Issue 20, May 23, 2017

CDC Science Clips: Volume 9, Issue 20, May 23, 2017

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions.

  1. Top Ten Articles of the Week
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions RSS Word feed
      1. Effect of lifestyle interventions on cardiovascular risk factors among adults without impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysisExternal
        Zhang X, Devlin HM, Smith B, Imperatore G, Thomas W, Lobelo F, Ali MK, Norris K, Gruss S, Bardenheier B, Cho P, Garcia de Quevedo I, Mudaliar U, Jones CD, Durthaler JM, Saaddine J, Geiss LS, Gregg EW.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(5):e0176436.

        Structured lifestyle interventions can reduce diabetes incidence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but it is unclear whether they should be implemented among persons without IGT. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on CVD risk among adults without IGT or diabetes. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and PsychInfo databases, from inception to May 4, 2016. We selected randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, involving physical activity (PA), dietary (D), or combined strategies (PA+D) with follow-up duration >/=12 months. We excluded all studies that included individuals with IGT, confirmed by 2-hours oral glucose tolerance test (75g), but included all other studies recruiting populations with different glycemic levels. We stratified studies by baseline glycemic levels: (1) low-range group with mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <5.5mmol/L or glycated hemoglobin (A1C) <5.5%, and (2) high-range group with FPG >/=5.5mmol/L or A1C >/=5.5%, and synthesized data using random-effects models. Primary outcomes in this review included systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Totally 79 studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to usual care (UC), lifestyle interventions achieved significant improvements in SBP (-2.16mmHg[95%CI, -2.93, -1.39]), DBP (-1.83mmHg[-2.34, -1.31]), TC (-0.10mmol/L[-0.15, -0.05]), LDL-C (-0.09mmol/L[-0.13, -0.04]), HDL-C (0.03mmol/L[0.01, 0.04]), and TG (-0.08mmol/L[-0.14, -0.03]). Similar effects were observed among both low-and high-range study groups except for TC and TG. Similar effects also appeared in SBP and DBP categories regardless of follow-up duration. PA+D interventions had larger improvement effects on CVD risk factors than PA alone interventions. In adults without IGT or diabetes, lifestyle interventions resulted in significant improvements in SBP, DBP, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG, and might further reduce CVD risk.

    • Communicable Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Hepatitis C virus infection among reproductive-aged women and children in the United States, 2006 to 2014External
        Ly KN, Jiles RB, Teshale EH, Foster MA, Pesano RL, Holmberg SD.
        Ann Intern Med. 2017 May 09.

        Background: In the United States, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has increased among young persons who inject drugs, but the extent of this epidemic among reproductive-aged women and their children is unknown. Objective: To estimate numbers and describe characteristics of reproductive-aged women with HCV infection and of their offspring. Design: Analysis of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) from 2006 to 2014 and the Quest Diagnostics Health Trends national database from 2011 to 2014. Setting: United States. Participants: 171 801 women (aged 15 to 44 years) and 1859 children (aged 2 and 13 years) with HCV infection reported to the NNDSS; 2.1 million reproductive-aged women and 56 684 children who had HCV testing by Quest Diagnostics. Measurements: NNDSS HCV case reports and Quest laboratory data regarding unique reproductive-aged women and children who were tested for HCV infection. Results: The number of reproductive-aged women with acute and past or present HCV infection in the NNDSS doubled, from 15 550 in 2006 to 31 039 in 2014. Of 581 255 pregnant women tested by Quest from 2011 to 2014, 4232 (0.73% [95% CI, 0.71% to 0.75%]) had HCV infection. Of children tested by Quest, 0.76% (CI, 0.69% to 0.83%) had HCV infection, but the percentage was 3.2-fold higher among children aged 2 to 3 years (1.62% [CI, 1.34% to 1.96%]) than those aged 12 to 13 years (0.50% [CI, 0.41% to 0.62%]). Applying the Quest HCV infection rate to annual live births from 2011 to 2014 resulted in an estimated average of 29 000 women (CI, 27 400 to 30 900 women) with HCV infection, who gave birth to 1700 infants (CI, 1200 to 2200 infants) with the infection each year. Limitations: Only a fraction of HCV infections is detected and reported to the NNDSS. Quest data are potentially biased, because women who are asymptomatic, do not access health care, or have unreported risks may be less likely to be tested for HCV infection. Conclusion: These data suggest a recent increase in HCV infection among reproductive-aged women and may inform deliberations regarding a role for routine HCV screening during pregnancy. Primary Funding Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      2. Background: Current guidelines recommend that all sexually active human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons be tested at least annually for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea. We examined temporal trends in syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea testing among sexually active HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States during 2009-2013. Methods: Using medical record data from the Medical Monitoring Project, a population-based HIV surveillance system, we assessed the proportion of adults receiving HIV medical care who were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea in the past 12 months by year and stratified by sex and sexual behavior, age, and race/ethnicity. Results: During 2009-2013, the proportion of sexually active HIV-infected adults receiving medical care who were tested in the past year for all 3 examined sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increased from 20% to 36% (PTREND < .01). Overall testing for syphilis increased from 55% to 65% (PTREND < .01), and significant increases were noted for the following subgroups: men who have sex with men (58% to 69%), non-Hispanic whites (48% to 64%), and all age groups with the exception of persons aged 18-29 year. Overall testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea increased from 22% to 42% (PTREND < .01), and significant increases were noted for most subgroups. Conclusions: STD testing significantly increased among sexually active HIV-infected adults receiving medical care; however, the majority of persons were not tested for all 3 STDs in 2013. While increased testing indicates progress, testing remained far below recommended guidelines. Our findings suggest enhanced efforts may be warranted to screen all sexually active HIV-infected adults for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea.

    • Immunity and Immunization RSS Word feed
      1. Risk of non-targeted infectious disease hospitalizations among U.S. children following inactivated and live vaccines, 2005-2014External
        Bardenheier BH, McNeil MM, Wodi AP, McNicholl J, DeStefano F.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2017 May 06.

        Background: Recent studies have shown that some vaccines have beneficial effects that could not be explained solely by the prevention of their respective targeted disease(s). Methods: We used the MarketScan(R) United States (US) Commercial Claims Databases from 2005-2014 to assess the risk of hospital admission for non-targeted infectious diseases in children from 16 through 24 months according to the last vaccine type (live and/or inactivated). We included children continuously enrolled within a month of birth through 15 months who received at least three doses of Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis vaccine by end of 15 months of age. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs), stratifying by birthdate to control for age, year and seasonality, and adjusting for sex, chronic diseases, prior hospitalizations, number of outpatient visits, region of residence, urban/rural area of domicile, prematurity, low birth weight, and mother’s age. Results: 311,663 children were included. In adjusted analyses, risk of hospitalization for non-targeted infections from ages 16 through 24 months was reduced for those who received live vaccine alone compared with inactivated alone or concurrent live and inactivated vaccines (HR 0.50, 95% CI 0.43, 0.57 and HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67, 0.91, respectively), and for those who received live and inactivated vaccines concurrently compared with inactivated only (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.58, 0.70). Conclusions: We found lower risk of non-targeted infectious disease hospitalizations from 16 through 24 months among US children whose last vaccine received was live compared with inactivated vaccine, as well as concurrent receipt compared with inactivated vaccine.

    • Injury and Violence RSS Word feed
      1. Adverse childhood experiences and suicide risk: Toward comprehensive preventionExternal
        Ports KA, Merrick MT, Stone DM, Wilkins NJ, Reed J, Ebin J, Ford DC.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 May 05.

        [No abstract]

    • Public Health Leadership and Management RSS Word feed
      1. [No abstract]

    • Substance Use and Abuse RSS Word feed
      1. Multiple naloxone administrations among emergency medical service providers is increasingExternal
        Faul M, Lurie P, Kinsman JM, Dailey MW, Crabaugh C, Sasser SM.
        Prehosp Emerg Care. 2017 May 08:1-8.

        BACKGROUND: Opioid overdoses are at epidemic levels in the United States. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) providers may administer naloxone to restore patient breathing and prevent respiratory arrest. There was a need for contemporary data to examine the number of naloxone administrations in an EMS encounter. METHODS: Using data from the National Emergency Medical Services Information System, we examined data from 2012-5 to determine trends in patients receiving multiple naloxone administrations (MNAs). Logistic regression including demographic, clinical, and operational information was used to examine factors associated with MNA. RESULTS: Among all events where naloxone was administered only 16.7% of the 911 calls specifically identified the medical emergency as a drug ingestion or poisoning event. The percentage of patients receiving MNA increased from 14.5% in 2012 to 18.2% in 2015, which represents a 26% increase in MNA in 4 years. Patients aged 20-29 had the highest percentage of MNA (21.1%). Patients in the Northeast and the Midwest had the highest relative MNA (Chi Squared = 539.5, p < 0.01 and Chi Squared = 351.2, p < 0.01, respectively). The logistic regression model showed that the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for MNA were greatest among people who live in the Northeast (aOR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.13-1.22) and for men (aOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.10-1.16), but lower for suburban and rural areas (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.72-0.80 and aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.80-0.89) and lowest for wilderness areas (aOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.68-0.84). Higher adjusted odds of MNA occurred when an advanced life support (ALS 2) level of service was provided compared to basic life support (BLS) ambulances (aOR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.45-3.16) and when the dispatch complaint indicated there was a drug poisoning event (aOR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.09-1.16). Reported layperson naloxone administration prior to EMS arrival was rare (1%). CONCLUSION: This study shows that frequency of MNA is growing over time and is regionally dependent. MNA may be a barometer of the potency of the opioid involved in the overdose. The increase in MNA provides support for a dosage review. Better identification of opioid related events in the dispatch system could lead to a better match of services with patient needs.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Use of blood donor screening data to estimate Zika virus incidence, Puerto Rico, April-August 2016External
        Chevalier MS, Biggerstaff BJ, Basavaraju SV, Banez Ocfemia MC, Alsina JO, Climent-Peris C, Moseley RR, Chung KW, Rivera-Garcia B, Bello-Pagan M, Pate LL, Galel SA, Williamson P, Kuehnert MJ.
        Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2017 ;23(5):790-795.

        Puerto Rico has been heavily impacted by Zika virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus that emerged in the Americas during 2015. Although most persons with Zika virus show no symptoms, the virus can cause neurologic and other complications, including fetal microcephaly. Local Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico has been reported since December 2015. To prevent transfusion-associated transmission, local blood collection ceased in March 2016 but resumed in April 2016 after Zika virus screening of blood donations became available. Using data from screening of blood donations collected by the 2 largest blood centers in Puerto Rico during April 3-August 12, 2016, and assuming a 9.9-day duration of viremia, we estimated that 469,321 persons in Puerto Rico were infected during this period, for an estimated cumulative incidence of 12.9%. Results from blood donation screening during arboviral outbreaks can supplement routine clinical and surveillance data for improved targeting of prevention efforts.,

      2. Estimated incubation period for Zika virus diseaseExternal
        Krow-Lucal ER, Biggerstaff BJ, Staples JE.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 May;23(5):841-845.

        Information about the Zika virus disease incubation period can help identify risk periods and local virus transmission. In 2015-2016, data from 197 symptomatic travelers with recent Zika virus infection indicated an estimated incubation period of 3-14 days. For symptomatic persons with symptoms >2 weeks after travel, transmission might be not travel associated.

