Issue 19, May 16, 2017

CDC Science Clips: Volume 9, Issue 19, May 16, 2017

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
    Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from the last 3 to 6 months of published literature. Key topic coincides monthly with other CDC products (e.g. Vital Signs).
    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. The Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum L.) is the primary vector for pathogens of significant public health importance in North America, yet relatively little is known about its current and potential future distribution. Building on a published summary of tick collection records, we used an ensemble modeling approach to predict the present-day and future distribution of climatically suitable habitat for establishment of the Lone star tick within the continental United States. Of the nine climatic predictor variables included in our five present-day models, average vapor pressure in July was by far the most important determinant of suitable habitat. The present-day ensemble model predicted an essentially contiguous distribution of suitable habitat extending to the Atlantic coast east of the 100th western meridian and south of the 40th northern parallel, but excluding a high elevation region associated with the Appalachian Mountains. Future ensemble predictions for 2061-2080 forecasted a stable western range limit, northward expansion of suitable habitat into the Upper Midwest and western Pennsylvania, and range contraction along portions of the Gulf coast and the lower Mississippi river valley. These findings are informative for raising awareness of A. americanum-transmitted pathogens in areas where the Lone Star tick has recently or may become established.

      2. Rickettsia parkeri: a newly recognized cause of spotted fever rickettsiosis in the United StatesExternal
        Paddock CD, Sumner JW, Comer JA, Zaki SR, Goldsmith CS, Goddard J, McLellan SL, Tamminga CL, Ohl CA.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Mar 15;38(6):805-11.

        Ticks, including many that bite humans, are hosts to several obligate intracellular bacteria in the spotted fever group (SFG) of the genus Rickettsia. Only Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, has been definitively associated with disease in humans in the United States. Herein we describe disease in a human caused by Rickettsia parkeri, an SFG rickettsia first identified >60 years ago in Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) collected from the southern United States. Confirmation of the infection was accomplished using serological testing, immunohistochemical staining, cell culture isolation, and molecular methods. Application of specific laboratory assays to clinical specimens obtained from patients with febrile, eschar-associated illnesses following a tick bite may identify additional cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis and possibly other novel SFG rickettsioses in the United States.

      3. [No abstract]

      4. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, as well as causative agents of anaplasmosis and babesiosis. Its close relative in the far western United States, the western blacklegged tick Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, is the primary vector to humans in that region of the Lyme disease and anaplasmosis agents. Since 1991, when standardized surveillance and reporting began, Lyme disease case counts have increased steadily in number and in geographical distribution in the eastern United States. Similar trends have been observed for anaplasmosis and babesiosis. To better understand the changing landscape of risk of human exposure to disease agents transmitted by I. scapularis and I. pacificus, and to document changes in their recorded distribution over the past two decades, we updated the distribution of these species from a map published in 1998. The presence of I. scapularis has now been documented from 1,420 (45.7%) of the 3,110 continental United States counties, as compared with 111 (3.6%) counties for I. pacificus. Combined, these vectors of B. burgdorferi and other disease agents now have been identified in a total of 1,531 (49.2%) counties spread across 43 states. This marks a 44.7% increase in the number of counties that have recorded the presence of these ticks since the previous map was presented in 1998, when 1,058 counties in 41 states reported the ticks to be present. Notably, the number of counties in which I. scapularis is considered established (six or more individuals or one or more life stages identified in a single year) has more than doubled since the previous national distribution map was published nearly two decades ago. The majority of county status changes occurred in the North-Central and Northeastern states, whereas the distribution in the South remained fairly stable. Two previously distinct foci for I. scapularis in the Northeast and North-Central states appear to be merging in the Ohio River Valley to form a single contiguous focus. Here we document a shifting landscape of risk for human exposure to medically important ticks and point to areas of re-emergence where enhanced vector surveillance and control may be warranted.

      5. In the 1980s, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and rodents were recognized as the principal vector and reservoir hosts of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the eastern United States, and deer were incriminated as principal hosts for I. scapularis adults. These realizations led to pioneering studies aiming to reduce the risk for transmission of B. burgdorferi to humans by attacking host-seeking ticks with acaricides, interrupting the enzootic transmission cycle by killing immatures infesting rodent reservoirs by means of acaricide-treated nesting material, or reducing deer abundance to suppress tick numbers. We review the progress over the past three decades in the fields of: 1) prevention of human-tick contact with repellents and permethrin-treated clothing, and 2) suppression of I. scapularis and disruption of enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission with environmentally based control methods. Personal protective measures include synthetic and natural product-based repellents that can be applied to skin and clothing, permethrin sprays for clothing and gear, and permethrin-treated clothing. A wide variety of approaches and products to suppress I. scapularis or disrupt enzootic B. burgdorferi transmission have emerged and been evaluated in field trials. Application of synthetic chemical acaricides is a robust method to suppress host-seeking I. scapularis ticks within a treated area for at least 6-8 wk. Natural product-based acaricides or entomopathogenic fungi have emerged as alternatives to kill host-seeking ticks for homeowners who are unwilling to use synthetic chemical acaricides. However, as compared with synthetic chemical acaricides, these approaches appear less robust in terms of both their killing efficacy and persistence. Use of rodent-targeted topical acaricides represents an alternative for homeowners opposed to open distribution of acaricides to the ground and vegetation on their properties. This host-targeted approach also provides the benefit of the intervention impacting the entire rodent home range. Rodent-targeted oral vaccines against B. burgdorferi and a rodent-targeted antibiotic bait have been evaluated in laboratory and field trials but are not yet commercially available. Targeting of deer-via deer reduction or treatment of deer with topical acaricides-can provide area-wide suppression of host-seeking I. scapularis These two deer-targeted approaches combine great potential for protection that impacts the entire landscape with severe problems relating to public acceptance or implementation logistics. Integrated use of two or more methods has unfortunately been evaluated in very few published studies, but additional field evaluations of integrated tick and pathogen strategies are underway.

      6. No visible dental staining in children treated with doxycycline for suspected Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverExternal
        Todd SR, Dahlgren FS, Traeger MS, Beltran-Aguilar ED, Marianos DW, Hamilton C, McQuiston JH, Regan JJ.
        J Pediatr. 2015 May;166(5):1246-51.

        OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cosmetically relevant dental effects occurred among children who had received doxycycline for treatment of suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). STUDY DESIGN: Children who lived on an American Indian reservation with high incidence of RMSF were classified as exposed or unexposed to doxycycline, based on medical and pharmacy record abstraction. Licensed, trained dentists examined each child’s teeth and evaluated visible staining patterns and enamel hypoplasia. Objective tooth color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer. RESULTS: Fifty-eight children who received an average of 1.8 courses of doxycycline before 8 years of age and who now had exposed permanent teeth erupted were compared with 213 children who had never received doxycycline. No tetracycline-like staining was observed in any of the exposed children’s teeth (0/58, 95% CI 0%-5%), and no significant difference in tooth shade (P=.20) or hypoplasia (P=1.0) was found between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to demonstrate dental staining, enamel hypoplasia, or tooth color differences among children who received short-term courses of doxycycline at <8 years of age. Healthcare provider confidence in use of doxycycline for suspected RMSF in children may be improved by modifying the drug’s label.

      7. Identification of a novel pathogenic Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia: a descriptive studyExternal
        Pritt BS, Mead PS, Johnson DK, Neitzel DF, Respicio-Kingry LB, Davis JP, Schiffman E, Sloan LM, Schriefer ME, Replogle AJ, Paskewitz SM, Ray JA, Bjork J, Steward CR, Deedon A, Lee X, Kingry LC, Miller TK, Feist MA, Theel ES, Patel R, Irish CL, Petersen JM.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 May;16(5):556-64.

        BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis is the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. It is a multisystem disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies and characterised by tissue localisation and low spirochaetaemia. In this study we aimed to describe a novel Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in the USA. METHODS: At the Mayo clinic, from 2003 to 2014, we tested routine clinical diagnostic specimens from patients in the USA with PCR targeting the oppA1 gene of B burgdorferi sensu lato. We identified positive specimens with an atypical PCR result (melting temperature outside of the expected range) by sequencing, microscopy, or culture. We collected Ixodes scapularis ticks from regions of suspected patient tick exposure and tested them by oppA1 PCR. FINDINGS: 100 545 specimens were submitted by physicians for routine PCR from Jan 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2014. From these samples, six clinical specimens (five blood, one synovial fluid) yielded an atypical oppA1 PCR product, but no atypical results were detected before 2012. Five of the six patients with atypical PCR results had presented with fever, four had diffuse or focal rash, three had symptoms suggestive of neurological inclusion, and two were admitted to hospital. The sixth patient presented with knee pain and swelling. Motile spirochaetes were seen in blood samples from one patient and cultured from blood samples from two patients. Among the five blood specimens, the median oppA1 copy number was 180 times higher than that in 13 specimens that tested positive for B burgdorferi sensu stricto during the same time period. Multigene sequencing identified the spirochaete as a novel B burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies. This same genospecies was detected in ticks collected at a probable patient exposure site. INTERPRETATION: We describe a new pathogenic Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies (candidatus Borrelia mayonii) in the upper midwestern USA, which causes Lyme borreliosis with unusually high spirochaetaemia. Clinicians should be aware of this new B burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies, its distinct clinical features, and the usefulness of oppA1 PCR for diagnosis. FUNDING: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases (ELC) Cooperative Agreement and Mayo Clinic Small Grant programme.

      8. Notes from the Field: Rickettsia parkeri Rickettsiosis – Georgia, 2012-2014External
        Straily A, Feldpausch A, Ulbrich C, Schell K, Casillas S, Zaki SR, Denison AM, Condit M, Gabel J, Paddock CD.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Jul 22;65(28):718-9.

