2020 Science Clips Banner

Issue 28, July 12, 2022

CDC Science Clips: Volume 14, Issue 28, July 12, 2022

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention score to track social and mainstream media mentions.

  1. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Antimicrobial Resistance and Antibiotic Stewardship
      1. Pediatric urgent care providers' approach to antibiotic stewardship: A national survey
        Hamdy RF, Nedved A, Fung M, Fleming-Dutra KE, Liu CM, Obremskey J, Montalbano A.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2022 Jun 28.
        BACKGROUND: Outpatient antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory conditions is highest in urgent care settings; however, this has not been studied among pediatric urgent cares. The objective of this study was to evaluate pediatric urgent care providers' perceptions of antibiotic stewardship. METHODS: Members of the Society for Pediatric Urgent Care were recruited via email to participate in a quality improvement antibiotic stewardship project. A preimplementation survey was sent to participants via email in March 2019 to evaluate perceptions on antibiotic stewardship. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the survey responses. RESULTS: A total of 156 providers completed the survey; 83% were board-certified pediatricians. Almost all (98%) indicated that antibiotic stewardship interventions are important for optimizing antibiotic use in urgent care. More than half (53%) indicated that their urgent care provided guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections. Treating patients with an underlying complex medical condition was the most common reason (21%) providers would deviate from guidelines. The most commonly cited barriers to appropriate prescribing for acute respiratory infections were patient expectations (93%), psychosocial barriers (40%), lack of clear evidence-based recommendations (15%), and lack of access to guidelines on prescribing (15%). CONCLUSIONS: Parental expectation of receiving antibiotics was viewed as the most common barrier to appropriate prescribing. These findings should be used to target directed interventions such as shared decision making and communication training to support appropriate antibiotic prescribing in pediatric urgent care.

    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Effect of the ABCA1 agonist CS-6253 on amyloid-β and lipoprotein metabolism in cynomolgus monkeys
        Noveir SD, Kerman BE, Xian H, Meuret C, Smadi S, Martinez AE, Johansson J, Zetterberg H, Parks BA, Kuklenyik Z, Mack WJ, Johansson JO, Yassine HN.
        Alzheimers Res Ther. 2022 Jun 24;14(1):87.
        BACKGROUND: Inducing brain ATP-binding cassette 1 (ABCA1) activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models is associated with improvement in AD pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ABCA1 agonist peptide CS-6253 on amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and lipoproteins in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of cynomolgus monkeys, a species with amyloid and lipoprotein metabolism similar to humans. METHODS: CS-6253 peptide was injected intravenously into cynomolgus monkeys at various doses in three different studies. Plasma and CSF samples were collected at several time points before and after treatment. Levels of cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), lipoprotein particles, apolipoproteins, and Aβ were measured using ELISA, ion-mobility analysis, and asymmetric-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4). The relationship between the change in levels of these biomarkers was analyzed using multiple linear regression models and linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Following CS-6253 intravenous injection, within minutes, small plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were increased. In two independent experiments, plasma TG, apolipoprotein E (apoE), and Aβ42/40 ratio were transiently increased following CS-6253 intravenous injection. This change was associated with a non-significant decrease in CSF Aβ42. Both plasma total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels were reduced following treatment. AF4 fractionation revealed that CS-6253 treatment displaced apoE from HDL to intermediate-density- and low density-lipoprotein (IDL/LDL)-sized particles in plasma. In contrast to plasma, CS-6253 had no effect on the assessed CSF apolipoproteins or lipids. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with the ABCA1 agonist CS-6253 appears to favor Aβ clearance from the brain.

      2. Risk of clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix among US women with potential exposure to diethylstilbestrol in utero
        White MC, Weir HK, Soman AV, Peipins LA, Thompson TD.
        Cancer Causes Control. 2022 Jun 29.
        PURPOSE: Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero were at elevated risk of clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix (CCA) as young women. Previous research suggested that this elevated risk of CCA may persist into adulthood. We extended a published analysis to measure CCA risk as these women aged. METHODS: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) compared CCA risk among women born from 1947 through 1971 (the DES-era) to CCA risk among the comparison group of women born prior to 1947, using registry data that covered the US population. RESULTS: Incidence rates of CCA among both cohorts increased with age. Among the DES-era birth cohort, higher rates of CCA were observed across all age groups except 55-59 years. SIR estimates had wide confidence intervals that often included the null value. CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with prior research and suggest an elevated risk of CCA in midlife and at older ages among women exposed in utero to DES. These results highlight unresolved issues regarding cancer risk among aging DES daughters and appropriate screening guidance. The examination of population-based cancer surveillance data may be a useful tool for monitoring trends in the incidence of other rare cancers over time among specific birth cohorts.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: Understanding differences in results of comparative effectiveness studies
        Melgar M, Seaby EG, McArdle AJ, Young CC, Campbell AP, Murray NL, Patel MM, Levin M, Randolph AG, Son MB.
        ACR Open Rheumatol. 2022 Jun 27.
        OBJECTIVE: Two cohort studies in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) demonstrated contrasting results regarding the benefit of initial immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) alone versus IVIG and glucocorticoids. We sought to determine whether application of different MIS-C definitions and differing disease severity between cohorts underlay discrepant results. METHODS: The Overcoming COVID-19 Public Health Surveillance Registry (OC-19) included patients meeting the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) MIS-C definition, whereas the Best Available Treatment Study (BATS) applied the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. We applied the WHO definition to the OC-19 cohort and the CDC definition to the BATS cohort and determined the proportion that did not meet the alternate definition. We compared illness severity indicators between cohorts. RESULTS: Of 349 OC-19 patients, 9.5% did not meet the WHO definition. Of 350 BATS patients, 10.3% did not meet the CDC definition. Most organ system involvement was similar between the cohorts, but more OC-19 patients had WHO-defined cardiac involvement (87.1% vs 79.4%, P = 0.008). OC-19 patients were more often admitted to intensive care (61.0% vs 44.8%, P < 0.001) and more often received vasopressors or inotropes (39.5% vs 22.9%, P < 0.001) before immunomodulatory treatment. CONCLUSION: Greater illness severity and cardiovascular involvement in the OC-19 cohort compared with the BATS cohort, and not use of different MIS-C case definitions, may have contributed to differing study conclusions about optimal initial treatment for MIS-C. Disease severity should be considered in future MIS-C study designs and treatment recommendations to identify patients who would benefit from aggressive immunomodulatory treatment.

      2. From policy to practice: Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis among adolescent girls and young women in United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-supported countries, 2017-2020
        Patel P, Sato K, Bhandari N, Kanagasabai U, Schelar E, Cooney C, Eakle R, Klucking S, Toiv N, Saul J.
        AIDS. 2022 Jun 15;36(Suppl 1):S15-s26.
        BACKGROUND: The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief's (PEPFAR) first implemented pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention through the Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-Free, Mentored and Safe (DREAMS) partnership in 2016. PrEP is a critical intervention to achieve the main objective of DREAMS, reducing new HIV infections among 15-14 year old adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in 15 high HIV burdened countries. METHODS: We describe uptake of PrEP among AGYW in PEPFAR. Most PrEP programs screened persons who tested HIV-negative for eligibility and offered PrEP as part of combination prevention with follow-up, including repeat HIV testing and counseling, at 3-month intervals. Platforms providing comprehensive services for AGYW were also leveraged. We examined two PEPFAR monitoring indicators, using the FY20Q4 Monitoring, Evaluation, Reporting (MER) indicator dataset to assess progress in PrEP uptake, and descriptive narratives to understand successes and challenges from fiscal year 2017 to 2020. To assess coverage, we calculated the PrEP to Need ratio (PnR) using a published methodology. RESULTS: From FY2017 to FY2020, 576570 total clients initiated PrEP and the number of PEPFAR countries offering PrEP doubled from 12 to 24. Of 360073 (62% of total) initiations among women, 52% were among AGYW with steady increases from year to year. Among all AGYW, 20-24-year-old women represented a significantly higher proportion of PrEP initiators than adolescents (15-19years) (64 versus 36%, P  < 0.05). Of all 186985 PrEP initiations among AGYW, 99% were in DREAMS countries. Barriers, such as low demand and adherence, were addressed through outreach efforts, including mobile sites, use of technology to educate and support AGYW, media campaigns, and engaging peers in program implementation. We saw a 2.5-fold increase in PrEP uptake among AGYW from 2018 to 2019; by 2020, all DREAMS countries were implementing PrEP. However, PrEP coverage among AGYW in DREAMS countries remains low (PnR range: 0-4.1); only two have a PnR greater than 1 where there were more PrEP users than new HIV diagnoses. CONCLUSION: PrEP uptake among AGYW has grown since 2016; however, challenges remain. Tools to improve adherence are needed to improve PrEP persistence among AGYW. National policies to facilitate greater PrEP uptake among adolescents would be beneficial. A greater need for PrEP in DREAMS countries is evident and if realized, will contribute to epidemic control.

      3. The evolution of DREAMS: Using data for continuous program improvement
        Saul J, Toiv N, Cooney C, Beamon T, Borgman M, Bachman G, Akom E, Benevides R, Limb A, Sato K, Achrekar A, Birx D.
        AIDS. 2022 Jun 15;36(Suppl 1):S5-s14.
        The DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-Free, Mentored, and Safe) Partnership, a public-private partnership launched by the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), represents the largest investment in comprehensive HIV prevention for adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) ever made in a single global initiative. This paper describes the evolution of programming over time using the triangulation of multiple data sources to develop and refine an impactful program, as well as to improve efficacy and resource investment. Methods of analysis used to evolve this programming include reviews of literature on behavioral, biomedical and structural interventions, and HIV vulnerability; PEPFAR program data; external implementation science and impact studies;observations from site visits; in-depth reviews of program materials; and inputs from AGYW and other stakeholders. Key program improvements made in response to this real-time data use are described, including the rationale for programmatic changes and the evidence base for continual program refinements. This review emphasizes the importance and process of implementing the most effective combination of structural and biomedical HIV prevention programming, based on the best available science, while also adapting to local context in a way that does not compromise effectiveness or violate core implementation principles. Data from research and evaluation are critical to move the HIV prevention field toward more impactful and efficient programming responsive to the lived realities of AGYW. A central tenant to using these data sources effectively is the inclusion of AGYW in decision-making throughout the planning and implementation of programming.

      4. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the Mozambican population: a cross-sectional serologic study in three cities, July-August 2020
        Arnaldo P, Mabunda N, Young PW, Tran T, Sitoe N, Chelene I, Nhanombe A, Isamael N, Júnior A, Cubula B, Inlamea OF, Gudo E, Jani IV.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 24.
        BACKGROUND: The extent of population exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was uncertain in many African countries during the onset of the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study and randomly selected and surveyed general population and occupational groups from July 6 to August 24, 2020, in three cities in Mozambique. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific immunoglobulins M and G antibodies were measured using a point-of-care rapid test. The prevalence was weighted for population (by age, sex, and city) and adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: A total of 21,183 participants, including 11,143 from the general population and 10,040 from occupational groups, were included across all three cities. General population seropositivity (immunoglobulins M or G) prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI, 1.0-6.6) in Pemba, 2.1% (95% CI, 1.2-3.3) in Maputo City, and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.1-1.9) in Quelimane. The prevalence in occupational groups ranged from 2.8% (95% CI, 1.3-5.2) to 5.9% (95% CI, 4.3-8.0) in Pemba, 0.3% (95% CI, 0.0-2.2) to 4.0% (95% CI, 2.6-5.7) in Maputo City, 0.0% (95% CI, 0.0-0.7) to 6.6% (95% CI, 3.8-10.5) in Quelimane, and showed variations between the groups tested. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 was extensive during the first pandemic wave, and transmission may have been more intense among occupational groups. These data have been of utmost importance to inform public health intervention to control and respond to pandemic in Mozambique. PREVIOUS PRESENTATIONS OF FINDINGS: Results from this study were presented (in Portuguese) at the Mozambican Jornadas Nacionais de Saúde in Maputo, Mozambique on Aug 10, 2021 (abstract #108, title, Prevalência da exposição ao novo coronavírus em três cidades de Moçambique, Julho-Agosto de 2020).

      5. Vermont contact tracing (CT) consistently identified people at risk for COVID-19. However, the prevalence ratio (PR) of COVID-19 among contacts compared with noncontacts when viral transmission was high (PR = 13.5; 95% CI: 13.2-13.9) was significantly less than when transmission was low (PR = 49.3; 95% CI: 43.2-56.3).

      6. We compared the mortality risk in Alaska among persons with symptomatic COVID-19 during the period the Delta variant was dominant to those with symptomatic COVID-19 before Delta predominance. The Delta period was associated with 2.43-fold higher odds of death. Unvaccinated persons were 4.49 times more likely to die than fully vaccinated persons.

