducing ED-related overdose visits in time-lagged models, despite an unexpected adverse association with mortality.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Ultrasound gel as an unrecognized source of exposure to phthalates and phenols among pregnant women undergoing routine scanExternal
        Messerlian C, Mustieles V, Wylie BJ, Ford JB, Keller M, Ye X, Calafat AM, Williams PL, Hauser R.
        Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 Aug 14.

        BACKGROUND: Systemic absorption of phthalates and parabens has been demonstrated after dermal application of body lotion, and medical devices such as intravenous bags and tubing have been identified as a source of exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). However, use of products during medical procedures such as aqueous gel applied during obstetrical ultrasound in pregnancy has not been investigated as a potential source of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) exposure. Human studies have associated EDCs with various adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is a need to identify sources of inadvertent exposure to EDCs especially during vulnerable developmental periods such as pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a pilot study to determine whether use of gel during routine obstetrical ultrasound increased urinary concentrations of phthalate and phenol biomarkers. METHODS: We recruited 13 women from the Massachusetts General Hospital who provided spot urine samples at the time of their second trimester anatomic survey. The first sample was collected prior to the procedure (pre-exposure, time 1), and two additional samples were obtained at approximately 1-2h (time 2) and 7-12h (time 3) post-exposure following the scan. RESULTS: Urinary concentrations of several DEHP metabolites and metabolite of diisononyl cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) increased across time. For example, the geometric mean concentrations of mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate increased from 3.1ng/ml to 7.1ng/ml (p-value=0.03) between time 1 and time 3. We also observed significant differences in concentrations of metabolites of butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP). For example, mono-n-butyl phthalate (metabolite of DnBP) decreased from 3.5ng/ml to 1.8ng/ml (p-value=0.04) between time 1 and time 2, but then increased to 6.6ng/ml (p-value=0.002) at time 3. Propylparaben concentrations increased from 8.9ng/ml to 33.6ng/ml between time 1 and time 2 (p-value=0.005), followed by a decrease to 12.9ng/ml at time 3 (p-value=0.01). However, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the observed differences are due to other sources of exposure to these compounds. CONCLUSIONS: While additional research is needed, this pilot study potentially identifies a previously unknown source of phthalate and paraben exposure among pregnant women undergoing routine ultrasound examination.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. Geospatial analysis of household spread of Ebola virus in a quarantined village – Sierra Leone, 2014External
        Gleason BL, Foster S, Wilt GE, Miles B, Lewis B, Cauthen K, King M, Bayor F, Conteh S, Sesay T, Kamara SI, Lambert G, Finley P, Beyeler W, Moore T, Gaudioso J, Kilmarx PH, Redd JT.
        Epidemiol Infect. 2017 Aug 22:1-9.

        We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family’s shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4.0% for each additional person per household (P < 0.02) and 2.6% per day (P < 0.07). An increasing number of persons per household, and to a lesser extent, the passage of time after onset of the outbreak were risk factors for household Ebola acquisition, emphasizing the importance of prompt public health interventions that prioritize the most populated households. Using GIS with GEE can reveal complex spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Use of whole-genome sequencing data to analyze 23S rRNA-mediated azithromycin resistanceExternal
        Johnson SR, Grad Y, Abrams AJ, Pettus K, Trees DL.
        Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 Feb;49(2):252-254.

        The whole-genome sequences of 24 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azithromycin (>/=2.0 microg/mL) were analyzed against a modified sequence derived from the whole-genome sequence of N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 to determine, by signal ratio, the number of mutant copies of the 23S rRNA gene and the copy number effect on 50S ribosome-mediated azithromycin resistance. Isolates that were predicted to contain four mutated copies were accurately identified compared with the results of direct sequencing. Fewer than four mutated copies gave less accurate results but were consistent with elevated MICs.

      2. Complete genome sequences of mumps and measles virus isolates from three states in the United StatesExternal
        Magana LC, Espinosa A, Marine RL, Ng TF, Castro CJ, Montmayeur AM, Hacker JK, Scott S, Whyte T, Bankamp B, Oberste MS, Rota PA.
        Genome Announc. 2017 Aug 17;5(33).

        We report here the full coding sequence of nine paramyxovirus genomes, including two full-length mumps virus genomes (genotypes G and H) and seven measles virus genomes (genotypes B3 and D4, D8, and D9), from respiratory samples of patients from California, Virginia, and Alabama obtained between 2010 and 2014.

      3. Draft genome sequences of Escherichia coli O104 strains of bovine and human originExternal
        Shridhar PB, Patel IR, Gangiredla J, Mammel MK, Noll L, Shi X, Bai J, Elkins CA, Strockbine N, Nagaraja TG.
        Genome Announc. 2017 Aug 17;5(33).

        Cattle harbor and shed in their feces several Escherichia coli O104 serotypes. All O104 strains examined were intimin negative and belonged to the B1 phylogroup, and some were Shiga toxigenic. We report here the genome sequences of bovine O104:H7 (n = 5), O104:H23 (n = 2), O104:H8 (n = 1), and O104:H12 (n = 1) isolates and human clinical isolates of O104:H7 (n = 5).

    • Health Economics
      1. Economics of self-measured blood pressure monitoring: A Community Guide Systematic ReviewExternal
        Jacob V, Chattopadhyay SK, Proia KK, Hopkins DP, Reynolds J, Thota AB, Jones CD, Lackland DT, Rask KJ, Pronk NP, Clymer JM, Goetzel RZ.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep;53(3):e105-e113.