        During 2012-2014, five cases of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis were identified by a single urgent care practice in Georgia, located approximately 40 miles southwest of Atlanta. Symptom onset occurred during June-October, and all patients had a known tick bite. Patients ranged in age from 27 to 72 years (median = 53 years), and all were male. The most commonly reported initial signs were erythema (n = 3) and swelling (n = 2) at the site of the bite. Two patients reported fever and a third patient reported a rash and lymphadenopathy without fever. Other symptoms included myalgia (n = 3), chills (n = 3), fatigue (n = 2), arthralgia (n = 2), and headache (n = 2). Eschar biopsy specimens were collected from each patient using a 4-mm or 5-mm punch and placed in 10% neutral buffered formalin or sterile saline. These specimens were tested by immunohistochemical (IHC) stains, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, or cell culture isolation to determine if there was evidence of infection with a Rickettsia species (1). IHC evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in the eschar biopsy specimens in all five cases. In four cases, the biopsy specimens were also positive for R. parkeri by qPCR. The fifth case (specimen positive only by IHC testing) was considered a probable R. parkeri case based on clinical signs and symptoms. R. parkeri was grown in cell culture from one specimen from which isolation was attempted. All patients were treated with oral doxycycline (100 mg twice daily) for a minimum of 10 days, and all recovered.

      9. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other spotted fever group rickettsioses, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis – United StatesExternal
        Biggs HM, Behravesh CB, Bradley KK, Dahlgren FS, Drexler NA, Dumler JS, Folk SM, Kato CY, Lash RR, Levin ML, Massung RF, Nadelman RB, Nicholson WL, Paddock CD, Pritt BS, Traeger MS.
        MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 May 13;65(2):1-44.

        Tickborne rickettsial diseases continue to cause severe illness and death in otherwise healthy adults and children, despite the availability of low-cost, effective antibacterial therapy. Recognition early in the clinical course is critical because this is the period when antibacterial therapy is most effective. Early signs and symptoms of these illnesses are nonspecific or mimic other illnesses, which can make diagnosis challenging. Previously undescribed tickborne rickettsial diseases continue to be recognized, and since 2004, three additional agents have been described as causes of human disease in the United States: Rickettsia parkeri, Ehrlichia muris-like agent, and Rickettsia species 364D. This report updates the 2006 CDC recommendations on the diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases in the United States and includes information on the practical aspects of epidemiology, clinical assessment, treatment, laboratory diagnosis, and prevention of tickborne rickettsial diseases. The CDC Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, in consultation with external clinical and academic specialists and public health professionals, developed this report to assist health care providers and public health professionals to 1) recognize key epidemiologic features and clinical manifestations of tickborne rickettsial diseases, 2) recognize that doxycycline is the treatment of choice for suspected tickborne rickettsial diseases in adults and children, 3) understand that early empiric antibacterial therapy can prevent severe disease and death, 4) request the appropriate confirmatory diagnostic tests and understand their usefulness and limitations, and 5) report probable and confirmed cases of tickborne rickettsial diseases to public health authorities.

      10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever from an unexpected tick vector in ArizonaExternal
        Demma LJ, Traeger MS, Nicholson WL, Paddock CD, Blau DM, Eremeeva ME, Dasch GA, Levin ML, Singleton J, Zaki SR, Cheek JE, Swerdlow DL, McQuiston JH.
        N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 11;353(6):587-94.

        BACKGROUND: Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a life-threatening, tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. This disease is rarely reported in Arizona, and the principal vectors, Dermacentor species ticks, are uncommon in the state. From 2002 through 2004, a focus of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was investigated in rural eastern Arizona. METHODS: We obtained blood and tissue specimens from patients with suspected Rocky Mountain spotted fever and ticks from patients’ homesites. Serologic, molecular, immunohistochemical, and culture assays were performed to identify the causative agent. On the basis of specific laboratory criteria, patients were classified as having confirmed or probable Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection (11 with confirmed and 5 with probable infection) were identified. Of these patients, 13 (81 percent) were children 12 years of age or younger, 15 (94 percent) were hospitalized, and 2 (12 percent) died. Dense populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were found on dogs and in the yards of patients’ homesites. All patients with confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever had contact with tick-infested dogs, and four had a reported history of tick bite preceding the illness. R. rickettsii DNA was detected in nonengorged R. sanguineus ticks collected at one home, and R. rickettsii isolates were cultured from these ticks. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation documents the presence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in eastern Arizona, with common brown dog ticks (R. sanguineus) implicated as a vector of R. rickettsii. The broad distribution of this common tick raises concern about its potential to transmit R. rickettsii in other settings.

      11. Emergence of a new pathogenic Ehrlichia species, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009External
        Pritt BS, Sloan LM, Johnson DK, Munderloh UG, Paskewitz SM, McElroy KM, McFadden JD, Binnicker MJ, Neitzel DF, Liu G, Nicholson WL, Nelson CM, Franson JJ, Martin SA, Cunningham SA, Steward CR, Bogumill K, Bjorgaard ME, Davis JP, McQuiston JH, Warshauer DM, Wilhelm MP, Patel R, Trivedi VA, Eremeeva ME.
        N Engl J Med. 2011 Aug 04;365(5):422-9.

        BACKGROUND: Ehrlichiosis is a clinically important, emerging zoonosis. Only Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii have been thought to cause ehrlichiosis in humans in the United States. Patients with suspected ehrlichiosis routinely undergo testing to ensure proper diagnosis and to ascertain the cause. METHODS: We used molecular methods, culturing, and serologic testing to diagnose and ascertain the cause of cases of ehrlichiosis. RESULTS: On testing, four cases of ehrlichiosis in Minnesota or Wisconsin were found not to be from E. chaffeensis or E. ewingii and instead to be caused by a newly discovered ehrlichia species. All patients had fever, malaise, headache, and lymphopenia; three had thrombocytopenia; and two had elevated liver-enzyme levels. All recovered after receiving doxycycline treatment. At least 17 of 697 Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Minnesota or Wisconsin were positive for the same ehrlichia species on polymerase-chain-reaction testing. Genetic analyses revealed that this new ehrlichia species is closely related to E. muris. CONCLUSIONS: We report a new ehrlichia species in Minnesota and Wisconsin and provide supportive clinical, epidemiologic, culture, DNA-sequence, and vector data. Physicians need to be aware of this newly discovered close relative of E. muris to ensure appropriate testing, treatment, and regional surveillance. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions RSS Word feed
      1. BACKGROUND: To investigate uniformly successful results from a statewide program of patient navigation (PN) for colonoscopy, this comparison study evaluated the effectiveness of the PN intervention by comparing outcomes for navigated versus non-navigated patients in one of the community health clinics included in the statewide program. Outcomes measured included screening completion, adequacy of bowel preparation, missed appointments and cancellations, communication of test results, and consistency of follow-up recommendations with clinical guidelines. METHODS: The authors compared a subset of 131 patients who were navigated to a screening or surveillance colonoscopy with a similar subset of 75 non-navigated patients at one endoscopy clinic. The prevalence and prevalence odds ratios were computed to measure the association between PN and each study outcome measure. RESULTS: Patients in the PN intervention group were 11.2 times more likely to complete colonoscopy than control patients (96.2% vs 69.3%; P<.001), and were 5.9 times more likely to have adequate bowel preparation (P =.010). In addition, intervention patients had no missed appointments compared with 15.6% of control patients, and were 24.8 times more likely to not have a cancellation <24 hours before their appointment (P<.001). All navigated patients and their primary care providers received test results, and all follow-up recommendations were consistent with clinical guidelines compared with 82.4% of patients in the control group (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: PN appears to be effective for improving colonoscopy screening completion and quality in the disparate populations most in need of intervention. To the best of our knowledge, the results of the current study demonstrate some of the strongest evidence for the effectiveness of PN to date, and highlight its value for public health.

      2. Is rapid health improvement possible? Lessons from the million Hearts InitiativeExternal
        Frieden TR, Wright JS, Conway PH.
        Circulation. 2017 May 02;135(18):1677-1680.

        [No abstract]

      3. Million Hearts: Description of the national surveillance and modeling methodology used to monitor the number of cardiovascular events prevented during 2012-2016External
        Ritchey MD, Loustalot F, Wall HK, Steiner CA, Gillespie C, George MG, Wright JS.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 May 02;6(5).

        BACKGROUND: This study describes the national surveillance and modeling methodology developed to monitor achievement of the Million Hearts initiative’s aim of preventing 1 million acute myocardial infarctions, strokes, and other related cardiovascular events during 2012-2016. METHODS AND RESULTS: We calculate sex- and age-specific cardiovascular event rates (combination of emergency department, hospitalization, and death events) among US adults aged >/=18 from 2006 to 2011 and, based on log-linear models fitted to the rates, calculate their annual percent change. We describe 2 baseline strategies to be used to compare observed versus expected event totals during 2012-2016: (1) stable baselines assume no rate changes, with modeled 2011 rates held constant through 2016; and (2) trend baselines assume 2006-2011 rate trends will continue, with the annual percent changes applied to the modeled 2011 rates to calculate expected 2012-2016 rates. Events prevented estimates during 2012-2013 were calculated using available data: 115 210 (95% CI, 60 858, 169 562) events were prevented using stable baselines and an excess of 43 934 (95% CI, -14 264, 102 132) events occurred using trend baselines. Women aged >/=75 had the most events prevented (stable, 76 242 [42 067, 110 417]; trend, 39 049 [1901, 76 197]). Men aged 45 to 64 had the greatest number of excess events (stable, 22 912 [95% CI, 855, 44 969]; trend, 38 810 [95% CI, 15 567, 62 053]). CONCLUSIONS: Around 115 000 events were prevented during the initiative’s first 2 years compared with what would have occurred had 2011 rates remained stable. Recent flattening or reversals in some event rate trends were observed supporting intensifying national action to prevent cardiovascular events.

