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Issue 22, May 31, 2022

CDC Science Clips: Volume 14, Issue 22, May 31, 2022

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention score to track social and mainstream media mentions.

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
    Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from the last 3 to 6 months of published literature. Key topic coincides monthly with other CDC products (e.g. Vital Signs).
    • Addressing Childhood Adversity in Violence Prevention Programs
      1. Building infrastructure for surveillance of adverse and positive childhood experiences: Integrated, multimethod approaches to generate data for prevention action
        Anderson KN, Swedo EA, Clayton HB, Niolon PH, Shelby D, McDavid Harrison K.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jun;62(6s1):S31-s39.
        Adverse and positive childhood experiences have a profound impact on lifespan health and well-being. However, their incorporation into ongoing population-based surveillance systems has been limited. This paper outlines critical steps in building a comprehensive approach to adverse and positive childhood experiences surveillance, provides examples from the Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences: Data to Action cooperative agreement, and describes improvements needed to optimize surveillance data for action. Components of a comprehensive approach to adverse and positive childhood experiences surveillance include revisiting definitions and measurement, including generating and using uniform definitions for adverse and positive childhood experiences across data collection efforts; conducting youth-based surveillance of adverse and positive childhood experiences; using innovative methods to gather and analyze near real-time data; leveraging available data, including from administrative sources; and integrating data on community- and societal-level risk and protective factors for adverse childhood experiences, including social and health inequities such as racism and poverty, as well as policies and conditions that create healthy environments for children and families. Comprehensive surveillance data on adverse and positive childhood experiences can inform data-driven prevention and intervention efforts, including focusing prevention programming and services to populations in greatest need. Data can be used to evaluate progress in reducing the occurrence of adverse childhood experiences and bolstering the occurrence of positive childhood experiences. Through expansion and improvement in adverse and positive childhood experiences surveillance-including at federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local levels-data-driven action can reduce children's exposure to violence and other adversities and improve lifelong health and well-being.

      2. Centers for disease control and prevention investments in adverse childhood experience prevention efforts
        Gervin DW, Holland KM, Ottley PG, Holmes GM, Niolon PH, Mercy JA.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jun;62(6s1):S1-s5.

      3. Leveraging surveillance and evidence: Preventing adverse childhood experiences through data to action
        Guinn AS, Ottley PG, Anderson KN, Oginga ML, Gervin DW, Holmes GM.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jun;62(6s1):S24-s30.
        Adverse childhood experiences are potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood that have been associated with lifelong chronic health problems, mental illness, substance misuse, and decreased life opportunities. Therefore, preventing adverse childhood experiences is critical to improving health and socioeconomic outcomes throughout the lifespan. The Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences: Data to Action (CDC-RFA-CE20-2006) funding initiative is a comprehensive public health approach to adverse childhood experience prevention that aims to understand the prevalence of and risk factors for adverse childhood experiences among youth, track changes in adverse childhood experience prevalence over time, focus prevention strategies, and ultimately measure the success of those evidence-based prevention strategies. Recipients will achieve the goals of the initiative by leveraging multisector partnerships and resources to: (1) enhance and build infrastructure for state-level data collection, analysis, and application of adverse childhood experiences related surveillance data; (2) implement at least 2 prevention strategies based on the best available evidence to prevent adverse childhood experiences; and (3) undertake data to action activities to leverage statewide surveillance data to inform and tailor adverse childhood experience prevention activities. Since the start of this initiative, recipients have focused on building surveillance capacity based on the needs of their individual states; implementing strategies and approaches based on the best available evidence to better prevent adverse childhood experiences; and ultimately improve the mental, physical, and social well-being of their populations. Although evaluation of Preventing Adverse Childhood Experiences: Data to Action is ongoing, this article outlines the current recipient surveillance, prevention, and data-to-action implementation efforts.

      4. Preventing adverse childhood experiences: The role of etiological, evaluation, and implementation research
        Matjasko JL, Herbst JH, Estefan LF.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jun;62(6s1):S6-s15.
        Research on adverse childhood experiences is a vital part of the data-to-action link and the development of evidence-based public health and violence prevention practice. Etiological research helps to elucidate the key risk and protective factors for adverse childhood experiences and outcome research examines the consequences of exposure to them. Evaluation research is critical to building the evidence base for strategies that are likely to have a significant impact on preventing and reducing adverse experiences during childhood. Implementation research efforts inform the movement and scale-up of evidence-based findings to public health practice. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Violence Prevention located in the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control is investing in a number of research initiatives that are designed to advance what is known about the causes and consequences of adverse childhood experiences (i.e., etiological research), the strategies that are effective at reducing and preventing them (i.e., evaluation research), and how to best adapt and scale effective strategies (i.e., implementation research). This article complements the other articles in this Special Supplement by briefly providing a review of reviews for each of these areas and highlighting recent research investments and strategic directions by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the area of child abuse and neglect and adverse childhood experience prevention. Research investments are critical to advancing the evidence base on the prevention of adverse childhood experiences and to ensure safe, stable, and nurturing relationships and environments so that all children can live to their fullest potential.

      5. Preventing childhood adversity through economic support and social norm strategies
        Ottley PG, Barranco LS, Freire KE, Meehan AA, Shiver AJ, Lumpkin CD, Gervin DW, Holmes GM.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jun;62(6s1):S16-s23.
        Through the Essentials for Childhood program, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funds 7 state health departments (states) to address the urgent public health problem of adverse childhood experiences and child abuse and neglect, in particular. Through interviews and document reviews, the paper highlights the early implementation of 2 primary prevention strategies from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's child abuse and neglect technical package with the greatest potential for broad public health impact to prevent adverse childhood experiences-strengthening economic supports and changing social norms. States are focused on advancing family-friendly work policies such as paid family and medical leave, livable wage policies, flexible and consistent work schedules, as well as programs and policies that strengthen household financial security such as increasing access to Earned Income Tax Credit. In addition, states are launching campaigns that focus on reframing the way people think about child abuse and neglect and who is responsible for preventing it. State-level activities such as establishing a diverse coalition of partners, program champions, and state action planning have helped to leverage and align resources needed to implement, evaluate, and sustain programs. States are working to increase awareness and commitment to multisector efforts that reduce adverse childhood experiences and promote safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments for children. Early learning from this funding opportunity indicates that using a public health approach, states are well positioned to implement comprehensive, primary prevention strategies and approaches to ensure population-level impact for preventing child abuse and neglect and other adverse childhood experience.

      6. Adverse childhood experiences and overdose: Lessons from overdose data to action
        Wisdom AC, Govindu M, Liu SJ, Meyers CM, Mellerson JL, Gervin DW, DePadilla L, Holland KM.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jun;62(6s1):S40-s46.
        INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences and overdose are linked in a cycle that affects individuals and communities across generations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Overdose Data to Action cooperative agreement supports a comprehensive public health approach to overdose prevention and response activities across the U.S. Exposure to traumatic events during childhood can increase the risk for myriad health outcomes, including overdose; therefore, many Overdose Data to Action recipients leveraged funds to address adverse childhood experiences. METHODS: In 2021, an inventory of Overdose Data to Action‒funded activities implemented in 2019 and 2020 showed that 34 of the 66 recipients proposed overdose prevention activities that support people who have experienced adverse childhood experiences or that focus on preventing the intergenerational transmission of adverse childhood experiences. Activities were coded by adverse childhood experience prevention strategy, level of the social ecology, and whether they focused on neonatal abstinence syndrome. RESULTS: Most activities among Overdose Data to Action recipients occurred at the community level of the social‒ecologic model and under the intervene to lessen harms adverse childhood experience prevention strategy. Of the 84 adverse childhood experience‒related activities taking place across 34 jurisdictions, 44 are focused on neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Study results highlight the opportunities to expand the breadth of adverse childhood experience prevention strategies across the social ecology. Implementing cross-cutting overdose and adverse childhood experience‒related activities that span the social‒ecologic model are critical for population-level change and have the potential for the broadest impact. Focusing on neonatal abstinence syndrome also offers a unique intervention opportunity for both adverse childhood experience and overdose prevention.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. PURPOSE: Within the context of local increases in US heart disease death rates, we estimated when increasing heart disease death rates began by county among adults aged 35-64 years and characterized geographic variation. METHODS: We applied Bayesian spatiotemporal models to vital statistics data to estimate the timing (i.e., the year) of increasing county-level heart disease death rates during 1999-2019 among adults aged 35-64 years. To examine geographic variation, we stratified results by US Census region and urban-rural classification. RESULTS: The onset of increasing heart disease death rates among adults aged 35-64 years spanned the two-decade study period from 1999 through 2019. Overall, 43.5% (95% CI: 41.3, 45.6) of counties began increasing before 2011, with early increases more prevalent outside of the most urban counties and outside of the Northeast. Roughly one-in-five (18.4% [95% CI: 15.6, 20.7]) counties continued to decline throughout the study period. CONCLUSIONS: This variation suggests that factors associated with these geographic classifications may be critical in establishing the timing of changing trends in heart disease death rates. These results reinforce the importance of spatiotemporal surveillance in the early identification of adverse trends and in informing opportunities for tailored policies and programs.

      2. Factors that support sustainability of health systems change to increase colorectal cancer screening in primary care clinics: A longitudinal qualitative study
        Schlueter D, DeGroff A, Soloe C, Arena L, Melillo S, Tangka F, Hoover S, Subramanian S.
        Health Promot Pract. 2022 May 18:15248399221091999.
        BACKGROUND: From 2015 to 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) supported 30 awardees in partnering with primary care clinics to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) and supporting activities (SAs) to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. This study identified factors that facilitated early implementation and sustainability within partner clinics. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal qualitative case studies of four CRCCP awardees and four of their partner clinics. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to frame understanding of factors related to implementation and sustainability. A total of 41 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key staff and stakeholders exploring implementation practices and facilitators to sustainability. Qualitative thematic analysis of interview transcripts identified emerging themes across awardees and clinics. RESULTS: Qualitative themes related to six CFIR inner setting constructs-structural characteristics, readiness for implementation, networks and communication, culture, and implementation climate-were identified. Themes related to early implementation included conducting readiness assessments to tailor implementation, providing moderate funding to clinics, identifying clinic champions, and coordinating EBIs and SAs with existing clinic practices. Themes related to sustainability included the importance of ongoing electronic health record (EHR) support, clinic leadership support, team-based care, and EBI and SA integration with clinic policies, workflows, and procedures. IMPLICATIONS: Findings help to inform future scale-up of and decision-making within CRC screening programs and other chronic disease prevention programs implementing EBIs and SAs within primary care clinics and also highlight factors that maximize sustainability within these programs.

      3. Clinician knowledge and practices related to a patient history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
        Ford ND, Robbins CL, Nandi N, Hayes DK, Loustalot F, Kuklina E, Ko JY.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2022 May 1;139(5):898-906.
        OBJECTIVE: To describe clinician screening practices for prior hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, knowledge of future risks associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, barriers and facilitators to referrals for cardiovascular disease risk evaluation in women with prior hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and variation by clinician- and practice-level characteristics. METHODS: We used data from Fall DocStyles 2020, a cross-sectional, web-based panel survey of currently practicing U.S. clinicians. Of 2,231 primary care physicians, obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns), nurse practitioners, and physician assistants invited to participate, 67.3% (n=1,502) completed the survey. We calculated the prevalence of screening, knowledge of future risks, and barriers and facilitators to referrals, and assessed differences by clinician type using χ2 tests. We evaluated associations between clinician- and practice-level characteristics and not screening using a multivariable log-binomial model. RESULTS: Overall, 73.6% of clinicians screened patients for a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; ob-gyns reported the highest rate of screening (94.8%). Overall, 24.8% of clinicians correctly identified all cardiovascular risks associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy listed in the survey. Lack of patient follow-through (51.5%) and patient refusal (33.6%) were the most frequently cited barriers to referral. More referral options (42.9%), patient education materials (36.2%), and professional guidelines (34.1%) were the most frequently cited resources needed to facilitate referrals. In the multivariable model, primary care physicians and nurse practitioners, as well as physician assistants, were more likely than ob-gyns to report not screening (adjusted prevalence ratio 5.54, 95% CI 3.24-9.50, and adjusted prevalence ratio 7.42, 95% CI 4.27-12.88, respectively). Clinicians seeing fewer than 80 patients per week (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.81, 95% CI 1.43-2.28) were more likely to not screen relative to those seeing 110 or more patients per week. CONCLUSION: Three quarters of clinicians reported screening for a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; however, only one out of four clinicians correctly identified all of the cardiovascular risks associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy listed in the survey.

