Issue 12, March 28, 2017

CDC Science Clips: Volume 9, Issue 12, March 28, 2017

Each Tuesday, to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge, selected science clips will be posted here for the public health community. The focus is applied public health research and prevention science that has the capacity to improve health now.

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions RSS Word feed
      • Long-term control medication use and asthma control status among children and adults with asthmaExternal
        Zahran HS, Bailey CM, Qin X, Johnson C.
        J Asthma. 2017 Mar 10:1-8.
        BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled asthma decreases quality of life and increases health care use. Most people with asthma need daily use of long-term control (LTC) medications for asthma symptoms and to prevent asthma attacks. Ongoing assessment of a person’s level of asthma control and medication use is important in determining the effectiveness of current treatment to decrease the frequency and intensity of symptoms and functional limitations. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of LTC medication among children and adults with current asthma and identify contributing factors for LTC medication use. METHODS: We used the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) child and adult Asthma Call-back Survey (ACBS) data to assess the level of asthma control and LTC medication use. Asthma control was classified as well controlled and uncontrolled using guideline-based measures. We used multivariable logistic regression models to identify contributing factors for LTC medication use and having uncontrolled asthma. RESULTS: Among persons with current asthma, 46.0% of children and 41.5% of adults were taking LTC medications and 38.4% of children and 50.0% of adults had uncontrolled asthma. Among children who had uncontrolled asthma (38.4%), 24.1% were taking LTC medications and 14.3% were not taking LTC medications. Among adults who had uncontrolled asthma (50.0%), 26.7% were taking LTC medications and 23.3% were not taking LTC medications. CONCLUSIONS: Using BRFSS ACBS data to assess the level of asthma control and LTC medication use can identify subpopulations of persons with asthma who receive suboptimal treatment, for which better asthma-related medical treatment and management are needed.

    • Communicable Diseases RSS Word feed
      • Knowledge, attitudes and practices of South African healthcare workers regarding the prevention and treatment of influenza among HIV-infected individualsExternal
        Duque J, Gaga S, Clark D, Muller M, Kuwane B, Cohen C, Walaza S, Tempia S, Ramatoboe P, Furumele T, Widdowson MA, McMorrow ML, Cohen AL.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(3):e0173983.
        BACKGROUND: The South African Department of Health (DOH) publishes annual guidelines identifying priority groups, including immunosuppressed individuals and healthcare workers (HCW), for influenza vaccination and treatment. How these guidelines have impacted HCW and their patients, particularly those infected with HIV, remains unknown. METHODS: We aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding influenza and the vaccine among South African HCW. Surveys were distributed by two local non-governmental organizations in public health clinics and hospitals in 21 districts/municipalities (5 of 9 provinces). RESULTS: There were 1164 respondents; median age 41 years; 978/1126 (87%) female; 801/1122 (71%) nurses. One-third (34%) of HCW reported getting influenza vaccine 2013/2014 and most (94%) recommended influenza vaccine to patients infected with HIV. Ability to get vaccine free of charge (aOR 1.69; 95% CI 1.21-2.37) and having received influenza government training (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 1.04-2.15) were significantly associated with self-reported vaccination in 2013/2014. Self-reported 2013/2014 vaccination (aOR 3.76; 95% CI 1.28-11.03) and availability of influenza vaccine during the healthcare visit (aOR 2.56; 95% CI 1.18-5.57) were significantly associated with recommending influenza vaccine to patients infected with HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: Only one-third of participants were vaccinated in 2013-2014 but those who were vaccinated were more likely to recommend vaccination to their patients. Free and close access to influenza vaccine were associated with a higher likelihood of getting vaccinated in 2013/2014. HCW who reported getting the influenza vaccine themselves, had vaccine to offer during the patient consult and were familiar with DOH guidelines/trainings were more likely to recommend vaccine to HIV-infected patients.

      • Respiratory virus-associated severe acute respiratory illness and viral clustering in Malawian children in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV infection, malaria, and malnutritionExternal
        Peterson I, Bar-Zeev N, Kennedy N, Ho A, Newberry L, SanJoaquin MA, Menyere M, Alaerts M, Mapurisa G, Chilombe M, Mambule I, Lalloo DG, Anderson ST, Katangwe T, Cunliffe N, Nagelkerke N, McMorrow M, Widdowson MA, French N, Everett D, Heyderman RS.
        J Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 01;214(11):1700-1711.
        BACKGROUND: We used data from 4 years of pediatric severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) sentinel surveillance in Blantyre, Malawi, to identify factors associated with clinical severity and coviral clustering. METHODS: From January 2011 to December 2014, 2363 children aged 3 months to 14 years presenting to the hospital with SARI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested for influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. We assessed risk factors for clinical severity and conducted clustering analysis to identify viral clusters in children with viral codetection. RESULTS: Hospital-attended influenza virus-positive SARI incidence was 2.0 cases per 10 000 children annually; it was highest among children aged <1 year (6.3 cases per 10 000), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children aged 5-9 years (6.0 cases per 10 000). A total of 605 SARI cases (26.8%) had warning signs, which were positively associated with HIV infection (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9), respiratory syncytial virus infection (aRR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-3.0) and rainy season (aRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8). We identified 6 coviral clusters; 1 cluster was associated with SARI with warning signs. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination may benefit young children and HIV-infected children in this setting. Viral clustering may be associated with SARI severity; its assessment should be included in routine SARI surveillance.

    • Food Safety RSS Word feed
      • Utility of combining whole genome sequencing with traditional investigational methods to solve foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with chicken: A new tool for tackling this challenging food vehicleExternal
        Crowe SJ, Green A, Hernandez K, Peralta V, Bottichio L, Defibaugh-Chavez S, Douris A, Gieraltowski L, Hise K, La-Pham K, Neil KP, Simmons M, Tillman G, Tolar B, Wagner D, Wasilenko J, Holt K, Trees E, Wise ME.
        J Food Prot. 2017 Mar 15:654-660.
        High consumption rates and a multitude of brands make multistate foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with chicken challenging to investigate, but whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool that can be used to assist investigators. Whole genome sequencing of pathogens isolated from clinical, environmental, and food samples is increasingly being used in multistate foodborne outbreak investigations to determine with unprecedented resolution how closely related these isolates are to one another genetically. In 2014, federal and state health officials investigated an outbreak of 146 Salmonella Heidelberg infections in 24 states. A follow-up analysis was conducted after the conclusion of the investigation in which 27 clinical and 24 food isolates from the outbreak underwent whole genome sequencing. These isolates formed seven clades, the largest of which contained clinical isolates from a subcluster of case patients who attended a catered party. One isolate from a chicken processed by a large producer was closely related genetically (zero to three single-nucleotide polymorphism differences) to the clinical isolates from these subcluster case patients. Chicken from this large producer was also present in the kitchen of the caterer on the day before the event, thus providing additional evidence that the chicken from this producer was the outbreak source. This investigation highlights how whole genome sequencing can be used with epidemiologic and traceback evidence to identify chicken sources of foodborne outbreaks.

    • Health Economics RSS Word feed
      • Money gone up in smoke: The tobacco use and malnutrition nexus in BangladeshExternal
        Husain MJ, Virk-Baker M, Parascandola M, Khondker BH, Ahluwalia IB.
        Ann Glob Health. 2016 Sep – Oct;82(5):749-759.e1.
        BACKGROUND: The tobacco epidemic in Bangladesh is pervasive. Expenditures on tobacco may reduce money available for food in a country with a high malnutrition rate. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study are to quantify the opportunity costs of tobacco expenditure in terms of nutrition (ie, food energy) forgone and the potential improvements in the household level food-energy status if the money spent on tobacco were diverted for food consumption. METHOD: We analyzed data from the 2010 Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey, a nationally representative survey conducted among 12,240 households. We present 2 analytical scenarios: (1) the lower-bound gain scenario entailing money spent on tobacco partially diverted to acquiring food according to households’ food consumption share in total expenditures; and (2) the upper-bound gain scenario entailing money spent on tobacco diverted to acquiring food only. Age- and gender-based energy norms were used to identify food-energy deficient households. Data were analyzed by mutually exclusive smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual-tobacco user households. FINDINGS: On average, a smoking-only household could gain 269-497 kilocalories (kcal) daily under the lower-bound and upper-bound scenarios, respectively. The potential energy gains for smokeless-only and dual-tobacco user households ranged from 148-268 kcal and 508-924 kcal, respectively. Under these lower- and upper-bound estimates, the percentage of smoking-only user households that are malnourished declined significantly from the baseline rate of 38% to 33% and 29%, respectively. For the smokeless-only and dual-tobacco user households, there were 2-3 and 6-9 percentage point drops in the malnutrition prevalence rates. The tobacco expenditure shift could translate to an additional 4.6-7.7 million food-energy malnourished persons meeting their caloric requirements. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that tobacco use reduction could facilitate concomitant improvements in population-level nutrition status and may inform the development and refinement of tobacco prevention and control efforts in Bangladesh.

    • Immunity and Immunization RSS Word feed
      • Mobile phone-delivered reminders and incentives to improve childhood immunisation coverage and timeliness in Kenya (M-SIMU): a cluster randomised controlled trialExternal
        Gibson DG, Ochieng B, Kagucia EW, Were J, Hayford K, Moulton LH, Levine OS, Odhiambo F, O’Brien KL, Feikin DR.
        Lancet Glob Health. 2017 Apr;5(4):e428-e438.
        BACKGROUND: As mobile phone access continues to expand globally, opportunities exist to leverage these technologies to support demand for immunisation services and improve vaccine coverage. We aimed to assess whether short message service (SMS) reminders and monetary incentives can improve immunisation uptake in Kenya. METHODS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, villages were randomly and evenly allocated to four groups: control, SMS only, SMS plus a 75 Kenya Shilling (KES) incentive, and SMS plus 200 KES (85 KES = USD$1). Caregivers were eligible if they had a child younger than 5 weeks who had not yet received a first dose of pentavalent vaccine. Participants in the intervention groups received SMS reminders before scheduled pentavalent and measles immunisation visits. Participants in incentive groups, additionally, received money if their child was timely immunised (immunisation within 2 weeks of the due date). Caregivers and interviewers were not masked. The proportion of fully immunised children (receiving BCG, three doses of polio vaccine, three doses of pentavalent vaccine, and measles vaccine) by 12 months of age constituted the primary outcome and was analysed with log-binomial regression and General Estimating Equations to account for correlation within clusters. This trial is registered with, number NCT01878435. FINDINGS: Between Oct 14, 2013, and Oct 17, 2014, we enrolled 2018 caregivers and their infants from 152 villages into the following four groups: control (n=489), SMS only (n=476), SMS plus 75 KES (n=562), and SMS plus 200 KES (n=491). Overall, 1375 (86%) of 1600 children who were successfully followed up achieved the primary outcome, full immunisation by 12 months of age (296 [82%] of 360 control participants, 332 [86%] of 388 SMS only participants, 383 [86%] of 446 SMS plus 75 KES participants, and 364 [90%] of 406 SMS plus 200 KES participants). Children in the SMS plus 200 KES group were significantly more likely to achieve full immunisation at 12 months of age (relative risk 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16, p=0.014) than children in the control group. INTERPRETATION: In a setting with high baseline immunisation coverage levels, SMS reminders coupled with incentives significantly improved immunisation coverage and timeliness. Given that global immunisation coverage levels have stagnated around 85%, the use of incentives might be one option to reach the remaining 15%. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    • Injury and Violence RSS Word feed
      • RCT testing bystander effectiveness to reduce violenceExternal
        Coker AL, Bush HM, Cook-Craig PG, DeGue SA, Clear ER, Brancato CJ, Fisher BS, Recktenwald EA.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Mar 01.
        INTRODUCTION: Bystander-based programs have shown promise to reduce interpersonal violence at colleges, yet limited rigorous evaluations have addressed bystander intervention effectiveness in high schools. This study evaluated the Green Dot bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence and related forms of interpersonal violence in 26 high schools over 5 years. DESIGN: A cluster RCT was conducted. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Kentucky high schools were randomized to intervention or control (wait list) conditions. INTERVENTION: Green Dot-trained educators conducted schoolwide presentations and recruited student popular opinion leaders to receive bystander training in intervention schools beginning in Year 1. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was sexual violence perpetration, and related forms of interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration were also measured using anonymous student surveys collected at baseline and annually from 2010 to 2014. Because the school was the unit of analysis, violence measures were aggregated by school and year and school-level counts were provided. RESULTS: A total of 89,707 students completed surveys. The primary, as randomized, analyses conducted in 2014-2016 included linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to examine the condition-time interaction on violence outcomes. Slopes of school-level totals of sexual violence perpetration (condition-time, p<0.001) and victimization (condition-time, p<0.001) were different over time. During Years 3-4, when Green Dot was fully implemented, the mean number of sexual violent events prevented by the intervention was 120 in Intervention Year 3 and 88 in Year 4. For Year 3, prevalence rate ratios for sexual violence perpetration in the intervention relative to control schools were 0.83 (95% CI=0.70, 0.99) in Year 3 and 0.79 (95% CI=0.67, 0.94) in Year 4. Similar patterns were observed for sexual violence victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and dating violence perpetration and victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of Green Dot in Kentucky high schools significantly decreased not only sexual violence perpetration but also other forms of interpersonal violence perpetration and victimization.