      4. An online program for caregivers of persons living with dementia: Lessons learnedExternal
        Kovaleva M, Blevins L, Griffiths PC, Hepburn K.
        J Appl Gerontol. 2017 Apr 01:733464817705958.

        The population of individuals living with dementia and their caregivers and the need to provide caregiver training will increase in the next several decades. In-person caregiver educational programs are delimited by logistical and resource boundaries that could be overcome with online programs. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the acceptability and ways to improve the content and delivery of an online 7-week psychoeducational pilot program-Tele-Savvy. Thirty-six caregivers who completed the pilot were interviewed about their experience with Tele-Savvy and their suggestions for its improvement. Conventional content analysis allowed for the identification of three themes: barriers and facilitators to establishing rapport with participants and instructors, content enrichment and diversification, and structural refinement. These lessons learned directly from the caregivers provide evidence to guide the refinement of analogous online interventions and highlight the need for their wider availability.

      5. A longitudinal assessment of adherence to breast and cervical cancer screening recommendations among women with and without intellectual disabilityExternal
        Xu X, McDermott SW, Mann JR, Hardin JW, Deroche CB, Carroll DD, Courtney-Long EA.
        Prev Med. 2017 Apr 25.

        Each year in the United States, about 4000 deaths are attributed to cervical cancer, and over 40,000 deaths are attributed to breast cancer (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2015). The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of full, partial, and no screening for breast and cervical cancer among women with and without intellectual disability (ID) who are within the age group for screening recommended by the U.S. Preventive Service Task Force (USPSTF), while accounting for changes in recommendations over the study period. Women with ID and an age matched comparison group of women without ID were identified using merged South Carolina Medicaid and Medicare files from 2000 to 2010. The sample consisted of 9406 and 16,806 women for mammography screening and Papanicolaou (Pap) testing adherence, respectively. We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and determined that women with ID were significantly less likely than women without ID to be fully adherent compared to no screening with mammography recommendations (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.72), and Pap testing recommendations (AOR: 0.17, 95% CI 0.16-0.19). For the 70% of women with ID for whom we had residential information, those who lived in a group home, medical facility, or supervised community living setting were more likely to be fully adherent with both preventive services than those living alone or with family members. For both outcomes, women residing in a supervised nonmedical community living setting had the highest odds of full adherence, adjusting for other covariates.

    • Communicable Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forecariah, GuineaExternal
        Louis FJ, Huang JY, Nebie YK, Koivogui L, Jayaraman G, Abiola N, Vansteelandt A, Worrel MC, Shang J, Murphy LB, Fitter DL, Marston BJ, Martel L.
        Afr J Lab Med. 2017 31 Mar;6 (1)(a484).

        Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forecariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

      2. : Using data from the National HIV Surveillance System, we examined HIV infections diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 attributed to heterosexual contact with partners previously known to be HIV infected. More than 4 in 10 HIV infections among heterosexual males and 5 in 10 HIV infections among heterosexual females were attributed to this group. Findings may inform the prioritization of prevention and care efforts and resource allocation modeling for reducing new HIV infection among discordant partnerships.

      3. Receipt and timing of HIV drug resistance testing in six U.S. jurisdictionsExternal
        Dasgupta S, Hall HI, Hernandez AL, Ocfemia MC, Saduvala N, Oster AM.
        AIDS Care. 2017 May 03:1-8.

        The Department of Health and Human Services recommends drug resistance testing at linkage to HIV care. Because receipt and timing of testing are not well characterized, we examined testing patterns among persons with diagnosed HIV who are linked to care. Using surveillance data in six jurisdictions for persons aged >/=13 years with HIV infection diagnosed in 2013, we assessed the proportion receiving testing, and among these, the proportion receiving testing at linkage. Multivariable log-binomial regression modeling estimated associations between selected characteristics and receipt of testing (1) overall, and (2) at linkage among those tested. Of 9,408 persons linked to care, 66% received resistance testing, among whom 68% received testing at linkage. Less testing was observed among male persons who inject drugs (PWID), compared with men who have sex with men (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.97) and persons living in areas with population <500,000 compared with those in areas with population >/=2,500,000 (aPR: 0.88; CI: 0.84-0.93). In certain jurisdictions, testing was lower for persons with initial CD4 counts >/=500 cells/mm3, compared with those with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 (aPR range: 0.80-0.85). Of those tested, testing at linkage was lower among male PWID (aPR: 0.85; CI: 0.75-0.95) and, in some jurisdictions, persons with CD4 counts >/=500 cells/mm3 (aPR range: 0.63-0.73). Two-thirds of persons with diagnosed HIV who were linked to care received resistance testing, and most received testing at linkage as recommended. Improving receipt and timing of testing among male PWID, persons in less populous settings, and in all jurisdictions, regardless of CD4 count, may improve care outcomes.

      4. Predictors of survival among adult Ethiopian patients in the National ART Program at seven university teaching hospitals: A prospective cohort studyExternal
        Fekade D, Weldegebreal T, Teklu AM, Damen M, Abdella S, Baraki N, Belayhun B, Berhan E, Kebede A, Assefa Y.
        Ethiop J Health Sci. 2017 Feb;27(Suppl 1):63-71.

        BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, the publicly funded antiretroviral treatment (ART) program was started in 2005. Two hundred seventy-five thousand patients were enrolled in the national ART program by 2012. However, there is limited data on mortality and predictors of death among adult patients in the ART program. The study aimed to estimate mortality and risk factors for death among adult, ART-naive patients, started in the national ART program from January 2009 to July 2013. METHODS: Multi-site, prospective, observational cohort study of adult, age > 18 years, ART-naive patients, started in the national ART program at seven university-affiliated hospitals from January 2009 – July 2013. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate survival and determine risk factors for death. RESULTS: A total of 976 patients, 594 females (60.9 %), were enrolled into the study. Median age of the cohort was 33years. The median CD4 count at start of ART was 144 cells/microl (interquartile range (IQR) 78-205), and 34.2% (330/965) had CD4 < 100. Sixty-three percent (536/851) had viral load greater than 5 log copies/ml (IQR 4.7-5.7) at base line. One hundred and one deaths were recorded during follow-up period, all-cause mortality rate 10.3%; 5.4 deaths/100 person years of observation, 95% confidence interval 4.4-6.5. Seventy percent of the deaths occurred within six months of starting ART. Cox regression analyses showed that the following measures independently predicted mortality: age >51 years, (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 4.01, P=0.003), WHO stages III&IV, (AHR 1.76, p = 0.025), CD4 count, <100, (AHR 2.36, p =0.006), and viral load >5 log copies /ml (CHR 1.71, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: There is high early on- ART mortality in patients presenting with advanced immunodeficiency. Detecting cases and initiating ART before onset of advanced immunodeficiency might improve survival.

      5. Cytokine/chemokine expression associated with Human Pegivirus (HPgV) infection in women with HIVExternal
        Blackard JT, Ma G, Welge JA, Taylor LE, Mayer KH, Klein RS, Celentano DD, Sobel JD, Jamieson DJ, King CC.
        J Med Virol. 2017 Apr 29.

        A beneficial impact of the Human Pegivirus (HPgV) – formerly called GB virus C (GBV-C) – on HIV disease progression has been reported previously. One possible mechanism by which HPgV inhibits HIV replication is an alteration of the cytokine/chemokine milieu. Their expression has not been specifically evaluated in women despite their influence on disease progression and the possibility of gender-based differences in expression. Moreover, the impact of HPgV genotype on cytokine/chemokine expression is unknown. Sera levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IP-10, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and TGF-beta1 were quantified in 150 HIV-positive women based on HPgV RNA status. Cytokines/chemokines with detection rates of at least 50% included IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IP-10, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and TGF-beta1 . Absolute values were significantly higher for HPgV positive compared to HPgV negative women for IL-7, IL-13, IL-12p70, and IFNgamma. Absolute values were significantly lower for HPgV positive women for IL-4, IL-8, TGF-beta1 , and IP-10. IFNgamma values were higher for HPgV genotype 2 than for genotype 1 (p = 0.036). Further study of cytokine/chemokine regulation by HPgV may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat HIV infection and/or the design of vaccine strategies that mimic the ‘protective’ effects of HPgV replication.

      6. INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus infection is a major public health problem worldwide and in Africa. This would be the first ever documented study on epidemiology of Hepatitis B infections in the newly formed Republic of South Sudan. This study was designed to estimate the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection amongst pregnant women attending antenatal services in Juba. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic services in Juba Teaching Hospital, in the period between December 2012 and March 2013. Any pregnant woman, attending antenatal care services at Juba Teaching Hospital, was included if she was a resident of Juba County for at least 1 year before pregnancy. A Hepatitis B case was defined as any women participating in the study and was found to be positive for HbsAg and confirmed by ELISA. RESULTS: This study documented that the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending ANC in Juba was 11% (31 out of the 280 samples). Other samples tested were indeterminate (36%), naturally immune (27.1%), susceptible (23%) and the remaining 1.8% was immune due to vaccination. Significant risk factors for Hepatitis B infection were loss of partner (OR 4.4 and CI of 1.4-13.9) and history of Jaundice (OR 1.7 and CI of 1.2-2.1). CONCLUSION: These study findings show that only 29% of infants in Juba county are born to immune mothers (naturally or vaccine induced). The remaining 70% of babies would be at risk of infection, if a birth dose of Hepatitis B is not provided. We therefore recommended introduction of Hepatitis B Vaccine birth dose into routine infants’ vaccination series to eliminate this risk.