      7. BACKGROUND: Concurrent detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and another respiratory virus in individuals can document contemporaneous circulation. We used an ongoing, community-based study of school-aged children and their households to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 co-detections with other respiratory viruses in a non-medically attended population over a two-year period. METHODS: Household enrollment was predicated on an acute respiratory illness in a child residing in that household who was also a kindergarten through 12th grade student in the participating school district. Demographic, symptom and household composition data, and self-collected nasal specimens were obtained on the recruitment day, and 7 and 14 days later, from the index child and all other household members. All specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2/influenza A/B by RT-PCR. Day 0 specimens from the index children were simultaneously tested for 17 viruses using a commercial respiratory pathogen panel (RPP). To assess viral co-detections involving SARS-CoV-2, all household specimens were tested via RPP if the index child's Day 0 specimen tested positive to any of the 17 viral targets in RPP and any household member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Of 2,109 participants (497 index children in 497 households with 1,612 additional household members), two (0.1%) were positive for both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A; an additional 11 (0.5%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and another RPP-covered respiratory virus. Co-detections predominantly affected school-aged children (12 out of 13 total) and were noted in 11 of 497 households. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 co-detections with other respiratory viruses were uncommon and predominated in school-aged children.

      8. The predictive value of macaque models of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention
        García-Lerma JG, McNicholl JM, Heneine W.
        Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2022 Jul 1;17(4):179-185.
        PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review macaque models for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention and highlight their role in advancing currently approved and novel PrEP agents. RECENT FINDINGS: The development of the repeat low dose simian HIV (SHIV) challenge models represented a significant advancement in preclinical PrEP modeling that has allowed the investigation of PrEP under conditions that better mimic HIV exposures in humans. These models incorporate relevant drug pharmacology to inform drug correlates of PrEP protection. Models of rectal, vaginal, and penile infection are now available and have been found to predict clinical efficacy of all the currently approved PrEP strategies including daily oral PrEP with the combination of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir alafenamide, and a long-acting formulation of the integrase inhibitor cabotegravir. These models are being used to test new PrEP modalities including the nucleoside reverse transcriptase-translocation inhibitor islatravir and long-acting capsid inhibitors. The SHIV models have also been supplemented by sexually transmitted infection co-infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum or Trichomonas vaginalis to assess the impact of inflammation on PrEP efficacy. SUMMARY: Clinical efficacy validated current PrEP macaque models supporting their continued use to advance novel PrEP agents to improve global PrEP coverage.

      9. Mental health conditions and severe COVID-19 outcomes after hospitalization, United States
        Koyama AK, Koumans EH, Sircar K, Lavery AM, Ko JY, Hsu J, Anderson KN, Siegel DA.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2022 Jul;28(7):1533-1536.
        Among 664,956 hospitalized COVID-19 patients during March 2020-July 2021 in the United States, select mental health conditions (i.e., anxiety, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia) were associated with increased risk for same-hospital readmission and longer length of stay. Anxiety was also associated with increased risk for intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death.

      10. Trends in TB and HIV care and treatment cascade, Kenya, 2008-2018
        Weyenga H, Onyango E, Katana AK, Pathmanathan I, Sidibe K, Shah NS, Ngugi EW, Waruingi RN, Ng Ang AL, De Cock KM.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2022 Jul 1;26(7):623-628.
        BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with high mortality among people with TB. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces TB incidence and mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Since 2005, Kenya has scaled up TB and HIV prevention, diagnosis and treatment. We evaluated the impact of these services on trends and TB treatment outcomes.METHODS: Using Microsoft Excel (2016) and Epi-Info 7, we analysed Kenya Ministry of Health TB surveillance data from 2008 to 2018 to determine trends in TB notifications, TB classification, HIV and ART status, and TB treatment outcomes.RESULTS: Among the 1,047,406 people reported with TB, 93% knew their HIV status, and 37% of these were HIV-positive. Among persons with TB and HIV, 69% received ART. Between 2008 and 2018, annual TB notifications declined from 110,252 to 96,562, and HIV-coinfection declined from 45% to 27%. HIV testing and ART uptake increased from 83% to 98% and from 30% to 97%, respectively. TB case fatality rose from 3.5% to 3.9% (P <0.018) among HIV-negative people and from 5.1% to 11.2% (P <0.001) among PLHIV on ART.CONCLUSION: TB notifications decreased in settings with suboptimal case detection. Although HIV-TB services were scaled-up, HIV-TB case fatality rose significantly. Concerted efforts are needed to address case detection and gaps in quality of TB care.

      11. HIV testing before and during the COVID-19 pandemic - United States, 2019-2020
        DiNenno EA, Delaney KP, Pitasi MA, MacGowan R, Miles G, Dailey A, Courtenay-Quirk C, Byrd K, Thomas D, Brooks JT, Daskalakis D, Collins N.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Jun 24;71(25):820-824.
        HIV testing is a core strategy for the Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. (EHE) initiative, which has the aim of reducing new HIV infections by at least 90% by 2030.* During 2016-2017, jurisdictions with the highest HIV diagnosis rates were those with higher prevalences of HIV testing; past-year HIV testing was higher among persons who reported recent HIV risk behaviors compared with those who did not report these risks (1). During 2020-2021, the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted health care delivery, including HIV testing in part because many persons avoided services to comply with COVID-19 risk mitigation efforts (2). In addition, public health departments redirected some sexual health services to COVID-19-related activities.(†) CDC analyzed data from four national data collection systems to assess the numbers of HIV tests performed and HIV infections diagnosed in the United States in the years before (2019) and during (2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2020, HIV diagnoses reported to CDC decreased by 17% compared with those reported in 2019. This decrease was preceded by decreases in HIV testing during the same period, particularly among priority populations including Black or African American (Black) gay men, Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) gay men, bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons in CDC-funded jurisdictions. To compensate for testing and diagnoses missed during the COVID-19 pandemic and to accelerate the EHE initiative, CDC encourages partnerships among federal organizations, state and local health departments, community-based organizations, and health care systems to increase access to HIV testing services, including strategies such as self-testing and routine opt-out screening in health care settings.

      12. Hospitalization and emergency department encounters for COVID-19 after paxlovid treatment - California, December 2021-May 2022
        Malden DE, Hong V, Lewin BJ, Ackerson BK, Lipsitch M, Lewnard JA, Tartof SY.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Jun 24;71(25):830-833.
        Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid) is a combination protease inhibitor that blocks replication of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and has been shown to reduce the risk for hospitalization and death among patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at risk for progression to severe disease* (1). In December 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for early treatment with Paxlovid among persons with mild to moderate cases of COVID-19 who are at high risk for progression to severe disease (2). FDA and a small number of published case reports have documented recurrence of COVID-19 symptoms or a positive viral test result (COVID-19 rebound) 2-8 days after recovery or a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result among patients treated with Paxlovid (3-7); however, large-scale studies investigating severe illness after Paxlovid treatment are limited. This study used electronic health record (EHR) data from a large integrated health care system in California (Kaiser Permanente Southern California [KPSC]) to describe hospital admissions and emergency department (ED) encounters related to SARS-CoV-2 infections during the 5-15 days after pharmacy dispensation of a 5-day treatment course of Paxlovid. Among 5,287 persons aged ≥12 years who received Paxlovid during December 31, 2021-May 26, 2022, 73% had received ≥3 doses of COVID-19 vaccine(†), and 8% were unvaccinated. During the 5-15 days after Paxlovid treatment was dispensed, six hospitalizations and 39 ED encounters considered to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified, representing <1% of all patients to whom Paxlovid treatment was dispensed during the study period. Among these 45 persons, 21 (47%) were aged ≥65 years, and 35 (78%) had at least one underlying medical condition(§) (8). This study found that hospitalization or ED encounters for COVID-19 during the 5-15 days after Paxlovid treatment was dispensed for mild to moderate COVID-19 illness were rarely identified. When administered as an early-stage treatment, Paxlovid might prevent COVID-19-related hospitalization among persons with mild to moderate cases of COVID-19 who are at risk for progression to severe disease.

      13. Health impairments in children and adolescents after hospitalization for acute COVID-19 or MIS-C
        Maddux AB, Berbert L, Young CC, Feldstein LR, Zambrano LD, Kucukak S, Newhams MM, Miller K, FitzGerald MM, He J, Halasa NB, Cvijanovich NZ, Loftis LL, Walker TC, Schwartz SP, Gertz SJ, Tarquinio KM, Fitzgerald JC, Kong M, Schuster JE, Mack EH, Hobbs CV, Rowan CM, Staat MA, Zinter MS, Irby K, Crandall H, Flori H, Cullimore ML, Nofziger RA, Shein SL, Gaspers MG, Hume JR, Levy ER, Chen SR, Patel MM, Tenforde MW, Weller E, Campbell AP, Randolph AG.
        Pediatrics. 2022 Jun 29.
        OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors for post-discharge sequelae in children and adolescents after hospitalization for acute COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: Multicenter prospective observational cohort study conducted in 25 US pediatric hospitals. Patients <21-years-old, hospitalized May 2020 to May 2021 for acute COVID-19 or MIS-C with follow-up 2-4 months after admission. We assessed readmissions, caregiver-reported persistent symptoms or activity impairment, and new morbidities identified by the Functional Status Scale. Multivariable regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR). RESULTS: Of 358 eligible patients, 2-4 month survey data were available for 119/155 (76.8%) with acute COVID-19 and 160/203 (78.8%) with MIS-C. Thirteen (11%) patients with acute COVID-19 and 12 (8%) with MIS-C had a readmission. Thirty-two (26.9%) patients with acute COVID-19 had persistent symptoms (22.7%) or activity impairment (14.3%) and 48 (30.0%) patients with MIS-C had persistent symptoms (20.0%) or activity impairment (21.3%). For patients with acute COVID-19, persistent symptoms (aRR, 1.29[95% CI, 1.04-1.59]) and activity impairment (aRR, 1.37[95% CI, 1.06-1.78]) were associated with more organs systems involved. Patients with MIS-C and pre-existing respiratory conditions more frequently had persistent symptoms (aRR, 3.09[95% CI, 1.55-6.14]) and those with obesity more frequently had activity impairment (aRR, 2.52[95% CI, 1.35-4.69]). New morbidities were infrequent (9% COVID-19 and 1% MIS-C). CONCLUSIONS: Over one in four children hospitalized with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C experienced persistent symptoms or activity impairment for at least 2 months. Patients with MIS-C and respiratory conditions or obesity are at higher risk of prolonged recovery.

      14. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on chlamydia and gonorrhea tests performed by a large national laboratory-United States, 2019 to 2020
        Tao G, Dietz S, Hartnett KP, Jayanthi P, Gift TL.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2022 Jul 1;49(7):490-496.
        BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, disruptions were anticipated in the US health care system for routine preventive and other nonemergency care, including sexually transmitted infection care. METHODS: Using a large national laboratory data set, we assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the weekly numbers and percent positivity of chlamydia and gonorrhea tests ordered from the 5th week of 2019 to the 52nd week of 2020 in the United States. We compared weekly 2020 values for test volume, percent positive, and number of positives with the same week in 2019. We also examined the potential impact of stay-at-home orders for the month of April 2020. RESULTS: Immediately after the declaration of a national emergency for COVID-19 (week 11, 2020), the weekly number of gonorrhea and chlamydia tests steeply decreased. Tests then rebounded toward the 2019 pre-COVID-19 level beginning the 15th week of 2020. The weekly percent positive of chlamydia and gonorrhea remained consistently higher in 2020. In April 2020, the overall number of chlamydia tests was reduced by 53.0% (54.1% in states with stay-at-home orders vs. 45.5% in states without stay-at-home orders), whereas the percent positive of chlamydia and gonorrhea tests increased by 23.5% and 79.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To limit the impact of the pandemic on control of chlamydia and gonorrhea, public health officials and health care providers can assess measures put in place during the pandemic and develop new interventions to enable care for sexually transmitted infections to be delivered under pandemic and other emergency conditions. The assessment like this study is continuously needed.

    • Community Health Services
      1. Use of a learning community to expand access to contraception
        Estrich C, DeSisto CL, Uesugi K, Akbarali S, Pliska ES, Romero L, Cox S, Kroelinger CD, Velonis A.
        Am J Public Health. 2022 Jun;112(S5):S523-s527.
        The Increasing Access to Contraception Learning Community was established to disseminate strategies and best practices to support 27 jurisdictions in the development of policies and programs to increase access to the full range of reversible contraceptives. We describe Learning Community activities and identify those that were most useful to participants. Although participation in Learning Community provided jurisdictional teams with structured activities such as virtual learning and peer networking opportunities, some teams struggled with full participation because of staffing turnover and shifts in priorities. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S5):S523-S527. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306823).

      2. Connecting the dots: Public health, clinical, and community connections to improve contraception access
        Pliska ES, Barfield WD, Fraser MR.
        Am J Public Health. 2022 Jun;112(S5):S508-s510.

    • Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Services
      1. What is anthrax?
        Bower WA, Hendricks KA, Vieira AR, Traxler RM, Weiner Z, Lynfield R, Hoffmaster A.
        Pathogens. 2022 Jun 16;11(6).
        Anthrax has been feared for its high mortality in animals and humans for centuries. The etiologic agent is considered a potentially devastating bioweapon, and since 1876-when Robert Koch demonstrated that Bacillus anthracis caused anthrax-it has been considered the sole cause of the disease. Anthrax is, however, a toxin-mediated disease. The toxins edema toxin and lethal toxin are formed from protein components encoded for by the pXO1 virulence plasmid present in pathogenic B. anthracis strains. However, other members of the Bacillus cereus group, to which B. anthracis belongs, have recently been shown to harbor the pXO1 plasmid and produce anthrax toxins. Infection with these Bacillus cereus group organisms produces a disease clinically similar to anthrax. This suggests that anthrax should be defined by the exotoxins encoded for by the pXO1 plasmid rather than the bacterial species it has historically been associated with, and that the definition of anthrax should be expanded to include disease caused by any member of the B. cereus group containing the toxin-producing pXO1 plasmid or anthrax toxin genes specifically.

