Issue 38, October 19, 2021

CDC Science Clips: Volume 13, Issue 38, October 19, 2021

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions.

  1. Top Articles of the Week
    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      • Type 1 diabetes in 2017: global estimates of incident and prevalent cases in children and adultsexternal icon
        Green A, Hede SM, Patterson CC, Wild SH, Imperatore G, Roglic G, Beran D.
        Diabetologia. 2021 Oct 2.
        AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Data on type 1 diabetes incidence and prevalence are limited, particularly for adults. This study aims to estimate global numbers of incident and prevalent cases of type 1 diabetes in 2017 for all age groups, by country and areas defined by income and region. METHODS: Incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in children (available from 94 countries) from the IDF Atlas were used and extrapolated to countries without data. Age-specific incidence rates in adults (only known across full age range for fewer than ten countries) were obtained by applying scaling ratios for each adult age group relative to the incidence rate in children. Age-specific incidence rates were applied to population estimates to obtain incident case numbers. Duration of diabetes was estimated from available data and adjusted using differences in childhood mortality rate between countries from United Nations demographic data. Prevalent case numbers were derived by modelling the relationship between prevalence, incidence and disease duration. Sensitivity analyses were performed to quantify the impact of alternative assumptions and model inputs. RESULTS: Global numbers of incident and prevalent cases of type 1 diabetes were estimated to be 234,710 and 9,004,610, respectively, in 2017. High-income countries, with 17% of the global population, accounted for 49% of global incident cases and 52% of prevalent cases. Asia, which has the largest proportion of the world's population (60%), had the largest number of incident (32%) and prevalent (31%) cases of type 1 diabetes. Globally, 6%, 35%, 43% and 16% of prevalent cases were in the age groups 0-14, 15-39, 40-64 and 65+ years, respectively. Based on sensitivity analyses, the estimates could deviate by ±15%. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Globally, type 1 diabetes represents about 2% of the estimated total cases of diabetes, ranging from less than 1% in certain Pacific countries to more than 15% in Northern European populations in 2017. This study provides information for the development of healthcare and policy approaches to manage type 1 diabetes. The estimates need further validation due to limitations and assumptions related to data availability and estimation methods.

    • Communicable Diseases
      • Contributions of community-based organizations funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's HIV Testing Programexternal icon
        Marano-Lee M, Williams W, Uhl G, Eke A, Joshua T, Xu S, Carter J, Rakestraw A, Dunbar E.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2021 Oct 4.
        CONTEXT: HIV testing is a critically important first step in preventing and reducing HIV transmission. Community-based organizations (CBOs) are uniquely positioned to provide HIV testing and other prevention services to populations disproportionately affected by HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this analysis was to assess CDC-funded health department (HD) and CBO testing programs during 2012-2017, including the number of tests and HIV positivity. DESIGN: This is an analysis of National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation HIV testing data submitted between 2012 and 2017 to CDC. SETTING: Sixty-one CDC-funded state and local HDs in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands and between 122 and 175 CDC-funded CBOs, depending on the year. PARTICIPANTS: Persons who received HIV testing at CDC-funded CBOs and HDs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The number of HIV tests and positivity at CBOs were compared with HDs overall and to HDs in non-health care settings that, like CBOs, include HIV risk data and are in similar locations. RESULTS: CBOs accounted for 7625 (8%) new diagnoses but conducted only 3% of the almost 19 million CDC-funded HIV tests from 2012 to 2017. Newly diagnosed HIV positivity at CBOs (1.4%) was nearly 3 times the new positivity at HDs overall (0.5%) and twice that of new positivity at HDs in non-health care settings (0.7%). A higher proportion of tests at CBOs were conducted among groups at risk, and new HIV positivity was higher for most demographic and population groups than new HIV positivity at HDs in non-health care settings. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the essential role CDC-funded CBOs have in reaching, testing, and diagnosing groups at high risk for acquiring HIV infection.