    • Laboratory Sciences RSS Word feed
      • Swab sampling method for the detection of human norovirus on surfacesExternal
        Park GW, Chhabra P, Vinje J.
        J Vis Exp. 2017 Feb 06(120).
        Human noroviruses are a leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide. Because most infections are either spread directly via the person-to-person route or indirectly through environmental surfaces or food, contaminated fomites and inanimate surfaces are important vehicles for the spread of the virus during norovirus outbreaks. We developed and evaluated a protocol using macrofoam swabs for the detection and typing of human noroviruses from hard surfaces. Compared with fiber-tipped swabs or antistatic wipes, macrofoam swabs allow virus recovery (range 1.2-33.6%) from toilet seat surfaces of up to 700 cm2. The protocol includes steps for the extraction of the virus from the swabs and further concentration of the viral RNA using spin columns. In total, 127 (58.5%) of 217 swab samples that had been collected from surfaces in cruise ships and long-term care facilities where norovirus gastroenteritis had been reported tested positive for GII norovirus by RT-qPCR. Of these 29 (22.8%) could be successfully genotyped. In conclusion, detection of norovirus on environmental surfaces using the protocol we developed may assist in determining the level of environmental contamination during outbreaks as well as detection of virus when clinical samples are not available; it may also facilitate monitoring of effectiveness of remediation strategies.

    • Maternal and Child Health RSS Word feed
      • The transition to the adult health care system among youths with autism spectrum disorderExternal
        Nathenson RA, Zablotsky B.
        Psychiatr Serv. 2017 Mar 15:appips201600239.
        OBJECTIVE: The study examined how health care utilization patterns among youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) change as they transition into the adult health care system. METHODS: Data came from the Clinformatics Data Mart Database, a nationally diverse, clinically rich, private insurance claims database. The analytic sample consisted of youths ages 16 to 23 who were diagnosed as having ASD (N=16,338). Cross-sectional multivariate linear regressions determined whether service usage in home, office or outpatient, inpatient, and emergency department (ED) settings differed by age. RESULTS: The proportion of youths with ASD who received services declined with age in each setting except the ED. A similar reduction existed in number of visits to office or outpatient settings and inpatient settings, while home and ED visits remained stable. Service utilization declined faster among youths with co-occurring intellectual disability. CONCLUSIONS: There is a notable decline in service utilization across multiple settings as youths with ASD transition from pediatric to adult health care.

    • Nutritional Sciences RSS Word feed
      • Accuracy of capillary hemoglobin measurements for the detection of anemia among U.S. low-income toddlers and pregnant womenExternal
        Boghani S, Mei Z, Perry GS, Brittenham GM, Cogswell ME.
        Nutrients. 2017 Mar 09;9(3).
        The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of capillary hemoglobin (Hb) measurements in detecting anemia among low-income toddlers (aged 12-35 months) and pregnant women. In analyses of data among toddlers from Kansas City (n = 402) and St. Louis, Missouri (n = 236), and pregnant women at <20 weeks gestation from Cleveland, Ohio (n = 397), we compared subjects’ anemia status based on capillary Hb concentrations in finger puncture samples as measured by the HemoCue system with their anemia status based on venous Hb concentrations as measured by the HemoCue and Coulter Counter. The sensitivity of capillary blood analyses in identifying cases of anemia was 32.8% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 21.0%-46.3%), among Kansas City toddlers, 59.7% (95% CI: 45.8%-72.4%) among St. Louis toddlers, and 66.7% (95% CI: 46.0%-83.5%) among pregnant women in Cleveland; the corresponding specificities were 97.7%, 86.6%, and 96.7%, respectively. The correlation between HemoCue and Coulter Counter measurements of venous Hb (0.9) was higher than that between HemoCue measurements of capillary and venous blood (0.8). The results show that Hb measurements of capillary blood with HemoCue were not optimal for determining the anemia status of toddlers and pregnant women.

    • Reproductive Health RSS Word feed
      • Trends in testosterone replacement therapy use from 2003 to 2013 among reproductive-age men in the United StatesExternal
        Rao PK, Boulet SL, Mehta A, Hotaling J, Eisenberg ML, Honig SC, Warner L, Kissin DM, Nangia AK, Ross LS.
        J Urol. 2016 Oct 24.
        PURPOSE: Although testosterone replacement therapy use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade, to our knowledge trends in testosterone replacement therapy use among reproductive-age men have not been investigated. We assessed changes in testosterone replacement therapy use and practice patterns among 18 to 45-year-old American men from 2003 to 2013 and compared them to older men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of men 18 to 45 and 56 to 64 years old who were enrolled in the Truven Health MarketScan(R) Commercial Claims Databases throughout each given calendar year from 2003 to 2013, including 5,094,868 men in 2013. Trends in the yearly rates of testosterone replacement therapy use were calculated using Poisson regression. Among testosterone replacement therapy users, the Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess temporal trends in age, formulation type, semen analysis and serum testosterone level testing during the 12 months preceding the documented use of testosterone replacement therapy. RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2013, there was a fourfold increase in the rate of testosterone use among 18 to 45-year-old men from 29.2/10,000 person-years to 118.1/10,000 person-years (p <0.0001). Among testosterone replacement therapy users, topical gel formulations were initially most used. Injection use then doubled between 2009 and 2012 (23.5% and 46.2%, respectively) and surpassed topical gel use in 2013. In men 56 to 64 years old there was a statistically significant threefold increase in testosterone replacement therapy use (p <0.0001), which was significantly smaller than the fourfold increase in younger men (p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In 2003 to 2013, testosterone replacement therapy use increased fourfold in men 18 to 45 years old compared to threefold in older men. This younger age group should be a focus for future studies due to effects on fertility and unknown long-term sequelae.

    • Substance Use and Abuse RSS Word feed
      • National and state trends in sales of cigarettes and e-cigarettes, U.S., 2011-2015External
        Marynak KL, Gammon DG, King BA, Loomis BR, Fulmer EB, Wang TW, Rogers T.
        Am J Prev Med. 2017 Feb 24.
        INTRODUCTION: In recent years, self-reported cigarette smoking has declined among youth and adults, while electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased. However, sales trends for these products are less certain. This study assessed national and state patterns of U.S. cigarette and e-cigarette unit sales. METHODS: Trends in cigarette and e-cigarette unit sales were analyzed using retail scanner data from September 25, 2011 through January 9, 2016 for: (1) convenience stores; and (2) all other outlets combined, including supermarkets, mass merchandisers, drug, dollar, and club stores, and military commissaries (online, tobacco-only, and “vape” shops were not available). Data by store type were available for the total contiguous U.S. and 29 states; combined data were available for the remaining states, except Alaska, Hawaii, and DC. RESULTS: During 2011-2015, cigarette sales exhibited a small, significant decrease; however, positive year-over-year growth occurred in convenience stores throughout most of 2015. E-cigarette unit sales significantly increased during 2011-2015, but year-over-year growth slowed and was occasionally negative. Cigarette unit sales exceeded e-cigarettes by 64:1 during the last 4-week period. During 2014-2015, cigarette sales increases occurred in 15 of 48 assessed states; e-cigarette sales increased in 18 states. CONCLUSIONS: Despite overall declines during 2011-2015, cigarette sales in 2015 grew for the first time in a decade. E-cigarette sales growth was positive, but slowed over the study period in assessed stores. Cigarette sales continued to exceed e-cigarette sales, reinforcing the importance of efforts to reduce the appeal and accessibility of cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions RSS Word feed
      1. High health satisfaction among emerging adults with diabetes: Factors predicting resilienceExternal
        Corathers SD, Kichler JC, Fino NF, Lang W, Lawrence JM, Raymond JK, Yi-Frazier JP, Dabelea D, Liese AD, Saydah SH, Seid M, Dolan LM.
        Health Psychol. 2017 Mar;36(3):206-214.
        OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify factors contributing to health satisfaction outcomes among emerging adults (ages 18-25) with diabetes. METHOD: SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study participants whose diabetes was prevalent in 2001 and were >/=18 years of age when they completed a 2008-2009 follow-up survey (n = 340) were included. We developed a health resilience model (HRM) to identify potentially modifiable factors (anticipatory guidance, social support, physical activity, quality of life) associated with health outcomes (satisfaction with health care, overall personal health, self-report of hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]). Proportional odds logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between modifiable factors and health outcomes while adjusting for predetermined characteristics; linear regression models were used for reported HbA1c. Comparison of participants who reported HbA1c versus nonreporters was conducted. RESULTS: A majority (70%) of participants rated satisfaction with health care >/=7 out of 10, and most (71%) rated overall health as good, very good, or excellent. Satisfaction with health care was independent of change in provider between the ages of 17 and 24. After controlling for predetermined characteristics, we found that the odds of increased satisfaction with health care and overall personal health were 1.3 and 1.2 greater, respectively, when participants discussed additional diabetes-related anticipatory guidance topics with a provider and 1.3 and 2.1, respectively, for each 10-unit change in quality of life score. Relationship between HbA1c level and modifiable factors was not significant; however, participants reporting HbA1c had higher ratings of health care and overall health versus nonreporters. CONCLUSIONS: HRM describes relationships between modifiable factors and patient-reported outcomes of satisfaction with health care and overall personal health among a cohort of ethnically and racially diverse emerging adults with longstanding diabetes, over half of whom experienced a change in provider. HRM may discern candidate areas for intervention, such as effective anticipatory guidance that can impact satisfaction with health care and overall health, to promote positive health outcomes.

      2. How often is congenital heart disease recognized as a significant comorbidity among hospitalized adults with congenital heart disease?External
        Robbins JM, Onukwube J, Goudie A, Collins RT.
        Int J Cardiol. 2017 Feb 22.
        BACKGROUND: Despite frequent life-long hemodynamic and electrophysiologic abnormalities, adults with congenital heart defects (CHDs) are often lost to medical follow-up. Using a cohort of adults with CHD receiving hospital care in Arkansas, we sought to determine how often a CHD is recognized and coded during hospital admissions. METHODS: Data for this study come from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Arkansas State Inpatient Database (SID) for years 2004 to 2012. Using unique identifiers that link patients across hospitalizations, we created a cohort of 3973 patients>/=18years old with an ICD-9 code for a CHD diagnosis noted at discharge during any hospitalization. RESULTS: These 3973 patients had 19,638 hospitalizations. A CHD was listed as the principal diagnosis in 3% of hospitalizations, a secondary diagnosis in 22%, and no CHD was listed in 75% of hospitalizations. Among patients with a critical CHD, no critical CHD was noted in 69% of hospitalizations. Cardiovascular events (heart failure, arrhythmias, cerebrovascular accidents, embolic event, or death) occurred in 60% of hospitalizations of critical CHD patients wherein no critical CHD was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: CHDs are rarely acknowledged during hospitalizations of adults with a known CHD even when cardiovascular events occur. Improved awareness, disclosure and attention to comorbid CHDs among patients and providers may improve hospital management and outcomes of cardiovascular events.

      3. Concern about developing Alzheimer’s disease or dementia and intention to be screened: An analysis of national survey dataExternal
        Tang W, Kannaley K, Friedman DB, Edwards VJ, Wilcox S, Levkoff SE, Hunter RH, Irmiter C, Belza B.
        Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017 Mar 01;71:43-49.
        OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or dementia is important so that patients can express treatment preferences, subsequently allowing caregivers to make decisions consistent with their wishes. This study explored the relationship between people’s concern about developing AD/dementia, likelihood to be screened/tested, if experiencing changes in cognitive status or functioning, and concerns about sharing the diagnostic information with others. METHOD: A descriptive study was conducted using Porter Novelli’s SummerStyles 2013 online survey data. Of the 6105 panelists aged 18+ who received the survey, 4033 adults responded (response rate: 66%). Chi squares were used with case-level weighting applied. RESULTS: Almost 13% of respondents reported being very worried or worried about getting AD/dementia, with women more worried than men (p<.001), and AD/dementia caregivers more worried than other types of caregivers (p=.04). Women were also more likely than men to agree to be screened/tested if experiencing changes in memory and/or thinking (p<.001). The greater the worry, the more likely respondents would agree to be screened/tested (p<.001). Nearly 66% of respondents were concerned that sharing a diagnosis would change the way others think/feel about them, with women reporting greater concern than men (p=.003). CONCLUSION: Findings demonstrate that level of worry about AD/dementia is associated with the reported likelihood that individuals agree to be screened/tested. This information will be useful in developing communication strategies to address public concern about AD/dementia that may increase the likelihood of screening and early detection.

      4. The cost-effectiveness of using chronic kidney disease risk scores to screen for early-stage chronic kidney diseaseExternal
        Yarnoff BO, Hoerger TJ, Simpson SK, Leib A, Burrows NR, Shrestha SS, Pavkov ME.
        BMC Nephrol. 2017 Mar 13;18(1):85.
        BACKGROUND: Better treatment during early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may slow progression to end-stage renal disease and decrease associated complications and medical costs. Achieving early treatment of CKD is challenging, however, because a large fraction of persons with CKD are unaware of having this disease. Screening for CKD is one important method for increasing awareness. We examined the cost-effectiveness of identifying persons for early-stage CKD screening (i.e., screening for moderate albuminuria) using published CKD risk scores. METHODS: We used the CKD Health Policy Model, a micro-simulation model, to simulate the cost-effectiveness of using CKD two published risk scores by Bang et al. and Kshirsagar et al. to identify persons in the US for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria. Alternative risk score thresholds were tested (0.20, 0.15, 0.10, 0.05, and 0.02) above which persons were assigned to receive screening at alternative intervals (1-, 2-, and 5-year) for follow-up screening if the first screening was negative. We examined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), incremental lifetime costs divided by incremental lifetime QALYs, relative to the next higher screening threshold to assess cost-effectiveness. Cost-effective scenarios were determined as those with ICERs less than $50,000 per QALY. Among the cost-effective scenarios, the optimal scenario was determined as the one that resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. RESULTS: ICERs ranged from $8,823 per QALY to $124,626 per QALY for the Bang et al. risk score and $6,342 per QALY to $405,861 per QALY for the Kshirsagar et al. risk score. The Bang et al. risk score with a threshold of 0.02 and 2-year follow-up screening was found to be optimal because it had an ICER less than $50,000 per QALY and resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that using these CKD risk scores may allow clinicians to cost-effectively identify a broader population for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria and potentially detect people with CKD at earlier stages of the disease than current approaches of screening only persons with diabetes or hypertension.