      4. Plasma levels of carboxylic acids are markers of early kidney dysfunction in young people with type 1 diabetes
        Vigers T, Vinovskis C, Li LP, Prasad P, Heerspink H, D'Alessandro A, Reisz JA, Piani F, Cherney DZ, van Raalte DH, Nadeau KJ, Pavkov ME, Nelson RG, Pyle L, Bjornstad P.
        Pediatr Nephrol. 2022 May 4.
        BACKGROUND: We compared plasma metabolites of amino acid oxidation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in youth with and without type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and related the metabolites to glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), and albuminuria. Metabolites associated with impaired kidney function may warrant future study as potential biomarkers or even future interventions to improve kidney bioenergetics. METHODS: Metabolomic profiling of fasting plasma samples using a targeted panel of 644 metabolites and an untargeted panel of 19,777 metabolites was performed in 50 youth with T1DM ≤ 10 years and 20 controls. GFR and RPF were ascertained by iohexol and p-aminohippurate clearance, and albuminuria calculated as urine albumin to creatinine ratio. Sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis and moderated t tests were used to identify metabolites associated with GFR and RPF. RESULTS: Adolescents with and without T1DM were similar in age (16.1 ± 3.0 vs. 16.1 ± 2.9 years) and BMI (23.4 ± 5.1 vs. 22.7 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)), but those with T1DM had higher GFR (189 ± 40 vs. 136 ± 22 ml/min) and RPF (820 ± 125 vs. 615 ± 65 ml/min). Metabolites of amino acid oxidation and the TCA cycle were significantly lower in adolescents with T1DM vs. controls, and the measured metabolites were able to discriminate diabetes status with an AUC of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.93) and error rate of 0.21. Lower glycine (r:-0.33, q = 0.01), histidine (r:-0.45, q < 0.001), methionine (r: -0.29, q = 0.02), phenylalanine (r: -0.29, q = 0.01), serine (r: -0.42, q < 0.001), threonine (r: -0.28, q = 0.02), citrate (r: -0.35, q = 0.003), fumarate (r: -0.24, q = 0.04), and malate (r: -0.29, q = 0.02) correlated with higher GFR. Lower glycine (r: -0.28, q = 0.04), phenylalanine (r:-0.3, q = 0.03), fumarate (r: -0.29, q = 0.04), and malate (r: -0.5, q < 0.001) correlated with higher RPF. Lower histidine (r: -0.28, q = 0.02) was correlated with higher mean ACR. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, adolescents with relatively short T1DM duration exhibited lower plasma levels of carboxylic acids that associated with hyperfiltration and hyperperfusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03618420 and NCT03584217 A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.

      5. Development of a field guide for assessing readiness to implement evidence-based cancer screening interventions in primary care clinics
        Hohl SD, Melillo S, Vu TT, Escoffery C, DeGroff A, Schlueter D, Ross LW, Maxwell AE, Sharma KP, Boehm J, Joseph D, Hannon PA.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2022 May 12;19:E25.
        Evidence-based interventions, including provider assessment and feedback, provider reminders, patient reminders, and reduction of structural barriers, improve colorectal cancer screening rates. Assessing primary care clinics' readiness to implement these interventions can help clinics use strengths, identify barriers, and plan for success. However, clinics may lack tools to assess readiness and use findings to plan for successful implementation. To address this need, we developed the Field Guide for Assessing Readiness to Implement Evidence-Based Cancer Screening Interventions (Field Guide) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP). We conducted a literature review of evidence and existing tools to measure implementation readiness, reviewed readiness tools from selected CRCCP award recipients (n = 35), and conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants (n = 8). We sought feedback from CDC staff and recipients to inform the final document. The Field Guide, which is publicly available online, outlines 4 assessment phases: 1) convene team members and determine assessment activities, 2) design and administer the readiness assessment, 3) evaluate assessment data, and 4) develop an implementation plan. Assessment activities and tools are included to facilitate completion of each phase. The Field Guide integrates implementation science and practical experience into a relevant tool to bolster clinic capacity for implementation, increase potential for intervention sustainability, and improve colorectal cancer screening rates, with a focus on patients served in safety net clinic settings. Although this tool was developed for use in primary care clinics for cancer screening, the Field Guide may have broader application for clinics and their partners for other chronic diseases.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Sexually transmitted infections and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate do not impact protection from simian HIV acquisition by long-acting cabotegravir in macaques
        Vishwanathan SA, Zhao C, Luthra R, Khalil GK, Morris MM, Dinh C, Gary MJ, Mitchell J, Spreen WR, Pereira LE, Heneine W, García-Lerma JG, McNicholl JM.
        AIDS. 2022 Feb 1;36(2):169-176.
        OBJECTIVE: We had previously shown that long-acting cabotegravir (CAB-LA) injections fully protected macaques from vaginal simian HIV (SHIV) infection. Here, we reassessed CAB-LA efficacy in the presence of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and multiple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that are known to increase HIV susceptibility in women. DESIGN: Two macaque models of increasing vaginal STI severity were used for efficacy assessment. METHODS: The first study (n = 11) used a double STI model that had repeated exposures to two vaginal STI, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Six animals were CAB-LA treated and five were controls. The second study (n = 9) included a triple STI model with repeated exposures to C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis and syphilis, and the contraceptive, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Six animals were CAB-LA treated and three were controls. All animals received up to 14 vaginal SHIV challenges. A survival analysis was performed to compare the number of SHIV challenges to infection in the drug-treated group compared with untreated controls over time. RESULTS: All six CAB-LA treated animals in both models, the double STI or the triple STI-DMPA model, remained protected after 14 SHIV vaginal challenges, while the untreated animals became SHIV-infected after a median of two challenges (log-rank P < 0.001) or one challenge (log-rank P = 0.002), respectively. Both models recapitulated human STI disease, with vaginal discharge, ulcers, and seroconversion. CONCLUSION: In these high and sustained susceptibility models spanning more than 3 months, CAB-LA maintained complete efficacy, demonstrating robustness of the CAB-LA dose used in clinical trials, and suggesting its insensitivity to multiple STIs and DMPA.

      2. Hantavirus disease and COVID-19
        Joyce AK, Oliver TT, Kofman AD, Talker DL, Safaeian S, Peker Barclift D, Perricone AJ, D'Andrea SM, Whitesell AN, Yazzie D, Guarner J, Saleki M, Ingall GB, Choi MJ, Antone-Nez R.
        Am J Clin Pathol. 2022 Mar 3;157(3):470-475.
        OBJECTIVES: Navajo Nation is disproportionately affected by hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), a severe respiratory disease that can quickly progress to respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The initial signs and symptoms of HCPS are indistinguishable from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, this distinction is critical, as the disease course differs greatly, with most patients with COVID-19 experiencing mild to moderate illness. We set out to determine if the evaluation of peripheral blood smears for five hematopathologic criteria previously identified as hallmarks of hantavirus infection, or "the hantavirus 5-point screen," could distinguish between COVID-19 and HCPS. METHODS: The hantavirus 5-point screen was performed on peripheral blood smears from 139 patients positive for COVID-19 seeking treatment from Tséhootsooí Medical Center and two Emory University hospitals. RESULTS: Of these 139 individuals, 136 (98%) received a score of 3/5 or below, indicating low suspicion for HCPS. While thrombocytopenia, one of the key signs of HCPS, was seen in the patients with COVID-19, it was generally mild and remained stable on repeat specimens collected 12 to 24 hours later. CONCLUSIONS: Given these findings, the 5-point screen remains a useful rapid screening tool for potential HCPS cases and may be useful to distinguish early HCPS from COVID-19 in HCPS endemic regions.

      3. Characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized pregnant women with influenza, 2010 to 2019 : A repeated cross-sectional study
        Holstein R, Dawood FS, O'Halloran A, Cummings C, Ujamaa D, Daily Kirley P, Yousey-Hindes K, Fawcett E, Monroe ML, Kim S, Lynfield R, McMullen C, Muse A, Bennett NM, Billing LM, Sutton M, Thomas A, Talbot HK, Schaffner W, Risk I, Reed C, Garg S.
        Ann Intern Med. 2022 Feb;175(2):149-158.
        BACKGROUND: Pregnant women may be at increased risk for severe influenza-associated outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized pregnant women with influenza. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional study. SETTING: The population-based U.S. Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network during the 2010-2011 through 2018-2019 influenza seasons. PATIENTS: Pregnant women (aged 15 to 44 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza identified through provider-initiated or facility-based testing practices. MEASUREMENTS: Clinical characteristics, interventions, and in-hospital maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained through medical chart abstraction. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between influenza A subtype and severe maternal influenza-associated outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or in-hospital death. RESULTS: Of 9652 women aged 15 to 44 years and hospitalized with influenza, 2690 (27.9%) were pregnant. Among the 2690 pregnant women, the median age was 28 years, 62% were in their third trimester, and 42% had at least 1 underlying condition. Overall, 32% were vaccinated against influenza and 88% received antiviral treatment. Five percent required ICU admission, 2% required mechanical ventilation, and 0.3% (n = 8) died. Pregnant women with influenza A H1N1 were more likely to have severe outcomes than those with influenza A H3N2 (adjusted risk ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.3 to 2.8]). Most women (71%) were still pregnant at hospital discharge. Among 754 women who were no longer pregnant at discharge, 96% had a pregnancy resulting in live birth, and 3% experienced fetal loss. LIMITATION: Maternal and fetal outcomes that occurred after hospital discharge were not captured. CONCLUSION: Over 9 influenza seasons, one third of reproductive-aged women hospitalized with influenza were pregnant. Influenza A H1N1 was associated with more severe maternal outcomes. Pregnant women remain a high-priority target group for vaccination. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      4. Characteristics and treatment response of patients with HIV associated Kaposi’s sarcoma in Central Kenya
        McLigeyo A, Owuor K, Ng’ang’a E, Mwangi J, Wekesa P.
        HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2022 ;14:207-215.
        Introduction: Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in Sub Saharan Africa. In 2018, it was the 7th most common cancer and the 10th most common cause of cancer death in Kenya. This study aimed to describe the baseline and clinical characteristics and treatment response observed following combined antiretroviral treatment (ART) and chemotherapy in KS patients. Methods: This was a descriptive analysis of patients aged ≥15 years treated for KS and HIV at 11 treatment hubs in Central Kenya between 2011 and 2014. Data on baseline and clinical characteristics, ART and chemotherapy regimens as well as treatment responses were collected from patient files and KS registers. Results: A total of 95 patients presenting with clinically suspected KS with no history of prior treatment with chemotherapy were reviewed. All had histological diagnostic samples taken with 67 (71%) having confirmed KS. All were on ART, either newly initiated or continuing on ART, and 63 of the 67 (94.0%) confirmed to have KS received chemotherapy. Among the 67 patients with confirmed KS, mean age was 37.2 years (± 13.2) and 40 (59.7%) were male. More than 80% had normal baseline and follow-up BMI, and 34 (50.7%) were on a TDF-based regimen, 52 (77.6%) were treated with the Adriamycin, bleomycin and vinblastine protocol, and 55 (82.1%) had KS diagnosis before HIV diagnosis. All 67 patients had mucocutaneous lesions. Complete, partial response and stable disease occurred in 27 (40.3%), 10 (14.9%) and 7 (10.4%), respectively, 11 (16.4%) defaulted care during treatment, six patients died during treatment, four patients died before treatment while two patients had progressive disease during chemotherapy. Conclusion: The diagnosis of KS preceded HIV in the majority of cases reviewed, with histology helpful to reduce misdiagnosis. Patients generally complied with their chemotherapy, with overall good response rate for this intervention implemented at primary health-care facilities. © 2022 McLigeyo et al.

      5. A longitudinal mixed-methods examination of Positive Health Check: Implementation results from a type 1 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial
        Garner BR, Burrus O, Ortiz A, Tueller SJ, Peinado S, Hedrick H, Harshbarger C, Galindo C, Courtenay-Quirk C, Lewis MA.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2022 May 18.
        BACKGROUND: Positive Health Check (PHC) is an evidenced-based video doctor intervention developed for improving the medication adherence, retention in care, and viral load suppression of people with HIV receiving clinical care. SETTING: Four HIV primary care clinics within the United States. METHODS: As part of a type 1 hybrid trial, a mixed-methods approach was used to longitudinally assess the following 3 key implementation constructs over a 23-month period: innovation-values fit (ie, the extent to which staff perceive innovation use will foster the fulfillment of their values), organizational readiness for change (ie, the extent to which organizational members are psychologically and behaviorally prepared to implement organizational change), and implementation climate (ie, the extent to which implementation is expected, supported, and rewarded). Quantitative mixed-effects regression analyses were conducted to assess changes over time in these constructs. Qualitative analyses were integrated to help provide validation and understanding. RESULTS: Innovation-values fit and organizational readiness for change were found to be high and relatively stable. However, significant curvilinear change over time was found for implementation climate. Based on the qualitative data, implementation climate declined toward the end of implementation due to decreased engagement from clinic champions and differences in priorities between research and clinic staff. CONCLUSIONS: The PHC intervention was found to fit within HIV primary care service settings, but there were some logistical challenges that needed to be addressed. Additionally, even within the context of an effectiveness trial, significant and nonlinear change in implementation climate should be expected over time.