    • Health Economics
      • Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception: Review of insertion and device reimbursement policiesexternal icon
        Kroelinger CD, Okoroh EM, Uesugi K, Romero L, Sappenfield OR, Howland JF, Cox S.
        Womens Health Issues. 2021 Sep 30.
        BACKGROUND: Previous assessment of statewide policies on long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) indicate that an increasing number of states are implementing policies specifically for provision immediately postpartum, supported by current clinical guidelines. Less is known about how state policies describe payment methodologies for the insertion procedure and device costs. METHODS: We conducted a systematic, web-based review of publicly available statewide policy language on immediate postpartum LARC among all 50 states. We examined the payor/s identified in the policy and policy type, if the policy included language on the global obstetric fee, whether providers and/or facilities were authorized to bill for procedure or device costs, and if the billing mechanism was identified as inpatient and/or outpatient services. RESULTS: Three-fourths of states (76%; n = 38) had statewide policies on immediate postpartum LARC. All policies identified Medicaid as the payor, although two also included non-Medicaid plans. Language allowing for reimbursement separate from the global obstetric fee for insertion procedures was present in 76% of states; 23 states permit it and 6 do not. Device cost reimbursement separate from the fee was identified in more state policies (92%); 31 states allow it and 4 do not. More policies included inpatient or outpatient billing mechanisms for device costs (82%; n = 31) than insertion procedures (50%; n = 19). CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid reimbursement policies for immediate postpartum LARC services vary by state reimbursement process, type, and mechanism. Observed differences indicate payment methodologies more often include the cost of the device than provider reimbursement (31 states vs. 23 states). Fewer than one-half of states offer reimbursement for provider insertion fees, a significant systems barrier to contraceptive access for women who choose LARC immediately postpartum.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      • Investigation of bacterial infections among patients treated with umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell therapiesexternal icon
        Hartnett KP, Powell KM, Rankin D, Gable P, Kim JJ, Spoto S, Breaker E, Hunter R, Dotson N, McAllister G, Stevens V, Halpin AL, Houston H, Epson E, Malarkey M, Mendoza M, McNeill L, Perkins KM.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Oct 1;4(10):e2128615.
        IMPORTANCE: The number of clinics marketing stem cell products for joint diseases, chronic pain, and most recently, COVID-19, has increased despite warnings from the US Food and Drug Administration that stem cell products for these and other indications have not been proven safe or effective. OBJECTIVE: To examine bacterial infections in 20 patients who received umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This case series is a national public health investigation including case-finding, medical record review and abstraction, and laboratory investigation, including sterility testing of products and whole-genome sequencing of patient and product isolates. Participants included patients who developed bacterial infections following administration of umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment during August 2017 to September 2018. Data analysis was performed from March 2019 to September 2021. EXPOSURES: Umbilical cord blood-derived products marketed as stem cell treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Data were collected on patient infections and exposures. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed sterility testing on undistributed and distributed vials of product marketed as stem cell treatment and performed whole-genome sequencing to compare patient and product bacterial isolates. RESULTS: Culture-confirmed bacterial infections were identified in 20 patients (median [range] age, 63 [2-89] years; 13 male patients [65%]) from 8 US states who sought stem cell treatment for conditions including pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and injury; all but 1 required hospitalization. The most frequently isolated bacteria from patients with infections were common enteric species, including Escherichia coli (14 patients) and Enterobacter cloacae (7 patients). Of unopened, undistributed products sampled for testing, 65% (22 of 34 vials) were contaminated with at least 1 of 16 bacterial species, mostly enteric. A patient isolate from Arizona matched isolates obtained from products administered to patients in Florida, and patient isolates from Texas matched undistributed product sent from the company in California. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Unapproved stem cell products can expose patients to serious risks without proven benefit. Sequencing results suggest a common source of extensive contamination, likely occurring during the processing of cord blood into product. Patients and health care practitioners who are considering the use of unapproved products marketed as stem cell treatment should be aware of their unproven benefits and potential risks, including serious infections.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Association of the COVID-19 pandemic with routine childhood vaccination rates and proportion up to date with vaccinations across 8 US health systems in the Vaccine Safety Datalinkexternal icon
        DeSilva MB, Haapala J, Vazquez-Benitez G, Daley MF, Nordin JD, Klein NP, Henninger ML, Williams JT, Hambidge SJ, Jackson ML, Donahue JG, Qian L, Lindley MC, Gee J, Weintraub ES, Kharbanda EO.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Oct 7.
        IMPORTANCE: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine vaccine delivery in the US and globally. The magnitude of these disruptions and their association with childhood vaccination coverage are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare trends in pediatric vaccination before and during the pandemic and to evaluate the proportion of children up to date (UTD) with vaccinations by age, race, and ethnicity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This surveillance study used a prepandemic-postpandemic control design with data from 8 health systems in California, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, Minnesota, and Wisconsin in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Children from age groups younger than 24 months and 4 to 6, 11 to 13, and 16 to 18 years were included if they had at least 1 week of health system enrollment from January 5, 2020, through October 3, 2020, over periods before the US COVID-19 pandemic (January 5, 2020, through March 14, 2020), during age-limited preventive care (March 15, 2020, through May 16, 2020), and during expanded primary care (May 17, 2020, through October 3, 2020). These individuals were compared with those enrolled during analogous weeks in 2019. EXPOSURES: This study evaluated UTD status among children reaching specific ages in February, May, and September 2020, compared with those reaching these ages in 2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Weekly vaccination rates for routine age-specific vaccines and the proportion of children UTD for all age-specific recommended vaccines. RESULTS: Of 1 399 708 children in 2019 and 1 402 227 in 2020, 1 371 718 were female (49.0%) and 1 429 979 were male (51.0%); 334 216 Asian individuals (11.9%), 900 226 were Hispanic individuals (32.1%), and 201 619 non-Hispanic Black individuals (7.2%). Compared with the prepandemic period and 2019, the age-limited preventive care period was associated with lower weekly vaccination rates, with ratios of rate ratios of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.80-0.85) among those younger than 24 months, 0.18 (95% CI, 0.16-0.20) among those aged 4 to 6 years, 0.16 (95% CI, 0.14-0.17) among those aged 11 to 13 years, and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.08-0.13) among those aged 16 to 18 years. Vaccination rates during expanded primary care remained lower for most ages (ratios of rate ratios: <24 months, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-0.98]; 11-13 years, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.76-0.86]; 16-18 years, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.51-0.63]). In September 2020, 74% (95% CI, 73%-76%) of infants aged 7 months and 57% (95% CI, 56%-58%) of infants aged 18 months were UTD vs 81% (95% CI, 80%-82%) and 61% (95% CI, 60%-62%), respectively, in September 2019. The proportion UTD was lowest in non-Hispanic Black children across most age groups, both during and prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (eg, in May 2019, 70% [95% CI, 64%-75%] of non-Hispanic Black infants aged 7 months were UTD vs 82% [95% CI, 81%-83%] in all infants aged 7 months combined). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: As of September 2020, childhood vaccination rates and the proportion who were UTD remained lower than 2019 levels. Interventions are needed to promote catch-up vaccination, particularly in populations at risk for underimmunization.

    • Injury and Violence
      • Background: Motor-vehicles crashes are a leading cause of death among children. Age- and size-appropriate restraint use can prevent crash injuries and deaths among children. Strategies to increase child restraint use should be informed by reliable estimates of restraint use practices. Objective: Compare parent/caregiver-reported and observed child restraint use estimates from the FallStyles and Estilos surveys with the National Survey of the Use of Booster Seats (NSUBS). Methods: Estimates of child restraint use from two online, cross-sectional surveys—FallStyles, a survey of U.S. adults, and Estilos, a survey of U.S. Hispanic adults—were compared with observed data collected in NSUBS. Parents/caregivers of children aged ≤ 12 years were asked about the child's restraint use behaviors in FallStyles and Estilos, while restraint use was observed in NSUBS. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined as rear-facing child safety seat (CSS) use for children aged 0–4 years, forward-facing CSS use for children aged 2–7 years, booster seat use for children aged 5–12 years, and seat belt use for children aged 9–12 years. Age-appropriate restraint users are described by demographic characteristics and seat row, with weighted prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated. Results: Overall, child restraint use as reported by parents/caregivers was 90.8% (CI: 87.5–94.1) (FallStyles) and 89.4% (CI: 85.5–93.4) for observed use (NSUBS). Among Hispanic children, reported restraint use was 82.6% (CI: 73.9–91.3) (Estilos) and 84.4% (CI: 79.0–88.6) for observed use (NSUBS, Hispanic children only). For age-appropriate restraint use, estimates ranged from 74.3% (CI: 69.7–79.0) (FallStyles) to 59.7% (CI: 55.0–64.4) (NSUBS), and for Hispanic children, from 71.5% (CI: 62.1–81.0) (Estilos) to 57.2% (CI: 51.2–63.2) (NSUBS, Hispanic children only). Conclusion and Practical Application: Overall estimates of parent/caregiver-reported and observed child restraint use were similar. However, for age-appropriate restraint use, reported use was higher than observed use for most age groups. © 2021