      2. Fertility and contraception among women of reproductive age following a disaster: a scoping review
        Strid P, Snead MC, Galang RR, Bish CL, Ellington SR.
        Reprod Health. 2022 Jun 23;19(1):147.
        BACKGROUND: The prevalence and severity of disasters triggered by natural hazards has increased over the last 20 years. Women of reproductive age may encounter unique reproductive health challenges following a disaster. In this scoping review we identify gaps in literature to inform future research and search for potential associations between disasters by natural hazards and post-disaster fertility and contraception among women of reproductive age. METHODS: Medline (OVID), Embase (OVID), PsycInfo (OVID), CINAHL (Ebsco), Scopus, Environmental Science Collection (ProQuest Central), and Sociological Abstracts (ProQuest Central) were searched for articles published from 1980 through March 3, 2022 in English or Spanish language. Search terms were related to fertility, contraception, and disasters. We included original research that described a discrete natural hazard exposure, a population of women of reproductive age (15-49 years), and outcomes of fertility or contraception use or access, with pre- and post-disaster measures. RESULTS: Among 9788 citations, after initial exclusion 5121 remained for title and abstract review. One hundred and eighteen citations underwent full-text review and 26 articles met the inclusion criteria. Following critical appraisal, 20 articles were included in this review. Eighteen articles described outcomes related to fertility, five articles described contraception access, and three articles described contraception use. CONCLUSIONS: Clearly defined exposure measures, robust analyses, and methodical post-disaster assessment periods, may address the current gaps within disaster research on fertility and contraception among women of reproductive age. Consistent patterns in fertility following a disaster triggered by natural hazards were not identified between or within disaster types. Studies that assessed contraception found no change in use, while some studies found a decrease in contraceptive access overall.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Overcoming barriers to successful climate and health adaptation practice: Notes from the field
        Mallen E, Joseph HA, McLaughlin M, English DQ, Olmedo C, Roach M, Tirdea C, Vargo J, Wolff M, York E.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jun 11;19(12).
        State and local public health agencies are at the forefront of planning and responding to the health challenges of climate hazards but face substantial barriers to effective climate and health adaptation amidst concurrent environmental and public health crises. To ensure successful adaptation, it is necessary to understand and overcome these barriers. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative (CRSCI) provides funding to state and local health departments to anticipate and respond to health impacts from climate change using the Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) framework. This paper explores the barriers to and enablers of successful adaptation projects among BRACE West CRSCI grantees, including Arizona, California, Oregon, and the city and county of San Francisco. The barriers included competing demands such as the COVID-19 pandemic, dependence on partners with similar challenges, staff and leadership turnover, uncertain and complex impacts on at-risk populations, and inadequate resources. The enablers included effective partnerships, leadership support, dedicated and skilled internal staff, and policy windows enabling institutional change and reprioritization. These findings highlight effective strategies in the field that state and local health departments may use to anticipate potential barriers and establish their work in an environment conducive to successful adaptation.

      2. Identification of effective control technologies for additive manufacturing
        Plessis JD, Preez SD, Stefaniak AB.
        J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2022 Jun 26:1-39.
        Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to several types of processes that join materials to build objects, often layer-by-layer, from a computer-aided design file. Many AM processes release potentially hazardous particles and gases during printing and associated tasks. There is limited understanding of the efficacy of controls including elimination, substitution, administrative, and personal protective technologies to reduce or remove emissions, which is an impediment to implementation of risk mitigation strategies. The Medline, Embase, Environmental Science Collection, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science databases and other resources were used to identify 42 articles that met the inclusion criteria for this review. Key findings were as follows: 1) engineering controls for material extrusion-type fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3-D printers and material jetting printers that included local exhaust ventilation generally exhibited higher efficacy to decrease particle and gas levels compared with isolation alone, and 2) engineering controls for particle emissions from FFF 3-D printers displayed higher efficacy for ultrafine particles compared with fine particles and in test chambers compared with real-world settings. Critical knowledge gaps identified included a need for data: 1) on efficacy of controls for all AM process types, 2) better understanding approaches to control particles over a range of sizes and gas-phase emissions, 3) obtained using a standardized collection approach to facilitate inter-comparison of study results, 4) approaches that go beyond the inhalation exposure pathway to include controls to minimize dermal exposures, and 5) to evaluate not just the engineering tier, but also the prevention-through-design and other tiers of the hierarchy of controls.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. Estimating typhoid incidence from community-based serosurveys: a multicohort study
        Aiemjoy K, Seidman JC, Saha S, Munira SJ, Islam Sajib MS, Sium SM, Sarkar A, Alam N, Zahan FN, Kabir MS, Tamrakar D, Vaidya K, Shrestha R, Shakya J, Katuwal N, Shrestha S, Yousafzai MT, Iqbal J, Dehraj IF, Ladak Y, Maria N, Adnan M, Pervaiz S, Carter AS, Longley AT, Fraser C, Ryan ET, Nodoushani A, Fasano A, Leonard MM, Kenyon V, Bogoch , Jeon HJ, Haselbeck A, Park SE, Zellweger RM, Marks F, Owusu-Dabo E, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Owusu M, Teunis P, Luby SP, Garrett DO, Qamar FN, Saha SK, Charles RC, Andrews JR.
        Lancet Microbe. 2022 Jun 21.
        BACKGROUND: The incidence of enteric fever, an invasive bacterial infection caused by typhoidal Salmonellae (Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi), is largely unknown in regions without blood culture surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether new diagnostic serological markers for typhoidal Salmonella can reliably estimate population-level incidence. METHODS: We collected longitudinal blood samples from patients with blood culture-confirmed enteric fever enrolled from surveillance studies in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Ghana between 2016 and 2021 and conducted cross-sectional serosurveys in the catchment areas of each surveillance site. We used ELISAs to measure quantitative IgA and IgG antibody responses to hemolysin E and S Typhi lipopolysaccharide. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to fit two-phase power-function decay models to the longitudinal antibody responses among enteric fever cases and used the joint distributions of the peak antibody titres and decay rate to estimate population-level incidence rates from cross-sectional serosurveys. FINDINGS: The longitudinal antibody kinetics for all antigen-isotypes were similar across countries and did not vary by clinical severity. The seroincidence of typhoidal Salmonella infection among children younger than 5 years ranged between 58·5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 42·1-81·4) in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to 6·6 per 100 person-years (4·3-9·9) in Kavrepalanchok, Nepal, and followed the same rank order as clinical incidence estimates. INTERPRETATION: The approach described here has the potential to expand the geographical scope of typhoidal Salmonella surveillance and generate incidence estimates that are comparable across geographical regions and time. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. TRANSLATIONS: For the Nepali, Bengali and Urdu translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. The clinical and genomic epidemiology of rhinovirus in homeless shelters-King County, Washington
        Chow EJ, Casto AM, Roychoudhury P, Han PD, Xie H, Pfau B, Nguyen TV, Sereewit J, Rogers JH, Cox SN, Wolf CR, Rolfes MA, Mosites E, Uyeki TM, Greninger AL, Hughes JP, Shim MM, Sugg N, Duchin JS, Starita LM, Englund JA, Chu HY.
        J Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 24.
        BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of respiratory illness in all people, including those experiencing homelessness. RV epidemiology in homeless shelters is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from a cross-sectional homeless shelter study in King County, Washington, October 2019-May 2021. Shelter residents or guardians aged ≥3 months reporting acute respiratory illness completed questionnaires and submitted nasal swabs. After April 1, 2020, enrollment expanded to residents and staff regardless of symptoms. Samples were tested by multiplex RT-PCR for respiratory viruses. A subset of RV-positive samples was sequenced. RESULTS: There were 1,066 RV-positive samples with RV present every month of the study period. RV was the most common virus before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (43% and 77% of virus-positive samples, respectively). Participants from family shelters had the highest prevalence of RV. Among 131 sequenced samples, 33 RV serotypes were identified with each serotype detected for ≤4 months. CONCLUSIONS: RV infections persisted through community mitigation measures and was most prevalent in shelters housing families. Sequencing showed a diversity of circulating RV serotypes each detected over short periods of time. Community-based surveillance in congregate settings is important to characterize respiratory viral infections during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.

      2. Draft genome sequence of clostridium botulinum subtype bont/A5(B2')
        Kruemmel AR, Halpin JL, Foltz V, Dykes J, Lúquez C.
        Microbiol Resour Announc. 2022 Jun 27:e0034822.
        Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum strain CDC76130, which harbors a rare botulinum toxin gene (bont) complex arrangement of bont/A5 and truncated bont/B2 within the same ha toxin gene cluster.

      3. Exogenous rubella virus capsid proteins enhance virus genome replication
        Chen MH, Burns CC, Abernathy E, Ogee-Nwankwo AA, Icenogle JP.
        Pathogens. 2022 Jun 14;11(6).
        Enhanced replication of rubella virus (RuV) and replicons by de novo synthesized viral structural proteins has been previously described. Such enhancement can occur by viral capsid proteins (CP) alone in trans. It is not clear whether the CP in the virus particles, i.e., the exogenous CP, modulate viral genome replication. In this study, we found that exogenous RuV CP also enhanced viral genome replication, either when used to package replicons or when mixed with RNA during transfection. We demonstrated that CP does not affect the translation efficiency from genomic (gRNA) or subgenomic RNA (sgRNA), the intracellular distribution of the non-structural proteins (NSP), or sgRNA synthesis. Significantly active RNA replication was observed in transfections supplemented with recombinant CP (rCP), which was supported by accumulated genomic negative-strand RNA. rCP was found to restore replication of a few mutants in NSP but failed to fully restore replicons known to have defects in the positive-strand RNA synthesis. By monitoring the amount of RuV RNA following transfection, we found that all RuV replicon RNAs were well-retained in the presence of rCP within 24 h of post-transfection, compared to non-RuV RNA. These results suggest that the exogenous RuV CP increases efficiency of early viral genome replication by modulating the stage(s) prior to and/or at the initiation of negative-strand RNA synthesis, possibly through a general mechanism such as protecting viral RNA.

    • Health Economics
      1. Cost of primary care approaches for hypertension management and risk-based cardiovascular disease prevention in Bangladesh: a HEARTS costing tool application
        Husain MJ, Haider MS, Tarannum R, Jubayer S, Bhuiyan MR, Kostova D, Moran AE, Choudhury SR.
        BMJ Open. 2022 Jun 27;12(6):e061467.
        OBJECTIVE: To estimate the costs of scaling up the HEARTS pilot project for hypertension management and risk-based cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention at the full population level in the four subdistricts (upazilas) in Bangladesh. SETTINGS: Two intervention scenarios in subdistrict health complexes: hypertension management only, and risk-based integrated hypertension, diabetes, and cholesterol management. DESIGN: Data obtained during July-August 2020 from subdistrict health complexes on the cost of medications, diagnostic materials, staff salaries and other programme components. METHODS: Programme costs were assessed using the HEARTS costing tool, an Excel-based instrument to collect, track and evaluate the incremental annual costs of implementing the HEARTS programme from the health system perspective. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Programme cost, provider time. RESULTS: The total annual cost for the hypertension control programme was estimated at US$3.2 million, equivalent to US$2.8 per capita or US$8.9 per eligible patient. The largest cost share (US$1.35 million; 43%) was attributed to the cost of medications, followed by the cost of provider time to administer treatment (38%). The total annual cost of the risk-based integrated management programme was projected at US$14.4 million, entailing US$12.9 per capita or US$40.2 per eligible patient. The estimated annual costs per patient treated with medications for hypertension, diabetes and cholesterol were US$18, US$29 and US$37, respectively. CONCLUSION: Expanding the HEARTS hypertension management and CVD prevention programme to provide services to the entire eligible population in the catchment area may face constraints in physician capacity. A task-sharing model involving shifting of select tasks from doctors to nurses and local community health workers would be essential for the eventual scale-up of primary care services to prevent CVD in Bangladesh.

      2. From 2009-2015 to 2016-2019, the proportion of infants in the US with congenital cytomegalovirus treated with valganciclovir roughly doubled for infants enrolled with employer-sponsored insurance (from 16% to 29%) and Medicaid (from 16% to 36%). The proportion treated with valganciclovir increased for all congenital cytomegalovirus disease severity groups.

    • Health Equity and Health Disparities
      1. Methods in HIV-related intersectional stigma research: Core elements and opportunities
        Earnshaw VA, Jonathon Rendina H, Bauer GR, Bonett S, Bowleg L, Carter J, English D, Friedman MR, Hatzenbuehler ML, Johnson MO, McCree DH, Neilands TB, Quinn KG, Robles G, Scheim AI, Smith JC, Smith LR, Sprague L, Taggart T, Tsai AC, Turan B, Yang LH, Bauermeister JA, Kerrigan DL.
        Am J Public Health. 2022 Jun;112(S4):S413-s419.
        Researchers are increasingly recognizing the importance of studying and addressing intersectional stigma within the field of HIV. Yet, researchers have, arguably, struggled to operationalize intersectional stigma. To ensure that future research and methodological innovation is guided by frameworks from which this area of inquiry has arisen, we propose a series of core elements for future HIV-related intersectional stigma research. These core elements include multidimensional, multilevel, multidirectional, and action-oriented methods that sharpen focus on, and aim to transform, interlocking and reinforcing systems of oppression. We further identify opportunities for advancing HIV-related intersectional stigma research, including reducing barriers to and strengthening investments in resources, building capacity to engage in research and implementation of interventions, and creating meaningful pathways for HIV-related intersectional stigma research to produce structural change. Ultimately, the expected payoff for incorporating these core elements is a body of HIV-related intersectional stigma research that is both better aligned with the transformative potential of intersectionality and better positioned to achieve the goals of Ending the HIV Epidemic in the United States and globally. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S4):S413-S419. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306710).