      6. Modeling clinical trajectory status of critically ill COVID-19 patients over time: A method for analyzing discrete longitudinal and ordinal outcomes
        Ward MJ, Douin DJ, Gong W, Ginde AA, Hough CL, Exline MC, Tenforde MW, Stubblefield WB, Steingrub JS, Prekker ME, Khan A, Files DC, Gibbs KW, Rice TW, Casey JD, Henning DJ, Wilson JG, Brown SM, Patel MM, Self WH, Lindsell CJ.
        J Clin Transl Sci. 2022 .
        Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization stressed the importance of daily clinical assessments of infected patients, yet current approaches frequently consider cross sectional timepoints, cumulative summary measures, or time-To-event analyses. Statistical methods are available that make use of the rich information content of longitudinal assessments. We demonstrate use of a multi-state transition model to assess the dynamic nature of COVID-19-associated critical illness using daily evaluations of COVID-19 patients from 9 academic hospitals. We describe the accessibility and utility of methods that consider the clinical trajectory of critically ill COVID-19 patients. © 2022 Cambridge University Press. All rights reserved.

      7. Efficacy of dental evacuation systems for aerosol exposure mitigation in dental clinic settings
        Blackley BH, Anderson KR, Panagakos F, Chipps T, Virji MA.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2022 Apr 6:1-14.
        Dental personnel are ranked among the highest risk occupations for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 due to their close proximity to the patient's mouth and many aerosol generating procedures encountered in dental practice. One method to reduce aerosols in dental settings is the use of intraoral evacuation systems. Intraoral evacuation systems are placed directly into a patient's mouth and maintain a dry field during procedures by capturing liquid and aerosols. Although multiple intraoral dental evacuation systems are commercially available, the efficacy of these systems is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of four dental evacuation systems at mitigating aerosol exposures during simulated ultrasonic scaling and crown preparation procedures. We conducted real-time respirable (PM(4)) and thoracic (PM(10)) aerosol sampling during ultrasonic scaling and crown preparation procedures while using four commercially available evacuation systems: a high-volume evacuator (HVE) and three alternative intraoral systems (A, B, C). Four trials were conducted for each system. Respirable and thoracic mass concentrations were measured during procedures at three locations including (1) near the breathing zone (BZ) of the dentist, (2) edge of the dental operatory room approximately 0.9 m away from the mannequin mouth, and (3) hallway supply cabinet located approximately 1.5 m away from the mannequin mouth. Respirable and thoracic mass concentrations measured during each procedure were compared with background concentrations measured in each respective location. Use of System A or HVE reduced thoracic (System A) and respirable (HVE) mass concentrations near the dentist's BZ to median background concentrations most often during the ultrasonic scaling procedure. During the crown preparation, use of System B or HVE reduced thoracic (System B) and respirable (HVE or System B) near the dentist's BZ to median background concentrations most often. Although some differences in efficacy were noted during each procedure and aerosol size fraction, the difference in median mass concentrations among evacuation systems was minimal, ranging from 0.01 to 1.48 µg/m(3) across both procedures and aerosol size fractions.

      8. Determining the lower limit of detection required for HCV viral load assay for test of cure following direct-acting antiviral-based treatment regimens: Evidence from a global data set
        Morgan JR, Marsh E, Savinkina A, Shilton S, Shadaker S, Tsertsvadze T, Kamkamidze G, Alkhazashvili M, Morgan T, Belperio P, Backus L, Doss W, Esmat G, Hassany M, Elsharkawy A, Elakel W, Mehrez M, Foster GR, Wose Kinge C, Chew KW, Chasela CS, Sanne IM, Thanung YM, Loarec A, Aslam K, Balkan S, Easterbrook PJ, Linas BP.
        J Viral Hepat. 2022 Jun;29(6):474-486.
        Achieving global elimination of hepatitis C virus requires a substantial scale-up of testing. Point-of-care HCV viral load assays are available as an alternative to laboratory-based assays to promote access in hard to reach or marginalized populations. The diagnostic performance and lower limit of detection are important attributes of these new assays for both diagnosis and test of cure. Therefore, our objective was to determine an acceptable LLoD for detectable HCV viraemia as a test for cure, 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12). We assembled a global data set of patients with detectable viraemia at SVR12 from observational databases from 9 countries (Egypt, the United States, United Kingdom, Georgia, Ukraine, Myanmar, Cambodia, Pakistan, Mozambique) and two pharmaceutical-sponsored clinical trial registries. We examined the distribution of HCV viral load at SVR12 and presented the 90th, 95th, 97th and 99th percentiles. We used logistic regression to assess characteristics associated with low-level virological treatment failure (defined as <1000 IU/mL). There were 5973 cases of detectable viraemia at SVR12 from the combined data set. Median detectable HCV RNA at SVR12 was 287,986 IU/mL. The level of detection for the 95th percentile was 227 IU/mL (95% CI 170-276). Females and those with minimal fibrosis were more likely to experience low-level viraemia at SVR12 compared to men (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.60 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.97 and those with cirrhosis (AOR = 1.49 95% CI 1.15-1.93). In conclusion, an assay with a level of detection of 1000 IU/mL or greater may miss a proportion of those with low-level treatment failure.

      9. Propagation and quantification of SARS-CoV-2
        Jureka AS, Basler CF.
        Methods Mol Biol. 2022 ;2452:111-129.
        In late 2019, the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. Since its emergence, SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for a world-wide pandemic resulting in over 80 million infections and over 1.8 million deaths. The severity of the pandemic has prompted widespread research efforts to more fully understand SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, COVID-19. Research into this novel virus will be facilitated by the availability of clearly described and effective protocols that enable the propagation and quantification of infectious virus. Here, we describe protocols for the propagation of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 cells as well as two human cells lines, the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line and the respiratory epithelial Calu-3 cell line. Additionally, we provide protocols for the quantification of SARS-CoV-2 by plaque assays and immunofocus forming assays in Vero E6 cells utilizing liquid overlays. These protocols provide a foundation for laboratories acquiring the ability to study SARS-CoV-2 to address this ongoing pandemic.

    • Community Health Services
      1. Reaching males and young adults in a pharmacy-based HIV self-testing strategy: Results from an acceptability study in Mozambique
        De Schacht C, Lucas C, Paulo P, Van Rompaey S, Naftal Fernando A, Ernesto Chinai J, Chicuecue N, Silva WP, Amane G, Sultane T, Honwana N, Wei S, Malimane I, Couto A, Wester CW.
        AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2022 May 17.
        Introduction HIV self-testing (HIVST) is a WHO recommended strategy to increase testing, especially among key populations, men, and young adults. Between May - December 2019, a pilot was implemented in Zambézia province, Mozambique, allowing clients to purchase HIV self-tests in 14 public/private pharmacies. The study assessed the strategy's acceptability and uptake. Methods Pharmacy-based exit-surveys were conducted in a random sample of clients, during the first three months of the pilot, independent of HIVST purchase. Another random sample of clients who bought an HIVST completed a survey 1-12 weeks after purchase. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used for the analysis, comparing clients who purchased an HIVST versus not. Results 1139 adults purchased 1344 tests. Buyers were predominantly male (70%) and younger (52% between 15-34 years of age). Surveys were completed by 280 exiting pharmacy clients and 82 clients who purchased an HIVST. Main advantages were confidentiality and lack of need of a health provider visit, with main disadvantages being absence of nearby counseling and fear of results. No differences between buyers and non-buyers were seen for these factors. Among all undergoing HIVST, the 71 (92%) perceived the instructions to be clear, however, 29 (38%) stated they would have benefitted from additional pre-test information or counseling. Ten (13%) reported following up at a nearby health facility to confirm results and/or receive care. Conclusions Offering HIVST at public/private pharmacies was acceptable among people who traditionally tend to have a lower HIV testing coverage, such as males and young adults. However, additional resources and/or enhanced educational materials to address the lack of counseling, and linkage-to-care systems need to be put into place before scaling up this strategy.

      2. Objective: To examine the reasons why office-based physicians do or do not recommend four selected complementary health approaches to their patients in the context of the Andersen Behavioral Model. Design: Descriptive estimates of physician-level data from the 2012 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) Physician Induction Interview, a nationally representative survey of office-based physicians (N = 5622, weighted response rate = 59.7%). Setting/Location: The United States. Outcome measures: Reasons for the recommendation or lack thereof to patients for: herbs and other non-vitamin supplements, chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, and mind-body therapies (including meditation, guided imagery, and progressive relaxation). Differences by physician sex and medical specialty were described. Results: For each of the four complementary health approaches, more than half of the physicians who made recommendations indicated that they were influenced by scientific evidence in peer-reviewed journals (ranging from 52.0% for chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation [95% confidence interval, CI = 47.6-56.3] to 71.3% for herbs and other non-vitamin supplements [95% CI = 66.9-75.4]). More than 60% of all physicians recommended each of the four complementary health approaches because of patient requests. A higher percentage of female physicians reported evidence in peer-reviewed journals as a rationale for recommending herbs and non-vitamin supplements or chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation when compared with male physicians (herbs and non-vitamin supplements: 78.8% [95% CI = 72.4-84.3] vs. 66.6% [95% CI = 60.8-72.2]; chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation: 62.3% [95% CI = 54.7-69.4] vs. 47.5% [95% CI = 42.3-52.7]). For each of the four complementary health approaches, a lack of perceived benefit was the most frequently reported reason by both sexes for not recommending. Lack of information sources was reported more often by female versus male physicians as a reason to not recommend herbs and non-vitamin supplements (31.4% [95% CI = 26.8-36.3] vs. 23.4% [95% CI = 21.0-25.9]). Conclusions: There are limited nationally representative data on the reasons as to why office-based physicians decide to recommend complementary health approaches to patients. Developing a more nuanced understanding of influencing factors in physicians' decision making regarding complementary health approaches may better inform researchers and educators, and aid physicians in making evidence-based recommendations for patients.

      3. The relationship of school connectedness to adolescents' engagement in co-occurring health risks: A meta-analytic review
        Rose ID, Lesesne CA, Sun J, Johns MM, Zhang X, Hertz M.
        J Sch Nurs. 2022 Apr 28:10598405221096802.
        School connectedness is an important factor in the lives of youth and are a leverage point for optimizing youth's social, emotional, and physical health. This study presents a meta-analysis examining the relationship between school connectedness and four health domains that are prevalent in adolescence, have implications for adult health, and often co-occur: mental health, sexual health, violence, and high-risk substance use. Ninety articles published between 2009 and 2019 were included in the analysis. The study found that school connectedness had a protective average effect size across all health domains (Hedges' g = -0.345, p-value<0.001). When examined separately, school connectedness had a significant protective relationship with substance use (g = -0.379, p < 0.001), mental health (Hedges' g = -0.358, p < 0.001), violence (Hedges' g = -0.318, p < 0.001), sexual health (Hedges' g = -0.145, p < 0.001), and with co-occurring risks (Hedges' g = -0.331, p < 0.001). These results provide strong evidence that school connectedness has the potential to prevent and mitigate multiple health risks during adolescence.

      4. Examining the multi-level barriers to pharmacy-based HIV prevention and treatment services
        Crawford ND, Lewis C, Moore R, Pietradoni G, Weidle P.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2022 May 12.

    • Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Services
      1. Flooding and emergency department visits: Effect modification by the CDC/ATSDR Social Vulnerability Index
        Ramesh B, Jagger MA, Zaitchik B, Kolivras KN, Swarup S, Deanes L, Hallisey E, Sharpe JD, Gohlke JM.
        Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2022 ;76.
        The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) is a census-based metric that includes 15 socioeconomic and demographic factors split into four themes relevant to disaster planning, response, and recovery. Using CDC/ATSDR SVI, health outcomes, and remote sensing data, we sought to understand the differences in the occurrence of overall and cause-specific emergency department (ED) visits before and after a 2017 flood event in Texas following Hurricane Harvey, modified by different levels of social vulnerability. We used a controlled before-after study design to estimate the association between flooding and overall and cause-specific ED visits after adjusting for the baseline period, seasonal trends, and individual-level characteristics. We estimated rate ratios stratified by CDC/ATSDR SVI quartiles (overall and 4 themes separately) and tested for the presence of effect modification. Positive effect modification was found such that total ED visits from flooded census tracts with moderate, high, and very high levels of social vulnerability were less reduced compared to tracts with the least vulnerability during flooding and the month following the flood event. The CDC/ATSDR SVI socioeconomic status theme, household composition and disability theme, and housing and transportation type theme explained this result. We found predominantly negative effect modification with higher ED visits among tracts with the least vulnerability for ED visits related to insect bites, dehydration, and intestinal infectious diseases. © 2022

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Tickborne disease cases account for over 75% of reported vector-borne disease cases in the United States each year. In addition to transmitting the agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strict [Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae] and Borrelia mayonii [Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae]), the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus collectively transmit five additional human pathogens. By mapping the distributions of tickborne pathogens in host-seeking ticks, we can understand where humans are at risk of contracting tickborne diseases and devise targeted strategies to prevent them. Using publicly available tickborne pathogen surveillance databases, internal CDC pathogen testing databases, and SCOPUS search records published since 2000, we mapped the county-level distribution of Borrelia miyamotoi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichiaceae), Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), and Powassan virus (Flaviviridae) reported in host-seeking I. scapularis or I. pacificus in the contiguous United States. We also updated recently published maps of the distributions of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia mayonii. All seven pathogen distributions were more limited than the distributions of vector ticks, with at least one of the seven pathogens detected in 30 states out of 41 total states (73.2% of states) where vector ticks are considered to be established. Prevention and diagnosis of tickborne diseases rely on an accurate understanding by the public and health care providers of where people are at risk for exposure to infected ticks. Our county-level pathogen distribution maps expand on previous efforts showing the distribution of Lyme disease spirochetes and highlight counties where further investigation may be warranted.