    • Laboratory Sciences
      • Genotyping Cyclospora cayetanensis from multiple outbreak clusters with an emphasis on a cluster linked to bagged salad mix - United States, 2020external icon
        Barratt J, Ahart L, Rice M, Houghton K, Richins T, Cama V, Arrowood M, Qvarnstrom Y, Straily A.
        J Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 4.
        Cyclosporiasis is a diarrheal illness caused by the food-borne parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. Annually reported cases have been increasing in the United States prompting development of genotyping tools to aid cluster detection. A recently developed Cyclospora genotyping system based on eight genetic markers was applied to clinical samples collected during the cyclosporiasis peak-period of 2020, facilitating assessment of its epidemiologic utility. While the system performed well and helped inform epidemiological investigations, inclusion of additional markers to improve cluster detection was supported. Consequently, investigations have commenced to identify additional markers to enhance performance.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      • Food preparation practices for infants aged from 7 to 13 monthsexternal icon
        Czarnik M, Hamner HC, Moore LV.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2021 Sep 28.
        OBJECTIVE: To examine infant food preparation practices at age 7, 9, 11, and 13 months overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN: Data from a longitudinal study from the US Department of Agriculture's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (ITFPS-2) were used. PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 1,904 infants (970 males and 934 females) enrolled in WIC who had been introduced to solid foods and were consuming food prepared at home. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food preparation practices included pureeing, mashing, chopping/dicing, and prechewing. Estimates were provided overall and by sociodemographics. ANALYSIS: Prevalence estimates were calculated for each survey month overall and by sociodemographics. Chi-square tests for independence were used to test for differences. RESULTS: Food preparation practices changed as infants aged. Pureeing and mashing were common in month 7 (57.8% and 59.6%, respectively), but chopping/dicing were the most prevalent by month 13 (85.4%). Food preparation practices did not vary by education status, but statistical differences were consistently observed by race and ethnicity and inconsistently observed by maternal age at birth. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Exposing children to a range of food textures at an appropriate age is important for developmental progress. Continued culturally relevant efforts by WIC educators and health care providers can emphasize the importance of early experiences with food textures.

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
    • Reproductive Health
      • Preventing pregnancy-related mental health deaths: Insights from 14 US Maternal Mortality Review Committees, 2008-17external icon
        Trost SL, Beauregard JL, Smoots AN, Ko JY, Haight SC, Moore Simas TA, Byatt N, Madni SA, Goodman D.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2021 Oct;40(10):1551-1559.
        Each year approximately 700 people die in the United States from pregnancy-related complications. We describe the characteristics of pregnancy-related deaths due to mental health conditions, including substance use disorders, and identify opportunities for prevention based on recommendations from fourteen state Maternal Mortality Review Committees (MMRCs) from the period 2008-17. Among 421 pregnancy-related deaths with an MMRC-determined underlying cause of death, 11 percent were due to mental health conditions. Pregnancy-related mental health deaths were more likely than deaths from other causes to be determined by an MMRC to be preventable (100 percent versus 64 percent), to occur among non-Hispanic White people (86 percent versus 45 percent), and to occur 43-365 days postpartum (63 percent versus 18 percent). Sixty-three percent of pregnancy-related mental health deaths were by suicide. Nearly three-quarters of people with a pregnancy-related mental health cause of death had a history of depression, and more than two-thirds had past or current substance use. MMRC recommendations can be used to prioritize interventions and can inform strategies to enable screening, care coordination, and continuation of care throughout pregnancy and the year postpartum.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      • US emergency department visits attributed to medication harms, 2017-2019external icon
        Budnitz DS, Shehab N, Lovegrove MC, Geller AI, Lind JN, Pollock DA.
        Jama. 2021 Oct 5;326(13):1299-1309.
        IMPORTANCE: Assessing the scope of acute medication harms to patients should include both therapeutic and nontherapeutic medication use. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits for acute harms from both therapeutic and nontherapeutic medication use in the US. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Active, nationally representative, public health surveillance based on patient visits to 60 EDs in the US participating in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance Project from 2017 through 2019. EXPOSURES: Medications implicated in ED visits, with visits attributed to medication harms (adverse events) based on the clinicians' diagnoses and supporting data documented in the medical record. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Nationally weighted estimates of ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations for medication harms. RESULTS: Based on 96 925 cases (mean patient age, 49 years; 55% female), there were an estimated 6.1 (95% CI, 4.8-7.5) ED visits for medication harms per 1000 population annually and 38.6% (95% CI, 35.2%-41.9%) resulted in hospitalization. Population rates of ED visits for medication harms were higher for patients aged 65 years or older than for those younger than 65 years (12.1 vs 5.0 [95% CI, 7.4-16.8 vs 4.1-5.8] per 1000 population). Overall, an estimated 69.1% (95% CI, 63.6%-74.7%) of ED visits for medication harms involved therapeutic medication use, but among patients younger than 45 years, an estimated 52.5% (95% CI, 48.1%-56.8%) of visits for medication harms involved nontherapeutic use. The proportions of ED visits for medication harms involving therapeutic use were lowest for barbiturates (6.3%), benzodiazepines (11.1%), nonopioid analgesics (15.7%), and antihistamines (21.8%). By age group, the most frequent medication types and intents of use associated with ED visits for medication harms were therapeutic use of anticoagulants (4.5 [95% CI, 2.3-6.7] per 1000 population) and diabetes agents (1.8 [95% CI, 1.3-2.3] per 1000 population) for patients aged 65 years and older; therapeutic use of diabetes agents (0.8 [95% CI, 0.5-1.0] per 1000 population) for patients aged 45 to 64 years; nontherapeutic use of benzodiazepines (1.0 [95% CI, 0.7-1.3] per 1000 population) for patients aged 25 to 44 years; and unsupervised medication exposures (2.2 [95% CI, 1.8-2.7] per 1000 population) and therapeutic use of antibiotics (1.4 [95% CI, 1.0-1.8] per 1000 population) for children younger than 5 years. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: According to data from 60 nationally representative US emergency departments, visits attributed to medication harms in 2017-2019 were frequent, with variation in products and intent of use by age.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Asthma among adults and children by urban-rural classification scheme, United States, 2016-2018external icon
        Guo Z, Qin X, Pate CA, Zahran HS, Malilay J.
        Public Health Rep. 2021 Oct 4.
        OBJECTIVES: Although data on the prevalence of current asthma among adults and children are available at national, regional, and state levels, such data are limited at the substate level (eg, urban-rural classification and county). We examined the prevalence of current asthma in adults and children across 6 levels of urban-rural classification in each state. METHODS: We estimated current asthma prevalence among adults for urban-rural categories in the 50 states and the District of Columbia and among children for urban-rural categories in 27 states by analyzing 2016-2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data. We used the 2013 National Center for Health Statistics 6-level urban-rural classification scheme to define urban-rural status of counties. RESULTS: During 2016-2018, the current asthma prevalence among US adults in medium metropolitan (9.5%), small metropolitan (9.5%), micropolitan (10.0%), and noncore (9.6%) areas was higher than the asthma prevalence in large central metropolitan (8.6%) and large fringe metropolitan (8.7%) areas. Current asthma prevalence in adults differed significantly among the 6 levels of urban-rural categories in 19 states. In addition, the prevalence of current asthma in adults was significantly higher in the Northeast (9.9%) than in the South (8.7%) and the West (8.8%). The current asthma prevalence in children differed significantly by urban-rural categories in 7 of 27 states. For these 7 states, the prevalence of asthma in children was higher in large central metropolitan areas than in micropolitan or noncore areas, except for Oregon, in which the prevalence in the large central metropolitan area was the lowest. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about county-level current asthma prevalence in adults and children may aid state and local policy makers and public health officers in establishing effective asthma control programs and targeted resource allocation.