    • Communicable Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Population pharmacokinetics of pyrazinamide in patients with tuberculosisExternal
        Alsultan A, Savic R, Dooley KE, Weiner M, Whitworth W, Mac Kenzie WR, Peloquin CA.
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Mar 13.
        The current treatment used for tuberculosis (TB) is lengthy and needs to be shortened and improved. Pyrazinamide (PZA) has potent sterilizing activity and has the potential to shorten TB treatment duration, if optimized. The goals of this study were (a) to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for PZA among patients enrolled in PK sub-studies of Tuberculosis Trial Consortium (TBTC) trials 27 and 28, and (b) to determine covariates that affect PZA PK. We also (c) performed simulations and target attainment analysis using the proposed targets of Cmax >35 mcg/ml or AUC >363 mcg*hr/ml to see if higher weight-based dosing could improve PZA efficacy. Seventy-two patients participated in the sub-studies. The mean (standard deviation, SD) maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 30.8 (7.4) mcg/ml, and the area under the concentration-versus-time curve (AUC0-24) was 307 mcg*hr/ml (83). A one-compartment open model best described PZA PK. Only body weight was a significant covariate for PZA clearance. Women had a lower V/F compared to men, and both Cl/F and V/F increased with body weight. Our simulations show that higher doses for PZA (>50mg/kg) are needed to achieve the therapeutic target of AUC/MIC >11.3 in >80% of patients, while doses >80mg/kg are needed for 90% target attainment, given specific assumptions about MIC determinations. For the therapeutic targets of Cmax >35 mcg/ml and/or AUC >363 mcg*hr/ml, doses in the range of 30-40 mg/kg are needed to achieve the therapeutic target in >90 % of the patients. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of higher doses for PZA.Reference in this manuscript to any specific commercial product, process, service, manufacturer, or company does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government or CDC. The findings and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      2. Factors driving customers to seek health care from pharmacies for acute respiratory illness and treatment recommendations from drug sellers in Dhaka city, BangladeshExternal
        Chowdhury F, Sturm-Ramirez K, Mamun AA, Iuliano AD, Bhuiyan MU, Chisti MJ, Ahmed M, Haider S, Rahman M, Azziz-Baumgartner E.
        Patient Prefer Adherence. 2017 ;11:479-486.
        BACKGROUND: Pharmacies in Bangladesh serve as an important source of health service. A survey in Dhaka reported that 48% of respondents with symptoms of acute respiratory illness (ARI) identified local pharmacies as their first point of care. This study explores the factors driving urban customers to seek health care from pharmacies for ARI, their treatment adherence, and outcome. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 selected pharmacies within Dhaka from June to December 2012. Study participants were patients or patients’ relatives aged >18 years seeking care for ARI from pharmacies without prescription. Structured interviews were conducted with customers after they sought health service from drug sellers and again over phone 5 days postinterview to discuss treatment adherence and outcome. RESULTS: We interviewed 302 customers patronizing 76 pharmacies; 186 (62%) sought care for themselves and 116 (38%) sought care for a sick relative. Most customers (215; 71%) were males. The majority (90%) of customers sought care from the study pharmacy as their first point of care, while 18 (6%) had previously sought care from another pharmacy and 11 (4%) from a physician for their illness episodes. The most frequently reported reasons for seeking care from pharmacies were ease of access to pharmacies (86%), lower cost (46%), availability of medicine (33%), knowing the drug seller (20%), and convenient hours of operation (19%). The most commonly recommended drugs were acetaminophen dispensed in 76% (228) of visits, antihistamine in 69% (208), and antibiotics in 42% (126). On follow-up, most (86%) of the customers had recovered and 12% had sought further treatment. CONCLUSION: People with ARI preferred to seek care at pharmacies rather than clinics because these pharmacies were more accessible and provided prompt treatment and medicine with no service charge. We recommend raising awareness among drug sellers on proper dispensing practices and enforcement of laws and regulations for drug sales.

      3. A proposed framework for the implementation of early infant diagnosis point-of-careExternal
        Diallo K, Modi S, Hurlston M, Beard RS, Nkengasong JN.
        AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2017 Mar;33(3):203-210.
        Early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants and children remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, with approximately half of all HIV-exposed infants receiving virological testing for HIV by the recommended age of 2 months in 2015. To reduce morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children and close the treatment gap for HIV-infected children, there is an urgent need to evaluate existing programmatic and laboratory practices for early infant diagnosis and introduce strategies to improve identification of HIV-exposed infants and ensure access to systematic, early HIV testing, with early linkage to treatment for HIV-infected infants. This article describes progress made in follow-up of HIV-exposed infants since 2006, including remaining unmet laboratory and programmatic needs, and recommends strategies for improvement, especially those related to the implementation of point-of-care technology for early infant diagnosis.

      4. Outcomes and costs of out-patient MDR-TB care in the USAExternal
        Marks SM, Hirsch-Moverman Y, Seaworth B, Salcedo K, Graviss EA, Armstrong L, Armitige L, Flood J, Mase S.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 Apr 01;21(4):477-478.
        [No abstract]
      5. Oseltamivir use among children and adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia
        Oboho IK, Bramley A, Finelli L, Fry A, Ampofo K, Arnold SR, Self WH, Williams DJ, Mark Courtney D, Zhu Y, Anderson EJ, Grijalva CG, McCullers JA, Wunderink RG, Pavia AT, Edwards KM, Jain S.
        Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2017 ;4(1).
        Background. Data on oseltamivir treatment among hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients are limited. Methods. Patients hospitalized with CAP at 6 hospitals during the 2010-2012 influenza seasons were included. We assessed factors associated with oseltamivir treatment using logistic regression. Results. Oseltamivir treatment was provided to 89 of 1627 (5%) children (< 18 years) and 143 of 1051 (14%) adults. Among those with positive clinician-ordered influenza tests, 39 of 61 (64%) children and 37 of 48 (77%) adults received oseltamivir. Among children, oseltamivir treatment was associated with hospital A (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.88), clinician-ordered testing performed (aOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.47-5.19), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.27-3.45), and age ?2 years (aOR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.16-1.76). Among adults, oseltamivir treatment was associated with clinician- ordered testing performed (aOR, 8.38; 95% CI, 4.64-15.12), hospitals D and E (aOR, 3.46-5.11; 95% CI, 1.75-11.01), Hispanic ethnicity (aOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.18-3.59), and ICU admission (aOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.34-3.13). Conclusions. Among patients hospitalized with CAP during influenza season, oseltamivir treatment was moderate overall and associated with clinician-ordered testing, severe illness, and specific hospitals. Increased clinician education is needed to include influenza in the differential diagnosis for hospitalized CAP patients and to test and treat patients empirically if influenza is suspected.

      6. Incidence and predictors of tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria, 2004-2012External
        Pathmanathan I, Dokubo EK, Shiraishi RW, Agolory SG, Auld AF, Onotu D, Odafe S, Dalhatu I, Abiri O, Debem HC, Bashorun A, Ellerbrock T.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(3):e0173309.
        BACKGROUND: Nigeria had the most AIDS-related deaths worldwide in 2014 (170,000), and 46% were associated with tuberculosis (TB). Although treatment of people living with HIV (PLHIV) with antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces TB-associated morbidity and mortality, incident TB can occur while on ART. We estimated incidence and characterized factors associated with TB after ART initiation in Nigeria. METHODS: We analyzed retrospective cohort data from a nationally representative sample of adult patients on ART. Data were abstracted from 3,496 patient records, and analyses were weighted and controlled for a complex survey design. We performed domain analyses on patients without documented TB disease and used a Cox proportional hazard model to assess factors associated with TB incidence after ART. RESULTS: At ART initiation, 3,350 patients (95.8%) were not receiving TB treatment. TB incidence after ART initiation was 0.57 per 100 person-years, and significantly higher for patients with CD4<50/muL (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-12.7) compared with CD4>/=200/muL. Patients with suspected but untreated TB at ART initiation and those with a history of prior TB were more likely to develop incident TB (AHR: 12.2, 95% CI: 4.5-33.5 and AHR: 17.6, 95% CI: 3.5-87.9, respectively). CONCLUSION: Incidence of TB among PLHIV after ART initiation was low, and predicted by advanced HIV, prior TB, and suspected but untreated TB. Study results suggest a need for improved TB screening and diagnosis, particularly among high-risk PLHIV initiating ART, and reinforce the benefit of early ART and other TB prevention efforts.

      7. Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus status and seropositivity after a recently negative test in Malawi
        Pathmanathan I, Lederer P, Shiraishi RW, Wadonda-Kabondo N, Date A, Matatiyo B, Dokubo EK.
        Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2017 ;4 (1) (ofw231).
        Background. Awareness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status among all people with HIV is critical for epidemic control. We aimed to assess accurate knowledge of HIV status, defined as concordance with serosurvey test results from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey (MDHS), and to identify risk factors for seropositivity among adults (aged 15-49) reporting a most recently negative test within 12 months. Methods. Data were analyzed from the 2010 MDHS. A logistic regression model was constructed to determine factors independently associated with HIV seropositivity after a recently negative test. All analyses controlled for the survey’s complex design. Results. A total of 11 649 adults tested for HIV during this MDHS reported ever being sexually active. Among these, HIV seroprevalence was 12.0%, but only 61.7% had accurate knowledge of their status. Forty percent (40.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 36.8-43.8) of seropositive respondents reported a most recently negative test. Of those reporting that this negative test was within 12 months (n = 3630), seroprevalence was 7.2% for women (95% CI, 5.7-9.2), 5.2% for men (95% CI, 3.9-6.9), higher in the South, and higher in rural areas for men. Women with higher education and men in the richest quintile were at higher risk. More than 1 lifetime union was significantly associated with recent HIV infection, whereas never being married was significantly protective. Conclusions. Self-reported HIV status based on prior test results can underestimate seroprevalence. These results highlight the need for posttest risk assessment and support for people who test negative for HIV and repeat testing in people at high risk for HIV infection.

      8. Sex, race, and HIV risk disparities in discontinuity of HIV care after antiretroviral therapy initiation in the United States and CanadaExternal
        Rebeiro PF, Abraham AG, Horberg MA, Althoff KN, Yehia BR, Buchacz K, Lau BM, Sterling TR, Gange SJ.
        AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2017 Mar;31(3):129-144.
        Disruption of continuous retention in care (discontinuity) is associated with HIV disease progression. We examined sex, race, and HIV risk disparities in discontinuity after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among patients in North America. Adults (>/=18 years of age) initiating ART from 2000 to 2010 were included. Discontinuity was defined as first disruption of continuous retention (>/=2 visits separated by >90 days in the calendar year). Relative hazard ratio (HR) and times from ART initiation until discontinuity by race, sex, and HIV risk were assessed by modeling of the cumulative incidence function (CIF) in the presence of the competing risk of death. Models were adjusted for cohort site, baseline age, and CD4+ cell count within 1 year before ART initiation; nadir CD4+ cell count after ART, but before a study event, was assessed as a mediator. Among 17,171 adults initiating ART, median follow-up time was 3.97 years, and 49% were observed to have >/=1 discontinuity of care. In adjusted regression models, the hazard of discontinuity for patients was lower for females versus males [HR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.89] and higher for blacks versus nonblacks (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12-1.23) and persons with injection drug use (IDU) versus non-IDU risk (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.25-1.41). Sex, racial, and HIV risk differences in clinical retention exist, even accounting for access to care and known competing risks for discontinuity. These results point to vulnerable populations at greatest risk for discontinuity in need of improved outreach to prevent disruptions of HIV care.

      9. The use of mathematical models of chlamydia transmission to address public health policy questions: A systematic review
        Ronn MM, Wolf EE, Chesson H, Menzies NA, Galer K, Gorwitz R, Gift T, Hsu K, Salomon JA.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2017 .
        BACKGROUND: Mathematical models of chlamydia transmission can help inform disease control policy decisions when direct empirical evaluation of alternatives is impractical. We reviewed published chlamydia models to understand the range of approaches used for policy analyses and how the studies have responded to developments in the field. METHODS: We performed a literature review by searching Medline and Google Scholar (up to October 2015) to identify publications describing dynamic chlamydia transmission models used to address public health policy questions. We extracted information on modeling methodology, interventions, and key findings. RESULTS: We identified 47 publications (including two model comparison studies), which reported collectively on 29 distinct mathematical models. Nine models were individual-based, and 20 were deterministic compartmental models. The earliest studies evaluated the benefits of national-level screening programs and predicted potentially large benefits from increased screening. Subsequent trials and further modeling analyses suggested the impact might have been overestimated. Partner notification has been increasingly evaluated in mathematical modeling, whereas behavioral interventions have received relatively limited attention. CONCLUSIONS: Our review provides an overview of chlamydia transmission models and gives a perspective on how mathematical modeling has responded to increasing empirical evidence and addressed policy questions related to prevention of chlamydia infection and sequelae.

