Issue 40, November 3, 2021
CDC Science Clips: Volume 13, Issue 40, November 3, 2021
This week, Science Clips is pleased to feature articles from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine supplement The Evidence Base for Initial Intervention Strategies for Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S.external icon
In the 40 years since the first reported cases of AIDS, there have been several critical successes, including identifying HIV as the causative agent; defining the sexual and injection drug use behaviors that lead to a high risk for HIV transmission or acquisition; developing HIV antibody and nucleic acid tests; and developing and delivering medications to effectively treat HIV infection. More recently, clinician-delivered interventions were proven effective, including treatment to suppress HIV to levels that don’t permit sexual transmission and antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for persons without HIV if they are exposed to the virus. Use of all these interventions can markedly reduce HIV acquisition and transmission in the U.S. Diagnosis of all persons with HIV to provide them with effective treatment, provision of PrEP to reduce sexual HIV acquisition and clean syringe access to reduce injection related HIV acquisition, and identifying and responding to clusters of rapid HIV spread together form the basis for a new federal initiative: Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) in the U.S. that takes an intensified all of government approach to reduce the number of Americans acquiring HIV infection by 75% by 2025 and by 90% by 2030.
To assist local and state Health Departments serving as the community’s primary mechanism for implementing critical HIV prevention programs, it is critical to share the evidence base for selecting, implementing, and disseminating interventions and strategies proven to be effective and feasible. This journal supplement includes both state of the science articles and best practice articles describing effective intervention strategies conducted by Local Health Departments before the EHE initiative began, for which an evaluation further supports the dissemination of the approach. The content of this supplement is intended to promote the ongoing sharing of lessons learned as Health Departments innovate, implement, and revise program efforts on the basis of an evolving evidence base to achieve EHE goals.Thanks to Dawn K. Smith, MD MS MPH of CDC’s National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention for her assistance with this feature.
- Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic
Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from the last 3 to 6 months of published literature. Key topic coincides monthly with other CDC products (e.g. Vital Signs).
- The Evidence Base for Initial Intervention
Strategies for Ending the HIV Epidemic in the US
Toward Greater Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Equity: Increasing Provision and Uptake for Black and Hispanic/Latino Individuals in the U.Sexternal icon
Bonacci RA, Smith DK, Ojikutu BO.
Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5s1):S60-s72.
Syringe Services Programs' Role in Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S.: Why We Cannot Do It Without Themexternal icon
Broz D, Carnes N, Chapin-Bardales J, Des Jarlais DC, Handanagic S, Jones CM, McClung RP, Asher AK.
Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5s1):S118-s129.
HIV Testing Strategies for Health Departments to End the Epidemic in the U.Sexternal icon
Delaney KP, DiNenno EA.
Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5s1):S6-s15.
Costs and Consequences of Eliminating a Routine, Point-Of-Care HIV Screening Program in a High-Prevalence Jailexternal icon
Hutchinson AB, MacGowan RJ, Margolis AD, Adee MG, Wen W, Bowden CJ, Spaulding AC.
Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5s1):S32-s38.
Response to a Large HIV Outbreak, Cabell County, West Virginia, 2018-2019external icon
McClung RP, Atkins AD, Kilkenny M, Bernstein KT, Willenburg KS, Weimer M, Robilotto S, Panneer N, Thomasson E, Adkins E, Lyss SB, Balleydier S, Edwards A, Chen M, Wilson S, Handanagic S, Hogan V, Watson M, Eubank S, Wright C, Thompson A, DiNenno E, Fanfair RN, Ridpath A, Oster AM.
Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5s1):S143-s150.
HIV Cluster and Outbreak Detection and Response: The Science and Experienceexternal icon
Oster AM, Lyss SB, McClung RP, Watson M, Panneer N, Hernandez AL, Buchacz K, Robilotto SE, Curran KG, Hassan R, Ocfemia MC, Linley L, Perez SM, Phillip SA, France AM.
Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5s1):S130-s142.
The Evidence Base for Initial Intervention Strategies for Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.Sexternal icon
Smith DK, Henny KD, Weidle PJ.
Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5s1):S1-s5.
- The Evidence Base for Initial Intervention Strategies for Ending the HIV Epidemic in the US
- CDC Authored Publications
The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
- Chronic Diseases and Conditions
Disability Among Young Adults With Congenital Heart Defects: Congenital Heart Survey to Recognize Outcomes, Needs, and Well-Being 2016-2019external icon
Downing KF, Oster ME, Klewer SE, Rose CE, Nembhard WN, Andrews JG, Farr SL.
J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Oct 20:e022440.