    • Environmental Health
      1. BACKGROUND: Case-control studies are commonly used to explore factors associated with enteric bacterial diseases. Control of confounding is challenging due to the large number of exposures of interest and the low frequencies of many of them. METHODS: We evaluated nearest-neighbors matching in a case-control study (originally 1:1 matched, published in 2004) of sporadic Campylobacter infections that included information on 433 exposures in 2,632 subjects during 1998-1999. We performed multiple imputation of missing data (m=100) and calculated Gower distances between cases and controls using all possible confounders for each exposure in each dataset. We matched each case with ≤20 controls within a data-determined distance. We calculated odds ratios and population attributable fractions (PAFs). RESULTS: Examination of pairwise correlation between exposures found very strong associations for 1,046 pairs of exposures. More than 100 exposures were associated with campylobacteriosis, including nearly all risk factors identified using the previously published approach that included only 16 exposures and some less studied, rare exposures such as consumption of chicken liver and raw clams. Consumption of chicken and non-poultry meat had the highest PAFs (62% and 59%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nearest-neighbors matching appears to provide an improved ability to examine rare exposures and better control for numerous highly associated confounders.

      2. Geometric mean serum cotinine concentrations confirm a continued decline in secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. nonsmokers—NHANES 2003 to 2018
        Caron KT, Zhu W, Bernert JT, Wang L, Blount BC, Dortch K, Hunter RE, Harmon T, Akins JR, Tsai J, Homa DM, Pirkle JL, Sosnoff CS.
        Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 ;19(10).
        The objective of this study was to examine long-term trends in serum cotinine (COT) concentrations, as a measure of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, in U.S. nonsmokers using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2003 to 2018. We analyzed NHANES serum COT results from 8 continuous NHANES 2 year cycles from 2003 to 2018 using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay that has been maintained continuously at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) since 1992. Serum COT concentrations (based on the geometric means) among nonsmokers in the U.S. decreased by an average of 11.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) [8.8%, 13.1%]; p < 0.0001) every 2 year cycle. From 2003 to 2018, serum COT concentrations in U.S. nonsmokers declined by 55.0%, from 0.065 ng/mL in 2003–2004 to 0.029 ng/mL in 2017–2018 (p < 0.0001). Significant decreases in serum COT concentrations were observed in all demographic groups. While disparities between these groups seems to be shrinking over time, several previously observed disparities in SHS exposure remain in 2017–2018. Serum COT concentrations of the non-Hispanic Black population remained higher than those of non-Hispanic Whites and Mexican Americans (p < 0.0001). Additionally, serum COT concentrations were significantly higher for children aged 3–5 years than other age groups (p ≤ 0.0002), and men continued to have significantly higher serum COT concentrations than women (p = 0.0384). While there is no safe level of exposure to SHS, the decrease in serum COT concentrations in the U.S. population as well as across demographic groupings represents a positive public health outcome and supports the importance of comprehensive smoke-free laws and policies for workplaces, public places, homes, and vehicles to protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

      3. This second article in a series of three on land reuse highlights brownfields redevelopment in the U.S., focusing on regulatory frameworks, public health, policy, and sustainable development. The main regulatory agency in the U.S. involved in brownfields is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Many other state and federal agencies have brownfield or brownfield-supporting programs. Apart from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, few agencies have programs fully dedicated to public health protection related to brownfields. Sustainable development, defined in this article as development that minimizes use of nonrenewable resources, is recognized as a component of redevelopment and is generally promoted by U.S. EPA and through other sustainable development initiatives. A broader focus on sustainable development and public health improvement could reduce the inequity and health disparities typically seen in areas with distressed environments. Such a focus could be implemented globally to improve population health and the environment over the long term. © 2022, National Environmental Health Association. All rights reserved.

    • Health Behavior and Risk
      1. Beliefs associated with sunscreen use among non-Hispanic white older adults
        Holman DM, Glanz K, Jordan A, Bleakley A, Dasari S.
        J Dermatol Nurses Assoc. 2022 ;14(3):107-112.
        This study examines beliefs about sunscreen use among non-Hispanic white adults aged 50 years or older using online survey data (n = 237). Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine beliefs associated with sunscreen use, adjusted by age, gender, education, geographic location, and skin cancer risk score. Those who believed sunscreen use would prevent them from getting sunburned (odds ratio [ OR ] = 1.84) and those who believed that their romantic partners thought they should use sunscreen (OR = 1.72) were more likely to report sunscreen use. Those who believed sunscreen use would "take too much time" were less likely to report sunscreen use (OR = 0.65). These findings can inform future research and messaging efforts, including the evaluation of intervention approaches that highlight the immediate benefits of sunscreen use, address concerns about sunscreen use taking too much time, and tap into the potential influence that older adults may have on the sunscreen use of their romantic partners.

    • Health Economics
      1. Prescription smoking-cessation medication fills and spending, 2009-2019
        Jackson SL, Tsipas S, Yang PK, Ritchey MD, Loustalot F, Wozniak G, Wang X.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jun;62(6):e351-e355.
        INTRODUCTION: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death. However, effective medicines, including prescription medications often covered by health insurance, are available to aid cessation. METHODS: Trends of 7 U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved prescription medications for smoking cessation during 2009-2019 (before and during Affordable Care Act implementation), including fill counts and spending (total and patient, adjusted to 2019 U.S. dollars), were assessed among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years. Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse combines data on >90% of outpatient prescription fills with market purchasing data to create national estimates. Analyses were conducted in 2021. RESULTS: Annually, total fills (spending) decreased from 3.7 million ($577 million) in 2009 to 2.5 million ($465 million) in 2013 and increased to 4.5 million ($1.279 billion) in 2019; patient spending decreased from $174 million (30% of total annual spending) in 2009 to $54 million (4%) in 2019. Comparing 2009 with 2019, the total spending per fill increased by 80% (from $157 to $282), whereas patient spending per fill decreased by 75% (from $47 to $12). The total spending per fill for branded products increased by 175% (from $166 to $459) and decreased by 41% (from $75 to $44) for generic products. Branded product percentage decreased from 89% to 57%. CONCLUSIONS: Total fills and spending decreased from 2009 to 2013 and then increased through 2019, whereas patient spending decreased. Earlier studies suggest possible reasons for these trends, such as gradual implementation of federal requirements for insurance coverage of cessation medications and reduced cost sharing and financial barriers.

      2. Drivers of US healthcare spending for persons with seizures and/or epilepsies, 2010-2018
        Moura L, Karakis I, Zack MM, Tian N, Kobau R, Howard D.
        Epilepsia. 2022 May 17.
        OBJECTIVE: To characterize spending for persons classified with seizure or epilepsy and determine if spending has increased over time. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we pooled data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) household component files for 2010 to 2018. We matched cases to controls on age and sex of a population-based sample of MEPS respondents (community-dwelling persons of all ages) with records associated with a medical event (e.g., outpatient visit; hospital inpatient) for seizure, epilepsy, or both. Outcomes were weighted to be representative of the civilian, non-institutionalized population. We estimated the treated prevalence of epilepsy and seizure, healthcare spending overall and by site of care, and trends in spending growth. RESULTS: We identified 1,078 epilepsy cases, and 2,344 seizure cases. Treated prevalence was 0.38% (95% CI =0.34-0.41) for epilepsy, 0.76% (95% CI=0.71-0.81) for seizure, and 1.14% (95% CI: 1.08-1.20) for epilepsy or seizure. The difference in annual spending for cases compared to controls was $4,580 (95% CI: $3,362-$5,798) for epilepsy, $7,935 (95% CI: $6,237-$9,634) for seizure, and $6,853 (95% CI: $5,623-$8,084) for epilepsy or seizure, translating into aggregate costs of $5.4 billion, $19.0 billion, and $24.5 billion. From 2010 to 2018, the annual growth rate in total spending incurred for seizures and/or epilepsies was 7.6% compared to 3.6% among controls. SIGNIFICANCE: U.S. economic burden of seizures and/or epilepsies is substantial and warrants interventions focused on their unique and overlapping causes.

    • Health Equity and Health Disparities
      1. County-level associations between pregnancy-related mortality ratios and contextual sociospatial indicators
        Barrera CM, Kramer MR, Merkt PT, Petersen EE, Brantley MD, Eckhaus L, Beauregard JL, Goodman DA.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2022 May 1;139(5):855-865.
        OBJECTIVE: To characterize county-level differences in pregnancy-related mortality as a function of sociospatial indicators. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of all pregnancy-related deaths and all live births with available ZIP code or county data in the Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System during 2011-2016 for non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic (all races), and non-Hispanic White women aged 15-44 years. The exposures included 31 conceptually-grounded, county-specific sociospatial indicators that were collected from publicly available data sources and categorized into domains of demographic; general, reproductive, and behavioral health; social capital and support; and socioeconomic contexts. We calculated the absolute difference of county-level pregnancy-related mortality ratios (deaths per 100,000 live births) per 1-unit increase in the median absolute difference between women living in counties with higher compared with lower levels of each sociospatial indicator overall and stratified by race and ethnicity. RESULTS: Pregnancy-related mortality varied across counties and by race and ethnicity. Many sociospatial indicators were associated with county-specific pregnancy-related mortality ratios independent of maternal age, population size, and Census region. Across domains, the most harmful indicators were percentage of low-birth-weight births (absolute ratio difference [RD] 6.44; 95% CI 5.36-7.51), percentage of unemployed adults (RD 4.98; 95% CI 3.91-6.05), and food insecurity (RD 4.92; 95% CI 4.14-5.70). The most protective indicators were higher median household income (RD -2.76; 95% CI -3.28 to -2.24), percentage of college-educated adults (RD -2.28; 95% CI -2.81 to -1.75), and percentage of owner-occupied households (RD -1.66; 95% CI -2.29 to -1.03). The magnitude of these associations varied by race and ethnicity. CONCLUSION: This analysis identified sociospatial indicators of pregnancy-related mortality and showed an association between pregnancy-related deaths and place of residence overall and stratified by race and ethnicity. Understanding county-level context associated with pregnancy-related mortality may be an important step towards building public health evidence to inform action to reduce pregnancy-related mortality at local levels.