      2. Invasive meningococcal disease among people experiencing homelessness-United States, 2016-2019
        Rudmann KC, Brown NE, Blain A, Burns M, Ramsey A, Las Nueces D, Martin T, Barnes M, Davizon ES, Retchless AC, Potts C, Wang X, Hariri S, McNamara LA.
        J Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 24.
        BACKGROUND: Recently, several invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) outbreaks caused by Neisseria meningitidis have occurred among people experiencing homelessness (PEH). However, overall IMD risk among PEH is not well described. We compared incidence and characteristics of IMD among PEH and persons not known to be experiencing homelessness (non-PEH) in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed 2016-2019 IMD data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) and enhanced meningococcal disease surveillance. Incidence was calculated using U.S. census data and Point-in-Time counts from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. RESULTS: Of cases from states participating in enhanced surveillance during 2016-2019 (n = 1409), 45 (3.2%) cases occurred among PEH. Annual incidence was higher among PEH (2.12 cases/100,000) than non-PEH (0.11 cases/100,000; relative risk: 19.8, 95% CI: 14.8-26.7). Excluding outbreak-associated cases (PEH n = 18, 40%; non-PEH n = 98, 7.2%), incidence among PEH remained elevated compared to incidence in non-PEH (relative risk: 12.8, 95% CI: 8.8-18.8). Serogroup C was identified in 68.2% of PEH cases compared to 26.4% in non-PEH (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: PEH are at increased risk for IMD. Further assessment is needed to determine the feasibility and potential impact of meningococcal vaccination for PEH in the United States.

      3. BACKGROUND: Risk for COVID-19 hospitalizations increases with increasing age and presence of underlying medical conditions. However, the burden has not been well-assessed in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas by race/ethnicity among Medicare population with chronic conditions. METHODS: We used the 2020 Medicare data to estimate COVID-19 hospitalization rates by race/ethnicity among Medicare beneficiaries for COVID-19 by metropolitan status and to assess the association of hospitalizations from COVID-19 with each of selected 29 chronic conditions for patients by metropolitan status and by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: The COVID-19 hospitalization rate was higher among beneficiaries residing in nonmetropolitan counties than those residing in metropolitan counties in 2020. Approximately 1 in 2 AI/AN, 1 in 3 NHB, Hispanic and A/PI, and 1 in 4 NHW beneficiaries with COVID-19 residing in nonmetropolitan counties were hospitalized. Beneficiaries with COVID-19 and chronic conditions were more likely to be hospitalized compared with those without chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization rates among beneficiaries with COVID-19 and chronic conditions were not distributed equally by race/ethnicity and by metropolitan status. Researchers, policymakers and practitioners can use these findings to explore more effective ways of reducing racial/ethnic and geographic disparities among minorities disproportionately affected by COVID-19 and are at highest risk of hospitalization.

      4. IMPORTANCE: US hepatitis B mortality has been described nationally, but examination subnationally may identify differences in mortality rates and decedent characteristics, including birthplace. OBJECTIVE: To examine characteristics of decedents with hepatitis B-listed deaths during 2010 to 2019 and compare age-adjusted hepatitis B-listed death rates during 2010 to 2019 vs 2000 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study used Multiple Cause of Death data from 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC) from 2000 to 2019 to assess characteristics of US residents with hepatitis B listed as an underlying cause of death (UCOD) or contributing cause of death on death certificates. Data were analyzed from September 2019 to May 2022. EXPOSURES: Hepatitis B listed as underlying or contributing cause of death. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Outcomes of interest were hepatitis B-listed death counts, age-adjusted rates, and characteristics of decedents during 2000 to 2019. The distribution of hepatitis B-listed deaths according to sociodemographic characteristics and UCOD among US- and non-US-born decedents were also examined. RESULTS: A total of 35 280 decedents with hepatitis B listed as the cause of death were identified, including 17 483 deaths during 2010 to 2019. Decedents were 63.3% US-born, and 25.8% of decedents were Asian or Pacific Islander and 46.5% of decedents were White; 28.4% of decedents were listed as having hepatitis C virus (HCV) or HIV coinfection. State-level rates significantly surpassed the overall US rate (0.47 deaths per 100 000 population) in DC (high, 1.78 deaths per 100 000 population), Hawaii, Oklahoma, California, Tennessee, West Virginia, Mississippi, Oregon, Washington, Louisiana, Kentucky, and New York (low, 0.61 deaths per 100 000 population). Median (IQR) age at hepatitis B death was significantly younger in Kentucky (54.0 [46.0-64.0] years), West Virginia (56.0 [47.0-65.0] years), Tennessee (57.0 [50.0-65.0] years), Mississippi (58.0 [50.0-65.0] years), and Ohio (59.0 [50.0-66.0] years) than the national median (60.0 [53.0-69.0] years), which itself was significantly younger than nonhepatitis B-listed deaths (77 [63.0-87.0] years; P < .001). Hepatitis B was the UCOD among approximately 30% of US- and non-US-born decedents with hepatitis B COD. Irrespective of birthplace, most decedents had liver-related UCOD. Compared with non-US-born decedents, US-born decedents more frequently had nonliver conditions listed as UCOD. Liver cancer was the predominant UCOD among non-US-born decedents (37.9% of decedents). From 2000 to 2009 compared with 2010 to 2019, the hepatitis B-listed mortality rate significantly decreased nationally (change, -18.97%) and in 14 states; significant increases were observed in West Virginia (change, 83.78%) and Kentucky (change, 69.44%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that US-born decedents constituted two-thirds of all hepatitis B-listed deaths and median age at death was youngest in Appalachian states. Irrespective of birthplace, most decedents had liver-related UCOD; however, US-born decedents more frequently had nonliver UCOD than non-US-born decedents. In addition to addressing liver-related complications, US-born persons with chronic infection may also require diagnosis and management of multiple comorbidities.

      5. Dispensing of oral antiviral drugs for treatment of COVID-19 by zip code-level social vulnerability - United States, December 23, 2021-May 21, 2022
        Gold JA, Kelleher J, Magid J, Jackson BR, Pennini ME, Kushner D, Weston EJ, Rasulnia B, Kuwabara S, Bennett K, Mahon BE, Patel A, Auerbach J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Jun 24;71(25):825-829.
        The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted and exacerbated long-standing inequities in the social determinants of health (1-3). Ensuring equitable access to effective COVID-19 therapies is essential to reducing health disparities. Molnupiravir (Lagevrio) and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid) are oral antiviral agents effective at preventing hospitalization and death in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 who are at high risk* for progression to severe COVID-19 when initiated within 5 days of symptom onset. These medications received Emergency Use Authorization from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2021(†) and were made available at no cost to recipients through the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on December 23, 2021. Beginning March 7, 2022, a series of strategies was implemented to expand COVID-19 oral antiviral access, including the launch of the Test to Treat initiative.(§) Data from December 23, 2021-May 21, 2022, were analyzed to describe oral antiviral prescription dispensing overall and by week, stratified by zip code social vulnerability. Zip codes represented areas classified as low, medium, or high social vulnerability; approximately 20% of U.S. residents live in low-, 31% in medium-, and 49% in high-social vulnerability zip codes.(¶) During December 23, 2021-May 21, 2022, a total of 1,076,762 oral antiviral prescriptions were dispensed (Lagevrio = 248,838; Paxlovid = 827,924). Most (70.3%) oral antivirals were dispensed during March 7-May 21, 2022. During March 6, 2022-May 21, 2022, the number of oral antivirals dispensed per 100,000 population increased from 3.3 to 77.4 in low-, from 4.5 to 70.0 in medium-, and from 7.8 to 35.7 in high-vulnerability zip codes. The number of oral antivirals dispensed rose substantially during the overall study period, coincident with the onset of initiatives to increase access. However, by the end of the study period, dispensing rates in high-vulnerability zip codes were approximately one half the rates in medium- and low-vulnerability zip codes. Additional public health, regulatory, and policy efforts might help decrease barriers to oral antiviral access, particularly in communities with high social vulnerability.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines against infection during an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Beta (B.1.351) variant in a skilled nursing facility - Virginia, March-April 2021
        Moline HL, Keaton A, Rice W, Varghese J, Deng L, Waters A, Barringer A, Winston D, Fields V, Slifka KJ, Verani JR, Schrag SJ, Jernigan J, Tate JE, Fleming-Dutra KE.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 27.
        In April 2021, we assessed mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the context of a COVID-19 outbreak in a skilled nursing facility. Among 28 cases, genomic sequencing was performed on four specimens on four different patients, and all were classified by sequence analysis as the Beta (B.1.351) variant. Adjusted VE among residents was 65% (95% Confidence Interval: 25-84%). These findings underscore the importance of vaccination for prevention of COVID-19 in skilled nursing facilities.

      2. COVID-19 vaccination coverage, intentions, attitudes and barriers by race/ethnicity, language of interview, and nativity, National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module, April 22, 2021-January 29, 2022
        Ohlsen EC, Yankey D, Pezzi C, Kriss JL, Lu PJ, Hung MC, Bernabe MI, Kumar GS, Jentes E, Elam-Evans LD, Jackson H, Black CL, Singleton JA, Ladva CN, Abad N, Lainz AR.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 23.
        The National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module used a random-digit-dialed phone survey during April 22, 2021-January 29, 2022 to quantify COVID-19 vaccination, intent, attitudes, and barriers by detailed race/ethnicity, interview language, and nativity. Foreign-born respondents overall and within racial/ethnic categories had higher vaccination coverage (80.9%), higher intent to be vaccinated (4.2%), and lower hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination (6.0%) than US-born respondents (72.6%, 2.9%, and 15.8%, respectively). Vaccination coverage was significantly lower for certain subcategories of national origin or heritage (e.g., Jamaican (68.6%), Haitian (60.7%), Somali (49.0%) in weighted estimates). Respondents interviewed in Spanish had lower vaccination coverage than interviewees in English but higher intent to be vaccinated and lower reluctance. Collection and analysis of nativity, detailed race/ethnicity and language information allow identification of disparities among racial/ethnic subgroups. Vaccination programs could use such information to implement culturally and linguistically appropriate focused interventions among communities with lower vaccination coverage.

      3. An immunoinformatics prediction of novel multi-epitope vaccines candidate against surface antigens of Nipah virus
        Rahman MM, Puspo JA, Adib AA, Hossain ME, Alam MM, Sultana S, Islam A, Klena JD, Montgomery JM, Satter SM, Shirin T, Rahman MZ.
        Int J Pept Res Ther. 2022 ;28(4):123.
        Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonotic virus causing outbreaks of encephalitis and respiratory illnesses in humans, with high mortality. NiV is considered endemic in Bangladesh and Southeast Asia. There are no licensed vaccines against NiV. This study aimed at predicting a dual-antigen multi-epitope subunit chimeric vaccine against surface-glycoproteins G and F of NiV. Targeted proteins were subjected to immunoinformatics analyses to predict antigenic B-cell and T-cell epitopes. The proposed vaccine designs were implemented based on the conservancy, population coverage, molecular docking, immune simulations, codon adaptation, secondary mRNA structure, and in-silico cloning. Total 40 T and B-cell epitopes were found to be conserved, antigenic (vaxijen-value > 0.4), non-toxic, non-allergenic, and human non-homologous. Of 12 hypothetical vaccines, two (NiV_BGD_V1 and NiV_BGD_V2) were strongly immunogenic, non-allergenic, and structurally stable. The proposed vaccine candidates show a negative Z-score (- 6.32 and - 6.67) and 83.6% and 89.3% of most rama-favored regions. The molecular docking confirmed the highest affinity of NiV_BGD_V1 and NiV_BGD_V2 with TLR-4 (ΔG = - 30.7) and TLR8 (ΔG = - 20.6), respectively. The vaccine constructs demonstrated increased levels of immunoglobulins and cytokines in humans and could be expressed properly using an adenoviral-based pAdTrack-CMV expression vector. However, more experimental investigations and clinical trials are needed to validate its efficacy and safety. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10989-022-10431-z.

      4. Myocarditis or pericarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination
        Weintraub ES, Oster ME, Klein NP.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2218512.