      10. Empirical validation of the UNAIDS Spectrum model for subnational HIV estimates: case-study of children and adults in Manicaland, ZimbabweExternal
        Silhol R, Gregson S, Nyamukapa C, Mhangara M, Dzangare J, Gonese E, Eaton JW, Case KK, Mahy M, Stover J, Mugurungi O.
        Aids. 2017 Apr;31 Suppl 1:S41-s50.
        BACKGROUND: More cost-effective HIV control may be achieved by targeting geographical areas with high infection rates. The AIDS Impact model of Spectrum – used routinely to produce national HIV estimates – could provide the required subnational estimates but is rarely validated with empirical data, even at a national level. DESIGN: The validity of the Spectrum model estimates were compared with empirical estimates. METHODS: Antenatal surveillance and population survey data from a population HIV cohort study in Manicaland, East Zimbabwe, were input into Spectrum 5.441 to create a simulation representative of the cohort population. Model and empirical estimates were compared for key demographic and epidemiological outcomes. Alternative scenarios for data availability were examined and sensitivity analyses were conducted for model assumptions considered important for subnational estimates. RESULTS: Spectrum estimates generally agreed with observed data but HIV incidence estimates were higher than empirical estimates, whereas estimates of early age all-cause adult mortality were lower. Child HIV prevalence estimates matched well with the survey prevalence among children. Estimated paternal orphanhood was lower than empirical estimates. Including observations from earlier in the epidemic did not improve the HIV incidence model fit. Migration had little effect on observed discrepancies – possibly because the model ignores differences in HIV prevalence between migrants and residents. CONCLUSION: The Spectrum model, using subnational surveillance and population data, provided reasonable subnational estimates although some discrepancies were noted. Differences in HIV prevalence between migrants and residents may need to be captured in the model if applied to subnational epidemics.

      11. Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons in Ebonyi and Nsukka, NigeriaExternal
        Ukwah BN, Ezeonu IM, Ezeonu CT, Roellig D, Xiao L.
        J Infect Dev Ctries. 2017 Feb 28;11(2):173-179.
        INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidiosis is a common disease of children and immune-compromised persons. This study evaluated the diversity and distribution of Cryptosporidium species in diarrheal children and HIV-infected persons on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and those not on HAART. METHODOLOGY: A total of 394 fecal specimens were collected from patients attending clinics in Nsukka and Ebonyi, Nigeria. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species were conducted by PCR-RFLP of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, whereas subtyping was done by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. RESULTS: Twenty-five (6.3%) specimens yielded four Cryptosporidium species, including C. hominis, C. parvum, C. felis, and C. viatorum. C. hominis was the most dominant species with 48.0% occurrence and three identified subtype families: Ia (six specimens), Ib (three specimens), Ie (two specimens), and one un-subtyped species. C. parvum had 44.0% occurrence and two subtype families: IIc (eight specimens) and IIe (three specimens), while C. felis and C. viatorum each had 4.0% occurrence. There were significant differences in Cryptosporidium species distribution between age groups in children and HIV-infected persons, between suburban and urban areas, and between low and high CD4+ cell counts in HIV-infected patients. There were no significant differences in infection rate and species distribution between HIV-infected patients on HAART and those not on HAART. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study show that there is a high diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans in Ebonyi and Nsukka, Nigeria, and that all the C. parvum subtypes identified are most likely anthroponotic in origin.

      12. Prescribing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis by HIV medical providers in the United States, 2013-2014
        Weiser J, Garg S, Beer L, Skarbinski J.
        Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2017 ;4 (1) (ofx003).
        Background. Clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for reducing HIV acquisition. Understanding how HIV care providers are prescribing PrEP is necessary to ensure success of this prevention strategy. Methods. During 2013-2014, we surveyed US HIV care providers who also provided care to HIV-negative patients. We estimated percentages who had prescribed PrEP and assessed associations between provider characteristics and PrEP prescribing. Results. An estimated 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 20-31) had ever prescribed PrEP. Of these, 74% (95% CI, 61-87) prescribed for men who have sex with men (MSM), 30% (95% CI, 21-39) for women who have sex with men, 23% (95% CI, 9-37) for men who have sex with women, 23% (95% CI, 15-30) for uninfected partners in HIV-discordant couples trying to conceive, and 1% (95% CI, 0-2) for persons who inject drugs. The following provider characteristics were significantly associated with having prescribed PrEP: male vs female (32% vs 16%; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.2), lesbian/gay/bisexual vs heterosexual orientation (50% vs 21%; aPR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9), and HIV caseload (> 200, 51-200, and <50 patients, 39%, 29%, and 14%, respectively; > 200 vs <50 patients, aPR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2, and 51-200 vs <50 patients, aPR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.0). Conclusions. In 2013-2014, one quarter of HIV care providers reported having prescribed PrEP, most commonly for MSM and rarely for persons who inject drugs. Lesbian/gay/bisexual providers and male providers were more likely than others to have prescribed PrEP. Additional efforts may enable more providers to prescribe PrEP to underserved clients needing the service.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors RSS Word feed
      1. Seasonal patterns in eastern equine encephalitis virus antibody in songbirds in southern MaineExternal
        Elias SP, Keenan P, Kenney JL, Morris SR, Covino KM, Robinson S, Foss KA, Rand PW, Lubelczyk C, Lacombe EH, Mutebi JP, Evers D, Smith RP.
        Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017 Mar 13.
        The intent of this study was to assess passerine eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEv) seroprevalence during the breeding season in southern Maine by testing songbird species identified in the literature as amplifying hosts of this virus. In 2013 and 2014, we collected serum samples from songbirds at a mainland site and an offshore island migratory stopover site, and screened samples for EEEv antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. We compared seasonal changes in EEEv antibody seroprevalence in young (hatched in year of capture) and adult birds at the mainland site, and also compared early season seroprevalence in mainland versus offshore adult birds. EEEv seroprevalence did not differ significantly between years at either site. During the early season (May), EEEv antibody seroprevalence was substantially lower (9.6%) in the island migrant adults than in mainland adults (42.9%), 2013-2014. On the mainland, EEEv antibody seroprevalence in young birds increased from 12.9% in midseason (June-August) to 45.6% in late season (September/October), 2013-2014. Seroprevalence in adult birds did not differ between seasons (48.8% vs. 53.3%). EEEv activity in Maine has increased in the past decade as measured by increased virus detection in mosquitoes and veterinary cases. High EEEv seroprevalence in young birds-as compared to that of young birds in other studies-corresponded with two consecutive active EEEv years in Maine. We suggest that young, locally hatched songbirds be sampled as a part of long-term EEEv surveillance, and provide a list of suggested species to sample, including EEEv “superspreaders.”

      2. Metabolomics of the tick-Borrelia interaction during the nymphal tick blood mealExternal
        Hoxmeier JC, Fleshman AC, Broeckling CD, Prenni JE, Dolan MC, Gage KL, Eisen L.
        Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 13;7:44394.
        The causal agents of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, are transmitted primarily by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Due to their limited metabolic capacity, spirochetes rely on the tick blood meal for nutrients and metabolic intermediates while residing in the tick vector, competing with the tick for nutrients in the blood meal. Metabolomics is an effective methodology to explore dynamics of spirochete survival and multiplication in tick vectors before transmission to a vertebrate host via tick saliva. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we identified statistically significant differences in the metabolic profile among uninfected I. scapularis nymphal ticks, B. burgdorferi-infected nymphal ticks and B. mayonii-infected nymphal ticks by measuring metabolism every 24 hours over the course of their up to 96 hour blood meals. Specifically, differences in the abundance of purines, amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids during the blood meal among the three groups of nymphal ticks suggest that B. mayonii and B. burgdorferi may have different metabolic capabilities, especially during later stages of nymphal feeding. Understanding mechanisms underlying variable metabolic requirements of different Lyme disease spirochetes within tick vectors could potentially aid development of novel methods to control spirochete transmission.

      3. Biosecurity conditions in small commercial chicken farms, Bangladesh 2011-2012External
        Rimi NA, Sultana R, Muhsina M, Uddin B, Haider N, Nahar N, Zeidner N, Sturm-Ramirez K, Luby SP.
        Ecohealth. 2017 Mar 13.
        In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers’ perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions with poultry farmers in 16 farms and in-depth interviews with seven local feed vendors from two districts. None of the farms were completely segregated from people, backyard poultry, other animals, households, other poultry farms or large trees. Wild birds and rodents accessed the farms for poultry feed. Farmers usually did not allow the buyers to bring egg trays inside their sheds. Spraying disinfectant in the shed and removing feces were the only regular cleaning and disinfection activities observed. All farmers sold or used untreated feces as fish feed or fertilizer. Farmers were more concerned about Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease than about avian influenza. Farmers’ understanding about biosecurity and avian influenza was influenced by local vendors. While we seldom observed flock segregation, some farmers used measures that involved additional cost or effort to protect their flocks. These farmers could be motivated by interventions to protect their investment from diseases they consider harmful. Future interventions could explore the feasibility and effectiveness of low-cost alternative biosecurity measures.

    • Environmental Health RSS Word feed
      1. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic functionExternal
        Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Mar;125(3):481-487.
        BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. METHODS: We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. RESULTS: Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., -10.1% (95% CI: -17.3, -2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: -15.6% (95% CI: -25.4, -4.6) vs. -6.1% (95% CI: -16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance.

    • Food Safety RSS Word feed
      1. Investigation of Salmonella enteritidis outbreak associated with truffle oil – District of Columbia, 2015External
        Kuramoto-Crawford SJ, McGee S, Li K, Hennenfent AK, Dassie K, Carney JT, Gibson A, Cooper I, Blaylock M, Blackwell R, Fields A, Davies-Cole J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Mar 17;66(10):278-281.
        On September 8, 2015, the District of Columbia Department of Health (DCDOH) received a call from a person who reported experiencing gastrointestinal illness after eating at a District of Columbia (DC) restaurant with multiple locations throughout the United States (restaurant A). Later the same day, a local emergency department notified DCDOH to report four persons with gastrointestinal illness, all of whom had eaten at restaurant A during August 30-September 5. Two patients had laboratory-confirmed Salmonella group D by stool culture. On the evening of September 9, a local newspaper article highlighted a possible outbreak associated with restaurant A. Investigation of the outbreak by DCDOH identified 159 patrons who were residents of 11 states and DC with gastrointestinal illness after eating at restaurant A during July 1-September 10. A case-control study was conducted, which suggested truffle oil-containing food items as a possible source of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infection. Although several violations were noted during the restaurant inspections, the environmental, laboratory, and traceback investigations did not confirm the contamination source. Because of concern about the outbreak, the restaurant’s license was suspended during September 10-15. The collaboration and cooperation of the public, media, health care providers, and local, state, and federal public health officials facilitated recognition of this outbreak involving a pathogen commonly implicated in foodborne illness.

    • Genetics and Genomics RSS Word feed
      1. Annotated draft genome sequences of three species of Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidium meleagridis isolate UKMEL1, C. baileyi isolate TAMU-09Q1 and C. hominis isolates TU502_2012 and UKH1External
        Ifeonu OO, Chibucos MC, Orvis J, Su Q, Elwin K, Guo F, Zhang H, Xiao L, Sun M, Chalmers RM, Fraser CM, Zhu G, Kissinger JC, Widmer G, Silva JC.
        Pathog Dis. 2016 Oct;74(7).
        Human cryptosporidiosis is caused primarily by Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum and C. meleagridis. To accelerate research on parasites in the genus Cryptosporidium, we generated annotated, draft genome sequences of human C. hominis isolates TU502_2012 and UKH1, C. meleagridis UKMEL1, also isolated from a human patient, and the avian parasite C. baileyi TAMU-09Q1. The annotation of the genome sequences relied in part on RNAseq data generated from the oocyst stage of both C. hominis and C. baileyi The genome assembly of C. hominis is significantly more complete and less fragmented than that available previously, which enabled the generation of a much-improved gene set for this species, with an increase in average gene length of 500 bp relative to the protein-encoding genes in the 2004 C. hominis annotation. Our results reveal that the genomes of C. hominis and C. parvum are very similar in both gene density and average gene length. These data should prove a valuable resource for the Cryptosporidium research community.

      2. Universal human papillomavirus typing assay: Whole-genome sequencing following target enrichmentExternal
        Li T, Unger ER, Batra D, Sheth M, Steinau M, Jasinski J, Jones J, Rajeevan MS.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2017 Mar;55(3):811-823.
        We designed a universal human papillomavirus (HPV) typing assay based on target enrichment and whole-genome sequencing (eWGS). The RNA bait included 23,941 probes targeting 191 HPV types and 12 probes targeting beta-globin as a control. We used the Agilent SureSelect XT2 protocol for library preparation, Illumina HiSeq 2500 for sequencing, and CLC Genomics Workbench for sequence analysis. Mapping stringency for type assignment was determined based on 8 (6 HPV-positive and 2 HPV-negative) control samples. Using the optimal mapping conditions, types were assigned to 24 blinded samples. eWGS results were 100% concordant with Linear Array (LA) genotyping results for 9 plasmid samples and fully or partially concordant for 9 of the 15 cervical-vaginal samples, with 95.83% overall type-specific concordance for LA genotyping. eWGS identified 7 HPV types not included in the LA genotyping. Since this method does not involve degenerate primers targeting HPV genomic regions, PCR bias in genotype detection is minimized. With further refinements aimed at reducing cost and increasing throughput, this first application of eWGS for universal HPV typing could be a useful method to elucidate HPV epidemiology.