    • Immune System Disorders
      1. Rising incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus: a population-based study over four decades
        Duarte-García A, Hocaoglu M, Valenzuela-Almada M, Osei-Onomah SA, Dabit JY, Sanchez-Rodriguez A, Duong SQ, Giblon RE, Langenfeld HE, Alarcón GS, Helmick CG, Crowson CS.
        Ann Rheum Dis. 2022 May 16.
        OBJECTIVES: To determine the trends in incidence, prevalence and mortality of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a US population over four decades. METHODS: We identified all the patients with SLE in Olmsted County, Minnesota who fulfilled the European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE during 1976-2018. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence and prevalence dates were adjusted to the standard 2000 projected US population. The EULAR/ACR score was used as a proxy for disease severity. Standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was estimated. RESULTS: There were 188 incident SLE cases in 1976-2018 (mean age 46.3±SD 16.9; 83% women). Overall age-adjusted and sex-adjusted annual SLE incidence per 100 000 population was 4.77 (95% CI 4.09 to 5.46). Incidence was higher in women (7.58) than men (1.89). The incidence rate increased from 3.32 during 1976-1988 to 6.44 during 2009-2018. Incidence rates were higher among the racial and ethnic minority populations than non-Hispanic whites. The EULAR/ACR score did not change significantly over time. Overall prevalence increased from 30.6 in 1985 to 97.4 in 2015. During the study period, there was no improvement in SMR over time (p=0.31). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and prevalence of SLE are increasing in this US population. The increase in incidence may be at least partially explained by the rising ethnic/racial diversity of the population. There was no evidence that the severity of SLE has changed over time. The survival gap between SLE and the general population remains unchanged. As the US population grows more diverse, we might continue to see an increase in the incidence of SLE.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Human papillomavirus vaccine impact and effectiveness through 12 years after vaccine introduction in the United States, 2003 to 2018
        Rosenblum HG, Lewis RM, Gargano JW, Querec TD, Unger ER, Markowitz LE.
        Ann Intern Med. 2022 May 17.
        BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was introduced in 2006 for females and in 2011 for males. OBJECTIVE: To estimate vaccine impact and effectiveness against quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV)-type prevalent infection among sexually experienced U.S. females and vaccine effectiveness for sexually experienced U.S. males. DESIGN: NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) conducted in 2003 to 2006 (prevaccine era) and in 2007 to 2010, 2011 to 2014, and 2015 to 2018 (vaccine eras). SETTING: Nationally representative U.S. surveys. PARTICIPANTS: Sexually experienced participants aged 14 to 24 years. INTERVENTION: U.S. HPV vaccination program. MEASUREMENTS: Participant-collected cervicovaginal and penile specimens were tested for HPV DNA. The prevalences of 4vHPV and non-4vHPV types were estimated in each era for females and in 2013 to 2016 for males. Prevalences among the female population overall, vaccinated females, and unvaccinated females were compared in vaccine eras versus the prevaccine era (vaccine impact). Within each vaccine era, prevalence among vaccinated females was compared with that among unvaccinated females (vaccine effectiveness). Vaccine impact and effectiveness were estimated as (1 - prevalence ratio) · 100. RESULTS: Among sexually experienced females aged 14 to 24 years, the impact on 4vHPV-type prevalence in 2015 to 2018 was 85% overall, 90% among vaccinated females, and 74% among unvaccinated females. No significant declines were found in non-4vHPV-type prevalence. Vaccine effectiveness ranged from 60% to 84% during vaccine eras for females and was 51% during 2013 to 2016 for males. LIMITATION: Self- or parent-reported vaccination history and small numbers in certain subgroups limited precision. CONCLUSION: Nationally representative data show increasing impact of the vaccination program and herd protection. Vaccine effectiveness estimates will be increasingly affected by herd effects. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      2. Protection of mRNA vaccines against hospitalized COVID-19 in adults over the first year following authorization in the United States
        Tenforde MW, Self WH, Zhu Y, Naioti EA, Gaglani M, Ginde AA, Jensen K, Talbot HK, Casey JD, Mohr NM, Zepeski A, McNeal T, Ghamande S, Gibbs KW, Files DC, Hager DN, Shehu A, Prekker ME, Erickson HL, Gong MN, Mohamed A, Johnson NJ, Srinivasan V, Steingrub JS, Peltan ID, Brown SM, Martin ET, Monto AS, Khan A, Hough CL, Busse LW, Ten Lohuis C, Duggal A, Wilson JG, Qadir N, Chang SY, Mallow C, Rivas C, Babcock HM, Kwon JH, Exline MC, Botros MM, Lauring AS, Shapiro NI, Halasa N, Chappell JD, Grijalva CG, Rice TW, Jones ID, Stubblefield WB, Baughman A, Womack KN, Rhoads JP, Lindsell CJ, Hart KW, Turbyfill C, Olson S, Murray N, Adams K, Patel MM.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2022 May 17.
        BACKGROUND: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines were authorized in the United States in December 2020. Although vaccine effectiveness (VE) against mild infection declines markedly after several months, limited understanding exists on the long-term durability of protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization. METHODS: Case control analysis of adults (≥18 years) hospitalized at 21 hospitals in 18 states March 11 - December 15, 2021, including COVID-19 case patients and RT-PCR-negative controls. We included adults who were unvaccinated or vaccinated with two doses of a mRNA vaccine before the date of illness onset. VE over time was assessed using logistic regression comparing odds of vaccination in cases versus controls, adjusting for confounders. Models included dichotomous time (<180 vs ≥180 days since dose two) and continuous time modeled using restricted cubic splines. RESULTS: 10,078 patients were included, 4906 cases (23% vaccinated) and 5172 controls (62% vaccinated). Median age was 60 years (IQR 46-70), 56% were non-Hispanic White, and 81% had ≥1 medical condition. Among immunocompetent adults, VE <180 days was 90% (95%CI: 88-91) vs 82% (95%CI: 79-85) at ≥180 days (p < 0.001). VE declined for Pfizer-BioNTech (88% to 79%, p < 0.001) and Moderna (93% to 87%, p < 0.001) products, for younger adults (18-64 years) [91% to 87%, p = 0.005], and for adults ≥65 years of age (87% to 78%, p < 0.001). In models using restricted cubic splines, similar changes were observed. CONCLUSION: In a period largely pre-dating Omicron variant circulation, effectiveness of two mRNA doses against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was largely sustained through 9 months.

      3. Understanding variation in rotavirus vaccine effectiveness estimates in the United States: The role of rotavirus activity and diagnostic misclassification
        Amin AB, Lash TL, Tate JE, Waller LA, Wikswo ME, Parashar UD, Stewart LS, Chappell JD, Halasa NB, Williams JV, Michaels MG, Hickey RW, Klein EJ, Englund JA, Weinberg GA, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, McNeal MM, Boom JA, Sahni LC, Selvaragan R, Harrison CJ, Moffatt ME, Schuster JE, Pahud BA, Weddle GM, Azimi PH, Johnston SH, Payne DC, Bowen MD, Lopman BA.
        Epidemiology. 2022 May 18.
        BACKGROUND: Estimates of rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the U.S. appear higher in years with more rotavirus activity. We hypothesized rotavirus VE is constant over time but appears to vary as a function of temporal variation in local rotavirus cases and/or misclassified diagnoses. METHODS: We analyzed 6 years of data from eight U.S. surveillance sites on 8-59-month olds with acute gastroenteritis symptoms. Children's stool samples were tested via enzyme immunoassay (EIA); rotavirus-positive results were confirmed with molecular testing at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We defined rotavirus gastroenteritis cases by either positive on-site EIA results alone or positive EIA with CDC confirmation. For each case definition, we estimated VE against any rotavirus gastroenteritis, moderate-to-severe disease, and hospitalization using two mixed-effect regression models: the first including year plus a year-vaccination interaction, and the second including annual percent of rotavirus positive tests plus a percent positive-vaccination interaction. We used multiple overimputation to bias-adjust for misclassification of cases defined by positive EIA alone. RESULTS: Estimates of annual rotavirus VE against all outcomes fluctuated temporally, particularly when we defined cases by on-site EIA alone and used a year-vaccination interaction. Use of confirmatory testing to define cases reduced, but did not eliminate, fluctuations. Temporal fluctuations in VE estimates further attenuated when we used a percent positive-vaccination interaction. Fluctuations persisted until bias-adjustment for diagnostic misclassification. CONCLUSIONS: Both controlling for time-varying rotavirus activity and bias-adjusting for diagnostic misclassification are critical for estimating the most valid annual rotavirus VE.

      4. One full or two fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine for catch-up vaccination in older infants: A randomized clinical trial in Bangladesh
        Aziz AB, Verma H, Jeyaseelan V, Md Y, Nowrin S, Moore DD, Mainou BA, Mach O, Sutter RW, Zaman K.
        J Infect Dis. 2022 May 16.
        BACKGROUND: The polio eradication endgame called for the removal of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine and introduction of bivalent (types 1&3) OPV (bOPV) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). However, supply shortages have delayed IPV administration to tens of millions of infants, and immunogenicity data are currently lacking to guide catch-up vaccination policies. METHODS: We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial assessing two interventions, full or fractional-dose IPV (fIPV, 1/5 of IPV), administered at age 9-13 months with a second dose given two-months later. Serum was collected at days 0, 60, 67, and 90 to assess seroconversion, priming, and antibody titer. None received IPV or poliovirus type 2-containing vaccines before enrolment. RESULTS: A single fIPV dose at age 9-13 months yielded 75% (95%CI:68-82) seroconversion against type 2, whereas two fIPV doses resulted in 100% seroconversion compared with 94% (95%CI: 89-97) after a single full dose (p < 0.001). Two doses of IPV resulted in 100% seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed increased IPV immunogenicity when administered at an older age, likely due to reduced interference from maternally derived antibodies. Either one full dose of IPV or two doses of fIPV could be used to vaccinate missed cohorts, two fIPV doses being antigen-sparing and more immunogenic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03890497.

      5. Effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 hospitalization by age and chronic medical conditions burden among immunocompetent US adults, March-August 2021
        Lewis NM, Naioti EA, Self WH, Ginde AA, Douin DJ, Keipp Talbot H, Casey JD, Mohr NM, Zepeski A, Gaglani M, Ghamande SA, McNeal TA, Shapiro NI, Gibbs KW, Clark Files D, Hager DN, Shehu A, Prekker ME, Erickson HL, Gong MN, Mohamed A, Henning DJ, Steingrub JS, Peltan ID, Brown SM, Martin ET, Hubel K, Hough CL, Busse LW, Ten Lohuis CC, Duggal A, Wilson JG, Gordon AJ, Qadir N, Chang SY, Mallow C, Rivas C, Babcock HM, Kwon JH, Exline MC, Halasa N, Chappell JD, Lauring AS, Grijalva CG, Rice TW, Rhoads JP, Stubblefield WB, Baughman A, Womack KN, Lindsell CJ, Hart KW, Zhu Y, Schrag SJ, Kobayashi M, Verani JR, Patel MM, Tenforde MW.
        J Infect Dis. 2022 May 16;225(10):1694-1700.
        Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 hospitalization was evaluated among immunocompetent adults (≥18 years) during March-August 2021 using a case-control design. Among 1669 hospitalized COVID-19 cases (11% fully vaccinated) and 1950 RT-PCR-negative controls (54% fully vaccinated), VE was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93%-98%) among patients with no chronic medical conditions and 83% (95% CI, 76%-88%) among patients with ≥ 3 categories of conditions. VE was similar between those aged 18-64 years versus ≥65 years (P > .05). VE against severe COVID-19 was very high among adults without chronic conditions and lessened with increasing comorbidity burden.

      6. Association of prior BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents during Omicron predominance
        Fleming-Dutra KE, Britton A, Shang N, Derado G, Link-Gelles R, Accorsi EK, Smith ZR, Miller J, Verani JR, Schrag SJ.
        Jama. 2022 May 13.
        IMPORTANCE: Efficacy of 2 doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) against COVID-19 was high in pediatric trials conducted before the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged. Among adults, estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2 BNT162b2 doses against symptomatic Omicron infection was reduced compared with prior variants, waned rapidly, and increased with a booster. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of symptomatic infection with prior vaccination with BNT162b2 to estimate VE among children and adolescents during Omicron variant predominance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A test-negative, case-control analysis was conducted using data from 6897 pharmacy-based, drive-through SARS-CoV-2 testing sites across the US from a single pharmacy chain in the Increasing Community Access to Testing platform. This analysis included 74 208 tests from children 5 to 11 years of age and 47 744 tests from adolescents 12 to 15 years of age with COVID-19-like illness who underwent SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification testing from December 26, 2021, to February 21, 2022. EXPOSURES: Two BNT162b2 doses 2 weeks or more before SARS-CoV-2 testing vs no vaccination for children; 2 or 3 doses 2 weeks or more before testing vs no vaccination for adolescents (who are recommended to receive a booster dose). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Symptomatic infection. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the association of prior vaccination and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was used to estimate VE: VE = (1 - OR) × 100%. RESULTS: A total of 30 999 test-positive cases and 43 209 test-negative controls were included from children 5 to 11 years of age, as well as 22 273 test-positive cases and 25 471 test-negative controls from adolescents 12 to 15 years of age. The median age among those with included tests was 10 years (IQR, 7-13); 61 189 (50.2%) were female, 75 758 (70.1%) were White, and 29 034 (25.7%) were Hispanic/Latino. At 2 to 4 weeks after dose 2, among children, the adjusted OR was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.35-0.45; estimated VE, 60.1% [95% CI, 54.7%-64.8%]) and among adolescents, the OR was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.29-0.56; estimated VE, 59.5% [95% CI, 44.3%-70.6%]). During month 2 after dose 2, among children, the OR was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.67-0.76; estimated VE, 28.9% [95% CI, 24.5%-33.1%]) and among adolescents, the OR was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.92; estimated VE, 16.6% [95% CI, 8.1%-24.3%]). Among adolescents, the booster dose OR 2 to 6.5 weeks after the dose was 0.29 (95% CI, 0.24-0.35; estimated VE, 71.1% [95% CI, 65.5%-75.7%]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among children and adolescents, estimated VE for 2 doses of BNT162b2 against symptomatic infection was modest and decreased rapidly. Among adolescents, the estimated effectiveness increased after a booster dose.