      5. Efficacy of RTS,S/AS01(E) malaria vaccine administered according to different full, fractional, and delayed third or early fourth dose regimens in children aged 5-17 months in Ghana and Kenya: an open-label, phase 2b, randomised controlled trial
        Samuels AM, Ansong D, Kariuki SK, Adjei S, Bollaerts A, Ockenhouse C, Westercamp N, Lee CK, Schuerman L, Bii DK, Osei-Tutu L, Oneko M, Lievens M, Attobrah Sarfo MA, Atieno C, Morelle D, Bakari A, Sang T, Jongert E, Kotoh-Mortty MF, Otieno K, Roman F, Buabeng PB, Ntiamoah Y, Ofori-Anyinam O, Agbenyega T.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2022 Jun 23.
        BACKGROUND: Controlled infection studies in malaria-naive adults suggest increased vaccine efficacy for fractional-dose versus full-dose regimens of RTS,S/AS01. We report first results of an ongoing trial assessing different fractional-dose regimens in children, in natural exposure settings. METHODS: This open-label, phase 2b, randomised controlled trial is conducted at the Malaria Research Center, Agogo, Ashanti Region (Ghana), and the Kenya Medical Research Institute and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention site in Siaya County (Kenya). We enrolled children aged 5-17 months without serious acute or chronic illness who had previously received three doses of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and hepatitis B vaccine and at least three doses of oral polio vaccine. Children were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) using a web-based randomisation system with a minimisation procedure accounting for centre to receive rabies control vaccine (M012 schedule) or two full doses of RTS,S/AS01(E) at month 0 and month 1, followed by either full doses at months 2 and 20 (group R012-20 [standard regimen]), full doses at months 2, 14, 26, and 38 (R012-14), fractional doses at months 2, 14, 26, and 38 (Fx012-14), or fractional doses at months 7, 20, and 32 (Fx017-20). The fractional doses were administered as one fifth (0·1 mL) of the full RTS,S dose (0·5 mL) after reconstitution. All vaccines were administered by intramuscular injection in the left deltoid. The primary outcome was occurrence of clinical malaria cases from month 2·5 until month 14 for the Fx012-14 group versus the pooled R012-14 and R012-20 groups in the per-protocol set. We assessed incremental vaccine efficacy of the Fx012-14 group versus the pooled R012-14 and R012-20 group over 12 months after dose three. Safety was assessed in all children who received at least one vaccine dose. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03276962. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2017, and Sept 25, 2018, 2157 children were enrolled, of whom 1609 were randomly assigned to a treatment group (322 to each RTS,S/AS01(E) group and 321 to the rabies vaccine control group). 1500 children received at least one study vaccine dose and the per-protocol set comprised 1332 children. Over 12 months after dose three, the incremental vaccine efficacy in the Fx012-14 group versus the pooled R012-14 and R12-20 groups was -21% (95% CI -57 to 7; p=0·15). Up to month 21, serious adverse events occurred in 48 (16%) of 298 children in the R012-20 group, 45 (15%) of 294 in the R012-14 group, 47 (15%) of 304 in the Fx012-14 group, 62 (20%) of 311 in the Fx017-20 group, and 71 (24%) of 293 in the control group, with no safety signals observed. INTERPRETATION: The Fx012-14 regimen was not superior to the standard regimen over 12 months after dose three. All RTS,S/AS01(E) regimens provided substantial, similar protection against clinical malaria, suggesting potential flexibility in the recommended dosing regimen and schedule. This, and the effect of annual boosters, will be further evaluated through 50 months of follow-up. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; PATH's Malaria Vaccine Initiative.

      6. Genetic background of Cambodian pneumococcal carriage isolates following pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13
        Belman S, Soeng S, Soputhy C, Gladstone R, Hawkins PA, Breiman RF, McGee L, Bentley SD, Lo SW, Turner P.
        Microb Genom. 2022 Jun;8(6).
        Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a leading cause of childhood mortality globally and in Cambodia. It is commensal in the human nasopharynx, occasionally resulting in invasive disease. Monitoring population genetic shifts, characterized by lineage and serotype expansions, as well as antimicrobial-resistance (AMR) patterns is crucial for assessing and predicting the impact of vaccination campaigns. We sought to elucidate the genetic background (global pneumococcal sequence clusters; GPSCs) of pneumococci carried by Cambodian children following perturbation by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 13. We sequenced pre-PCV13 (01/2013-12/2015, N=258) and post-PCV13 carriage isolates (01/2016-02/2017, N=428) and used PopPUNK and SeroBA to determine lineage prevalence and serotype composition. Following PCV13 implementation in Cambodia, we saw expansions of non-vaccine type (NVT) serotypes 23A (GPSC626), 34 (GPSC45) and 6D (GPSC16). We predicted antimicrobial susceptibility using the CDC-AMR pipeline and determined concordance with phenotypic data. The CDC-AMR pipeline had >90 % concordance with the phenotypic antimicrobial-susceptibility testing. We detected a high prevalence of AMR in both expanding non-vaccine serotypes and residual vaccine serotype 6B. Persistently high levels of AMR, specifically persisting multidrug-resistant lineages, warrant concern. The implementation of PCV13 in Cambodia has resulted in NVT serotype expansion reflected in the carriage population and driven by specific genetic backgrounds. Continued monitoring of these GPSCs during the ongoing collection of additional carriage isolates in this population is necessary.

      7. Population genomics of pneumococcal carriage in South Africa following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) immunization
        Javaid N, Olwagen C, Nzenze S, Hawkins P, Gladstone R, McGee L, Breiman RF, Bentley SD, Madhi SA, Lo S.
        Microb Genom. 2022 Jun;8(6).
        Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for over 317000 deaths in children <5 years of age with the burden of the disease being highest in low- and middle-income countries including South Africa. Following the introduction of the 7-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in South Africa in 2009 and 2011, respectively, a decrease in both invasive pneumococcal infections and asymptomatic carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci were reported. In this study, we described the changing epidemiology of the pneumococcal carriage population in South Africa, by sequencing the genomes of 1825 isolates collected between 2009 and 2013. Using these genomic data, we reported the changes in serotypes, Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs), and antibiotic resistance before and after the introduction of PCV13. The pneumococcal carriage population in South Africa has a high level of diversity, comprising of 126 GPSCs and 49 serotypes. Of the ten most prevalent GPSCs detected, six were predominantly found in Africa (GPSC22, GPSC21, GPSC17, GPSC33, GPSC34 and GPSC52). We found a significant decrease in PCV7 serotypes (19F, 6B, 23F and 14) and an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) (16F, 34, 35B and 11A) among children <2 years of age. The increase in NVTs was driven by pneumococcal lineages GPSC33, GPSC34, GPSC5 and GPSC22. Overall, a decrease in antibiotic resistance for 11 antimicrobials was detected in the PCV13 era. Further, we reported a higher resistance prevalence among vaccine types (VTs), as compared to NVTs; however, an increase in penicillin resistance among NVT was observed between the PCV7 and PCV13 eras. The carriage isolates from South Africa predominantly belonged to pneumococcal lineages, which are endemic to Africa. While the introduction of PCV resulted in an overall reduction of resistance in pneumococcal carriage isolates, an increase in penicillin resistance among NVTs was detected in children aged between 3 and 5 years, driven by the expansion of penicillin-resistant clones associated with NVTs in the PCV13 era.

      8. Factors associated with human papillomavirus and meningococcal vaccination among adolescents living in rural and urban areas
        Boyce TG, Christianson B, Hanson KE, Dunn D, Polter E, VanWormer JJ, Williams CL, Belongia EA, McLean HQ.
        Vaccine X. 2022 Aug;11:100180.
        BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that adolescent vaccination rates with human papillomavirus (HPV) and quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccines are lower in rural areas of the U.S. than in urban areas. We sought to determine factors associated with vaccine acceptance in these two settings. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 536 parents or guardians of teens age 13 through 15 years in select rural and urban counties of Minnesota and Wisconsin. We collected information on demographic variables, receipt of adolescent vaccines, and attitudes toward HPV vaccine in particular. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess associations between covariates and outcomes of interest (HPV vaccine receipt and MenACWY receipt). RESULTS: Of the 536 respondents, 267 (50%) resided in a rural county. Most respondents were female (78%) and non-Hispanic White (88%). About half (52%) of teens of the surveyed parents received the three vaccines recommended specifically for adolescents: 90% received tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap), 84% received MenACWY, and 60% received one or more doses of HPV vaccine. Rural and urban parents surveyed differed on several covariates relating to teen's health services, parent's demographics, and household characteristics. Parent's perception of the importance that their healthcare providers placed on vaccination with HPV and MenACWY were independently associated with receipt of each of those vaccines (odds ratio [OR] 6.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.90-13.96 and OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.07-4.31, respectively). Parents of vaccinated teens were less likely to report concerns about potential harm from the HPV vaccine or having heard stories about health problems caused by the HPV vaccine. CONCLUSION: Teen receipt of HPV vaccine and MenACWY appears to be influenced by parents' perception of vaccine importance, provider recommendations, and concerns regarding potential harm from the HPV vaccine. Continued education of providers and parents of the importance of adolescent vaccinations is warranted.

    • Informatics
      1. A methodological assessment of privacy preserving record linkage using survey and administrative data
        Mirel LB, Resnick DM, Aram J, Cox CS.
        Stat J IAOS. 2022 ;38(2):413-421.
        BACKGROUND: The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) links data from surveys to administrative data sources, but privacy concerns make accessing new data sources difficult. Privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) is an alternative to traditional linkage approaches that may overcome this barrier. However, prior to implementing PPRL techniques it is important to understand their effect on data quality. METHODS: Results from PPRL were compared to results from an established linkage method, which uses unencrypted (plain text) identifiers and both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. The established method was used as the gold standard. Links performed with PPRL were evaluated for precision and recall. An initial assessment and a refined approach were implemented. The impact of PPRL on secondary data analysis, including match and mortality rates, was assessed. RESULTS: The match rates for all approaches were similar, 5.1% for the gold standard, 5.4% for the initial PPRL and 5.0% for the refined PPRL approach. Precision ranged from 93.8% to 98.9% and recall ranged from 98.7% to 97.8%, depending on the selection of tokens from PPRL. The impact of PPRL on secondary data analysis was minimal. DISCUSSION: The findings suggest PPRL works well to link patient records to the National Death Index (NDI) since both sources have a high level of non-missing personally identifiable information, especially among adults 65 and older who may also have a higher likelihood of linking to the NDI. CONCLUSION: The results from this study are encouraging for first steps for a statistical agency in the implementation of PPRL approaches, however, future research is still needed. © 2022-IOS Press. All rights reserved.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Community health worker activities in public health programs to prevent violence: Coding roles and scope
        Barbero C, Hafeedh Bin Abdullah A, Wiggins N, Garrettson M, Jones D, S. Guinn A, Girod C, Bradford J, Wennerstrom A.
        Am J Public Health. 2022 Jun 23:e1-e11.
        In multiple and related forms, violence is a serious public health issue with lasting impacts on health and wellness in the United States. Community health workers (CHWs) are frontline public health workers and trusted members of communities. We aimed to analyze recent examples of CHW activities in violence prevention public health programs with a goal of informing future programs and research. We collected more than 300 documents published between 2010 and 2020 to identify public health programs to prevent violence including CHW activities. We used an iterative process to develop and apply a coding scheme to the CHW activities. We identified 20 public health programs to prevent violence which included CHW activities. CHWs most often addressed community violence, youth violence, and family violence and played an average of 8 of 10 core roles per program. Fewer than a third (i.e., 6 programs) reported community-focused CHW activities to address upstream and structural determinants of health inequities. This first examination, to our knowledge, of the intersection of the CHW and violence prevention literature shows that CHWs have played many of their core roles in public health programs to address multiple forms of violence. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 23, 2022:e1-e11. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306865).

      2. Observing pedestrian-vehicle traffic conflicts in school zones to evaluate the effectiveness of road safety interventions and reduce injuries in Ghana, Vietnam, and Mexico, 2019-2021
        Swanson JM, Draisin N, Krasnolucka A, Vadillo C, Medina S, Pérez B, Kalolo S, Quyen BN, Minh VN, Sauber-Schatz E.
        J Inj Violence Res. 2022 Jun 26;14(3).
        BACKGROUND: Daily more than 3,000 children are injured or killed on the road, often along the school route. Road traffic crashes and resulting injuries are preventable. More can be done to reduce injuries and save lives. Traffic Conflict Techniques (TCTs) are simple methods of collecting observational data to evaluate the effectiveness of road safety interventions through counting and analyzing traffic conflicts. A TCT Toolkit was developed and piloted to analyze pedestrian-vehicle traffic conflicts in school zones in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Three non-governmental organizations in Ghana, Vietnam, and Mexico applied three TCTs from the TCT Toolkit to collect traffic conflict data before (pre-intervention) and after (post-intervention) road safety intervention implementation. As the number of traffic conflicts was often less than 100, confidence intervals (CIs) based on gamma distributions were calculated for the traffic conflict rate. Using the calculated traffic conflict rate, the difference between pre- and post-intervention rates was assessed by determining overlap of the CIs. When CIs did not overlap, the difference was said to be statistically significant at the 0.05 level. RESULTS: For each method, results indicated a decrease in traffic conflicts between pre- and post-intervention data collection periods. Pre- and post-intervention traffic conflict rates with non-overlapping CIs demonstrated the results were statistically significant, providing evidence that the road safety interventions were effective. CONCLUSIONS: TCTs are relatively low-cost and simple techniques that provide an opportunity to base road safety improvement decisions on real-world data. TCTs are effective in objectively evaluating road safety interventions and can help decision-makers evaluate strategies for improving road safety, preventing injuries and saving lives.