    • Health Economics RSS Word feed
      1. Is it all about the money? A qualitative exploration of the effects of performance-based financial incentives on Zimbabwe’s voluntary male medical circumcision programExternal
        Feldacker C, Bochner AF, Herman-Roloff A, Holec M, Murenje V, Stepaniak A, Xaba S, Tshimanga M, Chitimbire V, Makaure S, Hove J, Barnhart S, Makunike B.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(3):e0174047.
        BACKGROUND: In 2013, Zimbabwe’s voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program adopted performance-based financing (PBF) to speed progress towards ambitious VMMC targets. The $25 USD PBF intended to encourage low-paid healthcare workers to remain in the public sector and to strengthen the public healthcare system. The majority of the incentive supports healthcare workers (HCWs) who perform VMMC alongside other routine services; a small portion supports province, district, and facility levels. METHODS: This qualitative study assessed the effect of the PBF on HCW motivation, satisfaction, and professional relationships. The study objectives were to: 1) Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the HCW level; 2) Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the site level; and 3) Inform scale up, modification, or discontinuation of PBF for the national VMMC program. Sixteen focus groups were conducted: eight with HCWs who received PBF for VMMC and eight with HCWs in the same clinics who did not work in VMMC and, therefore, did not receive PBF. Fourteen key informant interviews ascertained administrator opinion. RESULTS: Findings suggest that PBF appreciably increased motivation among VMMC teams and helped improve facilities where VMMC services are provided. However, PBF appears to contribute to antagonism at the workplace, creating divisiveness that may reach beyond VMMC. PBF may also cause distortion in the healthcare system: HCWs prioritized incentivized VMMC services over other routine duties. To reduce workplace tension and improve the VMMC program, participants suggested increasing HCW training in VMMC to expand PBF beneficiaries and strengthening integration of VMMC services into routine care. CONCLUSION: In the low-resource, short-staffed context of Zimbabwe, PBF enabled rapid VMMC scale up and achievement of ambitious targets; however, side effects make PBF less advantageous and sustainable than envisioned. Careful consideration is warranted in choosing whether, and how, to implement PBF to prioritize a public health program.

      2. Tuberculosis hospitalization expenditures per patient from private health insurance claims data, 2010-2014External
        Owusu-Edusei K, Marks SM, Miramontes R, Stockbridge EL, Winston CA.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2017 Apr 01;21(4):398-404.
        OBJECTIVE: To determine hospitalization expenditures for tuberculosis (TB) disease among privately insured patients in the United States. METHODS: We extracted TB hospital admissions data from the 2010-2014 MarketScan(R) commercial database using International Classification of Diseases version 9 codes for TB (011.0-018.96) as the principal diagnosis. We estimated adjusted average expenditures (in 2014 USD) using regression analyses controlling for patient and claim characteristics. We also estimated the total expenditure paid by enrollee and insurance, and extrapolated it to the entire US employer-based privately insured population. RESULTS: We found 892 TB hospitalizations representing 825 unique enrollees over the 5-year period. The average hospitalization expenditure per person (including multiple hospitalizations) was US$33 085 (95%CI US$31 606- US$34 565). Expenditures for central nervous system TB (US$73 065, 95%CI US$59 572-US$86 558), bone and joint TB (US$56 842, 95%CI US$39 301-US$74 383), and miliary/disseminated TB (US$55 487, 95%CI US$46 101-US$64 873) were significantly higher than those for pulmonary TB (US$28 058, 95%CI US$26 632-US$29 484). The overall total expenditure for hospitalizations for TB disease over the period (2010-2014) was US$38.4 million; it was US$154 million when extrapolated to the entire employer-based privately insured population in the United States. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization expenditures for some forms of extra-pulmonary TB were substantially higher than for pulmonary TB.

    • Immunity and Immunization RSS Word feed
      1. Notes from the field: Investigation of patients testing positive for Yellow Fever viral RNA after vaccination during a mass yellow fever vaccination campaign – Angola, 2016External
        Boyd AT, Dombaxe D, Moreira R, Oliveira MS, Manuel E, Colorado CN, Lanzieri TM.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Mar 17;66(10):282-283.
        [No abstract]
      2. Assessing misclassification of vaccination status: Implications for studies of the safety of the childhood immunization scheduleExternal
        Daley MF, Glanz JM, Newcomer SR, Jackson ML, Groom HC, Lugg MM, McLean HQ, Klein NP, Weintraub ES, McNeil MM.
        Vaccine. 2017 Mar 09.
        BACKGROUND: To address public concern about the safety of the childhood immunization schedule, the Institute of Medicine recommended observational studies comparing adverse health outcomes of fully vaccinated children to children under-vaccinated due to parental choice. Misclassification of vaccination status could bias such studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of misclassification of vaccination status within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). DESIGN/METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in three phases. In phase 1, electronic health record (EHR) data were used to identify patterns of under-vaccination during the first 24months of life potentially due to parental choice. In phase 2, a random sample of records of under-vaccinated children was manually reviewed. In phase 3, a separate sample of parents were surveyed to assess whether EHR data accurately reflected their child’s vaccination status. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted at 6 VSD sites, phase 3 at 1 site. RESULTS: The study cohort included 361,901 children born 2004 through 2012. By 24months of age, 198,249 (54.8%) were fully vaccinated with no delays, 84,698 (23.4%) experienced delays but were fully vaccinated by 24months of age, 4865 (1.3%) received no vaccines, 3789 (1.0%) delayed starting vaccination until >/=4months of age, 4781 (1.3%) had consistent vaccine-limiting (</=2 vaccines per visit), and the remaining 65,519 (18.1%) were missing vaccine series or doses. When a diagnosis code for vaccine refusal was present in EHR data, encounter notes confirmed vaccine refusal as the reason for under-vaccination for nearly 100% of sampled records. Parent surveys confirmed these findings. Parents of under-vaccinated children were more likely to report visiting an alternative medical provider than parents of fully vaccinated children. CONCLUSIONS: Specific groups of children, under-vaccinated due to parental choice, can be identified with relatively low likelihood of misclassification of vaccination status using EHR-based vaccine data and diagnosis codes.

    • Informatics RSS Word feed
      1. Sexual orientation and health information technology use: A nationally representative study of U.S. adultsExternal
        Dahlhamer JM, Galinsky AM, Joestl SS, Ward BW.
        LGBT Health. 2017 Mar 13.
        PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence and odds of participation in online health-related activities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and straight adults aged 18-64. METHODS: Primary data collected in the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative household health survey, were used to examine associations between sexual orientation and four measures of health information technology (HIT) use. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews (some telephone follow-up) with 54,878 adults aged 18-64. RESULTS: Compared with straight men, both gay and bisexual men had higher odds of using computers to schedule appointments with healthcare providers, and using email to communicate with healthcare providers. Gay men also had significantly higher odds of seeking health information or participating in a health-related chat group on the Internet, and using computers to fill a prescription. No significant associations were observed between sexual orientation and HIT use among women in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Gay and bisexual men make greater use of HIT than their straight counterparts. Additional research is needed to determine the causal factors behind these group differences in the use of online healthcare, as well as the health implications for each group.

    • Injury and Violence RSS Word feed
      1. “Nurses eat their young”: a novel bullying educational program for student nurses
        Gillespie GL, Grubb PL, Brown K, Boesch MC, Ulrich DL.
        J Nurs Educ Pract. 2017 ;7(7):11-21.
        Bullying is a known and ongoing problem against nurses. Interventions are needed to prepare nursing students to prevent and mitigate the bullying they will experience in their nursing practice. The purpose of this article is to describe the development process and utility of one such intervention for use by nursing faculty with nursing students prior to their students’ entry into the profession. The educational program was critiqued by an advisory board and deemed to be relevant, clear, simple, and non-ambiguous indicating the program to have adequate content validity. The program then was pilot tested on five university campuses. Faculty members who implemented the educational program discussed (1) the program having value to faculty members and students, (2) challenges to continued program adoption, and (3) recommendations for program delivery. The proposed multicomponent, multiyear bullying educational program has the potential to positively influence nursing education and ultimately nursing practice. Findings from the pilot implementation of the program indicate the need to incorporate the program into additional nursing courses beginning during the sophomore year of the nursing curricula.

      2. Trends in suicide by level of urbanization – United States, 1999-2015External
        Kegler SR, Stone DM, Holland KM.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Mar 17;66(10):270-273.
        Suicide is a major and continuing public health concern in the United States. During 1999-2015, approximately 600,000 U.S. residents died by suicide, with the highest annual rate occurring in 2015 (1). Annual county-level mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and annual county-level population data from the U.S. Census Bureau were used to analyze suicide rate trends during 1999-2015, with special emphasis on comparing more urban and less urban areas. U.S. counties were grouped by level of urbanization using a six-level classification scheme. To evaluate rate trends, joinpoint regression methodology was applied to the time-series data for each level of urbanization. Suicide rates significantly increased over the study period for all county groupings and accelerated significantly in 2007-2008 for the medium metro, small metro, and non-metro groupings. Understanding suicide trends by urbanization level can help identify geographic areas of highest risk and focus prevention efforts. Communities can benefit from implementing policies, programs, and practices based on the best available evidence regarding suicide prevention and key risk factors. Many approaches are applicable regardless of urbanization level, whereas certain strategies might be particularly relevant in less urban areas affected by difficult economic conditions, limited access to helping services, and social isolation.

      3. Injury deaths among U.S. females: CDC resources and programsExternal
        Mack KA, Peterson C, Zhou C, MacConvery E, Wilkins N.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017 Mar 15.
        Injury death rates are lower for women than for men at all ages, but we have a long way to go in understanding the circumstances of injury fatalities among females. This article presents resources that can be used to examine the most recent data on injury fatalities among females and highlights activities of CDC’s Injury Center. The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control’s (NCIPC’s) Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, an online surveillance database, can be used to examine injury deaths. We present examples that show the 2015 number of female fatal injuries by age group and injury cause and method, as well as a 2008-2014 county-level map of female fatal injury rates. In 2015, there were 68,572 injury fatalities of females of age >/=1 year, equivalent to 1 death every 7 minutes. Injuries were the leading cause of death for females of ages 1-41 years and the sixth-ranked cause of female death overall. Falls were the leading cause of injury death overall (and for women >/=70 years), unintentional poisonings were second, and motor vehicle traffic injuries were third. NCIPC funds national organizations, state health agencies, and other groups to develop, implement, and promote effective injury and violence prevention and control practices. Five key programs are discussed. Presenting data on injury fatalities is an essential element in identifying meaningful prevention efforts. Further investigation of the causes and impact of female injury fatalities can refine the public health approach to reduce this injury burden.

      4. Traumatic brain injury-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths – United States, 2007 and 2013External
        Taylor CA, Bell JM, Breiding MJ, Xu L.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017 Mar 17;66(9):1-16.
        PROBLEM/CONDITION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, including death and disability. TBI can be caused by a number of principal mechanisms, including motor-vehicle crashes, falls, and assaults. This report describes the estimated incidence of TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths during 2013 and makes comparisons to similar estimates from 2007. REPORTING PERIOD: 2007 and 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: State-based administrative health care data were used to calculate estimates of TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations by principal mechanism of injury, age group, sex, and injury intent. Categories of injury intent included unintentional (motor-vehicle crashes, falls, being struck by or against an object, mechanism unspecified), intentional (self-harm and assault/homicide), and undetermined intent. These health records come from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s National Emergency Department Sample and National Inpatient Sample. TBI-related death analyses used CDC multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files, which contain death certificate data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. RESULTS: In 2013, a total of approximately 2.8 million TBI-related ED visits, hospitalizations, and deaths (TBI-EDHDs) occurred in the United States. This consisted of approximately 2.5 million TBI-related ED visits, approximately 282,000 TBI-related hospitalizations, and approximately 56,000 TBI-related deaths. TBIs were diagnosed in nearly 2.8 million (1.9%) of the approximately 149 million total injury- and noninjury-related EDHDs that occurred in the United States during 2013. Rates of TBI-EDHDs varied by age, with the highest rates observed among persons aged >/=75 years (2,232.2 per 100,000 population), 0-4 years (1,591.5), and 15-24 years (1,080.7). Overall, males had higher age-adjusted rates of TBI-EDHDs (959.0) compared with females (810.8) and the most common principal mechanisms of injury for all age groups included falls (413.2, age-adjusted), being struck by or against an object (142.1, age-adjusted), and motor-vehicle crashes (121.7, age-adjusted). The age-adjusted rate of ED visits was higher in 2013 (787.1) versus 2007 (534.4), with fall-related TBIs among persons aged >/=75 years accounting for 17.9% of the increase in the number of TBI-related ED visits. The number and rate of TBI-related hospitalizations also increased among persons aged >/=75 years (from 356.9 in 2007 to 454.4 in 2013), primarily because of falls. Whereas motor-vehicle crashes were the leading cause of TBI-related deaths in 2007 in both number and rate, in 2013, intentional self-harm was the leading cause in number and rate. The overall age-adjusted rate of TBI-related deaths for all ages decreased from 17.9 in 2007 to 17.0 in 2013; however, age-adjusted TBI-related death rates attributable to falls increased from 3.8 in 2007 to 4.5 in 2013, primarily among older adults. Although the age-adjusted rate of TBI-related deaths attributable to motor-vehicle crashes decreased from 5.0 in 2007 to 3.4 in 2013, the age-adjusted rate of TBI-related ED visits attributable to motor-vehicle crashes increased from 83.8 in 2007 to 99.5 in 2013. The age-adjusted rate of TBI-related hospitalizations attributable to motor-vehicle crashes decreased from 23.5 in 2007 to 18.8 in 2013. INTERPRETATION: Progress has been made to prevent motor-vehicle crashes, resulting in a decrease in the number of TBI-related hospitalizations and deaths from 2007 to 2013. However, during the same time, the number and rate of older adult fall-related TBIs have increased substantially. Although considerable public interest has focused on sports-related concussion in youth, the findings in this report suggest that TBIs attributable to older adult falls, many of which result in hospitalization and death, should receive public health attention. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS: The increase in the number of fall-related TBIs in older adults suggests an urgent need to enhance fall-prevention efforts in that population. Multiple effective interventions have been identified, and CDC has developed the STEADI initiative (Stopping Elderly Accidents Deaths and Injuries) as a comprehensive strategy that incorporates empirically supported clinical guidelines and scientifically tested interventions to help primary care providers address their patients’ fall risk through the identification of modifiable risk factors and implementation of effective interventions (e.g., exercise, medication management, and Vitamin D supplementation).