    • Parasitic Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Long term health outcomes among returned Peace Corps volunteers after malaria prophylaxis, 1995-2014External
        Tan KR, Henderson SJ, Williamson J, Ferguson RW, Wilkinson TM, Jung P, Arguin PM.
        Travel Med Infect Dis. 2017 May 06.

        BACKGROUND: A primary reason for non-adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis is fear of latent side effects. We examined latent effects of malaria chemoprophylaxis among Returned Peace Corps Volunteers (RPCVs). METHODS: During July 18-September 16, 2016, RPCVs who served during 1995-2014 with an e-mail address in Peace Corps’ RPCV database were invited to take an internet-based survey on malaria prophylaxis and medical diagnoses. “Good adherence” meant taking prophylaxis “as prescribed” or “most of the time.” Prevalence of diseases diagnosed after Peace Corps service was compared between users and nonusers of each antimalarial using log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Of 8931 participants (11% response rate), 5055 (57%) took chemoprophylaxis. Initial chemoprophylaxis was mefloquine 59%, chloroquine 13%, doxycycline 16%, atovaquone-proguanil 4%, and “other” 8%. Sixty percent reported good adherence. Mefloquine users had the best adherence (67% good adherence). Prevalences of most diseases were similar between exposed and unexposed groups. Certain psychiatric diagnoses were slightly more likely among mefloquine users (PR 1.14, 95% CI [1.04-1.25], P = 0.0048). When excluding those with prior psychiatric illness, there were no differences in psychiatric diagnosis rates. CONCLUSION: Malaria chemoprophylaxis use by Peace Corps Volunteers is safe. Avoiding mefloquine use in those with prior psychiatric illness can reduce psychiatric side effects.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions RSS Word feed
      1. CDC Grand Rounds: Public health strategies to prevent and treat strokesExternal
        George MG, Fischer L, Koroshetz W, Bushnell C, Frankel M, Foltz J, Thorpe PG.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 12;66(18):479-481.

        Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and a leading cause of serious long-term disability. In the United States, nearly 800,000 strokes occur each year; thus stroke is the fifth leading cause of death overall and the fourth leading cause of death among women. Major advances in stroke prevention through treatment of known risk factors has led to stroke being considered largely preventable. For example, in the United States, stroke mortality rates have declined 70% over the past 50 years, in large part because of important reductions in hypertension, tobacco smoking, and more recently, increased use of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. Although the reduction in stroke mortality is recognized as one of the 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century, gains can still be made. Approximately 80% of strokes could be prevented by screening for and addressing known risks with measures such as improving hypertension control, smoking cessation, diabetes prevention, cholesterol management, increasing use of anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation, and eliminating excessive alcohol consumption.

      2. Prevalence and causes of work disability among working-age U.S. adults, 2011-2013, NHISExternal
        Theis KA, Roblin D, Helmick CG, Luo R.
        Disabil Health J. 2017 Apr 25.

        BACKGROUND: Chronic conditions are among the major causes of work disability (WD), which is associated with lower employment, less economic activity, and greater dependence on social programs, while limiting access to the benefits of employment participation. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We estimated the overall prevalence of WD among working-age (18-64 years) U.S. adults and the most common causes of WD overall and by sex. Next, we estimated the prevalence and most common causes of WD among adults with 12 common chronic conditions by sex and age. We hypothesized that musculoskeletal conditions would be among the most common causes of WD overall and for individuals with other diagnosed chronic conditions. METHODS: Data were obtained from years 2011, 2012, and 2013 of the National Health Interview Survey. WD was defined by a “yes” response to one or both of: “Does a physical, mental, or emotional problem NOW keep you from working at a job or business?” and “Are you limited in the kind OR amount of work you can do because of a physical, mental or emotional problem?” RESULTS: Overall, 20.1 million adults (10.4% (95% CI = 10.1-10.8) of the working-age population) reported WD. The top three most commonly reported causes of WD were back/neck problems 30.3% (95% CI = 29.1-31.5), depression/anxiety/emotional problems 21.0% (19.9-22.0), and arthritis/rheumatism 18.6 (17.6-19.6). Musculoskeletal conditions were among the three most common causes of WD overall and by age- and sex-specific respondents across diagnosed chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Quantifying the prevalence and causes of work disability by age and sex can help prioritize interventions.

      3. INTRODUCTION: Leading professional organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for average-risk women aged 21-65 years. For average-risk women aged >65 years, routine screening may be discontinued if “adequate” screening with negative results is documented. Screening is recommended after age 65 years for women who do not meet adequate prior screening criteria or are at special risk. METHODS: Authors examined the most recent cervical cancer incidence data from two federal cancer surveillance programs for all women by age and race, corrected for hysterectomy status. The 2013 and 2015 National Health Interview Surveys were analyzed in 2016 to examine the proportion of women aged 41-70 years without a hysterectomy who reported that they never had a Pap test or that their most recent Pap test was >5 years ago (not recently screened). RESULTS: The incidence rate for cervical cancer among older women, corrected for hysterectomy status, did not decline until age >/=85 years. The proportion not recently screened increased with age, from 12.1% for women aged 41-45 years to 18.4% for women aged 61-65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Even among women within the recommended age range for routine screening, many are not up to date, and a substantial number of women approach the “stopping” age for cervical cancer screening without an adequate prior screening history. Efforts are needed to reach women who have not been adequately screened, including women aged >65 years, to prevent invasive cervical cancer cases and deaths among older women.

    • Communicable Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Seroprevalence of histoplasmosis in Somali, Burmese, and Hmong refugees residing in Thailand and KenyaExternal
        Bahr NC, Lee D, Stauffer WM, Durkin M, Cetron MS, Wheat LJ, Boulware DR.
        J Immigr Minor Health. 2017 May 04.

        Histoplasmosis is known to be endemic to the Midwestern United States, but cases have been reported throughout much of the world. Somali, Hmong, and Burmese (ethnically Karen) persons make up some of the largest refugee populations coming the United States in recent years. Yet, information about risk of Histoplasma capsulatum infection amongst these populations is limited. This study used the CDC Migrant Serum Bank to test ~100 samples from each of Somali, Burmese, and Hmong U.S.-bound refugees. Samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay for Histoplasma capsulatum IgG. Overall 1% (2/299) of refugee serum samples were positive for H. capsulatum IgG. One of 99 samples obtained from Hmong refugees was positive, and the other positive sample came from among 100 Burmese refugee samples. H capsulatum IgG positivity was detected at low levels in Hmong and Burmese refugees. No IgG positivity was detected among 100 Somali refugees.

      2. Large cluster of Neisseria meningitidis urethritis in Columbus, Ohio, 2015External
        Bazan JA, Turner AN, Kirkcaldy RD, Retchless AC, Kretz CB, Briere E, Tzeng YL, Stephens DS, Maierhofer C, Del Rio C, Abrams AJ, Trees DL, Ervin M, Licon DB, Fields KS, Roberts MW, Dennison A, Wang X.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2017 May 08.

        Background.: Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a Gram-negative diplococcus that normally colonizes the nasopharynx and rarely infects the urogenital tract. On Gram stain of urethral exudates, Nm can be misidentified as the more common sexually transmitted pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Methods.: In response to a large increase in cases of Nm urethritis identified among men presenting for screening at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Columbus, Ohio, we investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of men with Nm urethritis and the molecular and phylogenetic characteristics of their Nm isolates. The study was conducted between 1 January and 18 November 2015. Results.: Seventy-five Nm urethritis cases were confirmed by biochemical and polymerase chain reaction testing. Men with Nm urethritis were a median age of 31 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 24-38) and had a median of 2 sex partners in the last 3 months (IQR = 1-3). Nm cases were predominantly black (81%) and heterosexual (99%). Most had urethral discharge (91%), reported oral sex with a female in the last 12 months (96%), and were treated with a ceftriaxone-based regimen (95%). A minority (15%) also had urethral chlamydia coinfection. All urethral Nm isolates were nongroupable, ST-11 clonal complex (cc11), ET-15, and clustered together phylogenetically. Urethral Nm isolates were similar by fine typing (PorA P1.5-1,10-8, PorB 2-2, FetA F3-6), except 1, which had a different PorB type (2-78). Conclusions.: Between January and November 2015, 75 urethritis cases due to a distinct Nm clade occurred among primarily black, heterosexual men in Columbus, Ohio. Future urogenital Nm infection studies should focus on pathogenesis and modes of sexual transmission.

      3. BACKGROUND: Only 13% of HIV-positive young adults are estimated to be virally suppressed and, even among those receiving medical care, HIV-positive young adults are less likely than older adults to take antiretroviral therapy (ART), be adherent, and be virally suppressed. We sought to examine trends in treatment and health outcomes from 2009 to 2013 among HIV-positive young adults (ages 18-24) in care. SETTING: The Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) is a complex sample survey of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. METHODS: We used weighted interview and medical record data collected 06/2009-05/2014 to estimate trends in the prevalence of ART prescription, adherence, side effects, single-tablet ART regimens, regular care utilization and viral suppression among young adults. RESULTS: From 2009 to 2013, there were significant increases in ART prescription (76% to 87%) and the proportion of young adults taking ART who reported taking single-tablet regimens (49% to 62%). There was no significant change in adherence, side effects, or regular care utilization. Although viral suppression at last test did not change (65% at both time periods), the proportion of young adults who were sustainably virally suppressed significantly increased (29% to 46%). Accounting for ART prescription and single-tablet regimens use attenuated the sustained viral suppression trend. CONCLUSIONS: Although the level of viral suppression among young adults in care remains suboptimal, the observed increases in ART prescription and sustained viral suppression may be cause for optimism regarding efforts to improve outcomes for this vulnerable population.

      4. State HCV incidence and policies related to HCV preventive and treatment services for persons who inject drugs – United States, 2015-2016External
        Campbell CA, Canary L, Smith N, Teshale E, Ryerson AB, Ward JW.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 12;66(18):465-469.

        Hepatitis C is associated with more deaths in the United States than 60 other infectious diseases reported to CDC combined. Despite curative hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies and known preventive measures to interrupt transmission, new HCV infections have increased in recent years. Injection drug use is the primary risk factor for new HCV infections. One potential strategy to decrease the prevalence of HCV is to create and strengthen public health laws and policies aimed specifically at reducing transmission risks among persons who inject drugs. To evaluate factors affecting access to HCV preventive and treatment services, CDC assessed state laws governing access to safe injection equipment and Medicaid policies related to sobriety requirements for approval of HCV treatment for persons who inject drugs. Acute HCV incidence rates were obtained from CDC’s National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). States were categorized based on analysis of laws related to access to clean needles and syringes and Medicaid HCV treatment policies associated with sobriety requirements. In 2015, HCV incidence remained high in the United States, with rates in 17 states exceeding the national average. Three states were determined to have state laws and Medicaid policies capable of comprehensively preventing and treating HCV among persons who inject drugs. Opportunities exist for states to adopt laws and policies that could help increase access to HCV preventive and treatment services reducing the number of persons at risk for HCV transmission and disease.

      5. Comparison of three popular methods for recruiting young persons who inject drugs for interventional studiesExternal
        Collier MG, Garfein RS, Cuevas-Mota J, Teshale EH.
        J Urban Health. 2017 May 09.

        Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for adverse health outcomes as a result of their drug use, and the resulting social stigma makes this a difficult population to reach for interventions aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. During our study of adult PWID aged </=40 years living in San Diego during 2009 and 2010, we compared three different sampling methods: respondent-driven sampling (RDS), venue-based sampling at one syringe exchange program (SEP), and street-based outreach. We compared demographic, socioeconomic, health, and behavioral factors and tested participants for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and compared across the three methods. Overall, 561 (74.8%) of the targeted 750 PWID were enrolled. Venue-based convenience sampling enrolled 96% (242/250) of the targeted participants, followed closely by street-based outreach with 92% (232/250) recruited. While RDS yielded the fewest recruits, producing only 35% (87/250) of the expected participants, those recruited through RDS were more likely to be female, more racially diverse, and younger.

      6. The changing landscape of HIV prevention in the United States: Health department experiences and local adaptations in response to the national HIV/AIDS strategy and high-impact prevention approachExternal
        Fisher HH, Essuon A, Hoyte T, Shapatava E, Shelley G, Rios A, Beane S, Bourgeois S, Dunbar E, Sapiano T.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2017 May 10.

        OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention has changed substantially in recent years due to changes in national priorities, biomedical advances, and health care reform. Starting in 2010, motivated by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) High-Impact Prevention (HIP), health departments realigned resources so that cost-effective, evidence-based interventions were targeted to groups at risk in areas most affected by HIV. This analysis describes how health departments in diverse settings were affected by NHAS and HIP. METHODS: We conducted interviews and a consultation with health departments from 16 jurisdictions and interviewed CDC project officers who monitored programs in 5 of the jurisdictions. Participants were asked to describe changes since NHAS and HIP and how they adapted. We used inductive qualitative analysis to identify themes of change. RESULTS: Health departments improved their HIV prevention practices in different ways. They aligned jurisdictional plans with NHAS and HIP goals, increased local data use to monitor program performance, streamlined services, and strengthened partnerships to increase service delivery to persons at highest risk for infection/transmission. They shifted efforts to focus more on the needs of people with diagnosed HIV infection, increased HIV testing and routine HIV screening in clinical settings, raised provider and community awareness about preexposure prophylaxis, and used nontraditional strategies to successfully engage out-of-care people with diagnosed HIV infection. However, staff-, provider-, and data-related barriers that could slow scale-up of priority programs were consistently reported by participants, potentially impeding the ability to meet national goals. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest progress toward NHAS and HIP goals has been made in some jurisdictions but highlight the need to monitor prevention programs in different contexts to identify areas for improvement and increase the likelihood of national success. Health departments and federal funders alike can benefit from the routine sharing of successes and challenges associated with local policy implementation, considering effects on the overall portfolio of programs.

      7. Notes from the field: Severe human metapneumovirus infections – North Dakota, 2016External
        Midgley CM, Baber JK, Biggs HM, Singh T, Feist M, Miller TK, Kruger K, Gerber SI, Watson JT, Howell MA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 12;66(18):486-488.

        [No abstract]

      8. Global burden of disease of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: An updated analysisExternal
        Rajasingham R, Smith RM, Park BJ, Jarvis JN, Govender NP, Chiller TM, Denning DW, Loyse A, Boulware DR.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 May 05.

        BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is the most common cause of meningitis in adults living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Global burden estimates are crucial to guide prevention strategies and to determine treatment needs, and we aimed to provide an updated estimate of global incidence of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease. METHODS: We used 2014 Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS estimates of adults (aged >15 years) with HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage. Estimates of CD4 less than 100 cells per muL, virological failure incidence, and loss to follow-up were from published multinational cohorts in low-income and middle-income countries. We calculated those at risk for cryptococcal infection, specifically those with CD4 less than 100 cells/muL not on ART, and those with CD4 less than 100 cells per muL on ART but lost to follow-up or with virological failure. Cryptococcal antigenaemia prevalence by country was derived from 46 studies globally. Based on cryptococcal antigenaemia prevalence in each country and region, we estimated the annual numbers of people who are developing and dying from cryptococcal meningitis. FINDINGS: We estimated an average global cryptococcal antigenaemia prevalence of 6.0% (95% CI 5.8-6.2) among people with a CD4 cell count of less than 100 cells per muL, with 278 000 (95% CI 195 500-340 600) people positive for cryptococcal antigen globally and 223 100 (95% CI 150 600-282 400) incident cases of cryptococcal meningitis globally in 2014. Sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 73% of the estimated cryptococcal meningitis cases in 2014 (162 500 cases [95% CI 113 600-193 900]). Annual global deaths from cryptococcal meningitis were estimated at 181 100 (95% CI 119 400-234 300), with 135 900 (75%; [95% CI 93 900-163 900]) deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Globally, cryptococcal meningitis was responsible for 15% of AIDS-related deaths (95% CI 10-19). INTERPRETATION: Our analysis highlights the substantial ongoing burden of HIV-associated cryptococcal disease, primarily in sub-Saharan Africa. Cryptococcal meningitis is a metric of HIV treatment programme failure; timely HIV testing and rapid linkage to care remain an urgent priority.

      9. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009-2014External
        Rakotoarisoa A, Randrianasolo L, Tempia S, Guillebaud J, Razanajatovo N, Randriamampionona L, Piola P, Halm A, Heraud JM.
        Bull World Health Organ. 2017 May 01;95(5):375-381.

        PROBLEM: Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. APPROACH: In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system’s performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. LOCAL SETTING: Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. RELEVANT CHANGES: By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. LESSONS LEARNT: The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings.

      10. The RSVP project: Factors related to disengagement from human immunodeficiency virus care among persons in San FranciscoExternal
        Scheer S, Chen MJ, Parisi MK, Yoshida-Cervantes M, Antunez E, Delgado V, Moss NJ, Buchacz K.
        JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2017 May 04;3(2):e25.

        BACKGROUND: In the United States, an estimated two-thirds of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection do not achieve viral suppression, including those who have never engaged in HIV care and others who do not stay engaged in care. Persons with an unsuppressed HIV viral load might experience poor clinical outcomes and transmit HIV. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Re-engaging Surveillance-identified Viremic Persons (RSVP) project in San Francisco, CA, was to use routine HIV surveillance databases to identify, contact, interview, and reengage in HIV care persons who appeared to be out of care because their last HIV viral load was unsuppressed. We aimed to interview participants about their HIV care and barriers to reengagement. METHODS: Using routinely collected HIV surveillance data, we identified persons with HIV who were out of care (no HIV viral load and CD4 laboratory reports during the previous 9-15 months) and with their last plasma HIV RNA viral load >200 copies/mL. We interviewed the located persons, at baseline and 3 months later, about whether and why they disengaged from HIV care and the barriers they faced to care reengagement. We offered them assistance with reengaging in HIV care from the San Francisco Department of Public Health linkage and navigation program (LINCS). RESULTS: Of 282 persons selected, we interviewed 75 (26.6%). Of these, 67 (89%) reported current health insurance coverage, 59 (79%) had ever been prescribed and 45 (60%) were currently taking HIV medications, 59 (79%) had seen an HIV provider in the past year, and 34 (45%) had missed an HIV appointment in the past year. Reasons for not seeing a provider included feeling healthy, using alcohol or drugs, not having enough money or health insurance, and not wanting to take HIV medicines. Services needed to get to an HIV medical care appointment included transportation assistance, stable living situation or housing, sound mental health, and organizational help and reminders about appointments. A total of 52 (69%) accepted a referral to LINCS. Additionally, 64 (85%) of the persons interviewed completed a follow-up interview 3 months later and, of these, 62 (97%) had health insurance coverage and 47 (73%) reported having had an HIV-related care appointment since the baseline interview. CONCLUSIONS: Rather than being truly out of care, most participants reported intermittent HIV care, including recent HIV provider visits and health insurance coverage. Participants also frequently reported barriers to care and unmet needs. Health department assistance with HIV care reengagement was generally acceptable. Understanding why people previously in HIV care disengage from care and what might help them reengage is essential for optimizing HIV clinical and public health outcomes.

      11. Comparing drivers and dynamics of tuberculosis (TB) in California, Florida, New York and TexasExternal
        Shrestha S, Hill AN, Marks SM, Dowdy DW.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 May 05.

        RATIONALE: There is substantial state-to-state heterogeneity in tuberculosis (TB) in the United States (US); better understanding this heterogeneity can inform effective response to TB at the state level, the level at which most TB control efforts are coordinated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize drivers of state-level heterogeneity in TB epidemiology in the four US states that bear half the country’s TB burden: California, Florida, New York and Texas. METHODS: We constructed an individual-based model of TB in the four US states, and calibrated the model to state-specific demographic, and age- and nativity- stratified TB incidence data. We used the model to infer differences in natural history of TB and in future projections of TB. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We found that differences in both demographic makeup (particularly the size and composition of the foreign-born population) and TB transmission dynamics contribute to state-level differences in TB epidemiology. The projected median annual rate of decline in TB incidence in the next decade was substantially higher in Texas (3.3%; 95% range: [-5.6-10.9]) than in California (1.7%; [-3.8-7.1]), Florida (1.5%; [-7.4-14]), and New York (1.9%; [-6.4-9.8]). All scenarios projected a flattening of the decline in TB incidence by 2025 without additional resources or interventions. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial state-level heterogeneity in TB epidemiology in the four states, which reflect both demographic factors and potential differences in the natural history of TB. These differences may inform resource allocation decisions in these states.

      12. Prevalence and risk factors associated with STIs among women initiating contraceptive implants in Kingston, JamaicaExternal
        Snead MC, Wiener J, Ewumi S, Phillips C, Flowers L, Hylton-Kong T, Medley-Singh N, Legardy-Williams J, Costenbader E, Papp J, Warner L, Black C, Kourtis AP.
        Sex Transm Infect. 2017 May 05.

        BACKGROUND: There is limited information on rates of STIs in Jamaica due to syndromic management and limited aetiological surveillance. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and characteristics associated with STIs among sexually active women who participated in a randomised trial of a progestin implant initiation in Jamaica (the Sino-Implant Study (SIS)). METHODS: SIS was a randomised trial conducted in Kingston, Jamaica, from 2012 to 2014 to evaluate whether initiation of the Sino-Implant (II) led to more unprotected sex among women ages 18-44 years. Data collected included self-reported demographic, sexual behaviour information; and vaginal swabs collected at baseline, 1-month and 3-month follow-up visits for a biomarker of recent semen exposure (prostate-specific antigen (PSA)) and for STIs. We examined associations between STIs and PSA, demographics, sexual behaviour and insertion of an implant, with a repeated-measures analysis using generalised estimating equations (SAS Institute, V.9.3). RESULTS: Remnant vaginal swabs from 254 of 414 study participants were tested for STIs. At baseline, 29% of participants tested for STIs (n=247) had laboratory-confirmed CT, 5% NG, 23% TV and 45% any STI. In a repeated-measures analysis adjusted for study arm (immediate vs delayed implant insertion), those with PSA detected did not have an increased prevalence of any STI (prevalence ratio (PR)=1.04 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.21)), whereas prevalence decreased for each 1-year increase in age (PR=0.98 (95% CI 0.97 to 0.99)). Immediate implant insertion was not associated with increases in any STI in subsequent visits (PR=1.09 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.27)). CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of laboratory-confirmed STIs was high, the immediate initiation of a contraceptive implant was not associated with higher STI prevalence rates over 3 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01684358.