- Communicable Diseases
STI/HIV Testing, and Prevalence of Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Among Persons with their Specified-type Sex Partnerexternal icon
Patel CG, Tao G.
Am J Med. 2021 Oct 13.
CD4 Count at Entry into Care and at Antiretroviral Therapy Prescription among Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the United States, 2005-2018external icon
Lee JS, Humes EA, Hogan BC, Buchacz K, Eron JJ, Gill MJ, Sterling TR, Rebeiro PF, Lima VD, Mayor A, Silverberg MJ, Horberg MA, Moore RD, Althoff KN.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 5;73(7):e2334-e2337.
Effectiveness of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention in Rakai, Ugandaexternal icon
Loevinsohn G, Kigozi G, Kagaayi J, Wawer MJ, Nalugoda F, Chang LW, Quinn TC, Serwadda D, Reynolds SJ, Nelson L, Mills L, Alamo S, Nakigozi G, Kabuye G, Ssekubugu R, Tobian AA, Gray RH, Grabowski MK.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 5;73(7):e1946-e1953.
Optimal Testing Choice and Diagnostic Strategies for Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among US-Born People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)external icon
Pettit AC, Stout JE, Belknap R, Benson CA, Séraphin MN, Lauzardo M, Horne DJ, Garfein RS, Maruri F, Ho CS.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 5;73(7):e2278-e2284.
A Prospective Cohort Study in Nonhospitalized Household Contacts With Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: Symptom Profiles and Symptom Change Over Timeexternal icon
Yousaf AR, Duca LM, Chu V, Reses HE, Fajans M, Rabold EM, Laws RL, Gharpure R, Matanock A, Wadhwa A, Pomeroy M, Njuguna H, Fox G, Binder AM, Christiansen A, Freeman B, Gregory C, Tran CH, Owusu D, Ye D, Dietrich E, Pevzner E, Conners EE, Pray I, Rispens J, Vuong J, Christensen K, Banks M, O'Hegarty M, Mills L, Lester S, Thornburg NJ, Lewis N, Dawson P, Marcenac P, Salvatore P, Chancey RJ, Fields V, Buono S, Yin S, Gerber S, Kiphibane T, Dasu T, Bhattacharyya S, Westergaard R, Dunn A, Hall AJ, Fry AM, Tate JE, Kirking HL, Nabity S.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 5;73(7):e1841-e1849.
Patterns of Virus Exposure and Presumed Household Transmission among Persons with Coronavirus Disease, United States, January-April 2020external icon
Burke RM, Calderwood L, Killerby ME, Ashworth CE, Berns AL, Brennan S, Bressler JM, Morano LH, Lewis NM, Markus TM, Newton SM, Read JS, Rissman T, Taylor J, Tate JE, Midgley CM.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Sep;27(9):2323-2332.
Hepatitis B virus elimination status and strategies in circumpolar countries, 2020external icon
Haering C, McMahon B, Harris A, Weis N, Lundberg Ederth J, Axelsson M, Olafsson S, Osiowy C, Tomas K, Bollerup S, Liitsola K, Archibald C, Blystad H, Bruce M, Nolen L.
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2021 Dec;80(1):1986975.
Developing and Validating an Effective Pediatric and Adolescent HIV Testing Eligibility Screening Tool for High-Volume Entry Points in Ugandaexternal icon
Katureebe C, Ashburn K, Machekano R, Gill MM, Gross J, Kazooba P, Kiyonga A, Taasi G, Adler M, Nazziwa E, Rivadeneira ED, Kekitiinwa A, Magongo E, Matovu JB, Nantume S, Bitarakwate E.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2021 Nov 1;88(3):290-298.
Adverse event profile and associated factors following surgical voluntary medical male circumcision in two regions of Namibia, 2015-2018external icon
O'Bryan G, Feldacker C, Ensminger A, Nghatanga M, Brandt L, Shepard M, Billah I, Aupokolo M, Mengistu AT, Forster N, Zemburuka B, Sithole E, Mutandi G, Barnhart S, O'Malley G.
PLoS One. 2021 ;16(10):e0258611.
Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasma genitalium Infection, United States, 2017 to 2018external icon
Torrone EA, Kruszon-Moran D, Philips C, Morris MR, Bowden KE, Papp J, Bachmann LH, Weinstock H, Kersh EN.
Sex Transm Dis. 2021 Nov 1;48(11):e160-e162.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Funded STD Programsexternal icon
Wright SS, Kreisel KM, Hitt JC, Pagaoa MA, Weinstock HS, Thorpe PG.