      7. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with IL-6 levels and monocyte activation in HIV-infected personsExternal
        Manion M, Hullsiek KH, Wilson EM, Rhame F, Kojic E, Gibson D, Hammer J, Patel P, Brooks JT, Baker JV, Sereti I.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(5):e0175517.

        BACKGROUND: Immune activation plays a key role in HIV pathogenesis. Markers of inflammation have been associated with vitamin D deficiency in the general population. Studies have also demonstrated associations of vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of HIV progression and death. The relationship between persistent inflammation and immune activation during chronic HIV infection and vitamin D deficiency remains unclear. METHODS: Cryopreserved specimens were analyzed from 663 participants at the time of enrollment from the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV/AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study) from 2004 to 2006. Biomarkers of inflammation, atherosclerosis, and coagulation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and electrochemiluminescence. 25(OH)D, the stable precursor form of vitamin D, was measured using a radioimmunoassay with levels defined as: normal (>/=30ng/mL), insufficient (20-29 ng/mL) and deficient (<20 ng/mL). Monocyte phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. Linear and logistic regression models were used to determine statistical associations between biomarkers and vitamin D deficiency. RESULTS: 25(OH)D levels were deficient in 251 (38%) participants, insufficient in 222 (34%), and normal in 190 (29%). Patients with vitamin D deficiency, when compared to those with insufficient or normal vitamin D levels, had increased levels of IL-6 (23%; p<0.01), TNF-alpha (21%, p = 0.03), D-dimer (24%, p = 0.01), higher proportions of CD14dimCD16+ (22%, p<0.01) and CX3CR1+ monocytes (48%; p<0.001) and decreased frequency of CCR2+ monocytes (-3.4%, p<0.001). In fully adjusted models, vitamin D associations with abnormal biomarker levels persisted for IL-6 levels and CX3CR1+ and CCR2+ phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with greater inflammation and activated monocyte phenotypes. The role of vitamin D deficiency in persistent immune activation and associated complications during chronic HIV disease should be further evaluated as a possible target for intervention.

      8. HIV acquisition and transmission among men who have sex with men and women: What we know and how to prevent itExternal
        McCree DH, Oster AM, Jeffries WL, Denson DJ, Lima AC, Whitman H, Ivy W, Henny KD.
        Prev Med. 2017 Apr 24;100:132-134.

        Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) compose a subset of men who have sex with men (MSM) and represent an estimated 35% of MSM. Research on the HIV risk behaviors of MSMW has largely focused on their behaviors in comparison to men who have sex with men only (MSMO). Results suggest that compared to MSMO, MSMW are less likely to have ever had an HIV test, are at greater risk of being unaware of their HIV infection and are less likely to have encountered HIV prevention activities or materials. Additional research is needed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the unique sexual behaviors and lived experience of MSMW as a group in order to better inform HIV prevention efforts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing data and discuss strategies to reduce HIV acquisition and transmission among MSMW.

      9. An increase in sexually transmitted infections seen in US emergency departmentsExternal
        Pearson WS, Peterman TA, Gift TL.
        Prev Med. 2017 Apr 26;100:143-144.

        Surveillance data show that there is an increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and we believe that because of this increased incidence, coupled with a deteriorating public health infrastructure, these STIs are being seen more often in emergency departments. Therefore, we used six years of the most recently available nationally-representative emergency department data to show an increase in the number of emergency department visits where a sexually transmitted infection was treated. We further described the population for these visits.

      10. Transmission fitness of drug-resistant HIV revealed in a surveillance system transmission networkExternal
        Wertheim JO, Oster AM, Johnson JA, Switzer WM, Saduvala N, Hernandez AL, Hall HI, Heneine W.
        Virus Evol. 2017 Jan;3(1):vex008.

        Test-and-treat programs are central to the global control of HIV, but transmitted drug resistance threatens the effectiveness of these programs. HIV mutations conferring resistance to antiretroviral drugs reduce replicative fitness in vitro, but their effect on propagation in vivo is less understood. Here, we estimate transmission fitness of these mutations in antiretroviral-naive populations in the U.S. National HIV Surveillance System by comparing their frequency of clustering in a genetic transmission network relative with wild-type viruses. The large dataset (66,221 persons), comprising 30,196 antiretroviral-naive persons, permitted the evaluation of sixty-nine resistance mutations. Decreased transmission fitness was demonstrated for twenty-three mutations, including M184V. In contrast, many high prevalence mutations (e.g. K103N, Y181C, and L90M) had transmission fitness that was indistinguishable from or exceeded wild-type fitness, permitting the establishment of large, self-sustaining drug resistance reservoirs. We highlight implications of these findings on strategies to preserve global treatment effectiveness.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors RSS Word feed
      1. Filoviruses and batsExternal
        Schuh AJ, Amman BR, Towner JS.
        Microbiol Aust. 2017 ;38(1):12-16.

        This article discusses the filovirus history and geographic range; evidence suggests that bats are natural reservoir hosts of the filoviruses; Rousettus aegyptiacus identified as a natural reservoir host for the marburgviruses; natural history of MARV infection in R. aegyptiacus; search for the natural reservoir hosts of the ebolaviruses; and expectations of a filovirus natural reservoir host.

    • Drug Safety RSS Word feed
      1. Moving antibiotic stewardship from theory to practiceExternal
        Patel PK, Srinivasan A.
        J Hosp Med. 2017 May;12(5):382-383.

        [No abstract]

    • Health Behavior and Risk RSS Word feed
      1. BACKGROUND: Previous research on associations between early sexual debut and other health risk behaviors has not examined the effect of forced sexual intercourse on those associations. METHODS: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 19,240 high school students in the United States, age >/=16 years, to describe the effect of forced sexual intercourse on associations between early sexual debut and other health risk behaviors using adjusted prevalence ratios (APR). RESULTS: Early sexual debut and forced sexual intercourse were simultaneously and independently associated with sexual risk-taking, violence-related behaviors, and substance use. For example, even after controlling for forced sexual intercourse and race/ethnicity, students who experienced their first sexual intercourse before age 13 years were more likely than students who initiated sexual intercourse at age >/=16 years to have had >/=4 sexual partners during their lifetime (girls, APR = 4.55; boys, APR = 5.82) and to have not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (girls, APR = 1.74; boys, APR = 1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Associations between early sexual debut and other health risk behaviors occur independently of forced sexual intercourse. School-based sexual health education programs might appropriately include strategies that encourage delay of initiation of sexual intercourse, and coordinate with violence and substance use prevention programs.

    • Health Disparities RSS Word feed
      1. Vital signs: Racial disparities in age-specific mortality among blacks or African Americans – United States, 1999-2015External
        Cunningham TJ, Croft JB, Liu Y, Lu H, Eke PI, Giles WH.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 05;66(17):444-456.

        BACKGROUND: Although the overall life expectancy at birth has increased for both blacks and whites and the gap between these populations has narrowed, disparities in life expectancy and the leading causes of death for blacks compared with whites in the United States remain substantial. Understanding how factors that influence these disparities vary across the life span might enhance the targeting of appropriate interventions. METHODS: Trends during 1999-2015 in mortality rates for the leading causes of death were examined by black and white race and age group. Multiple 2014 and 2015 national data sources were analyzed to compare blacks with whites in selected age groups by sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health behaviors, health-related quality of life indicators, use of health services, and chronic conditions. RESULTS: During 1999-2015, age-adjusted death rates decreased significantly in both populations, with rates declining more sharply among blacks for most leading causes of death. Thus, the disparity gap in all-cause mortality rates narrowed from 33% in 1999 to 16% in 2015. However, during 2015, blacks still had higher death rates than whites for all-cause mortality in all groups aged <65 years. Compared with whites, blacks in age groups <65 years had higher levels of some self-reported risk factors and chronic diseases and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and cancer, diseases that are most common among persons aged >/=65 years. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: To continue to reduce the gap in health disparities, these findings suggest an ongoing need for universal and targeted interventions that address the leading causes of deaths among blacks (especially cardiovascular disease and cancer and their risk factors) across the life span and create equal opportunities for health.

    • Health Economics RSS Word feed
      1. Global economic burden of diabetes and its implicationsExternal
        Zhang P, Gregg E.
        Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017 Apr 26.

        [No abstract]

      2. Cost effectiveness of a targeted age-based West Nile virus vaccination programExternal
        Shankar MB, Staples JE, Meltzer MI, Fischer M.
        Vaccine. 2017 Apr 26.

        BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically-acquired arboviral disease in the United States. Several WNV vaccines are in various stages of development. We estimate the cost-effectiveness of WNV vaccination programs targeting groups at increased risk for severe WNV disease. METHODS: We used a mathematical model to estimate costs and health outcomes of vaccination with WNV vaccine compared to no vaccination among seven cohorts, spaced at 10year intervals from ages 10 to 70years, each followed until 90-years-old. U.S. surveillance data were used to estimate WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence. Data for WNV seroprevalence, acute and long-term care costs of WNV disease patients, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and vaccine characteristics were obtained from published reports. We assumed vaccine efficacy to either last lifelong or for 10years with booster doses given every 10years. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in cost-effectiveness ratios across cohorts in both models and all outcomes assessed (Kruskal-Wallis test p<0.0001). The 60-year-cohort had a mean cost per neuroinvasive disease case prevented of $664,000 and disability averted of $1,421,000 in lifelong model and $882,000 and $1,887,000, respectively in 10-year immunity model; these costs were statistically significantly lower than costs for other cohorts (p<0.0001). Vaccinating 70-year-olds had the lowest cost per death averted in both models at around $4.7 million (95%CI $2-$8 million). Cost per disease case averted was lowest among 40- and 50-year-old cohorts and cost per QALY saved lowest among 60-year cohorts in lifelong immunity model. The models were most sensitive to disease incidence, vaccine cost, and proportion of persons developing disease among infected. CONCLUSIONS: Age-based WNV vaccination program targeting those at higher risk for severe disease is more cost-effective than universal vaccination. Annual variation in WNV disease incidence, QALY weights, and vaccine costs impact the cost effectiveness ratios.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections RSS Word feed
      1. BACKGROUND: Although pneumonia is a leading cause of death in New York City (NYC), limited data exist about the settings in which pneumonia is acquired across NYC. Pneumonia acquired in community settings are more likely to be preventable with vaccines and treatable with first-line antibiotics than those acquired in non-community settings. Our objective was to estimate the burden of hospitalizations associated with community-acquired (CAP)-, healthcare-associated (HCAP)-, hospital-acquired (HAP)-, and ventilator-associated (VAP) pneumonia during 2010-2014. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of an all-payer reporting system of hospital discharges that included NYC residents aged >/=18 years. Pneumonia-associated hospitalizations were defined as any hospitalization that included a diagnostic code for pneumonia among any of the discharge diagnoses. Using published clinical guidelines, we classified hospitalizations into mutually exclusive categories of CAP, HCAP, HAP, and VAP and defined pneumonia acquired in the community setting as the combination of CAP and HCAP. RESULTS: Of 4,614,108 hospitalizations during the reporting period, 283,927 (6.2%) involved pneumonia. Among pneumonia-associated hospitalizations, 154,158 (54.3%) were CAP, 85,656 (30.2%) HCAP, 39,712 (14.0%) HAP, and 4,401 (1.6%) VAP. Death during hospitalization occurred in 7.9% of CAP-associated hospitalizations, compared with 15.7% of HCAP-associated hospitalizations, 20.7% of HAP-associated hospitalizations, and 21.6% of VAP-associated hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: Most pneumonia-associated hospitalizations in NYC involve pneumonias acquired in the community setting. Only 15.6% of pneumonia-associated hospitalizations were categorized as HAP or VAP, yet these pneumonias accounted for >25% of deaths from pneumonia-associated hospitalizations. Public health pneumonia prevention efforts need to target both community and hospital settings.

    • Immunity and Immunization RSS Word feed
      1. Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among girls before 13 years: A birth year cohort analysis of the National Immunization Survey-Teen, 2008-2013External
        Jeyarajah J, Elam-Evans LD, Stokley S, Smith PJ, Singleton JA.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2016 Sep;55(10):904-14.

        Routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended at 11 or 12 years by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. National Immunization Survey-Teen data were analyzed to evaluate, among girls, coverage with one or more doses of HPV vaccination, missed opportunities for HPV vaccination, and potential achievable coverage before 13 years. Results were stratified by birth year cohorts. HPV vaccination coverage before 13 years (>/=1 HPV dose) increased from 28.4% for girls born in 1995 to 46.8% for girls born in 2000. Among girls born during 1999-2000 who had not received HPV vaccination before 13 years (57.2%), 80.1% had at least 1 missed opportunity to receive HPV vaccination before 13 years. Opportunities to vaccinate for HPV at age 11 to 12 years are missed. Strategies are needed to decrease these missed opportunities for HPV vaccination. This can be facilitated by the administration of all vaccines recommended for adolescents at the same visit.

      2. Improving human papillomavirus vaccine use in an integrated health system: Impact of a provider and staff interventionExternal
        McLean HQ, VanWormer JJ, Chow BD, Birchmeier B, Vickers E, DeVries E, Meyer J, Moore J, McNeil MM, Stokley S, Gee J, Belongia EA.
        J Adolesc Health. 2017 Apr 24.

        PURPOSE: Acceptance and coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States has been suboptimal. We implemented a multifaceted provider and staff intervention over a 1-year period to promote HPV vaccination in a regional health care system. METHODS: The intervention was conducted in nine clinical departments from February 2015 to March 2016; 34 other departments served as controls. The intervention included in-person provider and staff education, quarterly feedback of vaccine coverage, and system-wide changes to patient reminder and recall notifications. Change in first-dose HPV vaccine coverage and series completion were estimated among 11- to 12-year-olds using generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: HPV vaccine coverage in the intervention departments increased from 41% to 59%, and the increase was significantly greater than that seen in the control departments (32%-45%, p = .0002). The largest increase occurred in the quarter after completion of the provider and staff education and a patient reminder and recall postcard mailing (p = .004). Series completion also increased significantly system wide among adolescents aged 11-12 years following mailing of HPV vaccine reminder letters to parents of adolescents aged 12 years rather than 16 years. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccine uptake can be improved through a multifaceted approach that includes provider and staff education and patient reminder/recall. System-level change to optimize reminder and recall notices can have substantial impact on HPV vaccine utilization.

      3. Addressing a Yellow Fever vaccine shortage – United States, 2016-2017External
        Gershman MD, Angelo KM, Ritchey J, Greenberg DP, Muhammad RD, Brunette G, Cetron MS, Sotir MJ.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 05;66(17):457-459.

        Recent manufacturing problems resulted in a shortage of the only U.S.-licensed yellow fever vaccine. This shortage is expected to lead to a complete depletion of yellow fever vaccine available for the immunization of U.S. travelers by mid-2017. CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and Sanofi Pasteur are collaborating to ensure a continuous yellow fever vaccine supply in the United States. As part of this collaboration, Sanofi Pasteur submitted an expanded access investigational new drug (eIND) application to FDA in September 2016 to allow for the importation and use of an alternative yellow fever vaccine manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur France, with safety and efficacy comparable to the U.S.-licensed vaccine; the eIND was accepted by FDA in October 2016. The implementation of this eIND protocol included developing a systematic process for selecting a limited number of clinic sites to provide the vaccine. CDC and Sanofi Pasteur will continue to communicate with the public and other stakeholders, and CDC will provide a list of locations that will be administering the replacement vaccine at a later date.

      4. Progress toward measles elimination – African Region, 2013-2016External
        Masresha BG, Dixon MG, Kriss JL, Katsande R, Shibeshi ME, Luce R, Fall A, Dosseh A, Byabamazima CR, Dabbagh AJ, Goodson JL, Mihigo R.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 May 05;66(17):436-443.

        In 2011, the 46 World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR) member states established a goal of measles elimination by 2020, by achieving 1) >/=95% coverage of their target populations with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) at national and district levels; 2) >/=95% coverage with measles-containing vaccine (MCV) per district during supplemental immunization activities (SIAs); and 3) confirmed measles incidence of <1 case per 1 million population in all countries. Two key surveillance performance indicator targets include 1) investigating >/=2 cases of nonmeasles febrile rash illness per 100,000 population annually, and 2) obtaining a blood specimen from >/=1 suspected measles case in >/=80% of districts annually (2). This report updates the previous report (3) and describes progress toward measles elimination in AFR during 2013-2016. Estimated regional MCV1 coveragedagger increased from 71% in 2013 to 74% in 2015. section sign Seven (15%) countries achieved >/=95% MCV1 coverage in 2015. paragraph sign The number of countries providing a routine second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 11 (24%) in 2013 to 23 (49%) in 2015. Forty-one (79%) of 52 SIAs during 2013-2016 reported >/=95% coverage. Both surveillance targets were met in 19 (40%) countries in 2016. Confirmed measles incidence in AFR decreased from 76.3 per 1 million population to 27.9 during 2013-2016. To eliminate measles by 2020, AFR countries and partners need to 1) achieve >/=95% 2-dose MCV coverage through improved immunization services, including second dose (MCV2) introduction; 2) improve SIA quality by preparing 12-15 months in advance, and using readiness, intra-SIA, and post-SIA assessment tools; 3) fully implement elimination-standard surveillance; 4) conduct annual district-level risk assessments; and 5) establish national committees and a regional commission for the verification of measles elimination.

      5. Surveillance of vaccination coverage among adult populations – United States, 2015External
        Williams WW, Lu PJ, O’Halloran A, Kim DK, Grohskopf LA, Pilishvili T, Skoff TH, Nelson NP, Harpaz R, Markowitz LE, Rodriguez-Lainz A, Fiebelkorn AP.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017 May 05;66(11):1-28.