    • Laboratory Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Confidence intervals for asbestos fiber counts: Approximate negative binomial distribution
        Bartley D, Slaven J, Harper M.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2017 ;61(2):237-247.
        The negative binomial distribution is adopted for analyzing asbestos fiber counts so as to account for both the sampling errors in capturing only a finite number of fibers and the inevitable human variation in identifying and counting sampled fibers. A simple approximation to this distribution is developed for the derivation of quantiles and approximate confidence limits. The success of the approximation depends critically on the use of Stirling’s expansion to sufficient order, on exact normalization of the approximating distribution, on reasonable perturbation of quantities from the normal distribution, and on accurately approximating sums by inverse-trapezoidal integration. Accuracy of the approximation developed is checked through simulation and also by comparison to traditional approximate confidence intervals in the specific case that the negative binomial distribution approaches the Poisson distribution. The resulting statistics are shown to relate directly to early research into the accuracy of asbestos sampling and analysis. Uncertainty in estimating mean asbestos fiber concentrations given only a single count is derived. Decision limits (limits of detection) and detection limits are considered for controlling false-positive and false-negative detection assertions and are compared to traditional limits computed assuming normal distributions.

      2. Accuracy-based proficiency testing for testosterone measurements with immunoassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometryExternal
        Cao ZT, Botelho JC, Rej R, Vesper H.
        Clin Chim Acta. 2017 Mar 10.
        BACKGROUND: Accurate testosterone measurements are needed to correctly diagnose and treat patients. Proficiency Testing (PT) programs using modified specimens for testing can be limited because of matrix effects and usage of non-reference measurement procedure (RMP)-defined targets for evaluation. Accuracy-based PT can overcome such limitations, however, there is lack of information on accuracy-based PT and feasibility of its implementation in evaluation for testosterone measurements. METHODS: Unaltered, single-donor human serum from 2 male and 2 female adult donors were analyzed for testosterone by 142 NYSDH-certified clinical laboratories using 16 immunoassays and LC-MS/MS methods. Testosterone target values were determined using an RMP. RESULTS: The testosterone target concentrations for the 4 specimens were 15.5, 30.0, 402 and 498ng/dl. The biases ranged between -17.8% to 73.1%, 3.1% to 21.3%, -24.8% to 8.6%, -22.1% to 6.8% for the 4 specimens, respectively. Using a total error target of +/-25.1%, which was calculated using the minimum allowable bias and imprecision, 73% of participating laboratories had >/=3 of the 4 results within these limits. CONCLUSIONS: The variability in total testosterone measurements can affect clinical decisions. Accuracy-based PT can significantly contribute to improving testosterone testing by providing reliable data on accuracy in patient care to laboratories, assay manufacturers, and standardization programs.

      3. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the Venturi Dustiness Tester
        Dubey P, Ghia U, Turkevich LA.
        Powder Technology. 2017 ;312:310-320.
        Dustiness quantifies the propensity of a finely divided solid to be aerosolized by a prescribed mechanical stimulus. Dustiness is relevant wherever powders are mixed, transferred or handled, and is important in the control of hazardous exposures and the prevention of dust explosions and product loss. Limited quantities of active pharmaceutical powders available for testing led to the development (at University of North Carolina) of a Venturi-driven dustiness tester. The powder is turbulently injected at high speed (Re approximately 2 x 10 to the 4th power) into a glass chamber; the aerosol is then gently sampled (Re approximately 2 x 10 cubed) through two filters located at the top of the chamber; the dustiness index is the ratio of sampled to injected mass of powder. Injection is activated by suction at an Extraction Port at the top of the chamber; loss of powder during injection compromises the sampled dustiness. The present work analyzes the flow inside the Venturi Dustiness Tester, using an Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes formulation with the k-omega Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. The simulation considers single-phase flow, valid for small particles (Stokes number Stk <1). Results show that approximately 24% of fluid-tracers escape the tester before the Sampling Phase begins. Dispersion of the powder during the Injection Phase results in a uniform aerosol inside the tester, even for inhomogeneous injections, satisfying a necessary condition for the accurate evaluation of dustiness. Simulations are also performed under the conditions of reduced Extraction-Port flow; results confirm the importance of high Extraction-Port flow rate (standard operation) for uniform distribution of fluid tracers. Simulations are also performed under the conditions of delayed powder injection; results show that a uniform aerosol is still achieved provided 0.5 s elapses between powder injection and sampling.

      4. Mesothelin promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and tumorigenicity of human lung cancer and mesothelioma cellsExternal
        He X, Wang L, Riedel H, Wang K, Yang Y, Dinu CZ, Rojanasakul Y.
        Mol Cancer. 2017 Mar 14;16(1):63.
        BACKGROUND: Lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma are two of the most deadly forms of cancer. The prognosis of lung cancer and mesothelioma is extremely poor due to limited treatment modalities and lack of understanding of the disease mechanisms. We have identified mesothelin as a potentially unique therapeutic target that as a specific advantage appears nonessential in most cell types. Mesothelin (MSLN), a plasma membrane differentiation antigen, is expressed at a high level in many human solid tumors, including 70% of lung cancer and nearly all mesotheliomas. However, the role of MSLN in the disease process and underlying mechanisms is largely unknown. METHODS: ShRNA knockdown and overexpression of MSLN were performed in human cancer cell lines and corresponding normal cells, respectively. Tumorigenic and metastatic effects of MSLN were examined by tumor sphere formation, migration, and invasion assays in vitro, as well as xenograft tumor assay in vivo. EMT and CSCs were detected by qPCR array, immunoblotting and flow cytometry. RESULTS: MSLN plays a key role in controlling epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem properties of human lung cancer and mesothelioma cells that control their tumorigenicity and metastatic potential. Firstly, MSLN was found to be highly upregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient tissues and in lung carcinoma and mesothelioma cell lines. Secondly, genetic knockdown of MSLN significantly reduced anchorage-independent cell growth, tumor sphere formation, cell adhesion, migration and invasion in vitro, as well as tumor formation and metastasis in vivo. Thirdly, ectopic overexpression of MSLN induced the malignant phenotype of non-cancerous cells, supporting its role as an oncogene. Finally, mechanistic studies revealed that knockdown of MSLN reversed EMT and attenuated stem cell properties, in addition to inhibiting tumor growth and metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an essential role of MSLN in controlling EMT and stem cell properties of human lung cancer and mesothelioma cells. Since EMT is an important process in tumor progression and metastasis, and MSLN is nonessential in most normal tissue, our findings on MSLN may provide new insights into the disease mechanisms and may aid in the development of novel targeted therapy for lung cancer and mesothelioma.

      5. Optical screening for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing and for observation of phenotypic diversity among strains of the genetically clonal species Bacillus anthracisExternal
        McLaughlin HP, Gargis AS, Michel P, Sue D, Weigel LM.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2017 Mar;55(3):959-970.
        During high-impact events involving Bacillus anthracis, such as the Amerithrax incident of 2001 or the anthrax outbreaks in Russia and Sweden in 2016, critical decisions to reduce morbidity and mortality include rapid selection and distribution of effective antimicrobial agents for treatment and postexposure prophylaxis. Detection of antimicrobial resistance currently relies on a conventional broth microdilution method that requires a 16- to 20-h incubation time for B. anthracis Advances in high-resolution optical screening offer a new technology to more rapidly evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility and to simultaneously assess the growth characteristics of an isolate. Herein, we describe a new method developed and evaluated as a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility test for B. anthracis This method is based on automated digital time-lapse microscopy to observe the growth and morphological effects of relevant antibiotics with an optical screening instrument, the oCelloScope. B. anthracis strains were monitored over time in the presence or absence of penicillin, ciprofloxacin, or doxycycline. Susceptibility to each antibiotic was determined in </=4 h, 75 to 80% less than the time required for conventional methods. Time-lapse video imaging compiled from the optical screening images revealed unexpected differences in growth characteristics among strains of B. anthracis, which is considered to be a clonal organism. This technology provides a new approach for rapidly detecting phenotypic antimicrobial resistance and for documenting growth attributes that may be beneficial in the further characterization of individual strains.

      6. High throughput quantification of apolipoproteins A-I and B-100 by isotope dilution mass spectrometry targeting fast trypsin releasable peptides without reduction and alkylationExternal
        Parks BA, Schieltz DM, Andrews ML, Gardner MS, Rees JC, Toth CA, Jones JI, McWilliams LG, Kuklenyik Z, Pirkle JL, Barr JR.
        Proteomics Clin Appl. 2017 Mar 10.
        PURPOSE: Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and Apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) are amphipathic proteins that are strong predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. The traceable calibration of apolipoprotein assays is a persistent challenge, especially for ApoB-100, which cannot be solubilized in purified form. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Simultaneous quantitation method for ApoA-I and ApoB-100 was developed using tryptic digestion without pre-digestion reduction and alkylation, followed by liquid chromatography separation coupled with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) analysis. The accuracy of the method was assured by selecting structurally exposed signature peptides, optimal choice of detergent, protein:enzyme ratio, and incubation time. Peptide calibrators were value assigned by isobaric-tagging-IDMS amino acid analysis. RESULTS: The method reproducibility was validated in technical repeats of three serum samples, giving 2-3% intra-day CVs (N = 5) and <7% inter-day CVs (N = 21). The repeated analysis of inter-laboratory harmonization standards showed -1% difference for ApoA-I and -12% for ApoB-100 relative to the assigned value. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by repeated analysis of 24 patient samples with a wide range of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The method is applicable for simultaneous analysis of ApoA-I and ApoB-100 in patient samples, and for characterization of serum pool calibrators for other analytical platforms.

      7. The generation rate of respirable dust from cutting fiber cement siding using different tools
        Qi C, Echt A, Gressel MG.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2017 ;61(2):218-225.
        This article describes the evaluation of the generation rate of respirable dust (GAPS, defined as the mass of respirable dust generated per unit linear length cut) from cutting fiber cement siding using different tools in a laboratory testing system. We used an aerodynamic particle sizer spectrometer (APS) to continuously monitor the real-time size distributions of the dust throughout cutting tests when using a variety of tools, and calculated the generation rate of respirable dust for each testing condition using the size distribution data. The test result verifies that power shears provided an almost dust-free operation with a GAPS of 0.006 g m-1 at the testing condition. For the same power saws, the cuts using saw blades with more teeth generated more respirable dusts. Using the same blade for all four miter saws tested in this study, a positive linear correlation was found between the saws’ blade rotating speed and its dust generation rate. In addition, a circular saw running at the highest blade rotating speed of 9068 rpm generated the greatest amount of dust. All the miter saws generated less dust in the ‘chopping mode’ than in the ‘chopping and sliding’ mode. For the tested saws, GAPS consistently decreased with the increases of the saw cutting feed rate and the number of board in the stack. All the test results point out that fewer cutting interactions between the saw blade’s teeth and the siding board for a unit linear length of cut tend to result in a lower generation rate of respirable dust. These results may help guide optimal operation in practice and future tool development aimed at minimizing dust generation while producing a satisfactory cut.

    • Maternal and Child Health RSS Word feed
      1. Differences in health care, family, and community factors associated with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders among children aged 2-8 years in rural and urban areas – United States, 2011-2012External
        Robinson LR, Holbrook JR, Bitsko RH, Hartwig SA, Kaminski JW, Ghandour RM, Peacock G, Heggs A, Boyle CA.
        MMWR Surveill Summ. 2017 Mar 17;66(8):1-11.
        PROBLEM/CONDITION: Mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders (MBDDs) begin in early childhood and often affect lifelong health and well-being. Persons who live in rural areas report more health-related disparities than those in urban areas, including poorer health, more health risk behaviors, and less access to health resources. REPORTING PERIOD: 2011-2012. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: The National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) is a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents or guardians that collects information on noninstitutionalized children aged <18 years in the United States. Interviews included indicators of health and well-being, health care access, and family and community characteristics. Using data from the 2011-2012 NSCH, this report examines variations in health care, family, and community factors among children aged 2-8 years with and without MBDDs in rural and urban settings. Restricting the data to U.S. children aged 2-8 years with valid responses for child age and sex, each MBDD, and zip code resulted in an analytic sample of 34,535 children; MBDD diagnosis was determined by parent report and was not validated with health care providers or medical records. RESULTS: A higher percentage of all children in small rural and large rural areas compared with all children in urban areas had parents who reported experiencing financial difficulties (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as food and housing). Children in all rural areas more often lacked amenities and lived in a neighborhood in poor condition. However, a lower percentage of children in small rural and isolated areas had parents who reported living in an unsafe neighborhood, and children in isolated areas less often lived in a neighborhood lacking social support, less often lacked a medical home, and less often had a parent with fair or poor mental health. Across rural subtypes, approximately one in six young children had a parent-reported MBDD diagnosis. A higher prevalence was found among children in small rural areas (18.6%) than in urban areas (15.2%). In urban and the majority of rural subtypes, children with an MBDD more often lacked a medical home, had a parent with poor mental health, lived in families with financial difficulties, and lived in a neighborhood lacking physical and social resources than children without an MBDD within each of those community types. Only in urban areas did a higher percentage of children with MBDDs lack health insurance than children without MBDDs. After adjusting for race/ethnicity and poverty among children with MBDDs, those in rural areas more often had a parent with poor mental health and lived in resource-low neighborhoods than those in urban areas. INTERPRETATION: Certain health care, family, and community disparities were more often reported among children with MBDDS than among children without MBDDs in rural and urban areas. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: Collaboration involving health care, family, and community services and systems can be used to address fragmented services and supports for children with MBDDs, regardless of whether they live in urban or rural areas. However, addressing differences in health care, family, and community factors and leveraging community strengths among children who live in rural areas present opportunities to promote health among children in rural communities.