        CONTEXT: The health and economic burden of hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is substantial. This systematic review evaluated the economic evidence of self-measured blood pressure (SMBP) monitoring interventions to control hypertension. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The literature search from database inception to March 2015 identified 22 studies for inclusion with three types of interventions: SMBP used alone, SMBP with additional support, and SMBP within team-based care (TBC). Two formulae were used to convert reductions in systolic BP (SBP) to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to produce cost per QALY saved. All analyses were conducted in 2015, with estimates adjusted to 2014 U.S. dollars. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Median costs of intervention were $60 and $174 per person for SMBP alone and SMBP with additional support, respectively, and $732 per person per year for SMBP within TBC. SMBP alone and SMBP with additional support reduced healthcare cost per person per year from outpatient visits and medication (medians $148 and $3, respectively; median follow-up, 12-13 months). SMBP within TBC exhibited an increase in healthcare cost (median, $369 per person per year; median follow-up, 18 months). SMBP alone varied from cost saving to a maximum cost of $144,000 per QALY saved, with two studies reporting an increase in SBP. The two translated median costs per QALY saved were $2,800 and $4,000 for SMBP with additional support and $7,500 and $10,800 for SMBP within TBC. CONCLUSIONS: SMBP monitoring interventions with additional support or within TBC are cost effective. Cost effectiveness of SMBP used alone could not be determined.

      2. Cost-effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in a cohort of Thai children </=60 months of ageExternal
        Kittikraisak W, Suntarattiwong P, Ditsungnoen D, Pallas SE, Abimbola TO, Klungthong C, Fernandez S, Srisarang S, Chotpitayasunondh T, Dawood FS, Olsen SJ, Lindblade KA.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(8):e0183391.

        BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, in children </=60 months of age participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. METHODS: A static decision tree model was constructed to simulate the population of children in the cohort. Proportions of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza were derived from children followed weekly. The societal perspective and one-year analytic horizon were used for each influenza season; the model was repeated for three influenza seasons (2012-2014). Direct and indirect costs associated with influenza illness were collected and summed. Cost of the trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV3) including promotion, administration, and supervision cost was added for children who were vaccinated. Quality-adjusted life years (QALY), derived from literature, were used to quantify health outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as the difference in the expected total costs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups divided by the difference in QALYs for both groups. RESULTS: Compared to no vaccination, IIV3 vaccination among children </=60 months in our cohort was not cost-effective in the introductory year (2012 season; 24,450 USD/QALY gained), highly cost-effective in the 2013 season (554 USD/QALY gained), and cost-effective in the 2014 season (16,200 USD/QALY gained). CONCLUSION: The cost-effectiveness of IIV3 vaccination among children participating in the cohort study varied by influenza season, with vaccine cost and proportion of high-risk children demonstrating the greatest influence in sensitivity analyses. Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population.

      3. BACKGROUND: An estimated 1.2 million American adults engage in sexual and drug use behaviors that place them at significant risk of acquiring HIV infection. Engagement in health care for the provision of daily oral antiretroviral medication as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), when clinically indicated, could substantially reduce the number of new HIV infections in these persons. However, resources to cover the financial cost of PrEP care is an anticipated barrier for many of the populations with high numbers of new HIV infections. METHODS: Using nationally representative data, we estimated the current national met and unmet need for financial assistance with covering the cost of PrEP medication, clinical visits, and laboratory costs among adults with indications for its use, overall and by transmission risk population. RESULTS: This study found that, of the 1.2 million adults estimated to have indications for PrEP use, <1% ( approximately 7,300) are in need of financial assistance for both PrEP medication and clinical care, at an estimated annual cost of $89 million. An additional 7% ( approximately 86,300) are in need of financial assistance only for PrEP clinical care at an estimated annual cost of $119 million. CONCLUSION: This information on PrEP care costs, insurance coverage, and unmet financial need among persons in key HIV transmission risk subpopulations can inform policy makers at all levels as they consider how to address remaining financial barriers to the use of PrEP and accommodate any changes in eligibility for various insurance and financial assistance programs that may occur in coming years.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is the leading cause of hospitalizations and deaths from diarrhea. 33 African countries had introduced rotavirus vaccines by 2016. We estimate reductions in rotavirus hospitalizations and deaths for countries using rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs and the potential of vaccine introduction across the continent. Areas covered: Regional rotavirus burden data were reviewed to calculate hospitalization rates, and applied to the under-5 population to estimate baseline hospitalizations. Rotavirus mortality was based on 2013 WHO estimates. Regional pre-licensure vaccine efficacy and post-introduction vaccine effectiveness studies were used to estimate summary effectiveness, and vaccine coverage was applied to calculate prevented hospitalizations and deaths. Uncertainties around input parameters were propagated using boot-strapping simulations. In 29 African countries that introduced rotavirus vaccination prior to end 2014, 134,714 (IQR 112,321-154,654) hospitalizations and 20,986 (IQR 18,924-22,822) deaths were prevented in 2016. If all African countries had introduced rotavirus vaccines at benchmark immunization coverage, 273,619 (47%) (IQR 227,260-318,102) hospitalizations and 47,741 (39%) (IQR 42,822-52,462) deaths would have been prevented. Expert Commentary: Rotavirus vaccination has substantially reduced hospitalizations and deaths in Africa; further reductions are anticipated as additional countries fully implement vaccination. These estimates bolster wider introduction and continued support of existing rotavirus vaccination programs.

      2. National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13-17 years – United States, 2016External
        Walker TY, Elam-Evans LD, Singleton JA, Yankey D, Markowitz LE, Fredua B, Williams CL, Meyer SA, Stokley S.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Aug 25;66(33):874-882.

        The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents routinely receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (1) at age 11-12 years. ACIP also recommends catch-up vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, and varicella vaccine for adolescents who are not up to date with childhood vaccinations. ACIP recommends a booster dose of MenACWY at age 16 years (1). In December 2016, ACIP updated HPV vaccine recommendations to include a 2-dose schedule for immunocompetent adolescents initiating the vaccination series before their 15th birthday (2). To estimate adolescent vaccination coverage in the United States, CDC analyzed data from the 2016 National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen) for 20,475 adolescents aged 13-17 years. During 2015-2016, coverage increased for >/=1 dose of Tdap (from 86.4% to 88.0%) and for each HPV vaccine dose (from 56.1% to 60.4% for >/=1 dose). Among adolescents aged 17 years, coverage with >/=2 doses of MenACWY increased from 33.3% to 39.1%. In 2016, 43.4% of adolescents (49.5% of females; 37.5% of males) were up to date with the HPV vaccination series, applying the updated HPV vaccine recommendations retrospectively.dagger Coverage with >/=1 HPV vaccine dose varied by metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status and was lowest (50.4%) among adolescents living in non-MSA areas and highest (65.9%) among those living in MSA central cities. section sign Adolescent vaccination coverage continues to improve overall; however, substantial opportunities exist to further increase HPV-associated cancer prevention.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Head injuries (TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashesExternal
        Viano DC, Parenteau CS, Xu L, Faul M.
        Traffic Inj Prev. 2017 Aug 18;18(6):616-622.