      13. A case control study on family history as a risk factor for herpes zoster and associated outcomes, Beijing, ChinaExternal
        Suo L, Lu L, Li J, Sun M, Wang H, Peng X, Yang F, Pang X, Marin M, Wang C.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2017 May 09;17(1):334.

        BACKGROUND: Hospital-based case control studies have found family history of herpes zoster (HZ) was associated with risk of HZ, but the role of family history is not fully examined for other HZ-associated outcomes such as recurrent HZ, occurrence of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and HZ with different pain severities. METHODS: We conducted a population-based matched case control study. HZ cases that occurred during December 1, 2011 to November 30, 2012 were identified by face-to-face interview with all residents of eight selected communities/villages from three districts of Beijing, China. Medical records were reviewed for those who sought healthcare for HZ. For each case-patient, three, age-matched controls (+/-5 years) without HZ were enrolled from the same community/village of the matched case. Data on family history of HZ were collected by interview and only defined among first-degree relatives. RESULTS: A total of 227 case-patients and 678 matched controls were enrolled. Case-patients were more likely to report a family history of HZ [odds ratio (OR) =2.4, P = 0.002]. Compared with controls, association of family history decreased from HZ with PHN to HZ without PHN (OR = 6.0 and 2.3, respectively; P = 0.002 for trend), from recurrent HZ to primary HZ (OR = 9.4 and 2.2, respectively; P = 0.005 for trend), and from HZ with moderate or severe pain to HZ with mild or no pain (OR = 3.2 and 0.8, respectively; P < 0.001 for trend). CONCLUSIONS: Family history of HZ was associated with HZ occurrence and was more likely in HZ case-patients with PHN, recurrences, and painful HZ.

      14. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in two rural populations of Thailand from 2009-2012External
        Whistler T, Sawatwong P, Diaz MH, Benitez AJ, Wolff BJ, Sapchookul P, Thamthitiwat S, Winchell JM.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2017 May 10.

        Studies on Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Thailand have focused on urban centers and have not included the molecular characterization. In an attempt to provide a more comprehensive understanding of this organism, we conducted a systematic random sampling to identify 3000 nasopharyngeal swab specimens, collected from January 2009 through July 2012 during population-based surveillance for influenza-like illness in two rural provinces. M. pneumoniae was detected by real-time PCR in 175 (5.8%) specimens. Genotyping was performed using the major adhesion protein (P1) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Of the 157 specimens typed, 97 were P1 type 1 and 60 were P1 type 2. Six different MLVA profiles were identified in 149 specimens with 4/5/7/2 (40%) and 3/5/6/2 (26%) predominating. There was no discrete seasonality to M. pneumoniae infections. Examination of the 23S rRNA sequence for known polymorphisms conferring macrolide resistance revealed all 141 tested to possess the genotype associated with macrolide susceptibility.

    • Drug Safety RSS Word feed
      1. A novel metric to monitor the influence of antimicrobial stewardship activitiesExternal
        Livorsi DJ, O’Leary E, Pierce T, Reese L, van Santen KL, Pollock DA, Edwards JR, Srinivasan A.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 May 05:1-3.

        The antimicrobial use (AU) option within the National Healthcare Safety Network summarizes antimicrobial prescribing data as a standardized antimicrobial administration ratio (SAAR). A hospital’s antimicrobial stewardship program found that greater involvement of an infectious disease physician in prospective audit and feedback procedures was associated with reductions in SAAR values across multiple antimicrobial categories.

    • Genetics and Genomics RSS Word feed
      1. Implementation of objective PASC-derived taxon demarcation criteria for official classification of filovirusesExternal
        Bao Y, Amarasinghe GK, Basler CF, Bavari S, Bukreyev A, Chandran K, Dolnik O, Dye JM, Ebihara H, Formenty P, Hewson R, Kobinger GP, Leroy EM, Muhlberger E, Netesov SV, Patterson JL, Paweska JT, Smither SJ, Takada A, Towner JS, Volchkov VE, Wahl-Jensen V, Kuhn JH.
        Viruses. 2017 May 11;9(5).

        The mononegaviral family Filoviridae has eight members assigned to three genera and seven species. Until now, genus and species demarcation were based on arbitrarily chosen filovirus genome sequence divergence values ( approximately 50% for genera, approximately 30% for species) and arbitrarily chosen phenotypic virus or virion characteristics. Here we report filovirus genome sequence-based taxon demarcation criteria using the publicly accessible PAirwise Sequencing Comparison (PASC) tool of the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (Bethesda, MD, USA). Comparison of all available filovirus genomes in GenBank using PASC revealed optimal genus demarcation at the 55-58% sequence diversity threshold range for genera and at the 23-36% sequence diversity threshold range for species. Because these thresholds do not change the current official filovirus classification, these values are now implemented as filovirus taxon demarcation criteria that may solely be used for filovirus classification in case additional data are absent. A near-complete, coding-complete, or complete filovirus genome sequence will now be required to allow official classification of any novel “filovirus.” Classification of filoviruses into existing taxa or determining the need for novel taxa is now straightforward and could even become automated using a presented algorithm/flowchart rooted in RefSeq (type) sequences.

      2. Genetic and epidemiologic trends of norovirus outbreaks in the US demonstrated emergence of novel GII.4 recombinant viruses, 2013-2016External
        Cannon JL, Barclay L, Collins NR, Wikswo ME, Castro CJ, Magana LC, Gregoricus N, Marine RL, Chhabra P, Vinje J.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2017 May 10.

        Noroviruses are the most frequent cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis in the United States (US). Between September 2013 and August 2016, 2,715 genotyped norovirus outbreaks were submitted to CaliciNet. GII.4 Sydney viruses caused 58% of outbreaks during these years. A GII.4 Sydney variant with a novel GII.P16 polymerase emerged in November 2015, causing 60% of all GII.4 outbreaks in the 2015-2016 season. Multiple polymerase types were found associated with GII.2 (3), GII.3 (3), GII.4 Sydney (3), GII.13 (2) and GII.17 (2) genotypes, 4 of which included GII.P16 variants. GII.P16 polymerase sequences associated with GII.2 and GII.4 Sydney strains were nearly identical, suggesting common ancestry. Other common genotypes, each causing 5-17% of outbreaks in a season, included GI.3, GI.5, GII.2, GII.3, GII.6, GII.13 and GII.17 Kawasaki. Acquisition of alternative RNA polymerases by recombination is an important mechanism for norovirus evolution and a phenomenon that was shown to occur more frequently than previously recognized in the US. Continued molecular surveillance of norovirus strains, including typing of both polymerase and capsid genes, is important for monitoring emerging strains in our continued efforts to reduce the overall burden of norovirus disease.

      3. Cowpox virus: What’s in a name?External
        Mauldin MR, Antwerpen M, Emerson GL, Li Y, Zoeller G, Carroll DS, Meyer H.
        Viruses. 2017 May 09;9(5).

        Traditionally, virus taxonomy relied on phenotypic properties; however, a sequence-based virus taxonomy has become essential since the recent requirement of a species to exhibit monophyly. The species Cowpox virus has failed to meet this requirement, necessitating a reexamination of this species. Here, we report the genomic sequences of nine Cowpox viruses and, by combining them with the available data of 37 additional genomes, confirm polyphyly of Cowpox viruses and find statistical support based on genetic data for more than a dozen species. These results are discussed in light of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses species definition, as well as immediate and future implications for poxvirus taxonomic classification schemes. Data support the recognition of five monophyletic clades of Cowpox viruses as valid species.

      4. Azithromycin resistance and decreased ceftriaxone susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Hawaii, USAExternal
        Papp JR, Abrams AJ, Nash E, Katz AR, Kirkcaldy RD, O’Connor NP, O’Brien PS, Harauchi DH, Maningas EV, Soge OO, Kersh EN, Komeya A, Tomas JE, Wasserman GM, Kunimoto GY, Trees DL, Whelen AC.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 May;23(5):830-832.

        During 2016, eight Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from 7 patients in Hawaii were resistant to azithromycin; 5 had decreased in vitro susceptibility to ceftriaxone. Genomic analysis demonstrated a distinct phylogenetic clade when compared with local contemporary strains. Continued evolution and widespread transmission of these strains might challenge the effectiveness of current therapeutic options.

      5. Comparative analysis of extended spectrum beta-lactamase ctx-m-65-producing Salmonella infantis isolates from humans, food animals, and retail chickens in the United StatesExternal
        Tate H, Folster JP, Hsu CH, Chen J, Hoffmann M, Li C, Morales C, Tyson GH, Mukerjee S, Brown AC, Green A, Wilson W, Dessai U, Abbott J, Joseph L, Haro J, Ayers S, McDermott PF, Zhao S.
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 May 08.

        We sequenced the genomes of ten Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis containing blaCTX-M-65 isolated from chicken, cattle, and human sources collected between 2012 and 2015 in the United States through routine NARMS surveillance and product sampling programs. We also completely assembled the plasmids from four of the isolates. All isolates had a D87Y mutation in the gyrA gene and harbored between 7 and 10 resistance genes (aph (4)-Ia, aac (3)-IVa, aph(3′ )-Ic, blaCTX-M-65, fosA3, floR, dfrA14, sul1, tetA, aadA1) located in two distinct sites of a megaplasmid ( approximately 316-323kb) similar to that described in a blaCTX-M-65-positive S. Infantis isolated from a patient in Italy. High-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (hqSNP) analysis revealed that all U.S. isolates were closely related, separated by only 1 to 38 pairwise high quality SNPs, indicating a high likelihood that strains from humans, chicken, and cattle recently evolved from a common ancestor. The U.S. isolates were genetically similar to the blaCTX-M-65-positive S. Infantis isolate from Italy, with a separation of 34 to 47 SNPs. This is the first report of the blaCTX-M-65 gene and the pESI-like megaplasmid from S. Infantis in the United States, and illustrates the importance of applying a global One Health, human and animal perspective to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections RSS Word feed
      1. Infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: Results from the organ transplant infection project, a multicenter, prospective, cohort studyExternal
        Schuster MG, Cleveland AA, Dubberke ER, Kauffman CA, Avery RK, Husain S, Paterson DL, Silveira FP, Chiller TM, Benedict K, Murphy K, Pappas PG.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017 Spring;4(2):ofx050.

        BACKGROUND: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our object was to better define the epidemiology and outcomes of infections after HCT. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter cohort study of HCT recipients and conducted from 2006 to 2011. The study included 4 US transplant centers and 444 HCT recipients. Data were prospectively collected for up to 30 months after HCT using a standardized data collection tool. RESULTS: The median age was 53 years, and median follow up was 413 (range, 5-980) days. The most common reason for HCT was hematologic malignancy (87%). The overall crude mortality was 52%. Death was due to underlying disease in 44% cases and infection in 21%. Bacteremia occurred in 231 (52%) cases and occurred early posttransplant (median day 48). Gram-negative bloodstream infections were less frequent than Gram-positive, but it was associated with higher mortality (45% vs 13%, P = .02). Clostridium difficile infection developed in 148 patients (33%) at a median of 27 days post-HCT. There were 53 invasive fungal infections (IFIs) among 48 patients (11%). The median time to IFI was 142 days. Of 155 patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, 4% had CMV organ involvement. Varicella zoster infection (VZV) occurred in 13 (4%) cases and was disseminated in 2. Infection with respiratory viruses was seen in 49 patients. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was rare (1%), and there were no documented cases of nocardiosis, toxoplasmosis, endemic mycoses, or mycobacterial infection. This study lacked standardized antifungal and antiviral prophylactic strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Infection remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after HCT. Bacteremias and C difficile infection are frequent, particularly in the early posttransplant period. The rate of IFI is approximately 10%. Organ involvement with CMV is infrequent, as are serious infections with VZV and herpes simplex virus, likely reflecting improved prevention strategies.