      3. While mixed methods research can enhance studies of intervention outcomes and projects where research itself transforms communities through participatory approaches, methodologists need explicit examples. As the field of interpersonal violence prevention increasingly embraces community-level prevention strategies, it may benefit from research methods that mirror community-building prevention processes. A multiphase mixed methods study with sequential and convergent components assessed the feasibility, and impact of a prevention program to change social norms and increase collective efficacy in towns. Joint display analysis created a nuanced picture of the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of the program. This article contributes to the field of mixed methods research by bridging discussions of “interventionist” studies with models of community-based participatory mixed methods research into a combined community-engaged method. © The Author(s) 2022.

      4. Pathways to suicide or collections of vicious cycles? Understanding the complexity of suicide through causal mapping
        Giabbanelli PJ, Rice KL, Galgoczy MC, Nataraj N, Brown MM, Harper CR, Nguyen MD, Foy R.
        Soc Netw Anal Min. 2022 ;12(1).
        Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youth ages 10–19 in the USA. While suicide has long been recognized as a multifactorial issue, there is limited understanding regarding the complexities linking adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to suicide ideation, attempt, and fatality among youth. In this paper, we develop a map of these complex linkages to provide a decision support tool regarding key issues in policymaking and intervention design, such as identifying multiple feedback loops (e.g., involving intergenerational effects) or comprehensively examining the rippling effects of an intervention. We use the methodology of systems mapping to structure the complex interrelationships of suicide and ACEs based on the perceptions of fifteen subject matter experts. Specifically, systems mapping allows us to gain insight into the feedback loops and potential emergent properties of ACEs and youth suicide. We describe our methodology and the results of fifteen one-on-one interviews, which are transformed into individual maps that are then aggregated and simplified to produce our final causal map. Our map is the largest to date on ACEs and suicide among youth, totaling 361 concepts and 946 interrelationships. Using a previously developed open-source software to navigate the map, we are able to explore how trauma may be perpetuated through familial, social, and historical concepts. In particular, we identify connections and pathways between ACEs and youth suicide that have not been identified in prior research, and which are of particular interest for youth suicide prevention efforts. © 2022, This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Enhancing accreditation outcomes for medical laboratories on the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation programme in Kenya via a rapid results initiative
        Makokha EP, Ondondo RO, Kimani DK, Gachuki T, Basiye F, Njeru M, Junghae M, Downer M, Umuro M, Mburu M, Mwangi J.
        Afr J Lab Med. 2022 ;11(1):1614.
        BACKGROUND: Since 2010, Kenya has used SLIPTA to prepare and improve quality management systems in medical laboratories to achieve ISO 15189 accreditation. However, less than 10% of enrolled laboratories had done so in the initial seven years of SLMTA implementation. OBJECTIVE: We described Kenya's experience in accelerating medical laboratories on SLMTA to attain ISO 15189 accreditation. METHODS: From March 2017 to July 2017, an aggressive top-down approach through high-level management stakeholder engagement for buy-in, needs-based expedited SLIPTA mentorship and on-site support as a rapid results initiative (RRI) was implemented in 39 laboratories whose quality improvement process had stagnated for 2-7 years. In July 2017, SLIPTA baseline and exit audit average scores on quality essential elements were compared to assess performance. RESULTS: After RRI, laboratories achieving greater than a 2-star SLMTA rating increased significantly from 15 (38%) at baseline to 33 (85%) (p < 0.001). Overall, 34/39 (87%) laboratories received ISO 15189 accreditation within two years of RRI, leading to a 330% increase in the number of accredited laboratories in Kenya. The most improved of the 12 quality system essentials were Equipment Management (mean increase 95% CI: 5.31 ± 1.89) and Facilities and Biosafety (mean increase [95% CI: 4.05 ± 1.78]) (both: p < 0.0001). Information Management and Corrective Action Management remained the most challenging to improve, despite RRI interventions. CONCLUSION: High-level advocacy and targeted mentorship through RRI dramatically improved laboratory accreditation in Kenya. Similar approaches of strengthening SLIPTA implementation could improve SLMTA outcomes in other countries with similar challenges.

      2. Acceptability and experiences with the use of 3D scans to measure anthropometry of young children in surveys and surveillance systems from the perspective of field teams and caregivers
        Jefferds ME, Mei Z, Palmieri M, Mesarina K, Onyango D, Mwando R, Akelo V, Liu J, Zhou Y, Meng Y, Bougma K.
        Curr Dev Nutr. 2022 Jun;6(6):nzac085.
        BACKGROUND: Portable systems using three-dimensional (3D) scan data to calculate young child anthropometry measurements in population-based surveys and surveillance systems lack acceptability data from field workers and caregivers. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess acceptability and experiences with 3D scans measuring child aged 0-59 mo anthropometry in population-based surveys and surveillance systems in Guatemala, Kenya, and China (0-23 mo only) among field teams and caregivers of young children as secondary objectives of an external effectiveness evaluation. METHODS: Manual data were collected twice and 12 images captured per child by anthropometrist/expert and assistant (AEA) field teams (individuals/country, n = 15/Guatemala, n = 8/Kenya, n = 6/China). Caregivers were interviewed after observing their child's manual and scan data collection. Mixed methods included an administered caregiver interview (Guatemala, n = 465; Kenya, n = 496; China, n = 297) and self-administered AEA questionnaire both with closed- and open-ended questions, and 6 field team focus group discussions (FGDs; Guatemala, n = 2; Kenya, n = 3; China, n = 1). Qualitative data were coded by 2 authors and quantitative data produced descriptive statistics. Mixed-method results were compared and triangulated. RESULTS: Most AEAs were female with secondary or higher education. Approximately 80-90% of caregivers were the child's mother. To collect all anthropometry data, 62.1% of the 29 AEAs preferred scan, while 31% preferred manual methods. In FGDs, a key barrier for manual and scan methods was lack of child cooperation. Across countries, approximately 30% to almost 50% of caregivers said their child was bothered by each manual and scan method, while ≥95% of caregivers were willing to have their child measured by scans in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Use of 3D scans to calculate anthropometry measurements was generally at least as acceptable as manual anthropometry measurement among AEA field workers and caregivers of young children aged <60 mo, and in some cases preferred.

      3. Multiplex serology for measurement of IgG antibodies against eleven infectious diseases in a national serosurvey: Haiti 2014-2015
        Chan Y, Martin D, Mace KE, Jean SE, Stresman G, Drakeley C, Chang MA, Lemoine JF, Udhayakumar V, Lammie PJ, Priest JW, Rogier EW.
        Front Public Health. 2022 ;10:897013.
        BACKGROUND: Integrated surveillance for multiple diseases can be an efficient use of resources and advantageous for national public health programs. Detection of IgG antibodies typically indicates previous exposure to a pathogen but can potentially also serve to assess active infection status. Serological multiplex bead assays have recently been developed to simultaneously evaluate exposure to multiple antigenic targets. Haiti is an island nation in the Caribbean region with multiple endemic infectious diseases, many of which have a paucity of data for population-level prevalence or exposure. METHODS: A nationwide serosurvey occurred in Haiti from December 2014 to February 2015. Filter paper blood samples (n = 4,438) were collected from participants in 117 locations and assayed for IgG antibodies on a multiplex bead assay containing 15 different antigens from 11 pathogens: Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii, lymphatic filariasis roundworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, chikungunya virus, dengue virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cryptosporidium parvum. RESULTS: Different proportions of the Haiti study population were IgG seropositive to the different targets, with antigens from T. gondii, C. parvum, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and C. trachomatis showing the highest rates of seroprevalence. Antibody responses to T. pallidum and lymphatic filariasis were the lowest, with <5% of all samples IgG seropositive to antigens from these pathogens. Clear trends of increasing seropositivity and IgG levels with age were seen for all antigens except those from chikungunya virus and E. histolytica. Parametric models were able to estimate the rate of seroconversion and IgG acquisition per year for residents of Haiti. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex serological assays can provide a wealth of information about population exposure to different infectious diseases. This current Haitian study included IgG targets for arboviral, parasitic, and bacterial infectious diseases representing multiple different modes of host transmission. Some of these infectious diseases had a paucity or complete absence of published serological studies in Haiti. Clear trends of disease burden with respect to age and location in Haiti can be used by national programs and partners for follow-up studies, resource allocation, and intervention planning.

      4. Mitigating matrix effects in LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of a urinary biomarker of xylenes exposure
        Bowman BA, Ejzak E, Reese CM, Blount BC, Bhandari D.
        J Anal Toxicol. 2022 Jun 29.
        Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with stable isotope labeled internal standards (SIL-IS) is the gold standard for quantitative analysis of drugs and metabolites in complex biological samples. Significant isotopic effects associated with deuterium labeling often causes the deuterated IS to elute at a different retention time from the target analyte, diminishing its capability to compensate for matrix effects. In this study, we systematically compared the analytical performance of deuterated (2H) SIL-IS to non-deuterated (13C and 15N) SIL-ISs for quantifying urinary 2-methylhippuric acid (2MHA) and 4-methylhippuric acid (4MHA), biomarkers of xylenes exposure, with an LC-ESI-MS/MS assay. Analytical method comparison between IS demonstrated a quantitative bias for urinary 2MHA results, with concentrations generated with 2MHA-[2H7] on average 59.2% lower than concentrations generated by 2MHA-[13C6]. Spike accuracy, measured by quantifying analyte-spiked urine matrix and comparing the result to the known spike concentration, determined that 2MHA-[2H7] generated negatively biased urinary results of -38.4% whereas no significant bias was observed for 2MHA-[13C6]. Post-column infusion demonstrated that ion suppression experienced by 2MHA and 2MHA-[13C6] was not equally experienced by 2MHA-[2H7], explaining the negatively biased 2MHA results. Quantitation of urinary 4MHA results between IS exhibited no significant quantitative bias. These results underscore the importance of careful selection of internal standards for targeted quantitative analysis in complex biological samples.

      5. Risk-based cervical consensus guidelines: Methods to determine management if less than 5 years of data are available
        Egemen D, Perkins RB, Clarke MA, Guido R, Huh W, Saraiya M, Saslow D, Smith R, Unger ER, Garcia F, Wentzensen N, Cheung LC.
        J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2022 Jul 1;26(3):195-201.
        OBJECTIVES: In the 2019 ASCCP Risk-Based Management Consensus Guidelines, clinical management decisions are based on immediate and 5-year cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3+ risk estimates. However, data for technologies other than human papillomavirus testing and cytology may be limited to clinical trials and observational studies of shorter duration than 5 years. To enable decisions about 1- or 3-year intervals, 3-year CIN 3+ risk equivalents to 5-year CIN 3+ risk thresholds were generated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined screening test result scenarios around the 5-year risk thresholds of 0.15% and 0.55% and calculated the average percent increase in CIN 3+ risk from 3 to 5 years. Using this average increase, we obtained estimates of corresponding risk thresholds at 3 years. We then validated whether use of the 3-year risk threshold would have resulted in equivalent management per the 2019 recommendations. RESULTS: Around the 5-year CIN 3+ risk threshold of 0.55%, the average increase in risk from 3 to 5 years was 0.16%. Therefore, the equivalent threshold for 3-year risk was estimated as 0.39%. We found no difference in recommendations to return in 1 or 3 years using the 3-year or 5-year risk thresholds in 66 of the 67 scenarios (98.5%) in follow-up in 2019 guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: In this methodological addendum, the Enduring Guidelines Committee adopted the use of the 0.39% 3-year CIN 3+ risk threshold as equivalent of the 0.55% 5-year CIN 3+ risk threshold for technologies with fewer than 5 years of follow-up data. This allows evidence-based guidance for surveillance intervals of 1 or 3 years for new technologies with limited longitudinal data.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. Among pregnant women, anemia, a condition of low hemoglobin concentration, can increase risk for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, including premature delivery, and other adverse outcomes (1). Iron deficiency is a common cause of anemia, and during pregnancy, iron requirements increase (2). Surveillance of anemia during pregnancy in the United States is limited. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Participant and Program Characteristics (PC) data provide an opportunity to establish national and WIC state agency-level* anemia surveillance for WIC participants. National and state agency anemia prevalences among pregnant WIC participants at enrollment were examined using 2008-2018 WIC-PC data. Across all 90 WIC agencies (50 states, the District of Columbia [DC], five territories, and 34 Indian Tribal Organizations), anemia prevalence among pregnant WIC participants at enrollment increased significantly, from 10.1% in 2008 to 11.4% in 2018 (13% increase). Anemia prevalence increased significantly in 36 (64%) of the 56 agencies in states, DC, and territories, and decreased significantly in 11 (20%). Prevalence of anemia overall and by pregnancy trimester were higher among non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) women than among other racial or ethnic groups. Anemia prevalence was higher among women assessed during the third trimester of pregnancy than among those assessed during first or second trimesters. Routine anemia surveillance using WIC enrollment anemia data can identify groups at higher risk for iron deficiency. Findings from this report indicate that anemia continues to be a problem among low-income women and reinforces the importance of efforts that ensure these women have access to healthier, iron-rich foods before and during pregnancy. This includes ensuring that eligible women are enrolled in WIC early during pregnancy.