        PURPOSE: This is a descriptive study. It determined the annual, national incidence of head injuries (traumatic brain injury, TBI) to adults and children in motor vehicle crashes. It evaluated NASS-CDS for exposure and incidence of various head injuries in towaway crashes. It evaluated 3 health databases for emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to TBI in motor vehicle occupants. METHODS: Four databases were evaluated using 1997-2010 data on adult (15+ years old) and child (0-14 years old) occupants in motor vehicle crashes: (1) NASS-CDS estimated the annual incidence of various head injuries and outcomes in towaway crashes, (2) National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)-estimated ED visits for TBI, (3) National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) estimated hospitalizations for TBI, and (4) National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) estimated TBI deaths. The 4 databases provide annual national totals for TBI related injury and death in motor vehicle crashes based on differing definitions with TBI coded by the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) in NASS-CDS and by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in the health data. RESULTS: Adults: NASS-CDS had 16,980 +/- 2,411 (risk = 0.43 +/- 0.06%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 3,930,543 exposed adults in towaway crashes annually. There were 49,881 +/- 9,729 (risk = 1.27 +/- 0.25%) hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury, without death. There were 6,753 +/- 882 (risk = 0.17 +/- 0.02%) fatalities with a head injury cause. The public health data had 89,331 +/- 6,870 ED visits, 33,598 +/- 1,052 hospitalizations, and 6,682 +/- 22 deaths with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 48% more hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury without death than NHDS occupants hospitalized with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 29% more deaths with AIS 3+ head injury than NVSS occupant TBI deaths but only 1% more deaths with a head injury cause. Children: NASS-CDS had 1,453 +/- 318 (risk = 0.32 +/- 0.07%) with severe head injury (AIS 4+) out of 454,973 exposed children annually. There were 2,581 +/- 683 (risk = 0.57 +/- 0.15%) hospitalized with AIS 2+ head injury, without death. There were 466 +/- 132 (risk = 0.10 +/- 0.03%) fatalities with a head injury cause. The public health data had 19,251 +/- 2,803 ED visits, 3,363 +/- 255 hospitalizations, and 488 +/- 6 deaths with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 24% fewer hospitalized children with AIS 2+ head injury without death than NHDS hospitalization with TBI. NASS-CDS estimated 31% more deaths with AIS 3+ head injury than NVSS child deaths but 5% fewer deaths with a head injury cause. CONCLUSIONS: The annual national incidence of motor vehicle-related head injury (TBI) was estimated using 1997-2010 NASS-CDS from the Department of Transportation and NHAMCS (ED visits), NHDS (hospitalizations), and NVSS (deaths) from the Department of Health and Human Services. The transportation and health databases use different definitions and coding, which complicates direct comparisons. Future work is needed where ICD to AIS translators are used if comparisons of serious head injuries in NASS and health data sets are to be made.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Structural and immunochemical relatedness suggests a conserved pathogenicity motif for secondary cell wall polysaccharides in Bacillus anthracis and infection-associated Bacillus cereusExternal
        Kamal N, Ganguly J, Saile E, Klee SR, Hoffmaster A, Carlson RW, Forsberg LS, Kannenberg EL, Quinn CP.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(8):e0183115.

        Bacillus anthracis (Ba) and human infection-associated Bacillus cereus (Bc) strains Bc G9241 and Bc 03BB87 have secondary cell wall polysaccharides (SCWPs) comprising an aminoglycosyl trisaccharide repeat: –>4)-beta-d-ManpNAc-(1–>4)-beta-d-GlcpNAc-(1–>6)-alpha-d-GlcpNAc-(1–>, substituted at GlcNAc residues with both alpha- and beta-Galp. In Bc G9241 and Bc 03BB87, an additional alpha-Galp is attached to O-3 of ManNAc. Using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods, we compared these structures to SCWPs from Bc biovar anthracis strains isolated from great apes displaying “anthrax-like” symptoms in Cameroon (Bc CA) and Cote d’Ivoire (Bc CI). The SCWPs of Bc CA/CI contained the identical HexNAc trisaccharide backbone and Gal modifications found in Ba, together with the alpha-Gal-(1–>3) substitution observed previously at ManNAc residues only in Bc G9241/03BB87. Interestingly, the great ape derived strains displayed a unique alpha-Gal-(1–>3)-alpha-Gal-(1–>3) disaccharide substitution at some ManNAc residues, a modification not found in any previously examined Ba or Bc strain. Immuno-analysis with specific polyclonal anti-Ba SCWP antiserum demonstrated a reactivity hierarchy: high reactivity with SCWPs from Ba 7702 and Ba Sterne 34F2, and Bc G9241 and Bc 03BB87; intermediate reactivity with SCWPs from Bc CI/CA; and low reactivity with the SCWPs from structurally distinct Ba CDC684 (a unique strain producing an SCWP lacking all Gal substitutions) and non-infection-associated Bc ATCC10987 and Bc 14579 SCWPs. Ba-specific monoclonal antibody EAII-6G6-2-3 demonstrated a 10-20 fold reduced reactivity to Bc G9241 and Bc 03BB87 SCWPs compared to Ba 7702/34F2, and low/undetectable reactivity to SCWPs from Bc CI, Bc CA, Ba CDC684, and non-infection-associated Bc strains. Our data indicate that the HexNAc motif is conserved among infection-associated Ba and Bc isolates (regardless of human or great ape origin), and that the number, positions and structures of Gal substitutions confer unique antigenic properties. The conservation of this structural motif could open a new diagnostic route in detection of pathogenic Bc strains.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. CDC Grand Rounds: Newborn screening for hearing loss and critical congenital heart diseaseExternal
        Grosse SD, Riehle-Colarusso T, Gaffney M, Mason CA, Shapira SK, Sontag MK, Braun KV, Iskander J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Aug 25;66(33):888-890.