    • Immunity and Immunization RSS Word feed
      1. Secretor and salivary ABO blood group antigen status predict rotavirus vaccine take in infantsExternal
        Kazi AM, Cortese MM, Yu Y, Lopman B, Morrow AL, Fleming JA, McNeal MM, Steele AD, Parashar UD, Zaidi AK, Ali A.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 01;215(5):786-789.

        Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) expressed on enterocytes are proposed receptors for rotaviruses and can be measured in saliva. Among 181 Pakistani infants in a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine trial who were seronegative at baseline, anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A seroconversion rates after 3 vaccine doses differed significantly by salivary HBGA phenotype, with the lowest rate (19%) among infants who were nonsecretors (ie, who did not express the carbohydrate synthesized by FUT2), an intermediate rate (30%) among secretors with non-blood group O, and the highest rate (51%) among secretors with O blood group. Differences in HBGA expression may be responsible for some of the discrepancy in the level of protection detected for the current rotavirus vaccines in low-income versus high-income settings.

      2. Administration of 1/5th dose of Inactivated poliovirus vaccine intradermally (fIPV) provides similar immune response as full-dose intramuscular IPV, however, fIPV administration with BCG needle and syringe (BCG NS) is technically difficult. We compared immune response after one fIPV dose administered with BCG NS to administration with intradermal devices, referred to as Device A and B; and assessed feasibility of conducting a door-to-door vaccination campaign with fIPV. In Phase I, 452 children 6-12months old from Karachi were randomized to receive one fIPV dose either with BCG NS, Device A or Device B in a health facility. Immune response was defined as seroconversion or fourfold rise in polio neutralizing antibody titer 28days after fIPV among children whose baseline titer </=362. In Phase II, fIPV was administered during one-day door-to-door campaign to assess programmatic feasibility by evaluating vaccinators’ experience. For all three poliovirus (PV) serotypes, the immune response after BCG NS and Device A was similar, however it was lower with Device B (34/44 (77%), 31/45 (69%), 16/30 (53%) respectively for PV1; 53/78 (68%), 61/83 (74%), 42/80 (53%) for PV2; and; 58/76 (76%), 56/80 (70%), 43/77 (56%) for PV3; p<0.05 for all three serotypes). Vaccinators reported problems filling Device B in both Phases; no other operational challenges were reported during Phase II. Use of fIPV offers a dose-saving alternative to full-dose IPV.

      3. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for use of cholera vaccineExternal
        Wong KK, Burdette E, Mahon BE, Mintz ED, Ryan ET, Reingold AL.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 12;66(18):482-485.

        Cholera, caused by infection with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae bacteria of serogroup O1 (>99% of global cases) or O139, is characterized by watery diarrhea that can be severe and rapidly fatal without prompt rehydration. Cholera is endemic in approximately 60 countries and causes epidemics as well. Globally, cholera results in an estimated 2.9 million cases of disease and 95,000 deaths annually (1). Cholera is rare in the United States, and most U.S. cases occur among travelers to countries where cholera is endemic or epidemic. Forty-two U.S. cases were reported in 2011 after a cholera epidemic began in Haiti (2); however, <25 cases per year have been reported in the United States since 2012.

      4. BACKGROUND: Simultaneous administration of all age-appropriate doses of vaccines is an effective strategy for raising vaccination coverage. Vaccination coverage for >/=4 dose of DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine) among children 19-35months in the United States has not reached the Healthy People 2020 target of 90%. Risk factors for missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of the fourth dose of DTaP have not been investigated. METHODS: A missed opportunity for simultaneous administration of the fourth dose of DTaP is defined as the failure to administer an age-eligible fourth dose of DTaP, and during the same age-eligible period for the fourth dose of DTaP other recommended and age-appropriate doses of vaccines are given to children. This study used 2001-2014 National Immunization Survey data to describe the trend in missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of the fourth dose of DTaP from 2001 through 2014, assess the prevalence of children who missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of the fourth dose of DTaP by selected factors, and recognize significant risk factors for missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of the fourth dose of DTaP. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2014, the prevalence of missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of the fourth dose of DTaP among children 19-35months in the United States ranged from 5.7% to 9.0%; across 13 factors considered, the prevalence of missed opportunities varied from 3.3% to 22.9%. Children who were late in receiving the first to third dose of DTaP had significantly higher prevalence of missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of the fourth dose of DTaP than children who received these doses on-time, with adjusted prevalence ratios for late vs. on-time of 1.7, 1.6, and 3.2, and all P-value<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Improving on-time vaccination of the third dose of DTaP could substantially reduce missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of the fourth dose of DTaP.

    • Injury and Violence RSS Word feed
      1. An old problem: Aging and skeletal-muscle-strain injuryExternal
        Baker BA.
        J Sport Rehabil. 2017 Apr;26(2):180-188.

        Clinical Scenario: Even though chronological aging is an inevitable phenomenological consequence occurring in every living organism, it is biological aging that may be the most significant factor challenging our quality of life. Development of functional limitations, resulting from improper maintenance and restoration of various organ systems, ultimately leads to reduced health and independence. Skeletal muscle is an organ system that, when challenged, is often injured in response to varying stimuli. Overt muscle-strain injury can be traumatic, clinically diagnosable, properly managed, and a remarkably common event, yet our contemporary understanding of how age and environmental stressors affect the initial and subsequent induction of injury and how the biological processes resulting from this event are modifiable and, eventually, lead to functional restoration and healing of skeletal muscle and adjacent tissues is presently unclear. Even though the secondary injury response to and recovery from “contraction-induced” skeletal-muscle injury are impaired with aging, there is no scientific consensus as to the exact mechanism responsible for this event. Given the multitude of investigative approaches, particular consideration given to the appropriateness of the muscle-injury model, or research paradigm, is critical so that outcomes may be physiologically relevant and translational. In this case, methods implementing stretch-shortening contractions, the most common form of muscle movements used by all mammals during physical movement, work, and activity, are highlighted. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Understanding the fundamental evidence regarding how aging influences the responsivity of skeletal muscle to strain injury is vital for informing how clinicians approach and implement preventive strategies, as well as therapeutic interventions. From a practical perspective, maintaining or improving the overall health and tissue quality of skeletal muscle as one ages will positively affect skeletal muscle’s safety threshold and responsivity, which may reduce incidence of injury, improve recovery time, and lessen overall fiscal burdens.

      2. Introduction: Motor-vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among children in the United States, and almost one-fourth of all trips by school-aged children are trips to and from school. This study sought to determine how children (5-18. years) travel to and from school and, among those living </= 1. mile of school, to explore the role of school bus service eligibility on school travel mode. Methods: We used national 2012 survey data to determine prevalence of usual school travel mode, stratified by distance from school. For those living </= 1. mile of school, multivariable regression was conducted to assess the association between bus service eligibility and walking or bicycling. Results: Almost half (46.6%) of all children rode in passenger vehicles (PV) to school and 41.8% did so for the trip home. Results were similar among those living </= 1. mile (48.1%, PV to school; 41.3%, PV to home). Among those living </= 1. mile, 21.9% and 28.4% of children walked or bicycled to and from school, respectively. Ineligibility for school bus service was strongly associated with walking or bicycling to school [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR: 5.36; p. < 0.001)] and from school (aPR: 5.36; p. < 0.001). Conclusions: Regardless of distance from school, passenger vehicles were a common mode of travel. For children who live close to school, the role that school bus service eligibility plays in walking or bicycling deserves further consideration. Practical applications: Given the large proportion of children who use passenger vehicles for school travel, effective interventions can be adopted to increase proper child restraint and seat belt use and reduce crash risks among teen drivers. Better understanding of conditions under which bus service is offered to children who live close to school could inform efforts to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety for school travel.

      3. Age-related disparities in trauma center access for severe head injuries following the release of the updated field triage guidelinesExternal
        Flottemesch TJ, Raetzman S, Heslin KC, Fingar K, Coffey R, Barrett M, Moy E.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2017 ;24(4):447-457.

        Objective: In 2006, the American College of Surgeons’ Committee on Trauma and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released field triage guidelines with special consideration for older adults. Additional considerations for direct transport to a Level I or II trauma center (TC) were added in 2011, reflecting perceived undertriage to TCs for older adults. We examined whether age-based disparities in TC care for severe head injury decreased following introduction of the 2011 revisions. Methods: A pre-post design analyzing the 2009 and 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Emergency Department Databases and State Inpatient Databases with multivariable logistic regressions considered changes in 1) the trauma designation of the emergency department where treatment was initiated and 2) transfer to a TC following initial treatment at a non-TC. Results: Compared with adults aged 18 to 44 years, after multivariable adjustment, in both years TC care was less likely for adults aged 45 to 64 years (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76 in 2009 and 0.74 in 2012), aged 65 to 84 years (OR = 0.61 and 0.59), and aged 85+ years (OR = 0.53 and 0.56). Between 2009 and 2012, the likelihood of TC care increased for all age groups, with the largest increase among those aged 85+ years (OR = 1.18), which was statistically different (p = 0.02) from the increase among adults aged 18 to 44 years (OR = 1.12). The analysis of transfers yielded similar results. Conclusions: Although patterns of increased TC treatment for all groups with severe head trauma indicate improvements, age-based disparities persisted.

      4. OBJECTIVE: Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls’ risk for harassment and mental distress. METHODS: Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight. Procedures were repeated with four analogous groups created from sexual identity and perceived weight. RESULTS: Across sexual identity/BMI groups, being overweight increased heterosexual females’ odds of being bullied or experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Regardless of weight status, sexual minority females had greater odds for each outcome than heterosexual females. Sexual minority females who perceived themselves as overweight had greater odds of suicidality than all other sexual minority/perceived weight groups. CONCLUSIONS: Double jeopardy may exist for sexual minority female students who perceive themselves as overweight. Professional development with school staff on how to create a positive climate for sexual minorities and those with overweight/obesity and addressing positive identity and body image within school-based suicide prevention efforts may be important to the well-being of adolescent girls.

      5. Examining the prevalence and predictors of injury from adolescent dating violenceExternal
        Tharp AT, McNaughton Reyes HL, Foshee V, Swahn MH, Hall JE, Logan J.
        J Aggress Maltreat Trauma. 2017 :1-17.