Sex Transm Dis. 2021 Oct 12.
- Drug Safety
Trends in Office Visits During Which Opioids Were Prescribed for Adults With Arthritis in the US, 2006-2015external icon
Santo L, Schappert SM, Hootman JM, Helmick CG.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021 Oct;73(10):1430-1435.
- Environmental Health
Provision of folic acid for reducing arsenic toxicity in arsenic-exposed children and adultsexternal icon
Bae S, Kamynina E, Guetterman HM, Farinola AF, Caudill MA, Berry RJ, Cassano PA, Stover PJ.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Oct 18;10:Cd012649.
Maternal urinary OPE metabolite concentrations and blood pressure during pregnancy: The HOME studyexternal icon
Yang W, Braun JM, Vuong AM, Percy Z, Xu Y, Xie C, Deka R, Calafat AM, Ospina M, Werner E, Yolton K, Cecil KM, Lanphear BP, Chen A.
Environ Res. 2021 Oct 14:112220.
A Million Persons, A Million Dreams: A Vision For A National Center Of Radiation Epidemiology And Biologyexternal icon
Boice JD, Quinn B, Al-Nabulsi I, Ansari A, Blake PK, Blattnig SR, Caffrey EA, Cohen SS, Golden AP, Held KD, Jokisch DW, Leggett RW, Mumma MT, Samuels C, Till JE, Tolmachev SY, Yoder RC, Zhou JY, Dauer LT.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2021 Oct 20:1-50.
- Epidemiology and Surveillance
Research on the Epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Essential Response Personnel (RECOVER) Study: Protocol for a multi-site longitudinal cohortexternal icon
Edwards LJ, Fowlkes AL, Wesley MG, Kuntz JL, Odean MJ, Caban-Martinez AJ, Dunnigan K, Phillips AL, Grant L, Herring MK, Groom HC, Respet K, Beitel S, Zunie T, Hegmann KT, Kumar A, Joseph G, Poe B, Louzado-Feliciano P, Smith ME, Thiese MS, Schaefer-Solle N, Yoo YM, Silvera CA, Mayo Lamberte J, Mak J, McDonald LC, Stuckey MJ, Kutty P, Arvay ML, Yoon SK, Tyner HL, Burgess JL, Hunt DR, Meece J, Gaglani M, Naleway AL, Thompson MG.
JMIR Res Protoc. 2021 Oct 7.
Recommended reporting items for epidemic forecasting and prediction research: The EPIFORGE 2020 guidelinesexternal icon
Pollett S, Johansson MA, Reich NG, Brett-Major D, Del Valle SY, Venkatramanan S, Lowe R, Porco T, Berry IM, Deshpande A, Kraemer MU, Blazes DL, Pan-Ngum W, Vespigiani A, Mate SE, Silal SP, Kandula S, Sippy R, Quandelacy TM, Morgan JJ, Ball J, Morton LC, Althouse BM, Pavlin J, van Panhuis W, Riley S, Biggerstaff M, Viboud C, Brady O, Rivers C.
PLoS Med. 2021 Oct;18(10):e1003793.
Hospital-level factors associated with death during pneumonia-associated hospitalization among adults-New York City, 2010-2014external icon
Whittemore K, Garcia KM, Huang CC, Lim S, Daskalakis DC, Vora NM, Lucero DE.
PLoS One. 2021 ;16(10):e0256678.
- Health Behavior and Risk
Acceptability of a Dapivirine/Placebo Gel Administered Rectally to HIV-1 Seronegative Adults (MTN-026)external icon
Bauermeister JA, Tingler RC, Dominguez C, Dunne EF, Hoesley C, Ho K, Johnson S, Lucas J, Macagna N, Brown E, Gundacker H, Peda M, Jacobson CE, Kramzer L, Singh D, Dezzutti CS, Ayudhya R, Marzinke MA, Piper J, Devlin B, Nuttall J, McGowan I, Hendrix CW, Cranston RD.
AIDS Behav. 2021 Oct 17.
Trends in the Number and Characteristics of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Providers in the United States, 2014-2019external icon
Zhu W, Huang YA, Kourtis AP, Hoover KW.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2021 Nov 1;88(3):282-289.
Long-Acting Reversible Contraception, Condom Use, and Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisexternal icon
Steiner RJ, Pampati S, Kortsmit KM, Liddon N, Swartzendruber A, Pazol K.
Am J Prev Med. 2021 Nov;61(5):750-760.