        Newborn screening is a public health program that benefits 4 million U.S. infants every year by enabling early detection of serious conditions, thus affording the opportunity for timely intervention to optimize outcomes (1). States and other U.S. jurisdictions decide whether and how to regulate newborn screening practices. Most newborn screening is done through laboratory analyses of dried bloodspot specimens collected from newborns. Point-of-care newborn screening is typically performed before discharge from the birthing facility. The Recommended Uniform Screening Panel includes two point-of-care conditions for newborn screening: hearing loss and critical congenital heart disease (CCHD). The objectives of point-of-care screening for these two conditions are early identification and intervention to improve neurodevelopment, most notably language and related skills among infants with permanent hearing loss, and to prevent death or severe disability resulting from delayed diagnosis of CCHD. Universal screening for hearing loss using otoacoustic emissions or automated auditory brainstem response was endorsed by the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing in 2000 and 2007* and was incorporated in the first Recommended Uniform Screening Panel in 2005. Screening for CCHD using pulse oximetry was recommended by the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children in 2010 based on an evidence reviewdagger and was added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel in 2011. section sign.

      2. Estimates of burden and consequences of infants born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries with INTERGROWTH-21st standard: analysis of CHERG datasetsExternal
        Lee AC, Kozuki N, Cousens S, Stevens GA, Blencowe H, Silveira MF, Sania A, Rosen HE, Schmiegelow C, Adair LS, Baqui AH, Barros FC, Bhutta ZA, Caulfield LE, Christian P, Clarke SE, Fawzi W, Gonzalez R, Humphrey J, Huybregts L, Kariuki S, Kolsteren P, Lusingu J, Manandhar D, Mongkolchati A, Mullany LC, Ndyomugyenyi R, Nien JK, Roberfroid D, Saville N, Terlouw DJ, Tielsch JM, Victora CG, Velaphi SC, Watson-Jones D, Willey BA, Ezzati M, Lawn JE, Black RE, Katz J.
        Bmj. 2017 Aug 17;358:j3677.

        Objectives To estimate small for gestational age birth prevalence and attributable neonatal mortality in low and middle income countries with the INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard.Design Secondary analysis of data from the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG), including 14 birth cohorts with gestational age, birth weight, and neonatal follow-up. Small for gestational age was defined as infants weighing less than the 10th centile birth weight for gestational age and sex with the multiethnic, INTERGROWTH-21st birth weight standard. Prevalence of small for gestational age and neonatal mortality risk ratios were calculated and pooled among these datasets at the regional level. With available national level data, prevalence of small for gestational age and population attributable fractions of neonatal mortality attributable to small for gestational age were estimated.Setting CHERG birth cohorts from 14 population based sites in low and middle income countries.Main outcome measures In low and middle income countries in the year 2012, the number and proportion of infants born small for gestational age; number and proportion of neonatal deaths attributable to small for gestational age; the number and proportion of neonatal deaths that could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of small for gestational age to 10%.Results In 2012, an estimated 23.3 million infants (uncertainty range 17.6 to 31.9; 19.3% of live births) were born small for gestational age in low and middle income countries. Among these, 11.2 million (0.8 to 15.8) were term and not low birth weight (>/=2500 g), 10.7 million (7.6 to 15.0) were term and low birth weight (<2500 g) and 1.5 million (0.9 to 2.6) were preterm. In low and middle income countries, an estimated 606 500 (495 000 to 773 000) neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age, 21.9% of all neonatal deaths. The largest burden was in South Asia, where the prevalence was the highest (34%); about 26% of neonatal deaths were attributable to infants born small for gestational age. Reduction of the prevalence of small for gestational age from 19.3% to 10.0% in these countries could reduce neonatal deaths by 9.2% (254 600 neonatal deaths; 164 800 to 449 700).Conclusions In low and middle income countries, about one in five infants are born small for gestational age, and one in four neonatal deaths are among such infants. Increased efforts are required to improve the quality of care for and survival of these high risk infants in low and middle income countries.

      3. Bladder reconstruction rates differ among centers participating in National Spina Bifida Patient RegistryExternal
        Routh JC, Joseph DB, Liu T, Schechter MS, Thibadeau JK, Wallis MC, Ward EA, Wiener JS.
        J Urol. 2017 Aug 19.

        PURPOSE: We performed an exploratory analysis of data from the National Spina Bifida Patient Registry (NSBPR) to assess variation in the frequency of bladder reconstruction surgeries among NSBPR centers. METHODS: We queried the 2009-2014 NSBPR to identify patients who had ever undergone bladder reconstruction surgeries. We evaluated demographic characteristics, SB type, functional level, mobility, and NSBPR center to determine whether any of these factors were associated with reconstructive surgery rates. Multivariable logistic regression was used to simultaneously adjust for the impact of these factors. RESULTS: We identified 5,528 patients with SB enrolled in the NSBPR. Of these, 1,129 (20.4%) underwent bladder reconstruction (703 augmentation, 382 continent catheterizable channel, 189 bladder outlet procedure). Surgery patients were more likely to be older, female, non-Hispanic white, higher lesion level, myelomeningocele diagnosis, non-ambulators (all p<0.001) and non-privately insured (p=0.018). Bladder reconstruction surgery rates varied among NSBPR centers (range 12.1-37.9%, p<0.001). After correcting for known confounders, NSBPR center, SB type, mobility, gender and age (all p<0.001) were significant predictors of surgical intervention. Race (p=0.19) and insurance status (p=0.11) were not associated with surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: There is significant variation in rates of bladder reconstruction surgery among NSBPR centers. In addition to clinical factors such as mobility status, lesion type, and lesion level, non-clinical factors such as patient age, gender and treating center are also associated with the likelihood of an individual undergoing bladder reconstruction.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Shiftwork and the retinal vasculature diameters among police officersExternal
        Charles LE, Gu JK, Ma CC, Grady LM, Mnatsakanova A, Andrew ME, Fekedulegn D, Violanti JM, Klein R.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2017 Aug 17.

        OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations of central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE), a measure of retinal arteriolar width, and central retinal venular equivalents (CRVE), a measure of retinal venular width, with shiftwork in 199 police officers (72.9% men). METHODS: Shiftwork (day, afternoon, night) was assessed using electronic payroll records. Four digital retinal images per officer were taken. Mean diameters of the retinal vasculature were compared across shifts using analysis of variance (ANOVA)/analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). RESULTS: Among all officers (mean age = 46.6 +/- 6.8 years), shiftwork was not significantly associated with CRAE or CRVE. However, among current and former smokers, night-shift officers had a wider mean (+/-standard error [SE]) CRVE (230.0 +/- 4.5 mum) compared with day shift officers (215.1 +/- 3.5 mum); adjusted P = 0.014. CONCLUSIONS: Night shift schedule in current and former smokers is associated with wider retinal venules. Reasons for this association are not known. Longitudinal studies are warranted.

      2. Building capacity for workplace health promotion: Findings from the Work@Health(R) Train-the-Trainer ProgramExternal
        Lang J, Cluff L, Rineer J, Brown D, Jones-Jack N.
        Health Promot Pract. 2017 Jun 01:1524839917715053.

        Small- and mid-sized employers are less likely to have expertise, capacity, or resources to implement workplace health promotion programs, compared with large employers. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Work@Health(R) employer training program to determine the best way to deliver skill-based training to employers of all sizes. The core curriculum was designed to increase employers’ knowledge of the design, implementation, and evaluation of workplace health strategies. The first arm of the program was direct employer training. In this article, we describe the results of the second arm-the program’s train-the-trainer (T3) component, which was designed to prepare new certified trainers to provide core workplace health training to other employers. Of the 103 participants who began the T3 program, 87 fully completed it and delivered the Work@Health core training to 233 other employers. Key indicators of T3 participants’ knowledge and attitudes significantly improved after training. The curriculum delivered through the T3 model has the potential to increase the health promotion capacity of employers across the nation, as well as organizations that work with employers, such as health departments and business coalitions.

      3. BACKGROUND: Commercial fishing is a global industry that has been frequently classified as high-risk. The use of detailed surveillance data is critical in identifying hazards. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to provide updated statistics for the entire US fishing industry during 2010-2014, generate fleet-specific fatality rates using a revised calculation of full-time equivalent estimates, and examine changes in the patterns of fatalities and in risk over a 15-year period (2000-2014). RESULTS: During 2010-2014, 188 commercial fishing fatalities occurred in the United States. Vessel disasters and falls overboard remain leading contributors to commercial fishing deaths. The Atlantic scallop fleet stands out for achieving substantial declines in the risk of fatalities over the 15-year study period. However, fatality rates ranged from 21 to 147 deaths per 100 000 FTEs, many times higher than the rate for all US workers. CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of fatalities among commercial fishermen in the United States has generally declined since 2000, commercial fishing continues to have one of the highest occupational fatality rates in the United States. The sustainable seafood movement could assist in improving the health and safety of fishing industry workers if worker well-being was integrated into the definition of sustainable seafood.

      4. Resilience mediates the relationship between social support and post-traumatic stress symptoms in police officersExternal
        McCanlies EC, Gu JK, Andrew ME, Burchfiel CM, Violanti JM.
        J Emerg Manag. 2017 Mar/Apr;15(2):107-116.

        OBJECTIVE: Police officers in the New Orleans geographic area faced a number of challenges following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study examined gratitude, resilience, and satisfaction with life as mediators in the association between social support and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 82 male and 31 female police officers. The Gratitude Questionnaire, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were used to measure gratitude, resilience, satisfaction with life, and social support, respectively. PTSD symptoms were measured using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). Ordinary least square regression mediation analysis was used to estimate direct and indirect effects among gratitude, resilience, satisfaction with life, social support, and PTSD symptoms. All models were adjusted for age, alcohol, race, and previous military experience. RESULTS: Mean PCL-C symptoms were 29.1 (standard deviation [SD] = 14.4) for females and 27.9 (SD = 12.1) for males. There was no direct relationship between social support and PTSD symptoms (c9 = -0.041; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.199, 0.117) independent of the indirect effect through resilience (effect = -0.038; 95%CI = -0.099, -0.002). Neither gratitude (effect = -0.066; 95% CI = -0.203, 0.090) nor satisfaction with life (effect = -0.036, 95% CI = -0.131, 0.046) contribute to the indirect effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that resilience mediates the relationship between social support and symp-toms of PTSD. Targeting social support and resilience in officers may facilitate reduction of PTSD symptoms.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. OBJECTIVE: The National Institute for Occupation Safety and Health-administered Coal Workers’ Health Surveillance Program (CWHSP) provides radiographic pneumoconiosis screening for US coal miners. Radiographs are classified by readers according to International Labour Office criteria. In addition to pneumoconiotic parenchymal and pleural lung abnormalities, readers document radiographic features of importance (other symbols). Other symbols are not meant to imply a diagnosis or interpretation but are relevant as they provide information beyond a pneumoconiosis classification for features related to dust exposure and other aetiologies. Our objective was to summarise other symbol data from 48 years of CWHSP participants. METHODS: Chest radiograph classifications obtained from CWHSP participants between July 1968 and July 2016 were analysed. Any ‘other symbol’ indication from any of the readings were counted. Frequencies were tabulated by individual reader and those identified by any reader. RESULTS: Of the 469 922 radiographs included in this study, nearly 15% had at least one reader identify a radiographic feature of importance. The most commonly identified other symbol was cancer (excluding mesothelioma) (6.83%), followed by emphysema (1.68%). Some features were rarely identified over the 48 years of data collection such as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis (n=46), pneumothorax (n=32), mesothelioma (n=12) and rounded atelectasis (n=4). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to date describing radiographic features of importance as part of routine chest radiographic surveillance. While these symbols are not diagnostic they can be used to describe features associated with dust exposure. One of the most commonly identified radiographic features in our population is emphysema which is associated with respirable dust exposure. These results can be compared with other dust exposed populations.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. A large scale Plasmodium vivax- Saimiri boliviensis trophozoite-schizont transition proteomeExternal
        Anderson DC, Lapp SA, Barnwell JW, Galinski MR.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(8):e0182561.