    • Nutritional Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Population survey of attitudes and beliefs regarding organic, genetically modified, and irradiated foodsExternal
        Gwira Baumblatt JA, Carpenter LR, Wiedeman C, Dunn JR, Schaffner W, Jones TF.
        Nutr Health. 2017 Mar;23(1):7-11.
        BACKGROUND: Sales of organic foods are increasing due to public demand, while genetically modified (GM) and irradiated foods are often viewed with suspicion. AIM: The aim of this research was to examine consumer attitudes toward organic, GM and irradiated foods to direct educational efforts regarding their consumption Methods: A telephone survey of 1838 residents in Tennessee, USA was conducted regarding organic, GM, and irradiated foods. RESULTS: Approximately half of respondents (50.4%) purchased organic food during the previous 6 months (‘consumers’). The most common beliefs about organic foods by consumers were higher cost (92%), and fewer pesticides (89%). Consumers were more likely than non-consumers to believe organic food tasted better (prevalence ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.02-4.23). A minority of respondents were familiar with GM foods (33%) and irradiated foods (22%). CONCLUSION: Organic food consumption is common in Tennessee, but knowledge about GM and irradiated foods is less common. Consumer health education should emphasize the benefits of these food options, and the safety of GM and irradiated foods.

      2. Challenges and lessons learned in generating and interpreting NHANES nutritional biomarker dataExternal
        Pfeiffer CM, Lacher DA, Schleicher RL, Johnson CL, Yetley EA.
        Adv Nutr. 2017 Mar;8(2):290-307.
        For the past 45 y, the National Center for Health Statistics at the CDC has carried out nutrition surveillance of the US population by collecting anthropometric, dietary intake, and nutritional biomarker data, the latter being the focus of this publication. The earliest biomarker testing assessed iron and vitamin A status. With time, a broad spectrum of water- and fat-soluble vitamins was added and biomarkers for other types of nutrients (e.g., fatty acids) and bioactive dietary compounds (e.g., phytoestrogens) were included in NHANES. The cross-sectional survey is flexible in design, and biomarkers may be measured for a short period of time or rotated in and out of surveys depending on scientific needs. Maintaining high-quality laboratory measurements over extended periods of time such that trends in status can be reliably assessed is a major goal of the testing laboratories. Physicians, health scientists, and policy makers rely on the NHANES reference data to compare the nutritional status of population groups, to assess the impact of various interventions, and to explore associations between nutritional status and health promotion or disease prevention. Focusing on the continuous NHANES, which started in 1999, this review uses a “lessons learned” approach to present a series of challenges that are relevant to researchers measuring biomarkers in NHANES and beyond. Some of those challenges are the use of multiple related biomarkers instead of a single biomarker for a specific nutrient (e.g., folate, vitamin B-12, iron), adhering to special needs for specimen collection and handling to ensure optimum specimen quality (e.g., vitamin C, folate, homocysteine, iodine, polyunsaturated fatty acids), the retrospective use of long-term quality-control data to correct for assay shifts (e.g., vitamin D, vitamin B-12), and the proper planning for and interpretation of crossover studies to adjust for systematic method changes (e.g., folate, vitamin D, ferritin).

      3. Letter to the editor: Iodine in milk alternativesExternal
        Vance K, Makhmudov A, Jones RL, Caldwell K.
        Thyroid. 2017 Mar 14.
        Response to “Iodine in Milk Alternatives”.

    • Occupational Safety and Health RSS Word feed
      1. Police work stressors and cardiac vagal controlExternal
        Andrew ME, Violanti JM, Gu JK, Fekedulegn D, Li S, Hartley TA, Charles LE, Mnatsakanova A, Miller DB, Burchfiel CM.
        Am J Hum Biol. 2017 Mar 14.
        OBJECTIVES: This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: There were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor beta = -0.273, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers.

      2. Fatal falls and PFAS use in the construction industry: Findings from the NIOSH FACE reportsExternal
        Dong XS, Largay JA, Choi SD, Wang X, Cain CT, Romano N.
        Accid Anal Prev. 2017 Mar 11;102:136-143.
        This study analyzed the Construction FACE Database (CFD), a quantitative database developed from reports of the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The CFD contains detailed data on 768 fatalities in the construction industry reported by NIOSH and individual states from 1982 through June 30, 2015. The results show that falls accounted for 42% (325) of the 768 fatalities included in the CFD. Personal fall arrest systems (PFAS) were not available to more than half of the fall decedents (54%); nearly one in four fall decedents (23%) had access to PFAS, but were not using it at the time of the fall. Lack of access to PFAS was particularly high among residential building contractors as well as roofing, siding, and sheet metal industry sectors ( approximately 70%). Although the findings may not represent the entire construction industry today, they do provide strong evidence in favor of fall protection requirements by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to stronger enforcement, educating employers and workers about the importance and effectiveness of fall protection is crucial for compliance and fall prevention.

      3. Urinary bisphenol a (BPA) concentrations among workers in industries that manufacture and use BPA in the USA
        Hines CJ, Jackson M, Deddens JA, Clark JC, Ye X, Christianson AL, Meadows JW, Calafat AM.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2017 ;61(2):164-182.
        Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) toxicity and exposure risk to humans has been the subject of considerable scientific debate; however, published occupational exposure data for BPA are limited. Methods: In 2013-2014, 77 workers at six US companies making BPA, BPA-based resins, or BPA-filled wax provided seven urine samples over two consecutive work days (151 worker-days, 525 samples). Participant information included industry, job, tasks, personal protective equipment used, hygiene behaviors, and canned food/beverage consumption. Total (free plus conjugated) BPA, quantified in urine by mass spectrometry, was detected in all samples. Results: The geometric mean (GM) creatinine-adjusted total BPA (total BPACR) concentration was 88.0 microg g-1 (range 0.78?18900 microg g-1), approximately 70 times higher than in US adults in 2013?2014 (1.27 microg g-1). GM total BPACR increased during Day 1 (26.6-127 microg g-1), decreased by pre-shift Day 2 (84.4 microg g – 1) then increased during Day 2 to 178 microg-1. By industry, baseline and post-baseline total BPACR was highest in BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim (GM = 111 microg g – 1) and lowest in phenolic resin manufacturing (GM = 6.56 microg g-1). By job, total BPACR was highest at baseline in maintenance workers (GM = 157 microg g-1 and post-baseline in those working with molten BPA-filled wax (GM = 441 microg g-1). Workers in the job of flaking a BPA-based resin had the lowest concentrations at baseline (GM = 4.81 microg g-1) and post-baseline (GM = 23.2 microg g-1). In multiple regression models, at baseline, industry significantly predicted increased total BPACR (P = 0.0248); post-baseline, handling BPA containers (P = 0.0035), taking >/=3 process/bulk samples with BPA (P = 0.0002) and wearing a Tyvek coverall (P = 0.0042) significantly predicted increased total BPACR (after adjusting for total BPACR at baseline, time point, and body mass index). Conclusion: Several work-related factors, including industry, job, and certain tasks performed, were associated with increased urinary total BPACR concentrations in this group of manufacturing workers. The potential for BPA-related health effects among these workers is unknown.

    • Parasitic Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Population coverage of artemisinin-based combination treatment in children younger than 5 years with fever and Plasmodium falciparum infection in Africa, 2003-2015: a modelling study using data from national surveysExternal
        Bennett A, Bisanzio D, Yukich JO, Mappin B, Fergus CA, Lynch M, Cibulskis RE, Bhatt S, Weiss DJ, Cameron E, Gething PW, Eisele TP.
        Lancet Glob Health. 2017 Apr;5(4):e418-e427.
        BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the most effective treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. A commonly used indicator for monitoring and assessing progress in coverage of malaria treatment is the proportion of children younger than 5 years with reported fever in the previous 14 days who have received an ACT. We propose an improved indicator that incorporates parasite infection status (as assessed by a rapid diagnostic test [RDT]), which is available in recent household surveys. In this study we estimated the annual proportion of children younger than 5 years with fever and a positive RDT in Africa who received an ACT in 2003-15. METHODS: Our modelling study used cross-sectional data on treatment for fever and RDT status for children younger than 5 years compiled from all nationally available representative household surveys (the Malaria Indicator Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys) across sub-Saharan Africa between 2003 and 2015. Estimates for the proportion of children younger than 5 years with a fever within the previous 14 days and P falciparum infection assessed by RDT who received an ACT were incorporated in a generalised additive mixed model, including data on ACT distributions, to estimate coverage across all countries and time periods. We did random effects meta-analyses to examine individual, household, and community effects associated with ACT coverage. FINDINGS: We obtained data on 201 704 children younger than 5 years from 103 surveys (22 MIS, 61 DHS, and 20 MICS) across 33 countries. RDT results were available for 40 of these surveys including 40 261 (20%) children, and we predicted RDT status for the remaining 161 443 (80%) children. Our results showed that ACT coverage in children younger than 5 years with a fever and P falciparum infection increased across sub-Saharan Africa in 2003-15, but even in 2015, only 19.7% (95% CI 15.6-24.8) of children younger than 5 years with a fever and P falciparum infection received an ACT. In meta-analyses, children younger than 5 years were more likely to receive an ACT for fever and P falciparum infection if they lived in an urban area (vs rural area; odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.31), had household wealth above the national median (vs wealth below the median; OR 1.26, 1.16-1.39), had a caregiver with any education (vs no education; OR 1.31, 1.22-1.41), had a household insecticide-treated net (ITN; vs no ITN; OR 1.21, 1.13-1.29), were older than 2 years (vs </=2 years; OR 1.09, 1.01-1.17), or lived in an area with a higher mean P falciparum prevalence in children aged 2-10 years (OR 1.12, 1.02-1.23). In the subgroup of children for whom treatment was sought, those who sought treatment in the public sector were more likely to receive an ACT (vs the private sector; OR 3.18, 2.67-3.78). INTERPRETATION: Despite progress during the 2003-15 malaria programme, ACT treatment for children with malaria remains unacceptably low. More work is needed at the country level to understand how health-care access, service delivery, and ACT supply might be improved to ensure appropriate treatment for all children with malaria. FUNDING: US President’s Malaria Initiative and Medicines for Malaria Venture.

      2. Histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from select sites in Brazil and BoliviaExternal
        Rachid Viana GM, Akinyi Okoth S, Silva-Flannery L, Lima Barbosa DR, Macedo de Oliveira A, Goldman IF, Morton LC, Huber C, Anez A, Dantas Machado RL, Aranha Camargo LM, Costa Negreiros do Valle S, Marins Povoa M, Udhayakumar V, Barnwell JW.
        PLoS One. 2017 ;12(3):e0171150.
        More than 80% of available malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are based on the detection of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recent studies have shown the genes that code for this protein and its paralog, histidine-rich protein-3 (PfHRP3), are absent in parasites from the Peruvian Amazon Basin. Lack of PfHRP2 protein through deletion of the pfhrp2 gene leads to false-negative RDT results for P. falciparum. We have evaluated the extent of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in a convenience sample of 198 isolates from six sites in three states across the Brazilian Amazon Basin (Acre, Rondonia and Para) and 25 isolates from two sites in Bolivia collected at different times between 2010 and 2012. Pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene and their flanking genes on chromosomes 7 and 13, respectively, were amplified from 198 blood specimens collected in Brazil. In Brazil, the isolates collected in Acre state, located in the western part of the Brazilian Amazon, had the highest percentage of deletions for pfhrp2 25 (31.2%) of 79, while among those collected in Rondonia, the prevalence of pfhrp2 gene deletion was only 3.3% (2 out of 60 patients). In isolates from Para state, all parasites were pfhrp2-positive. In contrast, we detected high proportions of isolates from all 3 states that were pfhrp3-negative ranging from 18.3% (11 out of 60 samples) to 50.9% (30 out of 59 samples). In Bolivia, only one of 25 samples (4%) tested had deleted pfhrp2 gene, while 68% (17 out of 25 samples) were pfhrp3-negative. Among the isolates tested, P. falciparum pfhrp2 gene deletions were present mainly in those from Acre State in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate it is important to reconsider the use of PfHRP2-based RDTs in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon and to implement appropriate surveillance systems to monitor pfhrp2 gene deletions in this and other parts of the Amazon region.

    • Reproductive Health RSS Word feed
      1. Perinatal outcomes among singletons after assisted reproductive technology with single-embryo or double-embryo transfer versus no assisted reproductive technologyExternal
        Martin AS, Chang J, Zhang Y, Kawwass JF, Boulet SL, McKane P, Bernson D, Kissin DM, Jamieson DJ.
        Fertil Steril. 2017 Mar 11.
        OBJECTIVE: To examine outcomes of singleton pregnancies conceived without assisted reproductive technology (non-ART) compared with singletons conceived with ART by elective single-embryo transfer (eSET), nonelective single-embryo transfer (non-eSET), and double-embryo transfer with the establishment of 1 (DET -1) or >/=2 (DET >/=2) early fetal heartbeats. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort using linked ART surveillance data and vital records from Florida, Massachusetts, Michigan, and Connecticut. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Singleton live-born infants. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks), very preterm birth (VPTB <32 weeks), small for gestational age birth weight (<10th percentile), low birth weight (LBW <2,500 g), very low birth weight (VLBW <1,500 g), 5-minute Apgar score <7, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. RESULT(S): After controlling for maternal characteristics and employing a weighted propensity score approach, we found that singletons conceived after eSET were less likely to have a 5-minute Apgar <7 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.69) compared with non-ART singletons. There were no differences among outcomes between non-ART and non-eSET infants. We found that PTB, VPTB, LBW, and VLBW were more likely among DET -1 and DET >/=2 compared with non-ART infants, with the odds being higher for DET >/=2 (PTB aOR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.09-2.29; VPTB aOR 2.46; 95% CI, 1.20-5.04; LBW aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.79; VLBW aOR 3.67; 95% CI, 1.38-9.77). CONCLUSION(S): Compared with non-ART singletons, singletons born after eSET and non-eSET did not have increased risks whereas DET -1 and DET >/=2 singletons were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes.