- Health Disparities
Race-Based Medical Mistrust, HIV-Related Stigma, and ART Adherence in a Diverse Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men with HIVexternal icon
Meyers-Pantele SA, Sullivan P, Mansergh G, Hirshfield S, Stephenson R, Horvath KJ.
AIDS Behav. 2021 Oct 20.
Healthcare Access and Utilization for Young Adults With Disability: U.S., 2014-2018external icon
Verlenden JV, Zablotsky B, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Peacock G.
J Adolesc Health. 2021 Oct 15.
Telehealth Availability and Usage Among Medicare Beneficiaries During the COVID-19 Pandemic, October and November 2020external icon
Chang MH, Moonesinghe R, Truman BI.
J Public Health Manag Pract. 2021 Oct 12.
How cancer programs identify and address the financial burdens of rural cancer patientsexternal icon
Petermann V, Zahnd WE, Vanderpool RC, Eberth JM, Rohweder C, Teal R, Vu M, Stradtman L, Frost E, Trapl E, Koopman Gonzalez S, Vu T, Ko LK, Cole A, Farris PE, Shannon J, Lee J, Askelson N, Seegmiller L, White A, Edward J, Davis M, Wheeler SB.
Support Care Cancer. 2021 Oct 16.
- Health Economics
An economic evaluation of an intervention to increase demand for medical male circumcision among men aged 25-49 years in South Africaexternal icon
Holmes M, Mukora R, Mudzengi D, Charalambous S, Chetty-Makkan CM, Kisbey-Green H, Maraisane M, Grund J.
BMC Health Serv Res. 2021 Oct 15;21(1):1097.
Estimated economic burden of cancer associated with suboptimal diet in the United Statesexternal icon
Khushalani JS, Cudhea FP, Ekwueme DU, Ruan M, Shan Z, Harris DM, Mozaffarian D, Zhang FF.
Cancer Causes Control. 2021 Oct 15.
The health and economic benefits of tests that predict future progression to tuberculosis diseaseexternal icon
Menzies NA, Shrestha S, Parriott A, Marks SM, Hill AN, Dowdy DW, Shete PB, Cohen T, Salomon JA.
Epidemiology. 2021 Sep 9.
Modeling the Cost-Effectiveness of Express Multisite Gonorrhea Screening Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in the United Statesexternal icon
Earnest R, Rönn MM, Bellerose M, Menon-Johansson AS, Berruti AA, Chesson HW, Gift TL, Hsu KK, Testa C, Zhu L, Malyuta Y, Menzies NA, Salomon JA.
Sex Transm Dis. 2021 Nov 1;48(11):805-812.
Costs of Identifying Cases of Syphilis Using Rapid Syphilis Tests in Multiple Nonclinical Settings in the United Statesexternal icon
Williams AM, Berruti AA.
Sex Transm Dis. 2021 Nov 1;48(11):895-899.
- Healthcare Associated Infections
Bioaerosol Sampling for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a Referral Center with Critically Ill Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patients March-May 2020external icon
Lane MA, Brownsword EA, Babiker A, Ingersoll JM, Waggoner J, Ayers M, Klopman M, Uyeki TM, Lindsley WG, Kraft CS.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 5;73(7):e1790-e1794.
- Immunity and Immunization
An Evaluation of Dose-related HPV Vaccine Effectiveness Using Central Registries in Michiganexternal icon
Gargano JW, You M, Potter R, Alverson G, Swanson R, Saraiya M, Markowitz LE, Copeland G.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2021 Oct 18.
Adenoviral vector-based platforms for developing effective vaccines to combat respiratory viral infectionsexternal icon
Elkashif A, Alhashimi M, Sayedahmed EE, Sambhara S, Mittal SK.
Clin Transl Immunology. 2021 ;10(10):e1345.
Uncertainty in Geospatial Health: Challenges and Opportunities Aheadexternal icon
Delmelle E, Desjardins MR, Jung P, Owusu C, Lan Y, Hohl A, Dony C.
Ann Epidemiol. 2021 Oct 14.
- Laboratory Sciences
Successful Implementation of a Rapid Screening Tool for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndromeexternal icon
Oliver TT, Dyal JW, Talker DL, Safaeian S, Yazzie D, Kofman AD, D'Andrea SM, Saleki M, Ingall GB, Choi MJ, Antone-Nez R.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2021 Oct 19.
Acquisition of Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among an Expanding Clade of β-Lactamase-Positive, Serogroup Y Neisseria meningitidis in the United Statesexternal icon
Potts CC, Retchless AC, McNamara LA, Marasini D, Reese N, Swint S, Hu F, Sharma S, Blain AE, Lonsway D, Karlsson M, Hariri S, Fox LM, Wang X.