      2. Demographic correlates of short-term mortality among youth and young adults with youth-onset diabetes diagnosed from 2002 to 2015: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Studyexternal icon
        Lawrence JM, Reynolds K, Saydah SH, Mottl A, Pihoker C, Dabelea D, Dolan L, Henkin L, Liese AD, Isom S, Divers J, Wagenknecht L.
        Diabetes Care. 2021 Oct 4.
        OBJECTIVE: To examine short-term mortality and cause of death among youth and young adults (YYAs) with youth-onset diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included 19,717 YYAs newly diagnosed with diabetes before 20 years of age from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2015 enrolled in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Of these, 14,721 had type 1; 4,141 type 2; and 551 secondary and 304 other/unknown diabetes type. Cases were linked with the National Death Index through 31 December 2017. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs based on age, sex, and race/ethnicity for state and county population areas and examined underlying causes of death. RESULTS: During 170,148 person-years (PY) (median follow-up 8.5 years), 283 individuals died: 133 with type 1 (103.0/100,000 PY), 55 with type 2 (161.5/100,000 PY), 87 with secondary (1,952/100,000 PY), and 8 with other/unknown diabetes type (312.3/100,000 PY). SMRs (95% CI) for the first three groups were 1.5 (1.2-1.8), 2.3 (1.7-3.0), and 28.0 (22.4-34.6), respectively. Diabetes was the underlying cause of death for 42.1%, 9.1%, and 4.6% of deaths, respectively. The SMR was greater for type 2 than for type 1 diabetes (P < 0.001). SMRs were significantly higher for individuals with type 1 diabetes who were <20 years of age, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic, and female and for individuals with type 2 diabetes who were <25 years of age, from all race/ethnic minority groups, and from both sexes. CONCLUSION: Excess mortality was observed among YYAs for each type of diabetes with differences in risk associated with diabetes type, age, race/ethnicity, and sex. The root causes of excess mortality among YYAs with diabetes merit further study.

      3. Prevalence of arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation - United States, 2016-2018external icon
        Theis KA, Murphy LB, Guglielmo D, Boring MA, Okoro CA, Duca LM, Helmick CG.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Oct 8;70(40):1401-1407.
        Arthritis has been the most frequently reported main cause of disability among U.S. adults for >15 years (1), was responsible for >$300 billion in arthritis-attributable direct and indirect annual costs in the U.S. during 2013 (2), is linked to disproportionately high levels of anxiety and depression (3), and is projected to increase 49% in prevalence from 2010-2012 to 2040 (4). To update national prevalence estimates for arthritis and arthritis-attributable activity limitation (AAAL) among U.S. adults, CDC analyzed combined National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data from 2016-2018. An estimated 58.5 million adults aged ≥18 years (23.7%) reported arthritis; 25.7 million (10.4% overall; 43.9% among those with arthritis) reported AAAL. Prevalence of both arthritis and AAAL was highest among adults with physical limitations, few economic opportunities, and poor overall health. Arthritis was reported by more than one half of respondents aged ≥65 years (50.4%), adults who were unable to work or disabled* (52.3%), or adults with fair/poor self-rated health (51.2%), joint symptoms in the past 30 days (52.2%), activities of daily living (ADL)(†) disability (54.8%), or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)(§) disability (55.9%). More widespread dissemination of existing, evidence-based, community-delivered interventions, along with clinical coordination and attention to social determinants of health (e.g., improved social, economic, and mental health opportunities), can help reduce widespread arthritis prevalence and its adverse effects.

