Issue 28, July 16, 2012

The report consists of three components:

An important study on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) leads off Science Clips featured articles this week. MC Thigpenexternal icon, writing along with others for the TDF2 study group, documents that daily use of the combined antiretroviral mediation TDF-FTC (Truvada®) prevents HIV infection in heterosexual adults. The authors caution that long-term safety remains unknown. Another potential advance in HIV is noted by S Masciotraexternal icon and colleagues, whose evaluation of blood collection filter papers for HIV PCR testing may have implications for resource-limited settings.

Environmental and occupational health topics are represented in this week’s Clips. YC Loexternal icon et al summarize morbidity associated with widespread lead poisoning due to gold-ore-processing in Nigeria’s Zamfara state, as well as making recommendations for reducing exposure. As part of a NIOSH study involving analysis of more than 1.1 million audiograms, EA Mastersonexternal icon and colleagues note several occupational categories that appear to be at high risk of job-related hearing loss.

Screening, diagnosis and “upstream” policy approaches to chronic diseases comprise four of this week’s highlighted articles. Updated systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (led by SA Sabatinoexternal icon) highlight novel and existing interventions shown to be effective in promoting cancer screening. D Shensonexternal icon is first author for an article with a slightly broader focus on vaccinations and preventive screenings in older adults in the US. Maintaining a focus on the elderly, a CDC group led by E Orakaexternal icon finds that asthma continues to represent a substantial public health burden, as well as a diagnostic challenge, in persons 65 years and older. In a commentary published in JAMA, WH Dietz and KS Scanlonexternal icon track progress and outline needed future directions in ending use of partially hydrogenated oil in food production, an intervention that could prevent thousands of deaths and coronary events annually.

Two interesting outbreak-related reports of potential interest to summer travelers round out this week’s features. EH Cramerexternal icon and collaborators summarize recent cruise ship outbreaks of varicella, and reinforce relevant CDC recommendations for management and prevention. Another pathogen associated with cruise ships, norovirus, is the subject of the high attack rate Guatemalan outbreak described by W Arveloexternal icon et al.

John Iskander

Editor, Science Clips

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The Science Clips is in the public domain and may be freely forwarded and reproduced without permission. The original sources and the CDC Science Clips should be cited as sources. Articles featured in Science Clips may be in-press or uncorrected proofs.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019