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 5;73(7):1185-1193.
Isotope-Dilution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Selective Detection of Nicotine and Menthol in E-Cigarette, or Vaping, Product Liquids and Aerosolsexternal icon
Pérez JJ, Watson CH, Blount BC, Valentín-Blasini L.
Front Chem. 2021 ;9:754096.
Evaluation of methods for detection of β-lactamase production in MSSAexternal icon
Skov R, Lonsway DR, Larsen J, Larsen AR, Samulioniené J, Limbago BM.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2021 May 12;76(6):1487-1494.
Development of a new peptide-bead coupling method for an all peptide-based Luminex multiplexing assay for detection of Plasmodium falciparum antibody responsesexternal icon
Wakeman BS, Shakamuri P, McDonald MA, Weinberg J, Svoboda P, Murphy MK, Kariuki S, Mace K, Elder E, Rivera H, Qvarnstrom Y, Pohl J, Shi YP.
J Immunol Methods. 2021 Sep 21;499:113148.
Purification of native histidine-rich protein 2 (nHRP2) from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant, infected RBCs, and parasite lysateexternal icon
Singh B, McCaffery JN, Kong A, Ah Y, Wilson S, Chatterjee S, Tomar D, Aidoo M, Udhayakumar V, Rogier E.
Malar J. 2021 Oct 17;20(1):405.
Modification of the multiplex plasmid PCR assay for Borrelia miyamotoi strain LB-2001 based on the complete genome sequence reflecting genomic rearrangements differing from strain CT13-2396external icon
Gilmore RD, Kneubehl AR, Lopez JE, Armstrong BA, Brandt KS, Van Gundy TJ.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2021 Oct 11;13(1):101843.
- Maternal and Child Health
SARS-CoV-2 Infection among Pregnant and Postpartum Women, Kenya, 2020-2021external icon
Otieno NA, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Nyawanda BO, Oreri E, Ellington S, Onyango C, Emukule GO.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Sep;27(9):2497-2499.
- Occupational Safety and Health
Poor-quality employment and health: How a welfare regime typology with a gender lens Illuminates a different work-health relationship for men and womenexternal icon
Fujishiro K, Ahonen EQ, Winkler M.
Soc Sci Med. 2021 Oct 12;291:114484.
- Occupational Safety and Health - Mining
The human factors of mineworker fatigue: An overview on prevalence, mitigation, and what's nextexternal icon
Bauerle TJ, Sammarco JJ, Dugdale ZJ, Dawson D.
Am J Ind Med. 2021 Oct 20.
- Parasitic Diseases
Evidence supporting deployment of next generation insecticide treated nets in Burkina Faso: bioassays with either chlorfenapyr or piperonyl butoxide increase mortality of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiaeexternal icon
Hien AS, Soma DD, Maiga S, Coulibaly D, Diabaté A, Belemvire A, Diouf MB, Jacob D, Koné A, Dotson E, Awolola TS, Oxborough RM, Dabiré RK.
Malar J. 2021 Oct 18;20(1):406.
In vivo efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine and amodiaquine-artesunate for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mozambique, 2018external icon
Nhama A, Nhamússua L, Macete E, Bassat Q, Salvador C, Enosse S, Candrinho B, Carvalho E, Nhacolo A, Chidimatembue A, Saifodine A, Zulliger R, Lucchi N, Svigel SS, Moriarty LF, Halsey ES, Mayor A, Aide P.
Malar J. 2021 Oct 2;20(1):390.
- Substance Use and Abuse
Trends in and Characteristics of Buprenorphine Misuse Among Adults in the USexternal icon
Han B, Jones CM, Einstein EB, Compton WM.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Oct 1;4(10):e2129409.
- Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Humans in Uganda, 2013-2019external icon
Balinandi S, Whitmer S, Mulei S, Nyakarahuka L, Tumusiime A, Kyondo J, Baluku J, Mutyaba J, Mugisha L, Malmberg M, Lutwama J, Shoemaker T, Klena J.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 18.
Perceptions of Health Care, Information, and Social Support Among Women Affected by Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy in Two U.S. Statesexternal icon
Squiers L, Brown S, Hauser K, Lynch M, Treiman K, Polen K, Amoozegar J, Quiroz R, Tong V, Waddell L, Gilboa S.
Matern Child Health J. 2021 Oct 20.
Leptospiral Infections in Humansexternal icon
Haake DA, Galloway RL.
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter. 2021 ;43(20):173-180.
- Chronic Diseases and Conditions
CDC Science Clips Production Staff
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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.