      4. Period prevalence of rheumatic heart disease and the need for a centralized patient registry in American Samoa, 2016 to 2018external icon
        Woodruff RC, Eliapo-Unutoa I, Chiou H, Gayapa M, Noonan S, Podila PS, Rayle V, Sanchez G, Tulafono R, Van Beneden CA, Ritchey M.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Oct 6:e020424.
        Background Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a severe, chronic complication of acute rheumatic fever, triggered by group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Centralized patient registries are recommended for RHD prevention and control, but none exists in American Samoa. Using existing RHD tracking systems, we estimated RHD period prevalence and the proportion of people with RHD documented in the electronic health record. Methods and Results RHD cases were identified from a centralized electronic health record system, which retrieved clinical encounters with RHD International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes, clinical problem lists referencing RHD, and antibiotic prophylaxis administration records; 3 RHD patient tracking spreadsheets; and an all-cause mortality database. RHD cases had ≥1 clinical encounter with RHD ICD-10-CM codes, a diagnostic echocardiogram, or RHD as a cause of death, or were included in RHD patient tracking spreadsheets. Period prevalence per 1000 population among children aged <18 years and adults aged ≥18 years from 2016 to 2018 and the proportion of people with RHD with ≥1 clinical encounter with an RHD ICD-10-CM code were estimated. From 2016 to 2018, RHD was documented in 327 people (57.2%: children aged <18 years). Overall RHD period prevalence was 6.3 cases per 1000 and varied by age (10.0 pediatric cases and 4.3 adult cases per 1000). Only 67% of people with RHD had ≥1 clinical encounter with an RHD ICD-10-CM code. Conclusions RHD remains a serious public health problem in American Samoa, and the existing electronic health record does not include all cases. A centralized patient registry could improve tracking people with RHD to ensure they receive necessary care.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Attitudes toward COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant women: A cross-sectional multicenter study during August-December 2020external icon
        Battarbee AN, Stockwell MS, Varner M, Newes-Adeyi G, Daugherty M, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Tita AT, Vorwaller K, Vargas C, Subramaniam A, Reichle L, Galang RR, Powers E, Lucca-Susana M, Parks M, Chen TJ, Razzaghi H, Dawood FS.
        Am J Perinatol. 2021 Oct 1.
        OBJECTIVE:  The aim of the study was to evaluate pregnant women's attitudes toward COVID-19 illness and vaccination and identify factors associated with vaccine acceptability. STUDY DESIGN:  This was a cross-sectional survey among pregnant women enrolled in a prospective COVID-19 cohort study in Salt Lake City, UT, Birmingham, AL, and New York, NY, from August 9 to December 10, 2020. Women were eligible if they were 18 to 50 years old and <28 weeks of gestation. Upon enrollment, women completed surveys regarding concerns about COVID-19 illness and likelihood of getting COVID-19 vaccine if one were available during pregnancy. Vaccine acceptability was defined as a response of "very likely" or "somewhat likely" on a 4-point Likert scale. Factors associated with vaccine acceptability were assessed with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS:  Of 939 pregnant women eligible for the main cohort study, 915 (97%) consented to participate. Among these 915 women, 39% self-identified as White, 23% Black, 33% Hispanic, and 4% Other. Sixty-two percent received an influenza vaccine last season. Seventy-two percent worried about getting sick with COVID-19. If they were to get sick, 92% worried about harm to their pregnancy and 80% about harm to themselves. Only 41% reported they would get a vaccine. Of women who were unlikely to get vaccinated, the most frequently cited concern was vaccine safety for their pregnancy (82%). Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic women had lower odds of accepting a vaccine compared with non-Hispanic White women (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.6 for both). Receipt of influenza vaccine during the previous season was associated with higher odds of vaccine acceptability (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0). CONCLUSION:  Although most pregnant women worried about COVID-19 illness, <50% were willing to get vaccinated during pregnancy. Racial and ethnic disparities in plans to accept COVID-19 vaccine highlight the need to prioritize strategies to address perceived barriers among groups at high risk for COVID-19. KEY POINTS: · Less than half of pregnant patients stated they would get a COVID-19 vaccine.. · Protecting their baby was the most common reason for acceptance and refusal of the COVID-19 vaccine.. · Patients of minority race/ethnicity and those without prior influenza vaccination were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine..

      2. We estimated the distributions of duration of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid shedding and time to reinfection among 137 persons with at least two positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) results from March to September 2020. We analyzed gaps of varying length between subsequent positive and negative NAAT results and estimated a mean duration of nucleic acid shedding of 30.1 (95% CI 26.3, 34.5) days. The mean time to reinfection was 89.1 (95% CI 75.3, 103.5) days. Together, these indicate that a 90-day period between positive NAAT results can reliably define reinfection in immunocompetent persons although reinfection can occur at shorter intervals.

      3. Finding children living with HIV in low-prevalence countries: HIV prevalence and testing yield from 5 entry points in Ethiopiaexternal icon
        Hrapcak S, Bekele A, Ahmed J, Ayalew J, Gutreuter S, Kumssa H, Antefe T, Mengistu S, Mirkovic K, Dziuban EJ, Ross C, Belay Z, Tilahun T, Kassa D, Teferi W.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 Sep 7.
        BACKGROUND: Limited data in low HIV prevalence settings such as Ethiopia limit policy development and implementation of optimized pediatric testing approaches to close the treatment gap. This study aimed to determine HIV prevalence, testing yield and factors associated with HIV among children at 5 entry points. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study from May 2017 to March 2018 in 29 public health facilities in Amhara and Addis Ababa regions in Ethiopia. Children 2-14 years were enrolled through 5 entry points. Data were obtained from registers, medical records and interviews with caregivers. HIV prevalence and testing yields were calculated for each entry point. Mixed-effects logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with undiagnosed HIV. RESULTS: The study enrolled 2166 children, of whom 94 were HIV positive (40 newly diagnosed). HIV prevalence and testing yield were the highest among children of HIV-positive adults (index testing; 8.2% and 8.2%, respectively) and children presenting to tuberculosis clinics (7.9% and 1.8%) or with severe malnutrition (6.5% and 1.4%). Factors associated with undiagnosed HIV included tuberculosis or index entry point [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 11.97; 95% CI 5.06-28.36], deceased mother (aOR 4.55; 95% CI 1.30-15.92), recurrent skin problems (aOR 17.71; 95% CI 7.75-40.43), severe malnutrition (aOR 4.56; 95% CI 2.04-10.19) and urban residence (aOR 3.47; 95% CI 1.03-11.66). CONCLUSIONS: Index testing is a critical strategy for pediatric case finding in Ethiopia. Strategies and resources can prioritize minimizing missed opportunities in implementing universal testing for very sick children (tuberculosis, severe malnutrition) and implementing targeted testing in other entry points through use of factors associated with HIV.

      4. Testing for hepatitis C virus infection among adults aged ≥18 in the United States, 2013-2017external icon
        King H, Soh JE, Thompson WW, Brown JR, Rapposelli K, Vellozzi C.
        Public Health Rep. 2021 Oct 4.
        OBJECTIVE: Approximately 2.4 million people in the United States are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of our study was to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, liver disease-related risk factors, and modifiable health behaviors associated with self-reported testing for HCV infection among adults. METHODS: Using data on adult respondents aged ≥18 from the 2013-2017 National Health Interview Survey, we summarized descriptive data on sociodemographic characteristics and liver disease-related risk factors and stratified data by educational attainment. We used weighted logistic regression to examine predictors of HCV testing. RESULTS: During the study period, 11.7% (95% CI, 11.5%-12.0%) of adults reported ever being tested for HCV infection. Testing was higher in 2017 than in 2013 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.18-1.36). Adults with ≥some college were significantly more likely to report being tested (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI, 1.52-1.69) than adults with ≤high school education. Among adults with ≤high school education (but not adults with ≥some college), those who did not have health insurance were less likely than those with private health insurance (aOR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89) to get tested, and non-US-born adults were less likely than US-born adults to get tested (aOR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of self-reported HCV testing increased from 2013 to 2017, but testing rates remained low. Demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and liver disease-related risk factors may affect HCV testing rates among adults. HCV testing must increase to achieve hepatitis C elimination targets.