      2. Association of urinary phthalate and phthalate replacement metabolite concentrations with serum lipid biomarker levels among pregnant women attending a fertility center
        Mínguez-Alarcón L, Williams PL, James-Todd T, Souter I, Ford JB, Rexrode KM, Calafat AM, Hauser R, Chavarro JE.
        Toxics. 2022 May 28;10(6).
        We examined whether urinary concentrations of phthalate and phthalate replacement metabolites were associated with lipid biomarker levels among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 175 women who enrolled in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study (2005-2017). We used linear regression models to assess the relationship between urinary phthalates and lipid biomarkers [triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol] levels while adjusting for confounders. Pregnant women in the highest quartile of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) had, overall, 14% [31 (95% CI = 6.56) mg/dL], 21% [33 (95% CI = 9.57) mg/dL] and 25% [30 (95% CI = 8.53) mg/dL] higher serum total, non-HDL and LDL cholesterol, respectively, compared to women in the lowest quartile of MECPP. Similar positive associations were found for urinary concentrations of other metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. Pregnant women with urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) in the highest quartile had higher triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol compared to women with MBP in the lowest quartile. Women with detectable concentrations of two phthalate replacement metabolites had lower HDL cholesterol compared to women with non-detectable concentrations. Gestational urinary concentrations of certain phthalate and phthalate replacement metabolites were associated with lipid levels among these women.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Monitoring laboratory occupational exposures to Burkholderia pseudomallei
        Clay LA, Straub KW, Adrianos SL, Daniels J, Blackwell JL, Bryant LT, McClee V, Green JA, Edwin SS.
        Appl Biosaf. 2022 ;27(2):84-91.
        Background: Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Tier 1 overlap select agent and subject to the select agent regulations (42 CFR §73 and 9 CFR §121). It is a gram-negative, motile, soil saprophyte, and the etiologic agent of melioidosis. B. pseudomallei infection can produce systemic illness and can be fatal in the absence of appropriate treatment. Laboratory exposures involving this organism may occur when appropriate containment measures are not employed. Current disease treatment inadequacies and the risk factors associated with melioidosis make this an agent of primary concern in research, commercial, and clinical laboratory environments. Results: This study presents data reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of Select Agents and Toxins for releases involving B. pseudomallei in 2017-2019 that occurred in Biosafety Level (BSL)-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. Fifty-one Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)/CDC Form 3 release reports led to the medical surveillance of 275 individuals. Entities offered post-exposure prophylaxis to ?76% of the individuals impacted in the presented events. Summary: Laboratory safety can be improved by implementing appropriate safety precautions to minimize exposures. Most of the incidents discussed in this evidence-based report occurred during work conducted in the absence of primary containment. None of the releases resulted in illness, death, or transmission to or among workers, nor was there transmission outside of a laboratory into the surrounding environment or community. Effective risk assessment and management strategies coupled with standard and special microbiological policies and procedures can result in reduced exposures and improved safety at facilities. © Copyright 2022, ABSA International 2022 2022.

      2. Determinants of task-based exposures to alpha-diketones in coffee roasting and packaging facilities using a Bayesian model averaging approach
        Blackley BH, Groth CP, Cox-Ganser JM, Fortner AR, LeBouf RF, Liang X, Virji MA.
        Front Public Health. 2022 ;10:878907.
        Coffee production workers can be exposed to inhalational hazards including alpha-diketones such as diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione. Exposure to diacetyl is associated with the development of occupational lung disease, including obliterative bronchiolitis, a rare and irreversible lung disease. We aimed to identify determinants contributing to task-based exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione at 17 U.S. coffee production facilities. We collected 606 personal short-term task-based samples including roasting (n = 189), grinding (n = 74), packaging (n = 203), quality control (QC, n = 44), flavoring (n = 15), and miscellaneous production/café tasks (n = 81), and analyzed for diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in accordance with the modified OSHA Method 1013/1016. We also collected instantaneous activity-based (n = 296) and source (n = 312) samples using evacuated canisters. Information on sample-level and process-level determinants relating to production scale, sources of alpha-diketones, and engineering controls was collected. Bayesian mixed-effect regression models accounting for censored data were fit for overall data (all tasks) and specific tasks. Notable determinants identified in univariate analyses were used to fit all plausible models in multiple regression analysis which were summarized using a Bayesian model averaging method. Grinding, flavoring, packaging, and production tasks with ground coffee were associated with the highest short-term and instantaneous-activity exposures for both analytes. Highest instantaneous-sources of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione included ground coffee, flavored coffee, liquid flavorings, and off-gassing coffee bins or packages. Determinants contributing to higher exposures to both analytes in all task models included sum of all open storage sources and average percent of coffee production as ground coffee. Additionally, flavoring ground coffee and flavoring during survey contributed to notably higher exposures for both analytes in most, but not all task groups. Alternatively, general exhaust ventilation contributed to lower exposures in all but two models. Additionally, among facilities that flavored, local exhaust ventilation during flavoring processes contributed to lower 2,3-pentanedione exposures during grinding and packaging tasks. Coffee production facilities can consider implementing additional exposure controls for processes, sources, and task-based determinants associated with higher exposures to diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione, such as isolating, enclosing, and directly exhausting grinders, flavoring mixers, and open storage of off-gassing whole bean and ground coffee, to reduce exposures and minimize risks for lung disease among workers.

      3. Applying translational science approaches to protect workers exposed to nanomaterials
        Schulte PA, Guerin RJ, Cunningham TR, Hodson L, Murashov V, Rabin BA.
        Front Public Health. 2022 ;10:816578.
        Like nanotechnology, translational science is a relatively new and transdisciplinary field. Translational science in occupational safety and health (OSH) focuses on the process of taking scientific knowledge for the protection of workers from the lab to the field (i.e., the worksite/workplace) and back again. Translational science has been conceptualized as having multiple phases of research along a continuum, beyond scientific discovery (T(0)), to efficacy (T(1)), to effectiveness (T(2)), to dissemination and implementation (D&I) (T(3)), to outcomes and effectiveness research in populations (T(4)). The translational research process applied to occupational exposure to nanomaterials might involve similar phases. This builds on basic and efficacy research (T(0) and T(1)) in the areas of toxicology, epidemiology, industrial hygiene, medicine and engineering. In T(2), research and evidence syntheses and guidance and recommendations to protect workers may be developed and assessed for effectiveness. In T(3), emphasis is needed on D&I research to explore the multilevel barriers and facilitators to nanotechnology risk control information/research adoption, use, and sustainment in workplaces. D&I research for nanomaterial exposures should focus on assessing sources of information and evidence to be disseminated /implemented in complex and dynamic workplaces, how policy-makers and employers use this information in diverse contexts to protect workers, how stakeholders inform these critical processes, and what barriers impede and facilitate multilevel decision-making for the protection of nanotechnology workers. The T(4) phase focuses on how effective efforts to prevent occupational exposure to nanomaterials along the research continuum contribute to large-scale impact in terms of worker safety, health and wellbeing (T(4)). Stakeholder input and engagement is critical to all stages of the translational research process. This paper will provide: (1) an illustration of the translational research continuum for occupational exposure to nanomaterials; and (2) a discussion of opportunities for applying D&I science to increase the effectiveness, uptake, integration, sustainability, and impact of interventions to protect the health and wellbeing of workers in the nanotechnology field.

      4. Results of the 2019 survey of engineered nanomaterial occupational health and safety practices
        Neu-Baker NM, Eastlake A, Hodson L.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jul;19(13):7676.
        In collaboration with RTI International, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) administered a survey to North American companies working with nanomaterials to assess health and safety practices. The results would contribute to understanding the impact of the efforts made by the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC) in communicating occupational health and safety (OHS) considerations for workers when handling these materials. The survey, developed by RAND Corporation, was conducted online from September 2019-December 2019. Forty-five companies or organizations in the U.S. and Canada that fabricate, manufacture, handle, dispose, or otherwise use nanomaterials completed the survey. The survey was designed to answer research questions regarding the nanomaterials in use, which resources the companies have consulted for OHS guidance, and the overall OHS culture at the companies. Other questions specifically addressed whether the companies interacted with NIOSH or NIOSH resources to inform OHS policies and practices. Among participating companies, 57.8% had a maximum of 50 employees. Gold nanoparticles and polymers were most common (n = 20; 45.5% each), followed by graphene (36.4%), carbon nanotubes and nanofibers (34.1%), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (31.8%). Environmental monitoring was performed by 31.8% of the companies. While 88.9% of the companies had laminar flow cabinets, only 67.5% required it to be used with ENMs. Information and training programs were indicated by 90% of the sample, and only 29.6% performed specific health surveillance for ENM workers. Personal protective equipment primarily included gloves (100%) and eye/face protection (97.7%). More than a third (37.8%) of the respondents reported using at least one NIOSH resource to acquire information about safe handling of ENMs. The small number of companies that responded to and completed the survey is a considerable limitation to this study. However, the survey data are valuable for gauging the reach and influence of the NIOSH NTRC on nano OHS and for informing future outreach, particularly to small businesses.

      5. Industry-specific prevalence of elevated blood lead levels among Pennsylvania workers, 2007-2018
        Tsai RJ, Lu JW, Henn SA, Hasanali SH, Harduar-Morano L, Nair A.
        Occup Environ Med. 2022 Jun 23.
        OBJECTIVES: To use industry-specific denominators to more accurately examine trends in prevalence rates for occupational cases of elevated blood lead levels (eBLLs) in Pennsylvania. METHODS: We used adult (aged ≥16 years) blood lead level data from Pennsylvania (2007-2018) and industry-specific denominator data from the US Census Bureau's County Business Patterns to calculate prevalence rates for eBLLs, defined as ≥25 µg/dL. RESULTS: Of the 19 904 cases with eBLLs, 92% were due to occupational lead exposure, with 83% from workers in the battery manufacturing industry. In 2018, the prevalence rate of eBLLs for battery manufacturing (8036.4 cases per 100 000 employed battery manufacturing workers) was 543 times the overall Pennsylvania prevalence rate. The prevalence rate for battery manufacturing steeply declined 71% from 2007 to 2018. CONCLUSIONS: The battery manufacturing industry had the highest burden of occupational lead exposure in Pennsylvania, illustrating the importance of using industry-specific denominators to accurately identify sources of lead exposure. Although the prevalence rate of eBLLs declined over time, lead exposure remains a major concern among battery manufacturing workers.

      6. The CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard: A tool to advance workplace health promotion programs and practices
        Roemer EC, Kent KB, Goetzel RZ, Krill J, Williams FS, Lang JE.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2022 Jun 23;19:E32.
        INTRODUCTION: The CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard (ScoreCard) is a free, publicly available survey tool designed to help employers assess the extent to which they have implemented evidence-based interventions or strategies at their worksites to improve the health and well-being of employees. We examined how, how broadly, and to what effect the ScoreCard has been applied. METHODS: We analyzed peer-reviewed and grey literature along with the ScoreCard database of online submissions from January 2012 through January 2021. Our inclusion criteria were workplace settings, adult working populations, and explicit use of the ScoreCard. RESULTS: We found that the ScoreCard had been used in 1) surveillance efforts by states, 2) health promotion training and technical assistance, 3) research on workplace health promotion program effectiveness, and 4) employer efforts to improve program design, implementation, and evaluation. CONCLUSION: The ScoreCard has been used as intended to support the development, planning, monitoring, and continuous improvement of workplace health promotion programs. Our review revealed gaps in the tool and opportunities to improve it by 1) enhancing surveillance efforts, 2) engaging employers in low-wage industries, 3) adding new questions or topic areas, and 4) conducting quantitative studies on the relationship between improvements in the ScoreCard and employee health and well-being outcomes.

      7. Respirable crystalline silica is one of the oldest occupational hazards, yet exposures to RCS still cause illness today. Inhalation of RCS is associated with a range of serious illnesses, but it is known primarily for causing silicosis, an incurable and often fatal fibrotic lung disease. Although engineering controls to reduce inhalation of RCS have been known and available for decades, people continue to succumb to its associated health effects. Researchers in the Engineering and Physical Hazards Branch (EPHB), in the Division of Field Studies and Engineering (DFSE) at NIOSH, have extensively studied engineering controls for tasks that produce RCS. In other NIOSH divisions, research on RCS controls also continues to be a priority. Silica, or silicon dioxide (SiO2), can be found in crystalline or amorphous forms. Its most abundant crystalline form is alpha quartz, an extremely common mineral found in sand, gravel, soil, clay, shale, slate, sandstone, granite, calcined diatomaceous earth, portland cement concrete, asphalt pavement, ceramics, brick, tile, masonry, mortar, and other materials. It is frequently found alongside deposits of ores and other resources that are mined, such as coal. We are surrounded by it-we walk on it, drive on it, eat and drink from it, and build with it. Although it can comprise many useful materials, it becomes hazardous after it is pulverized, aerosolized, and inhaled.

      8. Biological effects of inhaled crude oil vapor V. Altered biogenic amine neurotransmitters and neural protein expression
        Sriram K, Lin GX, Jefferson AM, McKinney W, Jackson MC, Cumpston JL, Cumpston JB, Leonard HD, Kashon ML, Fedan JS.
        Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2022 Jun 21;449:116137.
        Workers in the oil and gas industry are at risk for exposure to a number of physical and chemical hazards at the workplace. Chemical hazard risks include inhalation of crude oil or its volatile components. While several studies have investigated the neurotoxic effects of volatile hydrocarbons, in general, there is a paucity of studies assessing the neurotoxicity of crude oil vapor (COV). Consequent to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, there is growing concern about the short- and long-term health effects of exposure to COV. NIOSH surveys suggested that the DWH oil spill cleanup workers experienced neurological symptoms, including depression and mood disorders, but the health effects apart from oil dispersants were difficult to discern. To investigate the potential neurological risks of COV, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to COV (300 ppm; Macondo surrogate crude oil) following an acute (6 h/d × 1 d) or sub-chronic (6 h/d × 4 d/wk. × 4 wks) exposure regimen. At 1, 28 or 90 d post-exposure, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EPI), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were evaluated as neurotransmitter imbalances are associated with psychosocial-, motor- and cognitive- disorders. Sub-chronic COV exposure caused significant reductions in NE, EPI and DA in the dopaminergic brain regions, striatum (STR) and midbrain (MB), and a large increase in 5-HT in the STR. Further, sub-chronic exposure to COV caused upregulation of synaptic and Parkinson's disease-related proteins in the STR and MB. Whether such effects will lead to neurodegenerative outcomes remain to be investigated.