        Medical needs of youth who experience dating violence are not well understood because of limited past research examining the prevalence and predictors of injuries and medical help seeking. To address these gaps, the current study described the prevalence and predictors of injuries from dating violence from grades 8 through 12 in a large sample of youth. Results indicate that one third to one half of youth who experienced any physical and/or sexual dating violence also sustained an injury. Prevalence of injury was highest in the 8th grade and was significantly higher for females than for males across grades 8 through 11. Youth who experienced greater amounts of violent victimization in their relationships (physical, sexual, and psychological) were at the highest risk for injury. Results also suggest that victims at highest risk for injury are girls, White youth, those experiencing multiple types of violence, and those who also engage in perpetration. Given the high prevalence of injury among youth who report dating violence, healthcare professionals may be in a unique position to screen and counsel youth about dating violence. Because the highest prevalence of injury occurred before high school, prevention programs should start early and selected prevention may be used for youth at highest risk for injury.

    • Laboratory Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Candida auris, an emerging fungal pathogen that is associated with high mortality, has been identified in many countries across the world…..

      2. OBJECTIVE: Prior to initial distribution of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) proficiency testing (PT) materials, we evaluated G6PD enzyme stability in dried blood spots (DBS) under various temperature and humidity environments to develop storage and usage guidelines for our new materials. DESIGN & METHODS: We prepared fresh G6PD-normal DBS materials and conducted stability evaluations of daily use and short and long-term storage under various temperature and humidity environments. RESULTS: G6PD DBS PT materials retained 92% of initial activity after 30days of use at 4 degrees C. Materials stored at -20 degrees C and 4 degrees C with desiccant for 30days retained 95% and 90% of initial activity, respectively. When stored for one year at -20 degrees C or six months at 4 degrees C specimens retained >90% of initial activity. Specimens stored at 37 degrees C with desiccant lost 10% activity in three days. At the end of 30days, specimens stored under ‘Extreme’-humidity >50% without desiccant- conditions at 37 degrees C assayed below the NSQAP cut off for G6PD. Humidity exacerbated loss of enzyme activity with increasing temperature and time duration. CONCLUSION: Data suggest that G6PD PT materials can be stored at 4 degrees C and used for up to one month and can be stored at -20 degrees C for one year and yield >90% enzyme activity. Exposure to warm temperatures, especially with elevated humidity, should be avoided. Desiccant should always be used to mitigate humidity effects.

      3. Influence of antibiotics on the detection of bacteria by culture-based and culture-independent diagnostic tests in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumoniaExternal
        Harris AM, Bramley AM, Jain S, Arnold SR, Ampofo K, Self WH, Williams DJ, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, McCullers JA, Pavia AT, Wunderink RG, Edwards KM, Winchell JM, Hicks LA.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017 Winter;4(1):ofx014.

        BACKGROUND: Specimens collected after antibiotic exposure may reduce culture-based bacterial detections. The impact on culture-independent diagnostic tests is unclear. We assessed the effect of antibiotic exposure on both of these test results among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: Culture-based bacterial testing included blood cultures and high-quality sputum or endotracheal tube (ET) aspirates; culture-independent testing included urinary antigen testing (adults) for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The proportion of bacterial detections was compared between specimens collected before and after either any antibiotic exposure (prehospital and/or inpatient) or only prehospital antibiotics and increasing time after initiation of inpatient antibiotics. RESULTS: Of 4678 CAP patients, 4383 (94%) received antibiotics: 3712 (85%) only inpatient, 642 (15%) both inpatient and prehospital, and 29 (<1%) only prehospital. There were more bacterial detections in specimens collected before antibiotics for blood cultures (5.2% vs 2.6%; P < .01) and sputum/ET cultures (50.0% vs 26.8%; P < .01) but not urine antigen (7.0% vs 5.7%; P = .53) or NP/OP PCR (6.7% vs 5.4%; P = .31). For all diagnostic testing, bacterial detections declined with increasing time between inpatient antibiotic administration and specimen collection. CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria were less frequently detected in culture-based tests collected after antibiotics and in culture-independent tests that had longer intervals between antibiotic exposure and specimen collection. Bacterial yield could improve if specimens were collected promptly, preferably before antibiotics, providing data for improved antibiotic selection.

      4. Development of a rectal sexually transmitted infection (STI) model in Rhesus macaques using Chlamydia trachomatis serovars E and L2External
        Henning TR, Morris M, Ellis S, Kelley K, Phillips C, Ritter J, Jones T, Nachamkin E, Chen CY, Hong J, Kang J, Patton D, McNicholl J, Papp J, Kersh EN.
        J Med Primatol. 2017 May 10.

        BACKGROUND: Rectal STI coinfection models enhance the understanding of rectal HIV transmission risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rhesus macaques (n=9) were exposed to one of three rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) challenges: C. trachomatis L2 (CT-L2 ); C. trachomatis serovar E (CT-E), followed by CT-L2 ; or CT-E, treatment/clearance, then CT-L2 . Infections were monitored by PCR. Weekly blood and rectal secretion/lavage samples were collected for cytokine analyzes and/or epithelial sloughing, occult, and overt blood determinations. RESULTS: Chlamydial infections were successfully established in each animal, with varying degrees of persistence. Mucosal IL-1beta was upregulated in animals consecutively infected with CT-E then CT-L2 (P=.05). Epithelial sloughing was also significantly increased post-infection in this group (P=.0003). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates successful rectal infection of rhesus macaques with CT-E and CT-L2 and describes measures of assessing rectal inflammation and pathology. Different infection strategies yield varying inflammatory and pathologic outcomes, providing well-described models for future SIV/SHIV susceptibility studies.

      5. Simultaneously reducing CO2 and particulate exposures via fractional recirculation of vehicle cabin airExternal
        Jung H, Grady M, Victoroff T, Miller A.
        Atmos Environ. 2017 7//;160:77-88.

        Prior studies demonstrate that air recirculation can reduce exposure to nanoparticles in vehicle cabins. However when people occupy confined spaces, air recirculation can lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulation which can potentially lead to deleterious effects on cognitive function. This study proposes a fractional air recirculation system for reducing nanoparticle concentration while simultaneously suppressing CO2 levels in the cabin. Several recirculation scenarios were tested using a custom-programmed HVAC (heat, ventilation, air conditioning) unit that varied the recirculation door angle in the test vehicle. Operating the recirculation system with a standard cabin filter reduced particle concentrations to 1000 particles/cm3, although CO2 levels rose to 3000?ppm. When as little as 25% fresh air was introduced (75% recirculation), CO2 levels dropped to 1000?ppm, while particle concentrations remained below 5000 particles/cm3. We found that nanoparticles were removed selectively during recirculation and demonstrated the trade-off between cabin CO2 concentration and cabin particle concentration using fractional air recirculation. Data showed significant increases in CO2 levels during 100% recirculation. For various fan speeds, recirculation fractions of 50-75% maintained lower CO2 levels in the cabin, while still reducing particulate levels. We recommend fractional recirculation as a simple method to reduce occupants? exposures to particulate matter and CO2 in vehicles. A design with several fractional recirculation settings could allow air exchange adequate for reducing both particulate and CO2 exposures. Developing this technology could lead to reductions in airborne nanoparticle exposure, while also mitigating safety risks from CO2 accumulation.

      6. Optimization of the linear quantification range of an online trypsin digestion coupled liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) platform


        Kuklenyik Z, Jones JI, Toth CA, Gardner MS, Pirkle JL, Barr JR.
        Instrumentation Science and Technology. 2017 :1-13.
        Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based proteomic workflows with a bottom-up approach require enzymatic digestion of proteins to peptide analytes, usually by trypsin. Online coupling of trypsin digestion of proteins, using an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER), with liquid chromatography (LC) and MS/MS is becoming a frequently used approach. However, finding IMER digestion conditions that allow quantitative analysis of multiple proteins with wide range of endogenous concentration requires optimization of multiple interactive parameters: digestion buffer flow rate, injection volume, sample dilution, and surfactant type/concentration. In this report, we present a design of experiment approach for the optimization of an integrated IMER-LC-MS/MS platform. With bovine serum albumin as a model protein, the digestion efficacy and digestion rate were monitored based on LC-MS/MS peak area count versus protein concentration regression. The optimal parameters were determined through multivariate surface response modeling and consideration of diffusion controlled immobilized enzyme kinetics. The results may provide guidance to other users for the development of quantitative IMER-LC-MS/MS methods for other proteins.

      7. Novel multiplex assay platforms to detect influenza A hemagglutinin subtype-specific antibody responses for high-throughput and in-field applicationsExternal
        Li ZN, Trost JF, Weber KM, LeMasters EH, Nasreen S, Esfandiari J, Gunasekera AH, McCausland M, Sturm-Ramirez K, Wrammert J, Gregory S, Veguilla V, Stevens J, Miller JD, Katz JM, Levine MZ.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2017 May;11(3):289-297.

        BACKGROUND: Detections of influenza A subtype-specific antibody responses are often complicated by the presence of cross-reactive antibodies. We developed two novel multiplex platforms for antibody detection. The multiplexed magnetic fluorescence microsphere immunoassay (MAGPIX) is a high-throughput laboratory-based assay. Chembio Dual Path Platform (DPP) is a portable and rapid test that could be used in the field. METHODS: Twelve recombinant globular head domain hemagglutinin (GH HA1) antigens from A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1), A(H2N2), A(H3N2), A(H5N1), A(H7N9), A(H9N2), A(H13N9), B/Victoria lineage, B/Yamagata lineage viruses, and protein A control were used. Human sera from U.S. residents either vaccinated (with H5N1 or pH1N1) or infected with pH1N1 influenza viruses and sera from live bird market workers in Bangladesh (BDPW) were evaluated. GH HA1 antigens and serum adsorption using full ectodomain recombinant hemagglutinins from A(pH1N1) and A(H3N2) were introduced into the platforms to reduce cross-reactivity. RESULTS: Serum adsorption reduced cross-reactivity to novel subtype HAs. Compared to traditional hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization assays, when serum adsorption and the highest fold rise in signals were used to determine positivity, the correct subtype-specific responses were identified in 86%-100% of U.S. residents exposed to influenza antigens through vaccination or infection (N=49). For detection of H5N1-specific antibodies in sera collected from BDPW, H5 sensitivity was 100% (six of six) for MAGPIX, 83% (five of six) for DPP, H5 specificity was 100% (15/15), and cross-reactivity against other subtype was 0% (zero of six) for both platforms. CONCLUSION: MAGPIX and DPP platforms can be utilized for high-throughput and in-field detection of novel influenza virus infections.

    • Maternal and Child Health RSS Word feed
      1. Maternal racial and ethnic disparities in neonatal birth outcomes with and without assisted reproductionExternal
        Crawford S, Joshi N, Boulet SL, Bailey MA, Hood ME, Manning SE, McKane P, Kirby RS, Kissin DM, Jamieson DJ.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2017 May 05.