        Plasmodium vivax is a complex protozoan parasite with over 6,500 genes and stage-specific differential expression. Much of the unique biology of this pathogen remains unknown, including how it modifies and restructures the host reticulocyte. Using a recently published P. vivax reference genome, we report the proteome from two biological replicates of infected Saimiri boliviensis host reticulocytes undergoing transition from the late trophozoite to early schizont stages. Using five database search engines, we identified a total of 2000 P. vivax and 3487 S. boliviensis proteins, making this the most comprehensive P. vivax proteome to date. PlasmoDB GO-term enrichment analysis of proteins identified at least twice by a search engine highlighted core metabolic processes and molecular functions such as glycolysis, translation and protein folding, cell components such as ribosomes, proteasomes and the Golgi apparatus, and a number of vesicle and trafficking related clusters. Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) v6.8 enriched functional annotation clusters of S. boliviensis proteins highlighted vesicle and trafficking-related clusters, elements of the cytoskeleton, oxidative processes and response to oxidative stress, macromolecular complexes such as the proteasome and ribosome, metabolism, translation, and cell death. Host and parasite proteins potentially involved in cell adhesion were also identified. Over 25% of the P. vivax proteins have no functional annotation; this group includes 45 VIR members of the large PIR family. A number of host and pathogen proteins contained highly oxidized or nitrated residues, extending prior trophozoite-enriched stage observations from S. boliviensis infections, and supporting the possibility of oxidative stress in relation to the disease. This proteome significantly expands the size and complexity of the known P. vivax and Saimiri host iRBC proteomes, and provides in-depth data that will be valuable for ongoing research on this parasite’s biology and pathogenesis.

      2. The impact of introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests on fever case management: A synthesis of ten studies from the ACT ConsortiumExternal
        Bruxvoort KJ, Leurent B, Chandler CI, Ansah EK, Baiden F, Bjorkman A, Burchett HE, Clarke SE, Cundill B, DiLiberto DD, Elfving K, Goodman C, Hansen KS, Kachur SP, Lal S, Lalloo DG, Leslie T, Magnussen P, Mangham-Jefferies L, Martensson A, Mayan I, Mbonye AK, Msellem MI, Onwujekwe OE, Owusu-Agyei S, Rowland MW, Shakely D, Staedke SG, Vestergaard LS, Webster J, Whitty CJ, Wiseman VL, Yeung S, Schellenberg D, Hopkins H.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Aug 07.

        Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are central to implementing this policy, intended to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to patients with confirmed malaria and to improve management of patients with nonmalarial fevers. The ACT Consortium conducted ten linked studies, eight in sub-Saharan Africa and two in Afghanistan, to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type. This synthesis includes 562,368 outpatient encounters (study size range 2,400-432,513). mRDTs were associated with significantly lower ACT prescription (range 8-69% versus 20-100%). Prescribing did not always adhere to malaria test results; in several settings, ACTs were prescribed to more than 30% of test-negative patients or to fewer than 80% of test-positive patients. Either an antimalarial or an antibiotic was prescribed for more than 75% of patients across most settings; lower antimalarial prescription for malaria test-negative patients was partly offset by higher antibiotic prescription. Symptomatic management with antipyretics alone was prescribed for fewer than 25% of patients across all scenarios. In community health worker and private retailer settings, mRDTs increased referral of patients to other providers. This synthesis provides an overview of shifts in case management that may be expected with mRDT introduction and highlights areas of focus to improve design and implementation of future case management programs.

      3. Completeness of malaria indicator data reporting via the District Health Information Software 2 in Kenya, 2011-2015External
        Githinji S, Oyando R, Malinga J, Ejersa W, Soti D, Rono J, Snow RW, Buff AM, Noor AM.
        Malar J. 2017 Aug 17;16(1):344.

        BACKGROUND: Health facility-based data reported through routine health information systems form the primary data source for programmatic monitoring and evaluation in most developing countries. The adoption of District Health Information Software (DHIS2) has contributed to improved availability of routine health facility-based data in many low-income countries. An assessment of malaria indicators data reported by health facilities in Kenya during the first 5 years of implementation of DHIS2, from January 2011 to December 2015, was conducted. METHODS: Data on 19 malaria indicators reported monthly by health facilities were extracted from the online Kenya DHIS2 database. Completeness of reporting was analysed for each of the 19 malaria indicators and expressed as the percentage of data values actually reported over the expected number; all health facilities were expected to report data for each indicator for all 12 months in a year. RESULTS: Malaria indicators data were analysed for 6235 public and 3143 private health facilities. Between 2011 and 2015, completeness of reporting in the public sector increased significantly for confirmed malaria cases across all age categories (26.5-41.9%, p < 0.0001, in children aged <5 years; 30.6-51.4%, p < 0.0001, in persons aged >/=5 years). Completeness of reporting of new antenatal care (ANC) clients increased from 53.7 to 70.5%, p < 0.0001). Completeness of reporting of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) decreased from 64.8 to 53.7%, p < 0.0001 for dose 1 and from 64.6 to 53.4%, p < 0.0001 for dose 2. Data on malaria tests performed and test results were not available in DHIS2 from 2011 to 2014. In 2015, sparse data on microscopy (11.5% for children aged <5 years; 11.8% for persons aged >/=5 years) and malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) (8.1% for all ages) were reported. In the private sector, completeness of reporting increased significantly for confirmed malaria cases across all age categories (16.7-23.1%, p < 0.0001, in children aged <5 years; 19.4-28.6%, p < 0.0001, in persons aged >/=5 years). Completeness of reporting also improved for new ANC clients (16.2-23.6%, p < 0.0001), and for IPTp doses 1 and 2 (16.6-20.2%, p < 0.0001 and 15.5-20.5%, p < 0.0001, respectively). In 2015, less than 3% of data values for malaria tests performed were reported in DHIS2 from the private sector. CONCLUSIONS: There have been sustained improvements in the completeness of data reported for most key malaria indicators since the adoption of DHIS2 in Kenya in 2011. However, major data gaps were identified for the malaria-test indicator and overall low reporting across all indicators from private health facilities. A package of proven DHIS2 implementation interventions and performance-based incentives should be considered to improve private-sector data reporting.