        PROBLEM/CONDITION: Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. PERIOD COVERED: August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2015 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. RESULTS: Compared with data from the 2014 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for influenza vaccine among adults aged >/=19 years (a 1.6 percentage point increase compared with the 2013-14 season to 44.8%), pneumococcal vaccine among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk for pneumococcal disease (a 2.8 percentage point increase to 23.0%), Tdap vaccine among adults aged >/=19 years and adults aged 19-64 years (a 3.1 percentage point and 3.3 percentage point increase to 23.1% and to 24.7%, respectively), herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged >/=60 years and adults aged >/=65 years (a 2.7 percentage point and 3.2 percentage point increase to 30.6% and to 34.2%, respectively), and hepatitis B vaccine among health care personnel (HCP) aged >/=19 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 64.7%). Herpes zoster vaccination coverage in 2015 met the Healthy People 2020 target of 30%. Aside from these modest improvements, vaccination coverage among adults in 2015 was similar to estimates from 2014. Racial/ethnic differences in coverage persisted for all seven vaccines, with higher coverage generally for whites compared with most other groups. Adults without health insurance reported receipt of influenza vaccine (all age groups), pneumococcal vaccine (adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk), Td vaccine (adults aged >/=19 years, 19-64 years, and 50-64 years), Tdap vaccine (adults aged >/=19 years and 19-64 years), hepatitis A vaccine (adults aged >/=19 years overall and among travelers), hepatitis B vaccine (adults aged >/=19 years, 19-49 years, and among travelers), herpes zoster vaccine (adults aged >/=60 years), and HPV vaccine (males and females aged 19-26 years) less often than those with health insurance. Adults who reported having a usual place for health care generally reported receipt of recommended vaccinations more often than those who did not have such a place, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Vaccination coverage was higher among adults reporting one or more physician contacts in the past year compared with those who had not visited a physician in the past year, regardless of whether they had health insurance. Even among adults who had health insurance and >/=10 physician contacts within the past year, depending on the vaccine, 18.2%-85.6% reported not having received vaccinations that were recommended either for all persons or for those with specific indications. Overall, vaccination coverage among U.S.-born adults was higher than that among foreign-born adults, with few exceptions (influenza vaccination [adults aged 19-49 years and 50-64 years], hepatitis A vaccination [adults aged >/=19 years], and hepatitis B vaccination [adults aged >/=19 years with diabetes or chronic liver conditions]). INTERPRETATION: Coverage for all vaccines for adults remained low but modest gains occurred in vaccination coverage for influenza (adults aged >/=19 years), pneumococcal (adults aged 19-64 years with increased risk), Tdap (adults aged >/=19 years and adults aged 19-64 years), herpes zoster (adults aged >/=60 years and >/=65 years), and hepatitis B (HCP aged >/=19 years); coverage for other vaccines and groups with vaccination indications did not improve. The 30% Healthy People 2020 target for herpes zoster vaccination was met. Racial/ethnic disparities persisted for routinely recommended adult vaccines. Missed opportunities to vaccinate remained. Although having health insurance coverage and a usual place for health care were associated with higher vaccination coverage, these factors alone were not associated with optimal adult vaccination coverage. HPV vaccination coverage for males and females has increased since CDC recommended vaccination to prevent cancers caused by HPV, but many adolescents and young adults remained unvaccinated. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: Assessing factors associated with low coverage rates and disparities in vaccination is important for implementing strategies to improve vaccination coverage. Evidence-based practices that have been demonstrated to improve vaccination coverage should be used. These practices include assessment of patients’ vaccination indications by health care providers and routine recommendation and offer of needed vaccines to adults, implementation of reminder-recall systems, use of standing-order programs for vaccination, and assessment of practice-level vaccination rates with feedback to staff members. For vaccination coverage to be improved among those who reported lower coverage rates of recommended adult vaccines, efforts also are needed to identify adults who do not have a regular provider or insurance and who report fewer health care visits.

      6. Association of influenza vaccination during pregnancy with birth outcomes in NicaraguaExternal
        Arriola CS, Vasconez N, Thompson MG, Olsen SJ, Moen AC, Bresee J, Ropero AM.
        Vaccine. 2017 Apr 29.

        BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces the risk of influenza disease in pregnant women and their offspring. Some have proposed that maternal vaccination may also have beneficial effects on birth outcomes. In 2014, we conducted an observational study to test this hypothesis using data from two large hospitals in Managua, Nicaragua. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate associations between influenza vaccination and birth outcomes. We carried out interviews and reviewed medical records post-partum to collect data on demographics, influenza vaccination during pregnancy, birth outcomes and other risk factors associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. We used influenza surveillance data to adjust for timing of influenza circulation. We assessed self-reports of influenza vaccination status by further reviewing medical records of those who self-reported but did not have readily available evidence of vaccination status. We performed multiple logistic regression (MLR) and propensity score matching (PSM). RESULTS: A total of 3268 women were included in the final analysis. Of these, 55% had received influenza vaccination in 2014. Overall, we did not observe statistically significant associations between influenza vaccination and birth outcomes after adjusting for risk factors, with either MLR or PSM. With PSM, after adjusting for risk factors, we observed protective associations between influenza vaccination in the second and third trimester and preterm birth (aOR: 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.99 and aOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45-0.96, respectively) and between influenza vaccination in the second trimester and low birth weight (aOR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.64-0.97). CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence to support an association between influenza vaccination and birth outcomes by trimester of receipt with data from an urban population in Nicaragua. The study had significant selection and recall biases. Prospective studies are needed to minimize these biases.

      7. BACKGROUND: Since April 2016 inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) has been the only routine source of polio type 2 protection worldwide. With IPV supply constraints, data on comparability of immunogenicity and safety will be important to optimally utilize available supplies from different manufacturers. METHODS: In this multicenter phase IV study, 900 Latin American infants randomly assigned to six study groups received three doses of bOPV at 6, 10 and 14weeks and either one IPV dose at 14weeks (groups SP-1, GSK-1 and BBio-1) or two IPV doses at 14 and 36weeks (groups SP-2, GSK-2 and BBio-2) from three different manufacturers. Children were challenged with mOPV2 at either 18 (one IPV dose) or 40weeks (two IPV doses) and stools were collected weekly for 4weeks to assess viral shedding. Serum neutralizing antibodies were measured at various time points pre and post vaccination. Serious adverse events and important medical events (SAE and IME) were monitored for 6months after last study vaccine. RESULTS: At week 18, 4weeks after one dose of IPV, overall type 2 seroconversion rates were 80.4%, 80.4% and 73.3% for SP-1, GSK-1 and BBio-1 groups, respectively; and 92.6%, 96.8% and 88.0% in those who were seronegative before IPV administration. At 40weeks, 4weeks after a second IPV dose, type 2 seroconversion rates were >/=99% for any of the three manufacturers. There were no significant differences in fecal shedding index endpoint (SIE) after one or two IPV doses (SP: 2.3 [95% CI: 2.1-2.6]); GSK: 2.2 [1.7-2.5]; BBio 1.8 [1.5-2.3]. All vaccines appeared safe, with no vaccine-related SAE or IME. CONCLUSION: Current WHO prequalified IPV vaccines are safe and induce similar humoral and intestinal immunity after one or two doses. The parent study was registered with, number NCT01831050.

      8. Awareness among adults of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccinations, United States, 2015External
        Lu PJ, O’Halloran A, Kennedy ED, Williams WW, Kim D, Fiebelkorn AP, Donahue S, Bridges CB.
        Vaccine. 2017 Apr 27.

        BACKGROUND: Adults are recommended to receive select vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, and other considerations. Factors associated with awareness of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccines among adults in the United States have not been explored. METHODS: Data from a 2015 internet panel survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged >/=19years were analyzed to assess awareness of selected vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccines for adults. A multivariable logistic regression model with a predictive marginal approach was used to identify factors independently associated with awareness of selected vaccine-preventable infections/diseases and corresponding vaccines. RESULTS: Among the surveyed population, from 24.6 to 72.1% reported vaccination for recommended vaccines. Awareness of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults aged >/=19years ranged from 63.4% to 94.0% (63.4% reported awareness of HPV, 71.5% reported awareness of tetanus, 72.0% reported awareness of pertussis, 75.4% reported awareness of HZ, 75.8% reported awareness of hepatitis B, 83.1% reported awareness of pneumonia, and 94.0% reported awareness of influenza). Awareness of the corresponding vaccines among adults aged >/=19years ranged from 59.3% to 94.1% (59.3% HZ vaccine, 59.6% HPV vaccine, 64.3% hepatitis B vaccine, 66.2% pneumococcal vaccine, 86.3% tetanus vaccines, and 94.1% influenza vaccine). In multivariable analysis, being female and being a college graduate were significantly associated with a higher level of awareness for majority of vaccine-preventable diseases, and being female, being a college graduate, and working as a health care provider were significantly associated with a higher level of awareness for majority of corresponding vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Although adults in this survey reported high levels of awareness for most vaccines recommended for adults, self-reported vaccination coverage was not optimal. Combining interventions known to increase uptake of recommended vaccines, such as patient reminder/recall systems and other healthcare system-based interventions, and ensuring patients’ vaccination needs are assessed, are needed to improve vaccination of adults.

    • Injury and Violence RSS Word feed
      1. How do older adult drivers self-regulate? Characteristics of self-regulation classes defined by latent class analysisExternal
        Bergen G, West BA, Luo F, Bird DC, Freund K, Fortinsky RH, Staplin L.
        J Safety Res. 2017 Jun;61:205-210.

        PROBLEM: Motor-vehicle crashes were the second leading cause of injury death for adults aged 65-84years in 2014. Some older drivers choose to self-regulate their driving to maintain mobility while reducing driving risk, yet the process remains poorly understood. METHODS: Data from 729 older adults (aged >/=60years) who joined an older adult ride service program between April 1, 2010 and November 8, 2013 were analyzed to define and describe classes of driving self-regulation. Latent class analysis was employed to characterize older adult driving self-regulation classes using driving frequency and avoidance of seven driving situations. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between characteristics affecting mobility and self-regulation class. RESULTS: Three classes were identified (low, medium, and high self-regulation). High self-regulating participants reported the highest proportion of always avoiding seven risky driving situations and the lowest driving frequency followed by medium and low self-regulators. Those who were female, aged 80years or older, visually impaired, assistive device users, and those with special health needs were more likely to be high self-regulating compared with low self-regulating. CONCLUSIONS AND PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Avoidance of certain driving situations and weekly driving frequency are valid indicators for describing driving self-regulation classes in older adults. Understanding the unique characteristics and mobility limitations of each class can guide optimal transportation strategies for older adults.

    • Laboratory Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Flex-nucleoside analogues – Novel therapeutics against filovirusesExternal
        Yates MK, Raje MR, Chatterjee P, Spiropoulou CF, Bavari S, Flint M, Soloveva V, Seley-Radtke KL.
        Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2017 Apr 22.