    • Occupational Safety and Health - Mining
      1. A discrete fracture network model for prediction of longwall-induced permeability
        Ajayi KM, Khademian Z, Schatzel SJ, Watkins E, Gangrade V.
        Min Metall Explor. 2022 .
        Longwall-induced deformations could jeopardize the mechanical integrity of shale gas well casings positioned in the abutment pillar of a longwall mine. The in situ and induced fracture networks surrounding the gas well could provide pathways for gas flow into the mine creating safety concerns. Hence, this study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) develops a discrete fracture network (DFN) model to characterize the fractures in the overburden based on geomechanical analyses of mining-induced fracture apertures at a study site in southwestern Pennsylvania. The apertures from the geomechanical model are used to develop a stochastic DFN model of the site in fracture flow code (FFC). Multiple realizations of the stochastic DFN model that replicate potential fracture geometries are simulated, and the fracture permeability is compared with field measurements. A maximum field measurement of 5.03 × 10−12 m2 (5080 mD) and 3.82 × 10−13 m2 (386 mD) was estimated over the abutment pillar at the Sewickley and Uniontown horizon, respectively. The results show that the average permeabilities from the DFN model agree closely with the field measurements. In addition, the comparison of all the field measurements and 100 DFN realizations show the model is representative of field conditions. These findings provide critical information regarding fracture characteristics in the overburden, which will further be used to predict potential shale gas flow to the mine in the event of a casing breach for an unconventional gas well. © 2022, This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply.

      2. Rockmass permeability induced by longwall mining under deep cover: Potential gas inflow from a sheared gas well
        Khademian Z, Ajayi KM, Schatzel SJ, Esterhuizen GS, Kim BH.
        Min Metall Explor. 2022 .
        The stability of shale gas wells drilled through current and future coal reserves can be compromised by ground deformations due to nearby longwall mining. Depending on the longwall-induced rockmass permeability, the high-pressure explosive gas from the damaged well may reach mine workings and overwhelm the mine ventilation systems. This study uses geomechanical models to estimate the rockmass permeability induced by mining. A two-panel longwall model of a deep, 341-m-cover mining site in southwestern Pennsylvania is constructed in 3DEC to explicitly model the rockmass by a discrete fracture network (DFN) technique. Stress-induced fracture apertures and permeabilities are calculated across the model and are validated against permeability measurements. A fracture flow code (FFC) is developed to use these results to predict potential inflow to the mine should a gas well breach occur. One hundred DFN realizations are simulated, and the results show that for a gas pressure of 2.4 MPa, the average of the predicted inflow rates to this deep-cover mine is 0.006 m3/s, significantly lower than the average inflow of 0.22 m3/s for a shallow-cover mine (145-m deep) studied in the previous work (Khademian, et al. 2021). The result can help assess the potential hazards of a shale gas well breach for mine safety and evaluate the ventilation requirements to mitigate the risk. © 2022, This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detecting Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) have been an important tool for malaria diagnosis, especially in resource-limited settings lacking quality microscopy. Plasmodium falciparum parasites with deletion of the pfhrp2 gene encoding this antigen have now been identified in dozens of countries across Asia, Africa, and South America, with new reports revealing a high prevalence of deletions in some selected regions. To determine whether HRP2-based RDTs are appropriate for continued use in a locality, focused surveys and/or surveillance activities of the endemic P. falciparum population are needed. Various survey and laboratory methods have been used to determine parasite HRP2 phenotype and pfhrp2 genotype, and the data collected by these different methods need to be interpreted in the appropriate context of survey and assay utilized. Expression of the HRP2 antigen can be evaluated using point-of-care RDTs or laboratory-based immunoassays, but confirmation of a deletion (or mutation) of pfhrp2 requires more intensive laboratory molecular assays, and new tools and strategies for rigorous but practical data collection are particularly needed for large surveys. Because malaria diagnostic strategies are typically developed at the national level, nationally representative surveys and/or surveillance that encompass broad geographical areas and large populations may be required. Here is discussed contemporary assays for the phenotypic and genotypic evaluation of P. falciparum HRP2 status, consider their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight key concepts relevant to timely and resource-conscious workflows required for efficient diagnostic policy decision making.

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      1. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, other U.S. government departments and agencies, the private sector, and international partners have engaged in real-time public health response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Vaccination, variants, and vigilance were themes that arose in the second year of pandemic response in the United States. The findings included in this supplement emerged from these themes and represent some of the many collaborative partnership efforts to improve public health knowledge and action to reduce transmission, infection, and disease severity.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Factors associated with exchange sex among cisgender persons who inject drugs: Women and MSM-23 U.S. cities, 2018
        Rushmore J, Buchacz K, Broz D, Agnew-Brune CB, Jones ML, Cha S.
        AIDS Behav. 2022 Jun 25.
        Persons who inject drugs (PWID) and exchange sex face disproportionate HIV rates. We assessed prevalence of exchange sex (receiving money/drugs for sex from ≥ 1 male partner(s) during the past year) among cisgender PWID, separately for women and men with a history of sex with men (MSM). We examined factors associated with exchange sex, including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and healthcare access/utilization. Over one-third of the 4657 participants reported exchange sex (women: 36.2%; MSM: 34.8%). Women who exchanged sex (WES) were significantly more likely to test HIV-positive than other women. Men who exchanged sex with men (MESM) showed a similar trend. WES and MESM shared many characteristics, including being uninsured, experiencing recent homelessness, condomless sex, polydrug use, and receptive/distributive needle sharing. These findings highlight a need to strengthen prevention interventions and address structural determinants of HIV for WES and MESM, particularly PWID who exchange sex.

      2. Vaccination barriers and opportunities at syringe services programs in the United States, June-August 2021-A cross-sectional survey
        Montgomery MP, Zhong Y, Roberts E, Asher A, Bixler D, Doshani M, Christensen A, Eckert M, Weng MK, Carry M, Samuel CR, Teshale EH.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2022 Jun 16;237:109540.
        BACKGROUND: Syringe services programs (SSPs) are an important venue for reaching people who inject drugs (PWID) to offer preventive services; however, not all SSPs offer vaccinations. We aimed to describe barriers and opportunities for SSPs to offer vaccinations. METHODS: During June-August 2021, we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of SSP providers in the United States. SSPs were recruited from national listservs using purposive sampling to ensure geographic diversity. The survey included questions about SSP characteristics, client demographics, existing vaccination resources, resource needs, and staff perspectives on client vaccination barriers. Statistical comparisons were made using Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS: In total, 105 SSPs from 34 states responded to the survey; 46 SSPs (43.8%) offered on-site vaccinations. SSPs without on-site vaccinations were more likely operated by community-based organizations (81.4% vs 30.4%, p < 0.001) in urban areas (71.4% vs 40.0%, p = 0.002) than SSPs offering on-site vaccinations. The most common staffing need was for personnel licensed to administer vaccines (74/98, 75.5%). Over half of SSPs reported vaccine supply, administration supplies, storage equipment, and systems to follow-up clients for multidose series as important resource needs. The most common resource need was for reminder/recall systems for vaccines with multidose series (75/92, 81.5%). Vaccine safety concerns (92/95, 96.8%) and competing priorities (92/96, 95.8%) were the most common staff-reported client barriers to vaccinations. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing missed opportunities for offering vaccinations to PWID who use SSPs will require increased numbers of on-site personnel licensed to administer vaccines and additional training, vaccination supplies, and storage and handling equipment.

      3. Prevalence and types of drugs used among hepatitis A patients during outbreaks associated with person-to-person transmission, Kentucky, Michigan, and West Virginia, 2016-2019
        Hofmeister MG, Asher A, Jones CM, Augustine RJ, Burkholder C, Collins J, Foster MA, McBee S, Thoroughman D, Thomasson ED, Weng MK, Spradling PR.
        J Appalach Health. 2022 ;4(1):51-60.
        BACKGROUND: People who use drugs are at increased risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Since 1996, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended hepatitis A vaccination for people who use drugs. Since 2016, the U.S. has experienced widespread hepatitis A outbreaks associated with person-to-person transmission. PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of drug use, route of use, and drugs used among hepatitis A outbreak-associated patients. METHODS: State outbreak and medical records were reviewed to describe the prevalence, type, and route of drug use among a random sample of 812 adult outbreak-associated hepatitis A patients from Kentucky, Michigan, and West Virginia during 2016-2019. Differences in drug-use status were analyzed by demographic and risk-factor characteristics using the X (2) test. RESULTS: Among all patients, residents of Kentucky (55.6%), Michigan (51.1%), and West Virginia (60.1%) reported any drug use, respectively. Among patients that reported any drug use, methamphetamine was the most frequently reported drug used in Kentucky (42.3%) and West Virginia (42.1%); however, opioids were the most frequently reported drug used in Michigan (46.8%). Hepatitis A patients with documented drug use were more likely (p<0.05) to be experiencing homelessness/unstable housing, have been currently or recently incarcerated, and be aged 18-39 years compared to those patients without documented drug use. IMPLICATIONS: Drug use was prevalent among person-to-person hepatitis A outbreak-associated patients, and more likely among younger patients and patients experiencing homelessness or incarceration. Increased hepatitis A vaccination coverage is critical to prevent similar outbreaks in the future.

    • Telehealth and Telemedicine
      1. Positive Health Check intervention tool usage during a feasibility pilot in HIV primary care clinics
        Galindo CA, Freeman A, Abdallah I, Courtenay-Quirk C.
        AIDS Care. 2022 Jun 28:1-6.
        Positive Health Check (PHC), an interactive, web-based intervention, provides tailored behavioral health messages to support people with HIV in their HIV care. Users interact with a virtual doctor and based on responses to tailoring questions, PHC delivers relevant content modules addressing treatment initiation, medication adherence, retention in care, sexual risk reduction, mother-to-child transmission, and injection drug use. During a one-month feasibility pilot of PHC, patients in four HIV primary care clinics were invited to use PHC and tool usage metrics were collected and assessed. Descriptive analyses were conducted to characterize how the tool was used based on behavioral risk scenarios presented.Ninety-seven patients accessed PHC as part of the pilot, with 68 (70.1%) completing the intervention on average in 15 min. Out of 85 patients who viewed behavioral tips and commitments, 66 (77.7%) selected at least one tip to practice and 41 (48.2%) made at least one commitment to ask their provider a question. Patients spent the most time with adherence and sexual risk reduction content. The high level of tool engagement suggests that PHC was acceptable to patients regardless of length of time since diagnosis. PHC can be completed within a single visit and is a promising tool for PWH.

      2. Telehealth expansion during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond
        Demeke HB, Umeakunne E.
        Am J Nurs. 2022 Jul 1;122(7):23-25.
        Information and resources for health care providers.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. The Borrelia genus comprises vector-borne, spirochete bacteria infecting vertebrates worldwide. We characterized a novel relapsing fever Borrelia species from a desert cottontail (Syvilagus audubonii) from New Mexico, United States, using an established multilocus sequence analysis approach. Phylogenetic analysis of the flagellin gene (flaB) and four other protein-coding loci (clpX, pepX, recG, rplB) grouped the novel Borrelia species with hard tick relapsing fever borreliae Borrelia lonestari, Borrelia theileri, and Borrelia miyamotoi. The identity of the vectors and other vertebrate hosts, geographic distribution, and zoonotic potential of this novel Borrelia species deserve further investigation.

      2. Ecological and experimental infection studies have identified Egyptian rousette bats (ERBs; Rousettus aegyptiacus: family Pteropodidae) as a reservoir host for the zoonotic rubula-like paramyxovirus Sosuga virus (SOSV). A serial sacrifice study of colony-bred ERBs inoculated with wild-type, recombinant SOSV identified small intestines and salivary gland as major sites of viral replication. In the current study, archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from the serial sacrifice study were analyzed in depth-histologically and immunohistochemically, for SOSV, mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. Histopathologic lesion scores increased over time and viral antigen persisted in a subset of tissues, indicating ongoing host responses and underscoring the possibility of chronic infection. Despite the presence of SOSV NP antigen and villus ulcerations in the small intestines, there were only mild increases in mononuclear phagocytes and T cells, a host response aligned with disease tolerance. In contrast, there was a statistically significant, robust and targeted mononuclear phagocyte cell responses in the salivary glands at 21 DPI, where viral antigen was sparse. These findings may have broader implications for chiropteran-paramyxovirus interactions, as bats are hypothesized to be the ancestral hosts of this diverse virus family and for ERB immunology in general, as this species is also the reservoir host for the marburgviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV) (family Filoviridae).

DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: July 12, 2022, 12:00 AM