        OBJECTIVE: To explore disparities in prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) by maternal race and ethnicity among singletons conceived with and without assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using resident birth certificate data from Florida, Massachusetts, and Michigan linked with data from the National ART Surveillance System from 2000 to 2010. There were 4,568,822 live births, of which 64,834 were conceived with ART. We compared maternal and ART cycle characteristics of singleton liveborn neonates using chi tests across maternal race and ethnicity groups. We used log binomial models to explore associations between maternal race and ethnicity and LBW and preterm birth by ART conception status. RESULTS: The proportion of liveborn neonates conceived with ART differed by maternal race and ethnicity (P<.01). It was smallest among neonates of non-Hispanic black (0.3%) and Hispanic women (0.6%) as compared with neonates of non-Hispanic white (2.0%) and Asian or Pacific Islander women (1.9%). The percentages of LBW or preterm singletons were highest for neonates of non-Hispanic black women both for non-ART (11.3% and 12.4%) and ART (16.1% and 19.1%) -conceived neonates. After adjusting for maternal factors, the risks of LBW or preterm birth for singletons born to non-Hispanic black mothers were 2.12 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.10-2.14] and 1.56 (95% CI 1.54-1.57) times higher for non-ART neonates and 1.87 (95% CI 1.57-2.23) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.34-1.83) times higher for ART neonates compared with neonates of non-Hispanic white women. The adjusted risk for LBW was also significantly higher for ART and non-ART singletons born to Hispanic (adjusted relative risk [RR] 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47 and adjusted RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.13-1.16) and Asian or Pacific Islander (adjusted RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.16-1.65 and adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.52-1.58) women compared with non-Hispanic white women. CONCLUSION: Disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes by maternal race and ethnicity persisted for neonates conceived with and without ART.

      2. Contribution of maternal age and pregnancy checkbox on maternal mortality ratios in the United States, 1978-2012External
        Davis NL, Hoyert DL, Goodman DA, Hirai AH, Callaghan WM.
        Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 May 05.

        BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality ratios (MMR) appear to have increased in the United States over the last decade. Three potential contributing factors are: 1) a shifting maternal age distribution, 2) changes in age-specific MMR, and 3) the addition of a checkbox indicating recent pregnancy on the death certificate. OBJECTIVE: Determine the contribution of rising maternal age on changes in MMR from 1978-2012, and estimate the contribution of the pregnancy checkbox on increases in MMR over the last decade. STUDY DESIGN: Kitagawa decomposition analyses were conducted to partition the maternal age contribution to the MMR increase into two components: changes due to a shifting maternal age distribution, and changes due to higher age-specific mortality ratios. We used National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) natality and mortality data. The following five-year groupings were used: 1978-1982, 1988-1992, 1998-2002, and 2008-2012. Changes in age-specific MMRs among states that adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox onto their death certificate before 2008 (n=23) were compared with states that had not adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox on their death certificate by the end of 2012 (n=11) to estimate the percentage increase in the MMR due to the pregnancy checkbox. RESULTS: Overall U.S. MMRs for 1978-1982, 1988-1992, and 1998-2002 were 9.0, 8.1, and 9.1 deaths per 100,000 live births, respectively. There was a modest increase in the MMR between 1998-2002 and 2008-2012 in the 11 states that had not adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox on their death certificate by the end of 2012 (8.6 and 9.9 deaths per 100,000 respectively). However, the MMR more than doubled between 1998-2002 and 2008-2012 in the 23 states that adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox (9.0 to 22.4); this dramatic rise was almost entirely attributable to increases in age-specific MMRs (94.9%) as opposed to increases in maternal age (5.1%), with an estimated 90% of the observed change reflecting the change in maternal death identification rather than a real change in age-specific rates alone. Of all age categories, women ages 40 and older in states that adopted the standard pregnancy checkbox had the largest increase in MMR-from 31.9 to 200.5-a relative increase of 528%, which accounted for nearly one-third of the overall increase. An estimated 28.8% of the observed change was potentially due to maternal death misclassification among women >/=40. CONCLUSION: Increasing age-specific maternal mortality seems to be contributing more heavily than a changing maternal age distribution to recent increases in MMR. In states with the standard pregnancy checkbox, the vast majority of the observed change in MMR over the last decade was estimated to be due to the pregnancy checkbox, with the greatest change in MMR occurring in women ages >/=40 years. The addition of a pregnancy checkbox on state death certificates appears to be increasing case identification, but may also be leading to maternal death misclassification, particularly for women ages >/=40 years.

      3. Understanding cerebral palsy: The power of population-based surveillanceExternal
        Van Naarden Braun K.
        Dev Med Child Neurol. 2017 May 09.

        [No abstract]

      4. Epidemiology and clinical features of human coronaviruses in the pediatric populationExternal
        Varghese L, Zachariah P, Vargas C, LaRussa P, Demmer RT, Furuya YE, Whittier S, Reed C, Stockwell MS, Saiman L.
        J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017 May 08.

        Background.: The epidemiology and clinical features of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) in children are not fully characterized. Methods.: A retrospective study of children with HCoV detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed for a community cohort and a children’s hospital in the same community from January 2013 to December 2014. The RT-PCR assay detected HCoV 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43 in nasal swabs from symptomatic children </=18 years. Factors associated with increased severity of illness in hospitalized children were assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results.: Human coronavirus was detected in 261 children, 49 and 212 from the community and hospital, respectively. The distribution of HCoV types and seasonal trends were similar in the community and hospital. Community cases were older than hospitalized cases (median age, 4.4 versus 1.7 years, respectively; P < .01), and a minority of community cases (26.5%) sought medical attention. Among the hospitalized children with HCoV detected, 39 (18.4%) received respiratory support and 24 (11.3%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Age <2 years (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-13.1) and cardiovascular (OR = 3.9; 95% CI, 1.6-9.5), genetic/congenital (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.0), and respiratory chronic complex conditions ([CCCs] OR = 4.5; 95% CI, 1.7-12.0) were associated with receiving respiratory support. Genetic/congenital (OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-7.4) CCCs were associated with PICU admission. Severity of illness was similar among hospitalized children with different HCoV types. Conclusions.: Children in the community with HCoV detected generally had mild illness as demonstrated by few medically attended cases. In hospitalized children, young age and CCCs, but not HCoV type, were associated with increased severity of illness.

    • Nutritional Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Sources of sodium in US adults from 3 geographic regionsExternal
        Harnack LJ, Cogswell ME, Shikany JM, Gardner CD, Gillespie C, Loria CM, Zhou X, Yuan K, Steffen LM.
        Circulation. 2017 May 09;135(19):1775-1783.

        BACKGROUND: Most US adults consume excess sodium. Knowledge about the dietary sources of sodium intake is critical to the development of effective reduction strategies. METHODS: A total of 450 adults were recruited from 3 geographic locations: Birmingham, AL (n=150); Palo Alto, CA (n=150); and the Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (n=150), metropolitan areas. Equal numbers of women and men from each of 4 race/ethnic groups (blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic whites) were targeted for recruitment. Four record-assisted 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from each participant with special procedures, which included the collection of duplicate samples of salt added to food at the table and in home food preparation. RESULTS: Sodium added to food outside the home was the leading source of sodium, accounting for more than two thirds (70.9%) of total sodium intake in the sample. Although the proportion of sodium from this source was smaller in some subgroups, it was the leading contributor for all subgroups. Contribution ranged from 66.3% for those with a high school level of education or less to 75.0% for those 18 to 29 years of age. Sodium inherent to food was the next highest contributor (14.2%), followed by salt added in home food preparation (5.6%) and salt added to food at the table (4.9%). Home tap water consumed as a beverage and dietary supplement and nonprescription antacids contributed minimally to sodium intake (<0.5% each). CONCLUSIONS: Sodium added to food outside the home accounted for approximately 70% of dietary sodium intake. This finding is consistent with the 2010 Institute of Medicine recommendation for reduction of sodium in commercially processed foods as the primary strategy to reduce sodium intake in the United States. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: Unique identifier: NCT02474693.

    • Occupational Safety and Health RSS Word feed
      1. Dogs in the workplace: a review of the benefits and potential challengesExternal
        Foreman AM, Glenn MK, Meade BJ, Wirth O.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 May 08;14(5).

        Pet dogs, therapy dogs, and service dogs can be seen in workplaces with increasing frequency. Although dogs may provide many benefits to employees and employers, their presence may introduce additional hazards and concerns to the work environment. Therefore, decisions to accept dogs in the workplace may include many considerations including the health, safety, and well-being of employees, legal and cultural sensitivities, and animal welfare. The present paper serves to introduce the issue of dogs in the workplace and outline the potential benefits and challenges to their presence. The legal accommodations afforded to certain types of dogs in workplace settings are discussed, and the research findings pertaining to the potential benefits of dogs on human health and well-being are summarized. The paper concludes with considerations for human resource management personnel in the areas of diversity, employee relations, ethics and corporate responsibility, organizational and employee development, safety and security, and legal considerations, as well as suggested topics for future research.

      2. Association of shiftwork and immune cells among police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress studyExternal
        Wirth MD, Andrew ME, Burchfiel CM, Burch JB, Fekedulegn D, Hartley TA, Charles LE, Violanti JM.
        Chronobiol Int. 2017 May 10:1-11.

        Shift workers suffer from a constellation of symptoms associated with disruption of circadian rhythms including sleep abnormalities, and abnormal hormone secretion (e.g. melatonin, cortisol). Recent, but limited, evidence suggests that shift workers have elevated levels of circulating white blood cells (WBCs) compared to their day working counterparts. Interestingly, recent reviews highlight the strong linkage between the immune system and circadian rhythms which includes, but is not limited to, circulating cell populations and functions. The elevated levels of these WBCs may be associated with the increased chronic disease risk observed among this group. The purpose of this analysis was to examine the cross-sectional association between long- and short-term (3, 5, 7, and 14 days) shiftwork (SW) and counts of WBCs among officers in the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) cohort. Data collection for this analysis took place among 464 police officers working in Buffalo, New York, USA between 2004 and 2009. Precise SW histories were obtained using electronic payroll records. Officers were assigned a shift type based on the shift (i.e. day, evening, night) that they spent a majority (i.e. >/=50%) of their time from 1994 to the data collection date for long-term SW. The same process was applied to SW over 3, 5, 7, and 14 days prior to data collection. A fasted blood sample collected in the morning of a non-work day was used for characterization of WBCs (total), neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Potential confounding factors included demographic characteristics (e.g. age, sex, race), occupational characteristics (e.g. rank), health behaviors (e.g. smoking, alcohol consumption, diet), anthropometrics, and other biomarkers (e.g. lipids, hemoglobin A1C, leptin). Generalized linear models were used to estimate least square means of the immune cells according to SW categorization for long- and short-term SW histories. Compared to the day shift group, those working long-term night shifts had greater absolute numbers of total WBCs, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes (all p < 0.05). Those working mainly on the night shift over 7-days had elevated counts of WBCs, lymphocytes, and monocytes (p < 0.05) compared to those mainly working day shifts. Results based on 3-, 5-, and 14-day SW were similar to the 7-day results. This study corroborates other studies with similar findings. However, this analysis provided insights into the effect of both long- and short-term SW on the number of circulating WBCs. SW may lead to disruption of circadian-influenced components of the immune system, which in term, may result in various chronic diseases. These findings, plus previous findings, may provide evidence that SW may lead to immune system dysregulation. Future research is needed to understand whether increases in immune cells among shift workers may be associated with the increased disease risk among this group.

    • Parasitic Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Indoor residual spraying with micro-encapsulated pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic(R) 300CS) against malaria vectors in the Lake Victoria basin, TanzaniaExternal
        Mashauri FM, Manjurano A, Kinung’hi S, Martine J, Lyimo E, Kishamawe C, Ndege C, Ramsan MM, Chan A, Mwalimu CD, Changalucha J, Magesa S.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(5):e0176982.