      5. Distribution of SARS-CoV-2 variants in a large integrated health care system - California, March-July 2021external icon
        Malden DE, Bruxvoort KJ, Tseng HF, Ackerson B, Choi SK, Florea A, Tubert J, Takhar H, Aragones M, Hong V, Talarico CA, McLaughlin JM, Qian L, Tartof SY.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Oct 8;70(40):1415-1419.
        Data from observational studies demonstrate that variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, have evolved rapidly across many countries (1,2). The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of concern is more transmissible than previously identified variants,* and as of September 2021, is the predominant variant in the United States.(†) Studies characterizing the distribution and severity of illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants, particularly the Delta variant, are limited in the United States (3), and are subject to limitations related to study setting, specimen collection, study population, or study period (4-7). This study used whole genome sequencing (WGS) data on SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected across Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), a large integrated health care system, to describe the distribution and risk of hospitalization associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants during March 4-July 21, 2021, by patient vaccination status. Among 13,039 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens identified from KPSC patients during this period, 6,798 (52%) were sequenced and included in this report. Of these, 5,994 (88%) were collected from unvaccinated persons, 648 (10%) from fully vaccinated persons, and 156 (2%) from partially vaccinated persons. Among all sequenced specimens, the weekly percentage of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant infections increased from 20% to 67% during March 4-May 19, 2021. During April 15-July 21, 2021, the weekly percentage of Delta variant infections increased from 0% to 95%. During March 4-July 21, 2021, the weekly percentage of variants was similar among fully vaccinated and unvaccinated persons, but the Delta variant was more commonly identified among vaccinated persons then unvaccinated persons overall, relative to other variants. The Delta variant was more prevalent among younger persons, with the highest percentage (55%) identified among persons aged 18-44 years. Infections attributed to the Delta variant were also more commonly identified among non-Hispanic Black persons, relative to other variants. These findings reinforce the importance of continued monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 variants and implementing multiple COVID-19 prevention strategies, particularly during the current period in which Delta is the predominant variant circulating in the United States.

      6. Risk of HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men infected with bacterial sexually transmitted infections: A systematic review and meta-analysisexternal icon
        Malekinejad M, Barker EK, Merai R, Lyles CM, Bernstein KT, Sipe TA, DeLuca JB, Ridpath AD, Gift TL, Tailor A, Kahn JG.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2021 Oct 1;48(10):e138-e148.
        BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) who have bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are at increased risk for HIV infection. We enhanced and updated past summary risk estimates. METHODS: We systematically reviewed (PROSPERO No. CRD42018084299) peer-reviewed studies assessing the risk of HIV infection among MSM attributable to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Treponema pallidum (TP), and/or Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). We searched 3 databases through December 2017. We excluded studies with self-reported data or simultaneous STI and HIV assessment. We conducted dual screening and data extraction, meta-analytically pooled risk ratios (RRs), and assessed potential risk of bias. RESULTS: We included 26 studies yielding 39 RR (k) for HIV acquisition due to one of TP, NG, or CT. We did not identify eligible data for MG or TV, or for HIV transmission. HIV acquisition risk increased among MSM infected with TP (k = 21; RR, 2.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.00-3.58), NG (k = 11; RR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56-3.61), and CT (k = 7; RR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.59-2.48). Subanalysis RRs for all 3 pathogens were ≥1.66 and remained statistically significant across geography and methodological characteristics. Pooled RR increased for data with the lowest risk of bias for NG (k = 3; RR, 5.49; 95% CI, 1.11-27.05) and TP (k = 4; RR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.20-8.51). We observed mostly moderate to high heterogeneity and moderate to high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Men who have sex with men infected with TP, NG, or CT have twice or greater risk of HIV acquisition, although uncertainties exist because of data heterogeneity and risk of bias.

      7. HIV preexposure prophylaxis awareness and referral to providers among Hispanic/Latino persons - United States, 2019external icon
        Rao S, Mulatu MS, Xia M, Wang G, Song W, Essuon A, Patel D, Eke A, German EJ.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Oct 8;70(40):1395-1400.
        Hispanic or Latino* (Hispanic) persons are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. In 2019, Hispanic persons accounted for 18% of the U.S. population, but for 29% of new diagnoses of HIV infection (1). The Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. (EHE) initiative aims to reduce new HIV infections by 90% by 2030 (2). Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), medication taken to prevent acquisition of HIV, is an effective strategy for preventing HIV infection.(†) To examine PrEP awareness and referral to providers among Hispanic persons, CDC analyzed 2019 National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation HIV testing data. Approximately one quarter (27%) of Hispanic persons tested for HIV at CDC-funded sites (n = 310,954) were aware of PrEP, and 22% of those who received a negative HIV test result and were eligible for referral (111,644) were referred to PrEP providers. PrEP awareness and referrals among Hispanic persons were lower compared with those among non-Hispanic White persons. Among Hispanic persons, significant differences were found in PrEP awareness and referrals by age, gender, race, population group, geographic region, and test setting. HIV testing programs can expand PrEP services for Hispanic persons by implementing culturally and linguistically appropriate strategies that routinize PrEP education and referral, collaborating with health care and other providers, and addressing social and structural barriers.