      7. Progress toward polio eradication - worldwide, January 2020-April 2022
        Rachlin A, Patel JC, Burns CC, Jorba J, Tallis G, O'Leary A, Wassilak SG, Vertefeuille JF.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 May 13;71(19):650-655.
        In 1988, the World Health Assembly established the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Since then, wild poliovirus (WPV) cases have decreased approximately 99.99%, and WPV types 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated. Only Afghanistan and Pakistan have never interrupted WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission. This report describes global progress toward polio eradication during January 1, 2020-April 30, 2022, and updates previous reports (1,2). This activity was reviewed by CDC and was conducted consistent with applicable federal law and CDC policy.* Five WPV1 cases were reported from Afghanistan and Pakistan in 2021, compared with 140 in 2020. In 2022 (as of May 5), three WPV1 cases had been reported: one from Afghanistan and two from Pakistan. WPV1 genetically linked to virus circulating in Pakistan was identified in Malawi in a child with paralysis onset in November 2021. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), with neurovirulence and transmissibility similar to that of WPV, emerge in populations with low immunity following prolonged circulation of Sabin strain oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) (3). During January 2020-April 30, 2022, a total of 1,856 paralytic cVDPV cases were reported globally: 1,113 in 2020 and 688 in 2021, including cases in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In 2022 (as of May 5), 55 cVDPV cases had been reported. Intensified programmatic actions leading to more effective outbreak responses are needed to stop cVDPV transmission. The 2022-2026 GPEI Strategic Plan objective of ending WPV1 transmission by the end of 2023 is attainable (4). However, the risk for children being paralyzed by polio remains until all polioviruses, including WPV and cVDPV, are eradicated.

      8. Safety of COVID-19 vaccination in US children ages 5-11 years
        Hause AM, Shay DK, Klein NP, Abara WE, Baggs J, Cortese MM, Fireman B, Gee J, Glanz JM, Goddard K, Hanson KE, Hugueley B, Kenigsberg T, Kharbanda EO, Lewin B, Lewis N, Marquez P, Myers T, Naleway A, Nelson JC, Su JR, Thompson D, Olubajo B, Oster ME, Weintraub ES, Williams JT, Yousaf AR, Zerbo O, Zhang B, Shimabukuro TT.
        Pediatrics. 2022 May 18.
        BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited post-authorization safety data for BNT-162b2 COVID-19 vaccination among children ages 5-11 years are available, particularly for the adverse event myocarditis, which has been detected in adolescents and young adults. We describe adverse events observed during the first 4 months of the US COVID-19 vaccination program in this age group. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3 US safety monitoring systems: v-safe, a voluntary smartphone-based system that monitors reactions and health effects; the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), the national spontaneous reporting system co-managed by CDC and FDA; and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), an active surveillance system that monitors electronic health records for prespecified events, including myocarditis. RESULTS: Among 48,795 children ages 5-11 years enrolled in v-safe, most reported reactions were mild-to-moderate, most frequently reported the day after vaccination, and were more common after dose 2. VAERS received 7,578 adverse event reports; 97% were non-serious. On review of 194 serious VAERS reports, 15 myocarditis cases were verified; 8 occurred in males after dose 2 (reporting rate 2.2 per million doses). In VSD, no safety signals were detected in weekly sequential monitoring after administration of 726,820 doses. CONCLUSIONS: Safety findings for BNT-162b2 vaccine from 3 US monitoring systems in children ages 5-11 years show that most reported adverse events were mild and no safety signals were observed in active surveillance. VAERS reporting rates of myocarditis after dose 2 in this age group were substantially lower than those observed among adolescents ages 12-15 years.

      9. COVID-19 vaccines: Safe and effective in children ages 5-11 years
        Oliver SE, Wallace M, Link-Gelles R.
        Pediatrics. 2022 May 18.
        COVID-19 vaccines have prevented an estimated 10.3 million hospitalizations and 1.1 million deaths in the United States alone through November 2021.1 In late October and early November 2021, FDA authorized and CDC recommended use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children ages 5-11 years.2,3 Over 4.4 million COVID-19 infections and 364 COVID-19 deaths have been reported among US children ages 5-11 years since the pandemic began.4 During the recent Omicron surge, COVID-19 associated hospitalizations increased in this age group to a peak of 2.8 per 100,000 children.5 Among children ages 5-11 years hospitalized with a positive COVID-19 test during Omicron predominance, most (73%) had illness compatible with COVID-19 as the primary reason for admission and 32% had no known underlying conditions [CDC unpublished data]. In addition, 3,460 children ages 5-11 years with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a rare but serious post-COVID-19 hyperinflammatory condition, have been reported to CDC.6.

      10. Impact and effectiveness of monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Tajik children
        Nazurdinov A, Azizov Z, Mullojonova M, Sadykova U, Mosina L, Singh S, Suleymonova S, Tishkova F, Videbaek D, Cortese MM, Daniels DS, Burke RM.
        Vaccine. 2022 May 14.
        BACKGROUND: In 2015, Tajikistan became the second country in Central Asia to introduce rotavirus vaccine into its national immunization program. Before vaccine introduction, rotavirus was estimated to cause > 40% of pediatric diarrhea hospitalizations in Tajikistan. We aimed to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on rotavirus disease burden and estimate rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE). METHODS: Using surveillance data from 2013 through 2019, we examined trends in monthly hospital admissions among children < 5 years old, before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Poisson regression was used to quantify decreases. VE was estimated using a test-negative case control design, with data from admissions during 2017 - 2019. Immunization records were obtained from clinics. RESULTS: Among enrolled children, rotavirus positivity declined from 42% to 25% in the post-vaccine introduction period, a decrease of 41% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 36 - 45%). Declines were greatest in children < 12 months of age. Estimated VE of a complete course of rotavirus vaccine was 55% (95% CI: 21 - 73%) among children 5 - 59 months of age and 64% (95% CI: 36 - 80%) among children 5 - 23 months of age. VE point estimates were higher among children receiving both doses of rotavirus vaccine non-concurrently with OPV and among children receiving their first dose of rotavirus vaccine at 4 - 11 months of age, but CIs were wide and overlapping. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that rotavirus vaccine introduction was associated with a substantial reduction in pediatric rotavirus hospitalization burden in Tajikistan, and that rotavirus vaccination is effective in Tajik children.

      11. Enhanced surveillance for adverse events following immunization during the 2019 typhoid conjugate vaccine campaign in Harare, Zimbabwe
        Shaum A, Mujuru HA, Takamiya M, Ticklay I, Nathoo K, Sreenivasan N, Nyambayo P, Chitando P, Marembo J, Koline Chigodo C, Mukaratirwa A, Jacha V, Gidudu JF, Rupfutse M, Kumar Jain S, Manangazira P, Bennett SD.
        Vaccine. 2022 May 11.
        BACKGROUND: During February 25-March 4, 2019, Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care conducted an emergency campaign using 342,000 doses of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) targeting individuals 6 months-15 years of age in eight high-risk suburbs of Harare and up to 45 years of age in one suburb of Harare. The campaign represented the first use of TCV in Africa outside of clinical trials. METHODS: Three methods were used to capture adverse events during the campaign and for 42 days following the last dose administered: (1) active surveillance in two Harare hospitals, (2) national passive surveillance, and (3) a post-campaign coverage survey. RESULTS: Thirty-nine adverse events were identified during active surveillance, including 19 seizure cases (16 were febrile), 16 hypersensitivity cases, 1 thrombocytopenia case, 1 anaphylaxis case, and two cases with two conditions. Only 21 (54%) of 39 patients were hospitalized and 38 recovered without sequelae. Attack rates per 100,000 TCV doses administered were highest for seizures (6.27) and hypersensitivity (5.02). Only 6 adverse events were reported through passive surveillance by facilities other than the two active surveillance hospitals. A total of 177 (10%) of 1,817 vaccinees surveyed reported experiencing an adverse event during the post-campaign coverage survey, of which 25 (14%) sought care. CONCLUSIONS: In line with previous evaluations of TCV, enhanced adverse event monitoring during an emergency campaign supports the safety of TCV. The majority of reported events were minor or resulted in recovery without long-term sequelae. Attack rates for seizures and hypersensitivity were low compared with previous active surveillance studies conducted in Kenya and Burkina Faso. Strengthening adverse event monitoring in Zimbabwe and establishing background rates of conditions of interest in the general population may improve future safety monitoring during new vaccine introductions.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Health care services for survivors of gender-based violence: a community and clinic-based intervention in Zambézia province, Mozambique
        De Schacht C, Paulo P, Van Rompaey S, Graves E, Prigmore HL, Bravo M, Melo F, Malinha JE, Correia D, Cossa R, Chele E, Audet C.
        AIDS Care. 2022 May 16:1-9.
        Mozambique introduced guidelines for integrated gender-based violence (GBV) services in 2012. In 2017, we trained providers on empathetic and supportive services to GBV survivors and introduced home-based services for survivors who are loss-to-follow up. Rate ratios of clinic visits were compared before and after intervention initiation, using exact significance tests. Data of 1,806 GBV survivors were reviewed, with a total of 2005 events. The median age was 23 years (IQR 17-30) and 89% were women. Among those reporting violence, 69% reported physical violence, 18% reported sexual violence (SV), and 12% reported psychological violence. Rates of care-seeking behavior were higher in the intervention period (rate ratio 1.31 [95%CI: 1.18-1.46]); p < 0.01. Among those eligible for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), 94% initiated PEP. Uptake of HIV retesting improved in percentage points by 34% (14% to 48%), 34% (8% to 42%) and 26% (5% to 31%) at 1-, 3- and 6-months, respectively. The intervention led to an increase in the rate of GBV survivors seeking health care services, and improved rates of follow-up care among SV survivors initiating PEP. Strengthening of PEP adherence counseling remains crucial for improving GBV services.

      2. PURPOSE: Surveillance data are used for public health action, but the practice of analyzing data by single demographic characteristics may produce findings that reflect abstract categories rather than a person's lived experience. Intersectionality is a theoretical framework that advocates for individuals to be recognized as the whole of their identity and within context of power structures. Using the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2015-2019, we examined 5-year trends in experiencing violence, poor mental health, and suicidal risk behavior among US high school students using intersections of race/ethnicity and sex. METHODS: We used SUDAAN to calculate prevalence estimates and logistic regression models to assess for linear trends while accounting for the weighting and complex survey design. RESULTS: Among all students in aggregate, experiencing dating violence decreased while being threatened with a weapon at school and feeling persistently sad or hopeless increased over time; however, these trends did not apply to most students when stratified by identity. The one near-universal experience was that students in aggregate and almost all identities had an increased trend of skipping school because they felt unsafe there. DISCUSSION: By focusing on identities defined by two main drivers of health disparities-race/ethnicity and sex-we found that changes in risk behaviors did not occur equally among students and that prevalence estimates were highest among Black males, Black females, and Hispanic females. We outlined the power structures that frame the current educational environment. Patterns of health disparities can be highlighted by analyzing surveillance data through an intersectional lens.