        BACKGROUND: The indoor residual spraying programme for malaria vectors control was implemented in four districts of the Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania namely Ukerewe, Sengerema, Rorya andSerengeti. Entomological monitoring activities were implemented in one sentinel village in each district to evaluate the efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl 300 CS sprayed on different wall surfaces and its impact against malaria vectors post-IRS intervention. METHODS: The residual decay rate of p-methyl 300 CS applied at a target dosage of 1g a.i./m2 on thesprayed wall surfaces was monitored for a period of 43 weeks post-IRSusing the WHO cone wall bioassay method. The bioassays were performed by exposing 2-5 days old unfed susceptible female Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Kisumu strain) to sprayed wall surfaces for a period of 30 minutes. In each sentinel village, mosquito collection was carried out by trained community mosquito collectors. Monthly mosquito collections were carried out from 6.00pm to 6.00am using CDC light traps and clay pot methods for indoors host seekingand outdoors resting mosquitoes respectively. Six traps (2 CDC light traps and 4 clay pots) were set per sentinel village per night for28 consecutive days in a moon. PCR and ELISA were used for mosquito species identification and sporozoite detection, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the WHOPES recommendation, insecticides should have a minimum efficacy of >/= 80% mosquito mortality at 24 hours post exposure on the sprayed wall surfaces to be considered effective. In this study, p-methyl 300 CS was demonstrated to have a long residual efficacy of 21-43 weeks post-IRS on mud, cement, painted and wood wall surfaces. Numberof anopheline mosquitoes decreased post-IRS interventions in all sentinel villages. The highest numbers ofanopheline mosquitoes were collected in November-December, 38-43 weeks post-IRS. A total of 270 female anopheline mosquitoes were analyzed by PCR; out of which 236 (87.4%) were An. gambiae s.l. and 34 (12.6%) were An. funestus group. Of the 236 An. gambiae s.l.identified 12.6% (n = 34) were An. gambiae s.s. and 68.6% (n = 162) were An. arabiensis. Ofthe 34 An. funestus group indentified 91.2% (n = 31) were An. parensis and 8.8% (n = 3) were An. rivulorum. The overall Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rate was 0.7% (n = 2,098). CONCLUSIONS: Pirimiphos-methyl 300 CS was found to be effective for IRS in the Lake Victoria basin,Tanzania. P-methyl 300 CShas a long residual efficacy on sprayed wall surfaces and therefore it is effective in controlling principal malaria vectors of An. gambiae s.l and An. funestus which rest on wall surfaces after and before feeding.

      2. Insecticide-treated nets and protection against insecticide-resistant malaria vectors in Western KenyaExternal
        Ochomo E, Chahilu M, Cook J, Kinyari T, Bayoh NM, West P, Kamau L, Osangale A, Ombok M, Njagi K, Mathenge E, Muthami L, Subramaniam K, Knox T, Mnavaza A, Donnelly MJ, Kleinschmidt I, Mbogo C.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 May;23(5):758-764.

        Insecticide resistance might reduce the efficacy of malaria vector control. In 2013 and 2014, malaria vectors from 50 villages, of varying pyrethroid resistance, in western Kenya were assayed for resistance to deltamethrin. Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) were distributed to households at universal coverage. Children were recruited into 2 cohorts, cleared of malaria-causing parasites, and tested every 2 weeks for reinfection. Infection incidence rates for the 2 cohorts were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.5) infections/person-year and 2.8 (95% CI 2.5-3.0) infections/person-year. LLIN users had lower infection rates than non-LLIN users in both low-resistance (rate ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88) and high-resistance (rate ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.87) villages (p = 0.63). The association between insecticide resistance and infection incidence was not significant (p = 0.99). Although the incidence of infection was high among net users, LLINs provided significant protection (p = 0.01) against infection with malaria parasite regardless of vector insecticide resistance.

    • Reproductive Health RSS Word feed
      1. Examining the safety of menstrual cups among rural primary school girls in western Kenya: Observational studies nested in a randomised controlled feasibility studyExternal
        Juma J, Nyothach E, Laserson KF, Oduor C, Arita L, Ouma C, Oruko K, Omoto J, Mason L, Alexander KT, Fields B, Onyango C, Phillips-Howard PA.
        BMJ Open. 2017 May 04;7(4):e015429.

        OBJECTIVE: Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. DESIGN: Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14-16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. INTERVENTIONS: Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or ‘usual practice’ (controls). OUTCOME MEASURES: Staphylococcus aureus vaginal colonization, Escherichia coli growth on sampled used cups, toxic shock syndrome or other adverse health outcomes. RESULTS: Among 604 eligible girls tested, no adverse event or TSS was detected over a median 10.9 months follow-up. S. aureusprevalence was 10.8%, with no significant difference over intervention time or between groups. Of 65 S.aureus positives at first test, 49 girls were retested and 10 (20.4%) remained positive. Of these, two (20%) sample isolates tested positive for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; both girls were provided pads and were clinically healthy. Seven per cent of cups required replacements for loss, damage, dropping in a latrine or a poor fit. Of 30 used cups processed for E. coli growth, 13 (37.1%, 95% CI 21.1% to 53.1%) had growth. E. coli growth was greatest in newer compared with established users (53%vs22.2%, p=0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Among this feasibility sample, no evidence emerged to indicate menstrual cups are hazardous or cause health harms among rural Kenyan schoolgirls, but large-scale trials and post-marketing surveillance should continue to evaluate cup safety.

      2. CONTEXT: Federal and clinical guidelines recommend integrating reproductive life plan assessments into routine family planning encounters to increase provision of preconception care. Yet, the prevalence of clinical protocols and of relevant practices at publicly funded health centers is unknown. METHODS: Administrators and providers at a nationally representative sample of publicly funded health centers that provide family planning services were surveyed in 2013-2014; data from 1,039 linked pairs were used to explore the reported prevalence of reproductive life plan protocols, frequent assessment of patients’ reproductive life plan and frequent provision of preconception care. Chi-square tests and multivariable general linear models were used to examine differences in reports of protocols and related practices. RESULTS: Overall, 58% of centers reported having reproductive life plan assessment protocols, 87% reported frequently assessing reproductive life plans and 55% reported frequently providing preconception care. The proportions reporting protocols were lower in community health centers than in other center types (32% vs. 52-91%), in primary care centers than in those with another focus (33% vs. 77-80%) and in centers not receiving Title X funding than in those with such support (36% vs. 77%). Reported existence of a written protocol was positively associated with reported frequent assessment (prevalence ratio, 1.1), and the latter was positively associated with reported frequent preconception care (1.4). CONCLUSION: Further research is needed on associations between written protocols and clinical practice, and to elucidate the preconception care services that may be associated with reproductive life plan assessment.

    • Substance Use and Abuse RSS Word feed
      1. Current and binge drinking among high school students – United States, 1991-2015External
        Esser MB, Clayton H, Demissie Z, Kanny D, Brewer RD.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 12;66(18):474-478.

        Excessive drinking accounted for approximately 4,300 deaths each year among persons aged <21 years during 2006-2010,* and underage drinking cost the United States $24.3 billion in 2010 (1). CDC analyzed data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) for the years 1991-2015 to examine trends in drinking by U.S. high school students, and from the 2015 YRBS to assess the usual source of alcohol consumeddagger and binge drinking intensity (i.e., the average number of drinks consumed per binge drinking occasion). section sign During 1991-2007, the prevalence of current drinking paragraph sign among high school students declined significantly, from 50.8% (1991) to 44.7% (2007), and then significantly declined to 32.8% in 2015. The prevalence of binge drinking** increased from 31.3% in 1991 to 31.5% in 1999, and then significantly declined to 17.7% in 2015. Most high school students who drank were binge drinkers (57.8%), and 43.8% of binge drinkers consumed eight or more drinks in a row. Despite progress, current drinking and binge drinking are common among high school students, and many students who binge drink do so at high intensity (i.e., eight or more drinks in a row). Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing excessive drinking (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes, regulating alcohol outlet density, and having commercial host liability laws) could help reduce underage drinking and related harms.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Exposure characteristics of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome patients, United States, 1993-2015External
        de St Maurice A, Ervin E, Schumacher M, Yaglom H, VinHatton E, Melman S, Komatsu K, House J, Peterson D, Buttke D, Ryan A, Yazzie D, Manning C, Ettestad P, Rollin P, Knust B.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2017 May;23(5):733-739.

        Those at highest risk are persons in occupations with potential for rodent exposure and American Indian women 40–64 years of age.

      2. Variation in tularemia clinical manifestations-Arkansas, 2009-2013External
        Lester Rothfeldt LK, Jacobs RF, Wheeler JG, Weinstein S, Haselow DT.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017 Winter;4(1):ofx027.

        BACKGROUND: Francisella tularensis, although naturally occurring in Arkansas, is also a Tier 1 select agent and potential bioterrorism threat. As such, tularemia is nationally notifiable and mandatorily reported to the Arkansas Department of Health. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics among reported cases and outcomes to improve understanding of the epidemiology of tularemia in Arkansas. METHODS: Surveillance records on all tularemia cases investigated during 2009-2013 were reviewed. RESULTS: The analytic dataset was assembled from 284 tularemia reports, yielding 138 probable and confirmed tularemia cases during 2009-2013. Arthropod bite was identified in 77% of cases. Of 7 recognized tularemia manifestations, the typhoidal form was reported in 47% of cases, approximately double the proportion of the more classic manifestation, lymphadenopathy. Overall, 41% of patients were hospitalized; 3% died. The typhoidal form appeared to be more severe, accounting for the majority of sepsis and meningitis cases, hospitalizations, and deaths. Among patients with available antibiotic data, 88% received doxycycline and 12% received gentamicin. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectation, lymphadenopathy was not the most common manifestation observed in our registry. Instead, our patients were more likely to report only generalized typhoidal symptoms. Using lymphadenopathy as a primary symptom to initiate tularemia testing may be an insensitive diagnostic strategy and result in unrecognized cases. In endemic areas such as Arkansas, suspicion of tularemia should be high, especially during tick season. Outreach to clinicians describing the full range of presenting symptoms may help address misperceptions about tularemia.

      3. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in humanized mice reveals glial cells as primary targets of neurological infectionExternal
        Spengler JR, Keating MK, McElroy AK, Zivcec M, Coleman-McCray JD, Harmon JR, Bollweg BC, Goldsmith CS, Bergeron E, Keck JG, Zaki SR, Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF.
        J Infect Dis. 2017 May 08.

        Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic disease seen exclusively in humans. Central nervous system (CNS) infection and neurological involvement have also been reported in CCHF. Here we inoculated NSGTM-SGM3 mice engrafted with human hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells with low passage CCHF virus strains isolated from human patients. Humanized mice develop lethal disease characterized by histopathological change in the liver and brain. To date, targets of neuroinfection and neuropathology have not been investigated in CCHF. CNS disease in humanized mice was characterized by gliosis, meningitis and meningoencephalitis, and glial cells were identified as principal targets of infection. Humanized mice represent a novel lethal model for studies of CCHF countermeasures, and CCHF-associated CNS disease. Our data suggests a role for astrocyte dysfunction in neurologic disease, and distinguish key regions of infection in the CNS for future investigations of CCHF.

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