        Fleximers, a novel type of flexible nucleoside that have garnered attention due to their unprecedented activity against human coronaviruses, have now exhibited highly promising levels of activity against filoviruses. The Flex-nucleoside was the most potent against recombinant Ebola virus in Huh7 cells with an EC50=2muM, while the McGuigan prodrug was most active against Sudan virus-infected HeLa cells with an EC50 of 7muM.

      2. Umbilical temperature correlation with core and skin temperatures at rest, in the heat and during physical activityExternal
        Roberge RJ, Kim JH, Yorio P, Coca A, Seo Y, Quinn T, Aljaroudi A, Powell JB.
        Int J Hyperthermia. 2017 19 Apr:1-9.

        Purpose: to determine the correlation of umbilical temperatures (Tumb) with simultaneously recorded chest wall temperature (Tchest) and rectal temperature (Trectal) in adults during rest, heat exposure and exercise. Methods: A total of 28 healthy men, wearing different types of clothing (athletic garb, a spandex full body heating garment, firefighter bunker gear) had average and peak umbilical, chest wall and rectal temperature measurements taken during sedentary temperature stabilisation stages, heat exposure periods and active exercise phases. Results: Curvilinear relationships were noted between Tchest and Tumb compared with Trectal and their association became noticeably positive and linear at approximately 35.5degreeC. Polynomial regression analysis of Trectal with linear and quadratic forms of Tchest and Tumb indicated an overall R2 of 0.657 and 0.767, respectively. Bivariate analysis of a restricted data set (where Tchest and Tumb>35.5degree), indicated that Tumb was significantly associated with Trectal (raverage=0.710, p<0.001; rpeak=0.841, p<0.001) and Tchest was also significantly associated with Trectal, but less so (raverage=0.570, p<0.001; rpeak=0.699, p<0.001). Conclusions: the umbilicus offers a non-invasive, peripheral site for measurement of temperature that more closely correlated with body core temperature than Tchest when core temperature was >35.5degreeC.

      3. Harmonized reference ranges for circulating testosterone levels in men of four cohort studies in the United States and EuropeExternal
        Travison TG, Vesper HW, Orwoll E, Wu F, Kaufman JM, Wang Y, Lapauw B, Fiers T, Matsumoto AM, Bhasin S.
        J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Apr 01;102(4):1161-1173.

        Background: Reference ranges for testosterone are essential for making a diagnosis of hypogonadism in men. Objective: To establish harmonized reference ranges for total testosterone in men that can be applied across laboratories by cross-calibrating assays to a reference method and standard. Population: The 9054 community-dwelling men in cohort studies in the United States and Europe: Framingham Heart Study; European Male Aging Study; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study; and Male Sibling Study of Osteoporosis. Methods: Testosterone concentrations in 100 participants in each of the four cohorts were measured using a reference method at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Generalized additive models and Bland-Altman analyses supported the use of normalizing equations for transformation between cohort-specific and CDC values. Normalizing equations, generated using Passing-Bablok regression, were used to generate harmonized values, which were used to derive standardized, age-specific reference ranges. Results: Harmonization procedure reduced intercohort variation between testosterone measurements in men of similar ages. In healthy nonobese men, 19 to 39 years, harmonized 2.5th, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 97.5th percentile values were 264, 303, 531, 852, and 916 ng/dL, respectively. Age-specific harmonized testosterone concentrations in nonobese men were similar across cohorts and greater than in all men. Conclusion: Harmonized normal range in a healthy nonobese population of European and American men, 19 to 39 years, is 264 to 916 ng/dL. A substantial proportion of intercohort variation in testosterone levels is due to assay differences. These data demonstrate the feasibility of generating harmonized reference ranges for testosterone that can be applied to assays, which have been calibrated to a reference method and calibrator.

      4. Sequence variation in Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich proteins 2 and 3 in Indian isolates: Implications for malaria rapid diagnostic test performanceExternal
        Kumar Bharti P, Singh Chandel H, Krishna S, Nema S, Ahmad A, Udhayakumar V, Singh N.
        Sci Rep. 2017 May 02;7(1):1308.

        Commercial malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) and cross react with PfHRP3, a structural homologue. Here, we analysed natural variations in PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 sequences from Indian isolates and correlated these variations with RDT reactivity. A total 1392 P. falciparum positive samples collected from eight endemic states were PCR amplified for Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 genes and were sequenced. The deduced protein sequences were analysed for repeat variations and correlated with RDT reactivity. Out of 1392 PCR amplified samples, a single sample was Pfhrp2 negative and two samples were Pfhrp3 negative. Complete Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 sequences were obtained for 769 samples and 750 samples, respectively. A total of 16 distinct repeat motifs were observed for Pfhrp2 and 11 for Pfhrp3, including some new repeat types. No correlation was found between variations in the size of Pfhrp2 repeat types 2 and 7, nor between any combinations of repeat motifs, and performance of a commercial RDT at low parasite densities. The findings suggest that sequence diversity in Pfhrp2 and Pfhrp3 genes in Indian isolates is not likely to negatively influence performance of currently used PfHRP2 RDTs.

      5. Type 2 BVDV Npro suppresses IFN-1 pathway signaling in bovine cells and augments BRSV replicationExternal
        Alkheraif AA, Topliff CL, Reddy J, Massilamany C, Donis RO, Meyers G, Eskridge KM, Kelling CL.
        Virology. 2017 Apr 19;507:123-134.

        Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection induces immunosuppression and in conjunction with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) contributes to the bovine respiratory disease complex. Bovine turbinate cells were single or co-infected with type 2 BVDV wild-type (BVDV2-wt), its dysfunctional Npro mutant (BVDV2-E), and/or BRSV. BVDV2-E significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-7, TBK-1, IRF-3, and IFN-beta mRNAs based on real-time Q-RT-PCR. BRSV-infected cells expressed significantly up-regulated PKR, IRF-3, IRF-7, and IFN-beta mRNAs, whereas BVDV2-wt, but not BVDV2-E, abolished this up-regulation in co-infection. No significant differences were observed in MAVS, NF-kappaB, and PIN-1 mRNAs. A dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that BVDV2-wt significantly increased NF-kappaB activity compared to BVDV2-E, while BVDV2-E significantly increased IFN-beta activity compared to BVDV2-wt. The BRSV titer and RNA levels significantly increased in cells co-infected with BRSV/BVDV2-wt compared to cells co-infected with BRSV/BVDV2-E or infected with BRSV alone. This data supports the synergistic action of BVDV2-wt and BRSV inhibition of IFN-1.

    • Maternal and Child Health RSS Word feed
      1. Evidence base update for psychosocial treatments for disruptive behaviors in childrenExternal
        Kaminski JW, Claussen AH.
        J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2017 May 01:1-23.

        This article reviews the state of the science on psychosocial treatments for disruptive behaviors in children, as an update to Eyberg, Nelson, and Boggs (2008). We followed procedures for literature searching, study inclusion, and treatment classification as laid out in Southam-Gerow and Prinstein (2014), focusing on treatments for children 12 years of age and younger. Two treatments (group parent behavior therapy, and individual parent behavior therapy with child participation) had sufficient empirical support to be classified as well-established treatments. Thirteen other treatments were classified as probably efficacious. Substantial variability in effectiveness of different programs within the same treatment family has been previously documented; thus, a particular level of evidence might not hold true for every individual program in a treatment family. Systematic investigations of implementation, dissemination, and uptake are needed to ensure that children and families have access to effective treatments. Investigations into how to blend the strengths of the effective approaches into even more effective treatment might also lead to greater impact.

    • Nutritional Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Adherence to vitamin d recommendations among US infants aged 0 to 11 months, NHANES, 2009 to 2012External
        Ahrens KA, Rossen LM, Simon AE.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2016 Jun;55(6):555-6.

        [No abstract]

    • Occupational Safety and Health RSS Word feed
      1. Assessing work-related risk factors on low back disorders among roofing workersExternal
        Wang D, Dai F, Ning X, Dong RG, Wu JZ.
        J Constr Eng Manag. 2017 ;143(7).

        Roofers have long suffered from low back disorders (LBDs), which are a primary nonfatal injury in construction. Ergonomic studies have identified several risk factors associated with LBDs in workplaces and developed biomechanical models for general LBD risk assessments. However, these models cannot be directly used for assessments in roof workplaces because they are designed for general tasks without considering roofers’ posture variance and effects of working on slanted roof surfaces. This paper examined the relationship between roofing work-related factors and LBD risk among roofers using a laboratory assessment. A pitch-configurable wood platform was built to mimic the rooftop. The maximum trunk flexion angle and normalized electromyography (EMG) signals were measured as indicators using a motion capture system and a skeletal muscle signal recording system under different settings, i.e., different roof slopes, postures, facing directions, and working paces. The results indicated the measured factors with significant effects on the LBD development and revealed unfavorable conditions (e.g., using a stooped posture to work on low-pitch rooftops at a fast pace) where the work on rooftops needs particular attention. Such information is useful for systematic understanding of roofing nonfatal LBD developments among construction professionals and may enable development of interventions and guidelines for reducing the prevalence of LBDs at roofing jobsites.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining RSS Word feed
      1. Engineering controls are the most protective means of controlling respirable coal mine dustExternal
        Blackley DJ, Halldin CN, Laney AS.
        Lancet Respir Med. 2017 May;5(5):e18.

        [No abstract]

    • Parasitic Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. First-trimester artemisinin derivatives and quinine treatments and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in Africa and Asia: A meta-analysis of observational studiesExternal
        Dellicour S, Sevene E, McGready R, Tinto H, Mosha D, Manyando C, Rulisa S, Desai M, Ouma P, Oneko M, Vala A, Ruperez M, Macete E, Menendez C, Nakanabo-Diallo S, Kazienga A, Valea I, Calip G, Augusto O, Genton B, Njunju EM, Moore KA, d’Alessandro U, Nosten F, Ter Kuile F, Stergachis A.
        PLoS Med. 2017 May;14(5):e1002290.