      4. Assessment of U.S. pediatrician knowledge of toxocariasisExternal
        Woodhall DM, Garcia AP, Shapiro CA, Wray SL, Shane AL, Mani CS, Stimpert KK, Fox LM, Montgomery SP.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jul 31.

        Toxocariasis, one of a group of parasitic diseases known as neglected parasitic infections, is a disease caused by the larvae of two species of Toxocara roundworms, Toxocara canis, from dogs, and less commonly Toxocara cati, from cats. Although most infected individuals are asymptomatic, clinical manifestations may include fever, fatigue, coughing, wheezing, or abdominal pain (visceral toxocariasis) or vision loss, retina damage, or eye inflammation (ocular toxocariasis). To assess U.S. pediatrician knowledge of toxocariasis, we conducted an electronic survey of American Academy of Pediatrics members. Of the 2,684 respondents, 1,120 (47%) pediatricians correctly selected toxocariasis as the diagnosis in an unknown case presentation with findings typical for toxocariasis; overall 1,695 (85%) stated they were not confident that their knowledge of toxocariasis was current. This knowledge gap suggests a need for improved toxocariasis awareness and education for U.S. pediatricians, especially those caring for children at risk for infection.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Evaluating the effectiveness of physical exercise interventions in persons living with HIV: Overview of systematic reviewsExternal
        Kamitani E, Sipe TA, Higa DH, Mullins MM, Soares J.
        AIDS Educ Prev. 2017 Aug;29(4):347-363.

        Physical exercise (PE) has not been well studied in persons living with HIV (PLHIV). We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to assess the effectiveness of PE and to determine the most appropriate PE regimen for PLHIV. We used the CDC’s Prevention Research Synthesis Project’s database and manual searches to identify systematic reviews published between 1996 and 2013. We qualitatively synthesized the findings from five reviews to assess the effectiveness of PE and conducted meta-analyses on CD4 counts to identify the best PE regimen. PE is associated with reduced adiposity and depression, but was not associated with a decrease in HIV viral load. CD4 counts were improved by interventions with interval aerobic or 41-50 minutes of exercise three times per week compared with other modes and duration of exercise. PE appears to benefit PLHIV, but more research is needed to help develop appropriate PE strategies specifically for PLHIV.

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      1. Local boards of health characteristics influencing support for health department accreditationExternal
        Shah GH, Sotnikov S, Leep CJ, Ye J, Corso L.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2017 Aug 21.

        BACKGROUND: Local boards of health (LBoHs) serve as the governance body for 71% of local health departments (LHDs). PURPOSE: To assess the impact of LBoH governance functions and other characteristics on the level of LBoH support of LHD accreditation. METHODS: Data from 394 LHDs that participated in the 2015 Local Boards of Health Survey were used for computing summative scores for LBoHs for domains of taxonomy and performing logistic regression analyses in 2016. RESULTS: Increased odds of an LBoH directing, encouraging, or supporting LHD accreditation activities were significantly associated with (a) a higher overall combined score measuring performance of governance functions and presence of other LBoH characteristics (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.05; P < .001); (b) a higher combined score for the Governance Functions subscale (AOR = 1.06; P < .01); (c) the “continuous improvement” governance function (AOR = 1.15; P < .001); and (d) characteristics and strengths such as board composition (eg, LBoH size, type of training, elected vs nonelected members), community engagement and input, and the absence of an elected official on the board (AOR = 1.14; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: LBoHs are evenly split by thirds in their attention to Public Health Accreditation Board accreditation among the following categories: (a) encouraged or supported, (b) discussed but made no recommendations, and (c) did not discuss. This split might indicate that they are depending on the professional leadership of the LHD to make the decision or that there is a lack of awareness. The study findings have policy implications for both LBoHs and initiatives aimed at strengthening efforts to promote LHD accreditation.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. INTRODUCTION: Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. METHODS: In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). RESULTS: Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (p<0.05 or 95% CI did not include 1.0) greater substance use among students who identified as lesbian/gay or bisexual than students who identified as heterosexual. APRs for injection drug use decreased substantially among lesbian/gay (PR=12.02 vs APR=2.14) and bisexual (PR=2.62 vs APR=1.18) students; the APR for bisexual students became nonsignificant. In addition, APRs among both lesbian/gay and bisexual students decreased substantially and were no longer statistically significant for cocaine, methamphetamine, and heroin use. CONCLUSIONS: School-based substance use prevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Sleeper cells: The stringent response and persistence in the Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi enzootic cycleExternal
        Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, Bugrysheva J, Newman SA.
        Environ Microbiol. 2017 Aug 24.