      2. Fertility and HIV following universal access to ART in Rwanda: a cross-sectional analysis of demographic and health survey dataExternal
        Remera E, Boer K, Umuhoza SM, Hedt-Gauthier BL, Thomson DR, Ndimubanzi P, Kayirangwa E, Mutsinzi S, Bayingana A, Mugwaneza P, Koama JB.
        Reprod Health. 2017 Mar 14;14(1):40.
        BACKGROUND: HIV infection is linked to decreased fertility and fertility desires in sub-Saharan Africa due to biological and social factors. We investigate the relationship between HIV infection and fertility or fertility desires in the context of universal access to antiretroviral therapy introduced in 2004 in Rwanda. METHODS: We used data from 3532 and 4527 women aged 20-49 from the 2005 and 2010 Rwandan Demographic and Health Surveys (RDHS), respectively. The RDHSs included blood-tests for HIV, as well as detailed interviews about fertility, demographic and behavioral outcomes. In both years, multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between HIV and fertility outcomes within three age categories (20-29, 30-39 and 40-49 years), controlling for confounders and compensating for the complex survey design. RESULTS: In 2010, we did not find a difference in the odds of pregnancy in the last 5 years between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women after controlling for potential biological and social confounders. Controlling for the same confounders, we found that HIV-seropositive women under age 40 were less likely to desire more children compared to HIV-seronegative women (20-29 years adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.58; 30-39 years AOR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.43), but no difference was found among women aged 40 or older. No associations between HIV and fertility or fertility desire were found in 2005. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest no difference in births or current pregnancy among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. That in 2010 HIV-seropositive women in their earlier childbearing years desired fewer children than HIV-seronegative women could suggest more women with HIV survived; and stigma, fear of transmitting HIV, or realism about living with HIV and prematurely dying from HIV may affect their desire to have children. These findings emphasize the importance of delivering appropriate information about pregnancy and childbearing to HIV-infected women, enabling women living with HIV to make informed decisions about their reproductive life.

      3. Factors associated with employment status before and during pregnancy: Implications for studies of pregnancy outcomesExternal
        Rocheleau CM, Bertke SJ, Lawson CC, Romitti PA, Desrosiers TA, Agopian AJ, Bell E, Gilboa SM.
        Am J Ind Med. 2017 Apr;60(4):329-341.
        BACKGROUND: Potential confounding or effect modification by employment status is frequently overlooked in pregnancy outcome studies. METHODS: To characterize how employed and non-employed women differ, we compared demographics, behaviors, and reproductive histories by maternal employment status for 8,343 mothers of control (non-malformed) infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2007) and developed a multivariable model for employment status anytime during pregnancy and the 3 months before conception. RESULTS: Sixteen factors were independently associated with employment before or during pregnancy, including: maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, pregnancy intention, periconceptional/first trimester smoking and alcohol consumption, and household income. CONCLUSIONS: Employment status was significantly associated with many common risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcome studies should consider adjustment or stratification by employment status. In studies of occupational exposures, these differences may cause uncontrollable confounding if non-employed women are treated as unexposed instead of excluded from analysis. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:329-341, 2017. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    • Social and Behavioral Sciences RSS Word feed
      1. Mental health and social services in schools: Variations by school characteristics – United States, 2014
        Demissie Z, Brener N.
        Ment Health Prev. 2017 ;5:5-11.
        Schools serve as a mental health service provider for students with related disorders. This study reported on specific mental health and social services practices overall and by school demographics in U.S. schools using data from the 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of schools with any of grades kindergarten through twelve, and an extant source of school demographics. Differences in mental health and social services staffing, facilities/equipment, and services were observed across school demographics. These data will help identify service gaps, which can guide efforts to better serve students and families.

    • Statistics as Topic RSS Word feed
      1. An improved test of equality of mean directions for the Langevin-von Mises-Fisher distribution
        Rumcheva P, Presnell B.
        Aust N Z J Stat. 2017 .
        A multi-sample test for equality of mean directions is developed for populations having Langevin-von Mises-Fisher distributions with a common unknown concentration. The proposed test statistic is a monotone transformation of the likelihood ratio. The high-concentration asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic is derived. In contrast to previously suggested high-concentration tests, the high-concentration asymptotic approximation to the null distribution of the proposed test statistic is also valid for large sample sizes with any fixed nonzero concentration parameter. Simulations of size and power show that the proposed test outperforms competing tests. An example with three-dimensional data from an anthropological study illustrates the practical application of the testing procedure.

    • Substance Use and Abuse RSS Word feed
      1. Health risk behaviors with synthetic cannabinoids versus marijuanaExternal
        Clayton HB, Lowry R, Ashley C, Wolkin A, Grant AM.
        Pediatrics. 2017 Mar 13.
        BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data are limited on the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use. The purpose of this study was to compare the behavioral risk correlates of synthetic cannabinoid use with those among marijuana users. METHODS: Data from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a cross-sectional survey conducted in a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 through 12 (N = 15 624), were used to examine the association between self-reported type of marijuana use (ie, never use of marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids, ever use of marijuana only, and ever use of synthetic cannabinoids) and self-report of 36 risk behaviors across 4 domains: substance use, injury/violence, mental health, and sexual health. Multivariable models were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios. RESULTS: Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids had a significantly greater likelihood of engaging in each of the behaviors in the substance use and sexual risk domains compared with students who ever used marijuana only. Students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids were more likely than students who ever used marijuana only to have used marijuana before age 13 years, to have used marijuana >/=1 times during the past 30 days, and to have used marijuana >/=20 times during the past 30 days. Several injury/violence behaviors were more prevalent among students who ever used synthetic cannabinoids compared with students who ever used marijuana only. CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals and school-based substance use prevention programs should include strategies focused on the prevention of both synthetic cannabinoids and marijuana.

      2. Changes in prevalence of tobacco use and the factors that may affect use among Uganda youth: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2007-2011External
        Kadobera D, Chaussard M, Lee KA, Ayebazibwe N, Ndyanabangi S.
        Pan Afr Med J. 2016 ;25:152.
        INTRODUCTION: To assess changes from 2007 to 2011 in the prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-related indicators in Uganda by examining results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). METHODS: Both the 2007 (n=2,251) and 2011 (n=2,026) Uganda GYTS were conducted among students in primary seven, secondary one, two, and three. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to generate a representative sample of students for the surveys. Stata 12 software was used to provide weighted prevalence estimates and logistic regression models were developed to examine the relationship between factors that influence tobacco use and current tobacco use. RESULTS: The percentage of students who had ever smoked a cigarette, even just one or two puffs, declined from 15.6% in 2007 to 10.9% in 2011 (p=0.03). From 2007 to 2011, neither the percentage of current use of any tobacco (16.6% to 17.3%, p=0.75), nor the percentage of current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking (5.5% to 4.8%,p=0.59) changed significantly. Following adjustment, having parents [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR):1.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.3-2.8] and friends [AOR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5-4.0)] who smoke, and having seen tobacco advertisements in print media [AOR 1.8(1.3-2.4)], were associated with greater odds of current tobacco use among students in 2007.Having parents who smoke [AOR;1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0] was associated with greater odds of current tobacco use among students in 2011. CONCLUSION: From 2007 to 2011, no significant change occurred in the prevalence of current tobacco use or cigarette smoking among youth in Uganda. These findings underscore the importance of implementing effective population-level public health interventions, as outlined in the articles of the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, to prevent and reduce the use of tobacco among youth in Uganda.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases RSS Word feed
      1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding rabies risk in community members and healthcare professionals: Petionville, Haiti, 2013External
        Fenelon N, Dely P, Katz MA, Schaad ND, Dismer A, Moran D, Laraque F, Wallace RM.
        Epidemiol Infect. 2017 Mar 14:1-11.
        Haiti has the highest human rabies burden in the Western Hemisphere. There is no published literature describing the public’s perceptions of rabies in Haiti, information that is critical to developing effective interventions and government policies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of 550 community members and 116 health professionals in Petionville, Haiti in 2013 to understand the perception of rabies in these populations. The majority of respondents (85%) knew that dogs were the primary reservoir for rabies, yet only 1% were aware that bats and mongooses could transmit rabies. Animal bites were recognized as a mechanism of rabies transmission by 77% of the population and 76% were aware that the disease could be prevented by vaccination. Of 172 persons reporting a bite, only 37% sought medical treatment. The annual bite incidence rate in respondents was 0.9%. Only 31% of bite victims reported that they started the rabies vaccination series. Only 38% of respondents reported that their dog had been vaccinated against rabies. The majority of medical professionals recognized that dogs were the main reservoir for rabies (98%), but only 28% reported bats and 14% reported mongooses as posing a risk for rabies infection. Bites were reported as a mechanism of rabies transmission by 73% of respondents; exposure to saliva was reported by 20%. Thirty-four percent of medical professionals reported they would wash a bite wound with soap and water and 2.8% specifically mentioned rabies vaccination as a component of post-bite treatment. The majority of healthcare professionals recommended some form of rabies assessment for biting animals; 68.9% recommended a 14-day observation period, 60.4% recommended a veterinary consultation, and 13.2% recommended checking the vaccination status of the animal. Fewer than 15% of healthcare professionals had ever received training on rabies prevention and 77% did not know where to go to procure rabies vaccine for bite victims. Both study populations had a high level of knowledge about the primary reservoir for rabies and the mode of transmission. However, there is a need to improve the level of knowledge regarding the importance of seeking medical care for dog bites and additional training on rabies prevention for healthcare professionals. Distribution channels for rabies vaccines should be evaluated, as the majority of healthcare providers did not know where rabies vaccines could be obtained. Canine rabies vaccination is the primary intervention for rabies control programmes, yet most owned dogs in this population were not vaccinated.

      2. Interagency and commercial collaboration during an investigation of chikungunya and dengue among returning travelers to the United States
        Jentes ES, Millman AJ, Decenteceo M, Klevos A, Biggs HM, Esposito DH, McPherson H, Sullivan C, Voorhees D, Watkins J, Anzalone FL, Gaul L, Flores S, Brunette GW, Sotir MJ.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 ;96(2):265-267.
        Public health investigations can require intensive collaboration between numerous governmental and nongovernmental organizations. We describe an investigation involving several governmental and nongovernmental partners that was successfully planned and performed in an organized, comprehensive, and timely manner with several governmental and nongovernmental partners.

      3. Shifting clade distribution, reassortment, and emergence of new subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5) viruses collected from Vietnamese poultry from 2012 to 2015External
        Nguyen DT, Jang Y, Nguyen TD, Jones J, Shepard SS, Yang H, Gerloff N, Fabrizio T, Nguyen LV, Inui K, Yang G, Creanga A, Wang L, Mai DT, Thor S, Stevens J, To TL, Wentworth DE, Nguyen T, Pham DV, Bryant JE, Davis CT.
        J Virol. 2017 Mar 01;91(5).
        Whole-genome sequences of representative highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5) viruses from Vietnam were generated, comprising samples from poultry outbreaks and active market surveillance collected from January 2012 to August 2015. Six hemagglutinin gene clades were characterized. Clade 1.1.2 was predominant in southern Mekong provinces throughout 2012 and 2013 but gradually disappeared and was not detected after April 2014. Clade viruses spread rapidly during 2012 and were detected in the south and center of the country. A number of clade 1.1.2 and interclade reassortant viruses were detected with different combinations of internal genes derived from and viruses, indicating extensive cocirculation. Although reassortment generated genetic diversity at the genotype level, there was relatively little genetic drift within the individual gene segments, suggesting genetic stasis over recent years. Antigenically, clade 1.1.2,,, and viruses remained related to earlier viruses and WHO-recommended prepandemic vaccine strains representing these clades. Clade 7.2 viruses, although detected in only low numbers, were the exception, as indicated by introduction of a genetically and antigenically diverse strain in 2013. Clade viruses (H5N1 and H5N6) were likely introduced in April 2014 and appeared to gain dominance across northern and central regions. Antigenic analyses of clade viruses compared to existing clade 2.3.4 candidate vaccine viruses (CVV) indicated the need for an updated vaccine virus. A/Sichuan/26221/2014 (H5N6) virus was developed, and ferret antisera generated against this virus were demonstrated to inhibit some but not all clade viruses, suggesting consideration of alternative clade CVVs.IMPORTANCE Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5) viruses have circulated continuously in Vietnam since 2003, resulting in hundreds of poultry outbreaks and sporadic human infections. Despite a significant reduction in the number of human infections in recent years, poultry outbreaks continue to occur and the virus continues to diversify. Vaccination of poultry has been used as a means to control the spread and impact of the virus, but due to the diversity and changing distribution of antigenically distinct viruses, the utility of vaccines in the face of mismatched circulating strains remains questionable. This study assessed the putative amino acid changes in viruses leading to antigenic variability, underscoring the complexity of vaccine selection for both veterinary and public health purposes. Given the overlapping geographic distributions of multiple, antigenically distinct clades of HPAI A(H5) viruses in Vietnam, the vaccine efficacy of bivalent poultry vaccine formulations should be tested in the future.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019