        BACKGROUND: Animal embryotoxicity data, and the scarcity of safety data in human pregnancies, have prevented artemisinin derivatives from being recommended for malaria treatment in the first trimester except in lifesaving circumstances. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies comparing the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and major congenital anomaly (primary outcomes) among first-trimester pregnancies treated with artemisinin derivatives versus quinine or no antimalarial treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electronic databases including Medline, Embase, and Malaria in Pregnancy Library were searched, and investigators contacted. Five studies involving 30,618 pregnancies were included; four from sub-Saharan Africa (n = 6,666 pregnancies, six sites) and one from Thailand (n = 23,952). Antimalarial exposures were ascertained by self-report or active detection and confirmed by prescriptions, clinic cards, and outpatient registers. Cox proportional hazards models, accounting for time under observation and gestational age at enrollment, were used to calculate hazard ratios. Individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis was used to combine the African studies, and the results were then combined with those from Thailand using aggregated data meta-analysis with a random effects model. There was no difference in the risk of miscarriage associated with the use of artemisinins anytime during the first trimester (n = 37/671) compared with quinine (n = 96/945; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.73 [95% CI 0.44, 1.21], I2 = 0%, p = 0.228), in the risk of stillbirth (artemisinins, n = 10/654; quinine, n = 11/615; aHR = 0.29 [95% CI 0.08-1.02], p = 0.053), or in the risk of miscarriage and stillbirth combined (pregnancy loss) (aHR = 0.58 [95% CI 0.36-1.02], p = 0.099). The corresponding risks of miscarriage, stillbirth, and pregnancy loss in a sensitivity analysis restricted to artemisinin exposures during the embryo sensitive period (6-12 wk gestation) were as follows: aHR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.54-2.01), I2 = 0%, p = 0.910; aHR = 0.73 (95% CI 0.26-2.06), p = 0.551; and aHR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.52-2.04), p = 0.603. The prevalence of major congenital anomalies was similar for first-trimester artemisinin (1.5% [95% CI 0.6%-3.5%]) and quinine exposures (1.2% [95% CI 0.6%-2.4%]). Key limitations of the study include the inability to control for confounding by indication in the African studies, the paucity of data on potential confounders, the limited statistical power to detect differences in congenital anomalies, and the lack of assessment of cardiovascular defects in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to quinine, artemisinin treatment in the first trimester was not associated with an increased risk of miscarriage or stillbirth. While the data are limited, they indicate no difference in the prevalence of major congenital anomalies between treatment groups. The benefits of 3-d artemisinin combination therapy regimens to treat malaria in early pregnancy are likely to outweigh the adverse outcomes of partially treated malaria, which can occur with oral quinine because of the known poor adherence to 7-d regimens. REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015032371.

    • Physical Activity RSS Word feed
      1. Developing point-of-decision prompts to encourage airport walking: The Walk to Fly StudyExternal
        Frederick GM, Paul P, Bachtel Watson K, Dorn JM, Fulton J.
        J Phys Act Health. 2016 Apr;13(4):419-27.

        BACKGROUND: Point-of-decision prompts may be appropriate to promote walking, instead of using a mechanized mode of transport, such as a train, in airports. To our knowledge, no current studies describe the development of messages for prompts in this setting. METHODS: In-person interviews were conducted with 150 randomly selected airport travelers who rode the train to their departure gate. Travelers reported various reasons for riding the train to their gate. They were asked about messages that would encourage them to walk. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for reasons for riding the train. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for messages to encourage walking to the departure gate. RESULTS: Travelers reported not knowing walking was an option (23.8%), seeing others riding the train (14.4%), and being afraid of getting lost (9.2%) as reasons for riding the train. Many indicated that directional signs and prompts promoting walking as exercise would encourage them to walk instead of riding the train. CONCLUSIONS: Some reasons for riding the train in an airport may be modifiable by installing point-of-decision prompts. Providing directional signs to travelers may prompt them to walk to their gate instead of riding the train. Similar prompts may also be considered in other community settings.

    • Program Evaluation RSS Word feed
      1. Improving community readiness for change through coalition capacity building: Evidence from a multi-site interventionExternal
        Anderson-Carpenter KD, Watson-Thompson J, Jones MD, Chaney L.
        J Community Psychol. 2017 May;45(4):486-499.

        Often, community coalitions are facilitators of community-level changes when addressing underage drinking. Although studies have shown that enhancing coalition capacity is related to improved internal functioning, the relationship between enhanced capacity and community readiness for change is not well established. The present study used a pretest-posttest design to examine whether enhancing coalition capacity through training and technical assistance was associated with improved community readiness and coalition-facilitated community-level changes. Seven Kansas communities engaged in an intensive capacity building intervention through implementation of the Strategic Prevention Framework. The results indicated strong correlations between increased coalition capacity, changes in community readiness stages, and the number of community changes facilitated. The results suggest that strengthening coalition capacity through training and technical assistance may improve community readiness for change and enable the implementation of community-wide program and environmental changes.

    • Reproductive Health RSS Word feed
      1. National trends and outcomes of autologous in vitro fertilization cycles among women ages 40 years and olderExternal
        Hipp H, Crawford S, Kawwass JF, Boulet SL, Grainger DA, Kissin DM, Jamieson D.
        J Assist Reprod Genet. 2017 Apr 28.

        PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to describe trends in and investigate variables associated with clinical pregnancy and live birth in autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles among women >/=40 years. METHODS: We used autologous IVF cycle data from the National ART Surveillance System (NASS) for women >/=40 years at cycle start. We assessed trends in fresh and frozen cycles (n = 371,536) from 1996 to 2013. We reported perinatal outcomes and determined variables associated with clinical pregnancy and live birth in fresh cycles between 2007 and 2013. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2013, the total number of cycles in women >/=40 years increased from 8672 to 28,883 (p < 0.0001), with frozen cycles almost tripling in the last 8 years. Cycles in women >/=40 years accounted for 16.0% of all cycles in 1996 and 21.0% in 2013 (p < 0.0001). For fresh cycles from 2007 to 2013 (n = 157,890), the cancelation rate was 17.1%. Among cycles resulting in transfer (n = 112,414), the live birth rate was 16.1%. The following were associated with higher live birth rates: multiparity, fewer prior ART cycles, use of standard agonist or antagonist stimulation, lower gonadotropin dose, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, more oocytes retrieved, use of pre-implantation genetic screening/diagnosis, transferring more and/or blastocyst stage embryos, and cryopreserving more supernumerary embryos. Of the singleton infants born (n = 14,992), 86.9% were full term and 88.3% normal birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The NASS allows for a comprehensive description of IVF cycles in women >/=40 years in the USA. Although live birth rate is less than 20%, identifying factors associated with IVF success can facilitate treatment option counseling.

    • Substance Use and Abuse RSS Word feed
      1. Nicotine, aerosol particles, carbonyls and volatile organic compounds in tobacco- and menthol-flavored e-cigarettesExternal
        Lee MS, LeBouf RF, Son YS, Koutrakis P, Christiani DC.
        Environ Health. 2017 Apr 27;16(1):42.

        BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the content of electronic cigarette (EC) emissions for five groups of potentially toxic compounds that are known to be present in tobacco smoke: nicotine, particles, carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and trace elements by flavor and puffing time. METHODS: We used ECs containing a common nicotine strength (1.8%) and the most popular flavors, tobacco and menthol. An automatic multiple smoking machine was used to generate EC aerosols under controlled conditions. Using a dilution chamber, we targeted nicotine concentrations similar to that of exposure in a general indoor environment. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from EC aerosols into a solid or liquid phase and analyzed with chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. RESULTS: We found that EC aerosols contained toxic compounds including nicotine, fine and nanoparticles, carbonyls, and some toxic VOCs such as benzene and toluene. Higher mass and number concentrations of aerosol particles were generated from tobacco-flavored ECs than from menthol-flavored ECs. CONCLUSION: We found that diluted machine-generated EC aerosols contain some pollutants. These findings are limited by the small number of ECs tested and the conditions of testing. More comprehensive research on EC exposure extending to more brands and flavor compounds is warranted.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Testing practices and volume of non-Lyme tickborne diseases in the United StatesExternal
        Connally NP, Hinckley AF, Feldman KA, Kemperman M, Neitzel D, Wee SB, White JL, Mead PS, Meek JI.
        Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2016 Feb;7(1):193-8.

        Large commercial laboratories in the United States were surveyed regarding the number of specimens tested for eight tickborne diseases in 2008. Seven large commercial laboratories reported testing a total of 2,927,881 specimens nationally (including Lyme disease). Of these, 495,585 specimens (17%) were tested for tickborne diseases other than Lyme disease. In addition to large commercial laboratories, another 1051 smaller commercial, hospital, and government laboratories in four states (CT, MD, MN, and NY) were surveyed regarding tickborne disease testing frequency, practices, and results. Ninety-two of these reported testing a total of 10,091 specimens for four tickborne diseases other than Lyme disease. We estimate the cost of laboratory diagnostic testing for non-Lyme disease tickborne diseases in 2008 to be $9.6 million. These data provide a baseline to evaluate trends in tickborne disease test utilization and insight into the burden of these diseases.

Back to Top

CDC Science Clips Production Staff

  • John Iskander, MD MPH, Editor
  • Gail Bang, MLIS, Librarian
  • Kathy Tucker, Librarian
  • William (Bill) Thomas, MLIS, Librarian
  • Onnalee Gomez, MS, Health Scientist
  • Jarvis Sims, MIT, MLIS, Librarian


DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019