      8. Automating case reporting of chlamydia and gonorrhea to public health authorities in Oregon clinicsexternal icon
        Todd JV, Collins NV, Oakley J, Menza T, Barber M, Kasarskis I, Weresch A, Morgan S, Jellison J, Mishra N, Pérez A, Karki S.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2021 Jul 13.
        BACKGROUND: Optimizing STD reporting to state public health authorities is important to reduce incidence and manage outbreaks of STDs. Electronic lab reporting (ELR) is the standard through which local clinics report STDs to state public health authority. Electronic case reporting (eCR) is an alternative approach which automates transmission of case reports to public health jurisdictions using electronic health record (EHR) data. METHODS: Working with three Community Health Centers (CHCs) in Oregon between February 3, 2020 and May 15, 2020, we piloted an automated electronic case reporting (eCR) approach for gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) from these clinics to the Oregon Health Authority. We compared the eCR approach to the existing ELR approach to determine completeness of case reporting for GC/CT. RESULTS: A total of 365 eCRs from 206 unique patients were generated. Among 154 instances where the case detection logic was satisfied for chlamydia, 37% (54 instances) were based on the presence of a diagnosis and 63% (97 instances) were based on laboratory data. Among 232 instances where logic was satisfied for gonorrhea, 44% (102 instances) reflected a diagnosis and 56% (130 instances) reflected laboratory results. Data completeness was uniformly equal or higher for eCRs vs. ELRs. CONCLUSIONS: The eCR approach was successful in identifying chlamydia and gonorrhea cases and provided a more complete set of information to assist public health authorities when compared with ELRs. eCR has the potential to automate and relieve staff burden on an important reporting requirement for clinical providers.

      9. Hospital-level factors associated with death during pneumonia-associated hospitalization among adults-New York City, 2010-2014external icon
        Whittemore K, Garcia KM, Huang CC, Lim S, Daskalakis DC, Vora NM, Lucero DE.
        PLoS One. 2021 ;16(10):e0256678.
        BACKGROUND: In New York City (NYC), pneumonia is a leading cause of death and most pneumonia deaths occur in hospitals. Whether the pneumonia death rate in NYC reflects reporting artifact or is associated with factors during pneumonia-associated hospitalization (PAH) is unknown. We aimed to identify hospital-level factors associated with higher than expected in-hospital pneumonia death rates among adults in NYC. METHODS: Data from January 1, 2010-December 31, 2014 were obtained from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System and the American Hospital Association Database. In-hospital pneumonia standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated for each hospital as observed PAH death rate divided by expected PAH death rate. To determine hospital-level factors associated with higher in-hospital pneumonia SMR, we fit a hospital-level multivariable negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: Of 148,172 PAH among adult NYC residents in 39 hospitals during 2010-2014, 20,820 (14.06%) resulted in in-hospital death. In-hospital pneumonia SMRs varied across NYC hospitals (0.77-1.23) after controlling for patient-level factors. An increase in average daily occupancy and membership in the Council of Teaching Hospitals were associated with increased in-hospital pneumonia SMR. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in in-hospital pneumonia SMRs between hospitals might reflect differences in disease severity, quality of care, or coding practices. More research is needed to understand the association between average daily occupancy and in-hospital pneumonia SMR. Additional pneumonia-specific training at teaching hospitals can be considered to address higher in-hospital pneumonia SMR in teaching hospitals.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. To evaluate whether the presence of clear incandescent light was attractive or refractive to host-seeking mosquitoes in northern Colorado, a Bayesian hierarchical model was created to measure differences in trap effectiveness based on presence or absence of phototactic cues. A total of eight CDC miniature light traps (with and without light) were set weekly across four locations in northern Colorado between Weeks 23 and 32 of year 2020. Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) accounted for 81% of all collections in this study with two vectors of West Nile virus being represented. The probability of catching both Culex tarsalis Coquillett and Culex pipiens Linnaeus was reduced when traps were equipped with light, but the difference was not statistically significant for Culex tarsalis. The clear reduction in the number of Culex pipiens caught when these traps were equipped with light indicates negative phototactic behavior and underestimation with current surveillance strategies. Removal of light from these traps may aid our understanding of these species' distribution within the environment, improve collection efficiency, and help guide implementation of targeted control measures used in public health mosquito control.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Whole-genome sequences of enteroviruses D94 and D111 isolated from stool specimens in Angolaexternal icon
        Chern SW, Gumede N, Castro CJ, Nix WA, Ng TF.
        Microbiol Resour Announc. 2021 Oct 7;10(40):e0072821.
        We report the whole-genome sequences of new enterovirus D94 and D111 strains, isolated from cultures from stool specimens collected from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases for poliovirus surveillance in Angola during 2010.

    • Health Disparities
      1. BACKGROUND: Risk for COVID-19 hospitalizations increases with increasing age and presence of underlying medical conditions. However, the burden has not been well-assessed in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas by race/ethnicity among Medicare population with chronic conditions. METHODS: We used the 2020 Medicare data to estimate COVID-19 hospitalization rates by race/ethnicity among Medicare beneficiaries for COVID-19 by metropolitan status and to assess the association of hospitalizations from COVID-19 with each of selected 29 chronic conditions for patients by metropolitan status and by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: The COVID-19 hospitalization rate was higher among beneficiaries residing in nonmetropolitan counties than those residing in metropolitan counties in 2020. Approximately 1 in 2 AI/AN, 1 in 3 NHB, Hispanic and A/PI, and 1 in 4 NHW beneficiaries with COVID-19 residing in nonmetropolitan counties were hospitalized. Beneficiaries with COVID-19 and chronic conditions were more likely to be hospitalized compared with those without chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization rates among beneficiaries with COVID-19 and chronic conditions were not distributed equally by race/ethnicity and by metropolitan status. Researchers, policymakers and practitioners can use these findings to explore more effective ways of reducing racial/ethnic and geographic disparities among minorities disproportionately affected by COVID-19 and are at highest risk of hospitalization.

      2. Positive influences and challenges for the deaf community navigating access to HIV information, testing, and treatment in Kampala, Uganda: A qualitative studyexternal icon
        Rolle IV, Moyer A, Ogwal M, Logan N, Rogers J, Sande E, Kibalama R, Aluzimbi G, Nyende J, Awoii P, Julliet D, Serwada D, Hladik W.
        AIDS Behav. 2021 Oct 1.
        Although sub-Saharan Africa has the highest HIV burden globally, few studies have investigated disabilities and HIV in this region. We conducted a secondary analysis of text data from in-depth interviews (2014-2015) to describe HIV perceptions among a subsample of 73 deaf individuals participating in the Crane survey, Kampala, Uganda. Being deaf was defined as being profoundly or functionally deaf, having deafness onset 5 + years ago, and preferring sign language to communicate. Among participants ever tested for HIV (47%), most (88%) had a negative test. Thematic analysis revealed overcoming challenges/barriers followed by socioeconomic status, support systems, HIV, stigma, abuse, and health conditions as major themes. An unanticipated finding was the role of sex work to support basic living needs. The data showed related themes among participants, suggesting a complex context in which deaf participants experience HIV prevention and treatment. It is important to tailor HIV interventions for deaf and disabled persons.