      3. Vital signs: Changes in firearm homicide and suicide rates - United States, 2019-2020
        Kegler SR, Simon TR, Zwald ML, Chen MS, Mercy JA, Jones CM, Mercado-Crespo MC, Blair JM, Stone DM, Ottley PG, Dills J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 May 13;71(19):656-663.
        INTRODUCTION: The majority of homicides (79%) and suicides (53%) in the United States involved a firearm in 2020. High firearm homicide and suicide rates and corresponding inequities by race and ethnicity and poverty level represent important public health concerns. This study examined changes in firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates coinciding with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. METHODS: National vital statistics and population data were integrated with urbanization and poverty measures at the county level. Population-based firearm homicide and suicide rates were examined by age, sex, race and ethnicity, geographic area, level of urbanization, and level of poverty. RESULTS: From 2019 to 2020, the overall firearm homicide rate increased 34.6%, from 4.6 to 6.1 per 100,000 persons. The largest increases occurred among non-Hispanic Black or African American males aged 10-44 years and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) males aged 25-44 years. Rates of firearm homicide were lowest and increased least at the lowest poverty level and were higher and showed larger increases at higher poverty levels. The overall firearm suicide rate remained relatively unchanged from 2019 to 2020 (7.9 to 8.1); however, in some populations, including AI/AN males aged 10-44 years, rates did increase. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the firearm homicide rate in the United States reached its highest level since 1994, with substantial increases among several population subgroups. These increases have widened disparities in rates by race and ethnicity and poverty level. Several increases in firearm suicide rates were also observed. Implementation of comprehensive strategies employing proven approaches that address underlying economic, physical, and social conditions contributing to the risks for violence and suicide is urgently needed to reduce these rates and disparities.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Rapid capsular antigen immunoassay for diagnosis of inhalational anthrax: Preclinical studies and evaluation in a nonhuman primate model
        Gates-Hollingsworth MA, Kolton CB, Hoffmaster AR, Meister GT, Moore AE, Green HR, Pogoda JM, Pillai SP, Kozel TR.
        mBio. 2022 May 12:e0093122.
        Inhalational anthrax is a fatal infectious disease. Rapid and effective treatment is critically dependent on early and accurate diagnosis. Blood culture followed by identification and confirmation may take days to provide clinically relevant information. In contrast, immunoassay for a shed antigen, the capsular polypeptide gamma-d-polyglutamate (γDPGA), can provide rapid results at the point of care. In this study, a lateral flow immunoassay for γDPGA was evaluated in a robust nonhuman primate model of inhalational anthrax. The results showed that the time to a positive result with the rapid test using either serum or blood as a clinical specimen was similar to the time after infection when a blood culture became positive. In vitro testing showed that the test was equally sensitive with cultures of the three major clades of Bacillus anthracis. Cultures from other Bacillus spp. that are known to produce γDPGA also produced positive results. The test was negative with human sera from 200 normal subjects and 45 subjects with culture-confirmed nonanthrax bacterial or fungal sepsis. Taken together, the results showed that immunoassay for γDPGA is an effective surrogate for blood culture in a relevant cynomolgus monkey model of inhalational anthrax. The test would be a valuable aid in early diagnosis of anthrax, which is critical for rapid intervention and a positive outcome. Use of the test could facilitate triage of patients with signs and symptoms of anthrax in a mass-exposure incident and in low-resource settings where laboratory resources are not readily available. IMPORTANCE Patient outcome in anthrax is critically dependent on early diagnosis followed by effective treatment. We describe a rapid lateral flow immunoassay that detects capsular antigen of Bacillus anthracis that is shed into blood during infection. The test was evaluated in a robust cynomolgus monkey model of inhalational anthrax. Rapid detection of capsular antigen is an effective surrogate for the time-consuming and laboratory-intensive diagnosis by blood culture, direct fluorescent antibody staining, or other molecular testing. The test can be performed at the point of patient contact, is rapid and inexpensive, and can be used by individuals with minimal training.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Individual and collective positive health behaviors and academic achievement among U.S. high school students, Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2017
        Hawkins GT, Lee SH, Michael SL, Merlo CL, Lee SM, King BA, Rasberry CN, Underwood JM.
        Am J Health Promot. 2022 May;36(4):651-661.
        PURPOSE: We examined associations between academic grades and positive health behaviors, individually and collectively, among U.S. high school students. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design. SETTING: Data were from the 2017 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Response rates were 75% for schools, 81% for students, and 60% overall (n = 14,765 students). SUBJECTS: Youth in grades 9th-12th. MEASURES: We focused on youth behaviors that can prevent or delay the onset of chronic health conditions. Seven dietary, 3 physical activity, 2 sedentary screen time, and 4 tobacco product use behaviors were assessed. Variables were dichotomized (0/1) to indicate that a score was given to the positive health behavior response (e.g.,, did not smoke cigarettes = 1). A composite score was created by summing each positive health behavior response among 16 total health behaviors. ANALYSIS: Multivariable logistic regression analyses for each individual health behavior, and a multivariable negative binomial regression for the composite score, were conducted with self-reported academic grades, controlling for sex, grade in school, race/ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) categories. RESULTS: Controlling for covariates, students who reported mostly A's had 2.0 (P < .001) more positive health behaviors; students who reported mostly B's had 1.3 (P < .001) more positive health behaviors; and students who reported mostly C's had .78 (P < .001) more positive health behaviors, compared to students who reported mostly D's/F's. CONCLUSIONS: Higher academic grades are associated with more positive individual and cumulative health behaviors among high school students. Understanding these relationships can help inform efforts to create a healthy and supportive school environment and strive for health equity.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. BACKGROUND: Cognitive health is a public health concern among older adults. Dietary supplement (SUP) use is common and concerns have been raised about high folic acid intake among those with vitamin B-12 deficiency and exacerbation of poor cognitive performance (PCP). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated SUP use, usual folic acid intake, and blood folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in relation to cognitive performance. METHODS: We used NHANES 2011-2014 data on adults aged ≥60 y (n = 2867) and estimated total usual folic acid intake from diet and supplements, vitamin B-12 intake from SUPs, blood folates, vitamin B-12 concentrations, vitamin B-12 insufficiency (≤258 pmol/L), high folate (serum folate ≥59 nmol/L or RBC folate ≥1609 nmol/L), and PCP (<34 on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test). We assessed folate distributions adjusted for multiple variables, including renal function. RESULTS: Compared with persons without PCP, adults with PCP were less likely to use supplements containing folic acid (mean ± SEE: 34.4% ± 2.4%) or vitamin B-12 (mean ± SEE: 47.5% ± 1.6%). Among vitamin B-12-insufficient adults, 18.0% ± 1.6% (mean ± SEE) reported taking a vitamin B-12 supplement. Among participants with high folate and insufficient vitamin B-12 concentrations, 34.3% ± 11.5% (mean ± SEE) reported taking vitamin B-12-containing supplements. Persons with high folate and normal vitamin B-12 concentrations had lower odds of PCP [aOR (adjusted odds ratio): 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.83] than persons with normal folate and vitamin B-12. Persons with high folate and normal methylmalonic acid (MMA) had lower odds of PCP (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.78) than those with normal folate and MMA concentrations. After adjustment for renal function, elevated risk of PCP was attenuated among persons with high folate and MMA. Concurrent high folate and insufficient vitamin B-12 concentrations were not associated with PCP. CONCLUSIONS: Differential associations between vitamin B-12 and MMA highlight the need to consider renal function in studies of high folate and low vitamin B-12 status. Consumption of vitamin B-12 supplements concurrent with low vitamin B-12 status may indicate vitamin B-12 malabsorption.

      2. Foods and beverages available to nurses in hospital cafeterias, vending machines, and gift shops
        Horton Dias CE, Dawson RM, Harris DM, Wirth MD, Abshire DA.
        Am J Health Promot. 2022 Apr 13:8901171221089620.
        PURPOSE: Hospitals are important workplaces for nurses with many perceived barriers to healthy eating, but objective assessments are lacking. This study evaluated the healthfulness of hospital consumer food environments. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational; Setting: South Carolina; Subjects: Cafeterias, vending machines (VM), and gift shops (GS) in hospitals of varying size, urbanization, and region. MEASURES: Using the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan (HNES), primary outcomes of interest included availability, access, prices, and location of healthy foods in relation to nursing units. ANALYSIS: Descriptive and inferential statistics by independent samples t-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, χ2, or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. RESULTS: Thirty-one hospitals were observed from December 2019 to February 2020. Average composite HNES score (n = 28) was 46.3 ± 14.9 (-45 to 173 range), indicating sub-optimal food environments. Cafeterias (n = 31) scored an average of 30.9 ± 10.5 (-33 to 86 range). Average VM (n = 31) and GS (n = 28) scores were 11.6 ± 6.0 (-6 to 55 range) and 2.9 ± 4.0 (-6 to 32 range), respectively. Small hospitals (≤100 beds) had lower average cafeteria score (22.4 ± 10.3) than extra-large hospitals (≥500 beds; 42 ± 5.2, P < .01). Small hospitals also had lower composite HNES scores (34.4 ± 17.1) compared to extra-large hospitals (61.0 ± 14.4, P = .02). Data regarding availability, access, prices, and location were also reported. CONCLUSION: Due to abundant availability of unhealthy foods and beverages, hospital consumer food environments scored low on observations using the HNES, highlighting the opportunity to improve the healthfulness of facility offerings.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Impact of ergonomic posture on the chemical exposure of workers in the petroleum and chemical industry
        Whitehead C, Maier MA, Rao MB, Eturki M, Snawder JE, Davis KG.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2022 May 13.
        OBJECTIVES: Despite a rise in automation, workers in the petroleum refining and petrochemical manufacturing industry are potentially exposed to various chemicals through inhalation while performing routine job duties. Many factors contribute to the degree of exposure experienced in this setting. The study objective was to characterize the impact of workplace conditions, anthropometric variability, and task orientation on exposure for a simulated routine operations task. METHODS: A chemical exposure laboratory simulation study was designed to evaluate the dependent variable of chemical exposure level in the breathing zone for methane and sulfur hexafluoride. The independent variables were (i) posture of the worker, (ii) worker anthropometry, (iii) process configuration, and (iv) gas density. RESULTS: Pipe height was a significant predictor of gas concentration measured in the breathing zone when located in a position that encouraged the gas to enter the breathing zone of the worker. Worker anthropometry had a major impact; tall worker's (male) chemical concentrations exceeded those of the short worker (female) for methane simulations but the opposite resulted for sulfur hexafluoride. Also, worker posture had a significant impact on gas exposure where nonneutral postures were found to have higher levels of chemical concentration. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings indicate that the breathing zone location is altered by posture and worker height, which changes the exposures relative to the emission source depending on the gas density of the chemicals that are present. As a result, qualitative risk assessment cannot be performed accurately without accounting for these factors. Practically, controls may need to account for worker size differences and posture adaptations.

      2. Malignant mesothelioma mortality in women - United States, 1999-2020
        Mazurek JM, Blackley DJ, Weissman DN.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 May 13;71(19):645-649.
        Inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause malignant mesothelioma, a rapidly progressing and lethal cancer of the mesothelium, the thin layer of tissues surrounding internal organs in the chest and abdomen. Patients with malignant mesothelioma have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 1 year from diagnosis. The estimated median interval from initial occupational asbestos exposure to death is 32 years (range = 13-70 years) (1). Occupational asbestos exposure is most often reported in men working in industries such as construction and manufacturing; however, women are also at risk for exposure to asbestos fibers, and limited data exist on longer-term trends in mesothelioma deaths among women. To characterize deaths associated with mesothelioma and temporal trends in mesothelioma mortality among women in the United States, CDC analyzed annual Multiple Cause of Death records from the National Vital Statistics System for 1999-2020, the most recent years for which complete data are available. The annual number of mesothelioma deaths among women increased significantly, from 489 in 1999 to 614 in 2020; however, the age-adjusted death rate per 1 million women declined significantly, from 4.83 in 1999 to 4.15 in 2020. The largest number of deaths was associated with the health care and social assistance industry (89; 15.7%) and homemaker occupation (129; 22.8%). Efforts to limit exposure to asbestos fibers, including among women, need to be maintained.

      3. Exposure to lead-free frangible firing emissions containing copper and ultrafine particulates leads to increased oxidative stress in firing range instructors
        McNeilly RJ, Schwanekamp JA, Hyder LS, Hatch JP, Edwards BT, Kirsh JA, Jackson JM, Jaworek T, Methner MM, Duran CM.
        Part Fibre Toxicol. 2022 May 15;19(1):36.
        BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of copper based, lead-free frangible (LFF) ammunition to Air Force small arms firing ranges, instructors have reported symptoms including chest tightness, respiratory irritation, and metallic taste. These symptoms have been reported despite measurements determining that instructor exposure does not exceed established occupational exposure limits (OELs). The disconnect between reported symptoms and exposure limits may be due to a limited understanding of LFF firing byproducts and subsequent health effects. A comprehensive characterization of exposure to instructors was completed, including ventilation system evaluation, personal monitoring, symptom tracking, and biomarker analysis, at both a partially enclosed and fully enclosed range. RESULTS: Instructors reported symptoms more frequently after M4 rifle classes compared to classes firing only the M9 pistol. Ventilation measurements demonstrated that airflow velocities at the firing line were highly variable and often outside established standards at both ranges. Personal breathing zone air monitoring showed exposure to carbon monoxide, ultrafine particulate, and metals. In general, exposure to instructors was higher at the partially enclosed range compared to the fully enclosed range. Copper measured in the breathing zone of instructors, on rare occasions, approached OELs for copper fume (0.1 mg/m(3)). Peak carbon monoxide concentrations were 4-5 times higher at the partially enclosed range compared to the enclosed range and occasionally exceeded the ceiling limit (125 ppm). Biological monitoring showed that lung function was maintained in instructors despite respiratory symptoms. However, urinary oxidative stress biomarkers and urinary copper measurements were increased in instructors compared to control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with prior work, this study demonstrates that symptoms still occurred despite exposures below OELs. Routine monitoring of symptoms, urinary metals, and oxidative stress biomarkers can help identify instructors who are particularly affected by exposures. These results can assist in guiding protective measures to reduce exposure and protect instructor health. Further, a longitudinal study is needed to determine the long-term health consequences of LFF firing emissions exposure.