        Infections with tick-transmitted Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, represent an increasingly large public health problem in North America and Europe. The ability of these spirochetes to maintain themselves for extended periods of time in their tick vectors and vertebrate reservoirs is crucial for continuance of the enzootic cycle as well as for the increasing exposure of humans to them. The stringent response mediated by the alarmone (p)ppGpp has been determined to be a master regulator in B. burgdorferi. It modulates the expression of identified and unidentified open reading frames needed to deal with and overcome the many nutritional stresses and other challenges faced by the spirochete in ticks and animal reservoirs. The metabolic and morphologic changes resulting from activation of the stringent response in B. burgdorferi may also be involved in the recently described non-genetic phenotypic phenomenon of tolerance to otherwise lethal doses of antimicrobials and to other antimicrobial activities. It may thus constitute a linchpin in multiple aspects of infections with Lyme disease borrelia, providing a link between the micro-ecological challenges of its enzootic life-cycle and long-term residence in the tissues of its animal reservoirs, with the evolutionary side-effect of potential persistence in incidental human hosts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      2. Pet-associated Campylobacteriosis: A persisting public health concernExternal
        Campagnolo ER, Philipp LM, Long JM, Hanshaw NL.
        Zoonoses Public Health. 2017 Aug 21.

        Campylobacter is regarded as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. We report on a case of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania among members of a household living with a laboratory-confirmed but non-speciated Campylobacter-infected puppy. We describe an outbreak of likely dog-associated campylobacteriosis, the risk factors, potential routes of exposure and the clinical features in the exposed family members, which began shortly after exposure to the recently purchased dog. We also provide public health recommendations to prevent Campylobacter infections in veterinary care providers, pet owners and those planning to adopt pets in the future. Finally, this report underscores the importance of the One Health approach when public health responders, human and animal healthcare providers and clinical diagnostic laboratories are tasked with developing effective strategies when investigating, detecting and responding to zoonoses (diseases shared between animals and humans).

      3. Limited transmission potential of Takeda’s tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate by Aedes albopictusExternal
        Dietrich EA, Ong YT, Stovall JL, Dean H, Huang CY.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Aug 14.

        Recombinant live-attenuated chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine viruses, TDV-1, -2, -3, and -4, contain the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue virus serotypes 1-4 in the replicative background of the attenuated dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) PDK-53 vaccine strain. Previous results have shown that these recombinant vaccine viruses demonstrate limited infection and dissemination in Aedes aegypti and are unlikely to be transmitted by the primary mosquito vector of DENVs. In this report, we expand this analysis by assessing vector competence of all four serotypes of the TDV virus in Aedes albopictus, the secondary mosquito vector of DENVs. Our results indicate that these vaccine viruses demonstrate incompetence or defective infection and dissemination in these mosquitoes and will likely not be transmissible.

      4. Differential neurovirulence of African and Asian genotype Zika virus isolates in outbred immunocompetent miceExternal
        Duggal NK, Ritter JM, McDonald EM, Romo H, Guirakhoo F, Davis BS, Chang GJ, Brault AC.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Aug 14.

        Although first isolated almost 70 years ago, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flavivirus, Flaviviridae) has only recently been associated with significant outbreaks of disease in humans. Several severe ZIKV disease manifestations have also been recently documented, including fetal malformations, such as microcephaly, and Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Although principally transmitted by mosquitoes, sexual transmission of ZIKV has been documented. Recent publications of several interferon receptor knockout mouse models have demonstrated ZIKV-induced disease. Herein, outbred immunocompetent CD-1/ICR adult mice were assessed for susceptibility to disease by intracranial (i.c.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation with the Ugandan prototype strain (MR766; African genotype), a low-passage Senegalese strain (DakAr41524; African genotype) and a recent ZIKV strain isolated from a traveler infected in Puerto Rico (PRVABC59; Asian genotype). Morbidity was not observed in mice inoculated by the i.p. route with either MR766 or PRVABC59 for doses up to 6 log10 PFU. In contrast, CD-1/ICR mice inoculated i.c. with the MR766 ZIKV strain exhibited an 80-100% mortality rate that was age independent. The DakAr41524 strain delivered by the i.c route caused 30% mortality, and the Puerto Rican ZIKV strain failed to elicit mortality but did induce a serum neutralizing immune response in 60% of mice. These data provide a potential animal model for assessing neurovirulence determinants of different ZIKV strains as well as a potential immunocompetent challenge model for assessing protective efficacy of vaccine candidates.

      5. Characterization of monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.)External
        Falendysz EA, Lopera JG, Doty JB, Nakazawa Y, Crill C, Lorenzsonn F, Kalemba LN, Ronderos MD, Mejia A, Malekani JM, Karem K, Carroll DS, Osorio JE, Rocke TE.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005809.

        Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp.) are considered potential reservoirs of MPXV, as serosurveillance data in Central Africa has confirmed the circulation of the virus in these rodent species [1,2]. In order to understand the tissue tropism and clinical signs associated with infection with MPXV in these species, wild-caught rope squirrels were experimentally infected via intranasal and intradermal exposure with a recombinant MPXV strain from Central Africa engineered to express the luciferase gene. After infection, we monitored viral replication and shedding via in vivo bioluminescent imaging, viral culture and real time PCR. MPXV infection in African rope squirrels caused mortality and moderate to severe morbidity, with clinical signs including pox lesions in the skin, eyes, mouth and nose, dyspnea, and profuse nasal discharge. Both intranasal and intradermal exposures induced high levels of viremia, fast systemic spread, and long periods of viral shedding. Shedding and luminescence peaked at day 6 post infection and was still detectable after 15 days. Interestingly, one sentinel animal, housed in the same room but in a separate cage, also developed severe MPX disease and was euthanized. This study indicates that MPXV causes significant pathology in African rope squirrels and infected rope squirrels shed large quantities of virus, supporting their role as a potential source of MPXV transmission to humans and other animals in endemic MPX regions.

      6. Notes from the Field: Fatal pneumonic tularemia associated with dog exposure – Arizona, June 2016External
        Yaglom H, Rodriguez E, Gaither M, Schumacher M, Kwit N, Nelson C, Terriquez J, Vinocur J, Birdsell D, Wagner DM, Petersen J, Kugeler K.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Aug 25;66(33):891.

        [No abstract]

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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