      4. Potential exposure from hazardous dust may be assessed by evaluating the dustiness of the powders being handled. Dustiness is the tendency of a powder to aerosolize with a given input of energy. Previously we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to numerically investigate the flow inside the European Standard (EN15051) rotating drum dustiness tester during its operation. The present work extends those CFD studies to the widely used Heubach rotating drum. Air flow characteristics are investigated within the Abe-Kondoh-Nagano k-epsilon turbulence model; the aerosol is incorporated via a Euler-Lagrangian multiphase approach. The air flow inside these drums consists of a well-defined axial jet penetrating relatively quiescent air. The spreading of the Heubach jet results in a fraction of the jet recirculating as back-flow along the drum walls; at high rotation rates, the axial jet becomes unstable. This flow behavior qualitatively differs from the stable EN15051 flow pattern. The aerodynamic instability promotes efficient mixing within the Heubach drum, resulting in higher particle capture efficiencies for particle sizes d < 80 μm. © 2022

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in children in Northeast Egypt
        Naguib D, Roellig DM, Arafat N, Xiao L.
        Parasitol Res. 2022 May 17.
        Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidia in humans worldwide, in addition to infecting a wide range of animals. However, there is limited information about this pathogen in children in Egypt. Here, we carried out a molecular epidemiological study of E. bieneusi in child care centers in three provinces in Egypt. Altogether, 585 fresh fecal samples were collected from children attending 18 child care centers in El-Dakahlia, El-Gharbia, and Damietta provinces in Northeast Egypt during March 2015 to April 2016. PCR and sequence analyses of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were used to detect and genotype E. bieneusi. Twenty-seven fecal samples (4.6%, 27/585) were positive for E. bieneusi. Five genotypes were identified, including type IV (n = 13), Peru8 (n = 9), Peru6 (n = 2), Peru11 (n = 2), and D (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the five genotypes of E. bieneusi detected in this study were clustered into zoonotic group 1. These data provide important information on the prevalence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in children in this country. Further epidemiological studies should be conducted to elucidate the role of zoonotic transmission in human E. bieneusi infections.

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      1. Priority topics for the Community Preventive Services Task Force, 2020-2025: A data-driven, partner-informed approach
        Lansky A, Wethington HR, Mattick K, Chin MH, Alston A, Racine-Parshall J, Minor SL, Cobb J, Hopkins DP.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 Jun;62(6):e375-e378.
        INTRODUCTION: The Community Preventive Services Task Force periodically engages in a process to identify priority topics to guide their work. This article described the process and results for selecting priority topics to guide the work of the Community Preventive Services Task Force for the period 2020-2025. METHODS: The Community Preventive Services Task Force started with Healthy People 2020 topics. They solicited input on topics from partner organizations and the public. The Community Preventive Services Task Force considered information on 8 criteria for each topic. They conducted preliminary voting and applied a priori decision rules regarding the voting results. The Community Preventive Services Task Force then engaged in facilitated deliberations and took a final vote. This process occurred October 2019-June 2020. RESULTS: From Healthy People 2020, a total of 37 topics were selected as the starting point. The initial voting and decision rules resulted in 3 topics being determined as priorities. Community Preventive Services Task Force members considered data and information on the criteria to inform their deliberations on an additional 7 topics. A total of 9 topics were selected as the set of priorities for 2020-2025. CONCLUSIONS: Having a process that is routine and data-driven ensures that the selection of priorities is sound. By reviewing priority topics every 5 years, the Community Preventive Services Task Force will continue to provide relevant recommendations on community preventive services to improve the nation's health.

      2. Evaluation of the first two frontline cohorts of the field epidemiology training program in Guinea, West Africa
        Collins D, Diallo BI, Bah MB, Bah M, Standley CJ, Corvil S, Martel LD, MacDonald PD.
        Hum Resour Health. 2022 May 12;20(1):40.
        BACKGROUND: The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa revealed weaknesses in the health systems of the three most heavily affected countries, including a shortage of public health professionals at the local level trained in surveillance and outbreak investigation. In response, the Frontline Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) was created by CDC in 2015 as a 3-month, accelerated training program in field epidemiology that specifically targets the district level. In Guinea, the first two FETP-Frontline cohorts were held from January to May, and from June to September 2017. Here, we report the results of a cross-sectional evaluation of these first two cohorts of FETP-Frontline in Guinea. METHODS: The evaluation was conducted in April 2018 and consisted of interviews with graduates, their supervisors, and directors of nearby health facilities, as well as direct observation of data reports and surveillance tools at health facilities. Interviews and site visits were conducted using standardized questionnaires and checklists. Qualitative data were coded under common themes and analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The evaluation revealed a significant perception of improvement in all assessed skills by the graduates, as well as high levels of self-reported involvement in key activities related to data collection, analysis, and reporting. Supervisors highlighted improvements to systematic and quality case and summary reporting as key benefits of the FETP-Frontline program. At the health facility level, staff reported the training had resulted in improvements to information sharing and case notifications. Reported barriers included lack of transportation, available support personnel, and other resources. Graduates and supervisors both emphasized the importance of continued and additional training to solidify and retain skills. CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation demonstrated a strongly positive perceived benefit of the FETP-Frontline training on the professional activities of graduates as well as the overall surveillance system. However, efforts are needed to ensure greater gender equity and to recruit more junior trainee candidates for future cohorts. Moreover, although improvements to the surveillance system were observed concurrent with the completion of the two cohorts, the evaluation was not designed to directly measure impact on surveillance or response functions. Combined with the rapid implementation of FETP-Frontline around the world, this suggests an opportunity to develop standardized evaluation toolkits, which could incorporate metrics that would directly assess the impact of equitable field epidemiology workforce development on countries' abilities to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Substance use among adult marijuana and nicotine e-cigarette or vaping product users, 2020
        Watson CV, Alexander DS, Oliver BE, Trivers KF.
        Addict Behav. 2022 May 7;132:107349.
        INTRODUCTION: Co-use of marijuana and tobacco/nicotine have unknown impacts on addiction and health. There are limited data on the extent to which adults are co-using tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- and nicotine-containing products, in any of their various modes. This study describes adult use of THC- and nicotine-containing products among electronic vaping product (EVP) users. METHODS: Data on marijuana and tobacco use were collected from February 25-29, 2020 through an online survey of adults aged ≥18 years who reported using THC- and nicotine-containing electronic vaping products (EVPs) in the past 3 months (n = 3,980). Survey respondents from 18 states participated in the U.S. YouGov panel, a proprietary opt-in internet panel survey of 1.8 million U.S. residents. RESULTS: Among those who reported using nicotine and THC-containing EVPs in the past 3 months, 90.1% of respondents reported smoking marijuana in the past 3 months; 82.7% reported smoking as the most frequent mode of marijuana use. Almost 63% of EVP users reported smoking cigarettes; 55.6% reported smoking for over 8 years, while 7.7% had been smoking cigarettes for under a year. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, respondents reported cigarette smoking and marijuana smoking in addition to using marijuana- and nicotine- containing EVPs. Considering the unknown health effects of co-use of tobacco and THC-containing products, the finding that adults are vaping THC and nicotine alongside traditional modes of marijuana and tobacco use of these substances warrants further investigation. IMPLICATIONS: Findings from this study provide evidence that adults who use nicotine and THC EVPs are also using a variety of other THC-containing and tobacco-containing products. This indicates the importance of continued surveillance to assess trends of polysubstance EVP and multi-modal marijuana and tobacco use. Monitoring various modes of marijuana and tobacco use may inform policies, prevention education, communication, and cessation tools.

      2. Alcohol consumption and 15 causes of fatal injuries: A systematic review and meta-analysis
        Alpert HR, Slater ME, Yoon YH, Chen CM, Winstanley N, Esser MB.
        Am J Prev Med. 2022 May 14.
        INTRODUCTION: The proportion of fatal nontraffic injuries that involve high levels of alcohol use or alcohol intoxication was assessed by cause of injury to generate alcohol-attributable fractions. Updated alcohol-attributable fractions can contribute to improved estimates of the public health impact of excessive alcohol use. METHODS: Peer-reviewed and gray literature for 1995-2019 on 15 causes of fatal nontraffic injuries in the U.S., Canada, or Mexico were systematically reviewed, and state data systems were queried for available estimates of fatalities with recorded blood alcohol concentration levels and proportions of decedents with blood alcohol concentrations ≥0.10 g/dL by cause of injury. For each injury cause, alcohol-attributable fractions across studies were synthesized by meta-analysis of single proportions using generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS: In total, 60 published studies and 40 additional population-level data points from 6 state data systems were included. The meta-analyzed alcohol-attributable fractions by cause of injury are as follows: air-space transport (0.03), aspiration (0.24), child maltreatment (0.09), drowning (0.31), fall injuries (0.37), fire injuries (0.34), firearm injuries (0.24), homicide (0.29), hypothermia (0.29), motor vehicle nontraffic crashes (0.42), occupational and machine injuries (0.08), other road vehicle crashes (railroad trespasser injuries) (0.63), poisoning (not alcohol) (0.20), suicide (0.21), and water transport (0.27), yielding an overall median alcohol-attributable fraction of 0.27. DISCUSSION: Excessive alcohol use is associated with substantial proportions of violent and nonviolent injury deaths. These findings can improve the data used for estimating alcohol-attributable injury deaths and inform the planning and implementation of evidence-based strategies (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes, regulating alcohol outlet density) to prevent them.

      3. Notes from the field: Increase in drug overdose deaths among Hispanic or Latino persons - Nevada, 2019-2020
        Thomas SA, Dinwiddie AT, Monroy E.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 May 13;71(19):667-669.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Early childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with prenatal Zika virus exposure: a cohort study in Puerto Rico
        Alvarado-Domenech LI, Rivera-Amill V, Appleton AA, Rosario-Villafañe V, Repollet-Carrer I, Borges-Rodríguez M, Pérez-Rodríguez NM, Olivieri-Ramos O, González M, González-Montalvo C, Muñiz-Forestier W, Vargas-Lasalle L, Pérez-Padilla J, Paz-Bayley G, Rodríguez-Rabassa M.
        J Pediatr. 2022 May 13.
        OBJECTIVE: To describe anthropometric, sensory, and neurodevelopmental outcomes of Zika virus exposed children from birth to 36 months. STUDY DESIGN: The cohort includes 114 children born to mothers with confirmed and probable ZIKV pregnancy infection, from 2016-2017. Children attending study visits from May 2017 through February 2020 underwent physical/neurologic, sensory examinations, and neurodevelopmental assessments with Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III) and Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3). RESULTS: Three of 114 (2.6%) children had microcephaly (z score < -2) at birth, 19 of 35 (54.3%) had posterior eye abnormalities in retinal image, and 11 of 109 (10.1%) had nonspecific findings on brain ultrasound. Three of 107 (2.8%) failed hearing screening at birth. Of those with follow up, 17 of 97 (17.5%) failed age-appropriate vision screening; BSID-III identified developmental delay in at least one domain in at least one-third of children, with higher prevalence in the language domain. ASQ-3 screen positive delay peaked around 24 or 36 months, some domains showing decrease at older ages. Correlations were observed among BSID-III and ASQ-3 scores, representing professional and parental perspectives at 24 and 36 months (r = 0.32 to 0.78 p<.05). CONCLUSION: The presence of neurodevelopmental sequelae in early childhood suggests that identification of long-term impairment remains critical to attaining optimal child development. Long-term follow up highlights vulnerability in the language domain, which likely could be influenced by early intervention, promoting cognitive development and school readiness among exposed children.

      2. Diverse lineages of pathogenic Leptospira species are widespread in the environment in Puerto Rico, USA
        Stone NE, Hall CM, Ortiz M, Hutton S, Santana-Propper E, Celona KR, Williamson CH, Bratsch N, Fernandes LG, Busch JD, Pearson T, Rivera-Garcia S, Soltero F, Galloway R, Sahl JW, Nally JE, Wagner DM.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2022 May 18;16(5):e0009959.
        BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis, caused by Leptospira bacteria, is a common zoonosis worldwide, especially in the tropics. Reservoir species and risk factors have been identified but surveys for environmental sources are rare. Furthermore, understanding of environmental Leptospira containing virulence associated genes and possibly capable of causing disease is incomplete, which may convolute leptospirosis diagnosis, prevention, and epidemiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected environmental samples from 22 sites in Puerto Rico during three sampling periods over 14-months (Dec 2018-Feb 2020); 10 water and 10 soil samples were collected at each site. Samples were screened for DNA from potentially pathogenic Leptospira using the lipL32 PCR assay and positive samples were sequenced to assess genetic diversity. One urban site in San Juan was sampled three times over 14 months to assess persistence in soil; live leptospires were obtained during the last sampling period. Isolates were whole genome sequenced and LipL32 expression was assessed in vitro. We detected pathogenic Leptospira DNA at 15/22 sites; both soil and water were positive at 5/15 sites. We recovered lipL32 sequences from 83/86 positive samples (15/15 positive sites) and secY sequences from 32/86 (10/15 sites); multiple genotypes were identified at 12 sites. These sequences revealed significant diversity across samples, including four novel lipL32 phylogenetic clades within the pathogenic P1 group. Most samples from the serially sampled site were lipL32 positive at each time point. We sequenced the genomes of six saprophytic and two pathogenic Leptospira isolates; the latter represent a novel pathogenic Leptospira species likely belonging to a new serogroup. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Diverse and novel pathogenic Leptospira are widespread in the environment in Puerto Rico. The disease potential of these lineages is unknown but several were consistently detected for >1 year in soil, which could contaminate water. This work increases understanding of environmental Leptospira diversity and should improve leptospirosis surveillance and diagnostics.

DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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