    • Health Economics
      1. Labor market participation and productivity costs for female caregivers of minor male children with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophiesexternal icon
        Soelaeman RH, Smith MG, Sahay K, Tilford JM, Goodenough D, Paramsothy P, Ouyang L, Oleszek J, Grosse SD.
        Muscle Nerve. 2021 Oct 3.
        INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DBMD) are X-linked neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness, leading to decreased mobility and multisystem complications. We estimate productivity costs attributable to time spent by a parent caring for a male child under the age of 18 years with DBMD, with particular focus on female caregivers of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) who have already lost ambulation. METHODS: Primary caregivers of males with DBMD in the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance and Research Tracking Network (MD STARnet) were surveyed during 2011-2012 on family quality of life measures, including labor market outcomes. Of 211 respondents, 96 female caregivers of boys with DBMD were matched on state, year of survey, respondent's age, child's age, and number of minor children with controls constructed from Current Population Survey extracts. Regression analysis was used to estimate labor market outcomes and productivity costs. RESULTS: Caregivers of boys with DBMD worked 296 hours less per year on average than caregivers of unaffected children, translating to a $8816 earnings loss in 2020 U.S. dollars. Caregivers of boys with DMD with ≥4 years of ambulation loss had a predicted loss in annualized earnings of $23 995, whereas caregivers of boys with DBMD of the same ages who remained ambulatory had no loss of earnings. DISCUSSION: Female caregivers of non-ambulatory boys with DMD face additional household budget constraints through income loss. Failure to include informal care costs in economic studies could understate the societal cost-effectiveness of strategies for managing DMD that might prolong ambulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Hospital-acquired influenza in the United States, FluSurv-NET, 2011-2012 through 2018-2019external icon
        Cummings CN, O'Halloran AC, Azenkot T, Reingold A, Alden NB, Meek JI, Anderson EJ, Ryan PA, Kim S, McMahon M, McMullen C, Spina NL, Bennett NM, Billing LM, Thomas A, Schaffner W, Talbot HK, George A, Reed C, Garg S.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2021 Oct 5:1-7.
        OBJECTIVE: To estimate population-based rates and to describe clinical characteristics of hospital-acquired (HA) influenza. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: US Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET) during 2011-2012 through 2018-2019 seasons. METHODS: Patients were identified through provider-initiated or facility-based testing. HA influenza was defined as a positive influenza test date and respiratory symptom onset >3 days after admission. Patients with positive test date >3 days after admission but missing respiratory symptom onset date were classified as possible HA influenza. RESULTS: Among 94,158 influenza-associated hospitalizations, 353 (0.4%) had HA influenza. The overall adjusted rate of HA influenza was 0.4 per 100,000 persons. Among HA influenza cases, 50.7% were 65 years of age or older, and 52.0% of children and 95.7% of adults had underlying conditions; 44.9% overall had received influenza vaccine prior to hospitalization. Overall, 34.5% of HA cases received ICU care during hospitalization, 19.8% required mechanical ventilation, and 6.7% died. After including possible HA cases, prevalence among all influenza-associated hospitalizations increased to 1.3% and the adjusted rate increased to 1.5 per 100,000 persons. CONCLUSIONS: Over 8 seasons, rates of HA influenza were low but were likely underestimated because testing was not systematic. A high proportion of patients with HA influenza were unvaccinated and had severe outcomes. Annual influenza vaccination and implementation of robust hospital infection control measures may help to prevent HA influenza and its impacts on patient outcomes and the healthcare system.

      2. Serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility of invasive Streptococcus agalactiae in Egyptian patients with or without diabetes mellitusexternal icon
        El-Gendy AA, Hassan S, Gertz B, Bernard B, Ahmed MM, Elzohry HA, El Tawab GA, El-Sayed ME, Kamel SY, Zakaria H, Mahros AM, Ahmed MH, Tahoon MA, Sakr MA, Gadallah AA, Ahmed FE, Elgazzar MF.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 4.
        Streptococcus agalactiae serotype distribution and its antibiotic susceptibility affect disease prevention strategies, but the serotype distribution varies among patient groups. The objectives of this study were to establish the group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype distribution in patients from Egypt and to assess antibiotic sensitivity of invasive GBS isolates. A total of 490 patients participated in this multicenter study; 160 had urinary tract infection, 115 complained of diabetic foot ulcers, 125 men had genital tract infections, and 30 women females had genital tract infections. Others had bronchopneumonia, otitis media, synovitis, or meningitis. Serotyping of the isolated GBS was performed at the CDC in the United States. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns were determined using the disk diffusion method. In men, the most common serotypes were II, III, and V, whereas types Ia, II, III, and V were isolated from women. Macrolides (erythromycin) resistance occurred in 4.1% of the isolates; 10.2% were resistant to both clindamycin and inducible resistance of macrolides, lincomycin, and streptogramin; 17.3% were resistant to quinolones; and 95.9% were resistant to tetracyclines. GBS primarily infected the urinary tract, skin, soft tissue, and genital tract in both genders. Isolates were sensitive to beta-lactam drugs, vancomycin, and linezolid; 14.0% were resistant to macrolides with or without clindamycin. Only 6.0% of the strains were sensitive to tetracyclines. Although GBS causes invasive infections in Egyptian adults, it rarely causes neonatal meningitis or sepsis. Future studies should determine whether GBS isolates are transmitted sexually, by performing a follow-up study of the partner of the infected patient.

      3. Mycobacterium chimaera infections among cardiothoracic surgery patients associated with heater-cooler devices-Kansas and California, 2019external icon
        Xu K, Finn LE, Geist RL, Prestel C, Moulton-Meissner H, Kim M, Stacey B, McAllister GA, Gable P, Kamali T, de St Maurice A, Yang S, Perkins KM, Crist MB.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2021 Oct 6:1-6.
        BACKGROUND: In 2015, an international outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera infections among patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgeries was associated with exposure to contaminated LivaNova 3T heater-cooler devices (HCDs). From June 2017 to October 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of 18 patients with M. chimaera infections who had undergone cardiothoracic surgeries at 2 hospitals in Kansas (14 patients) and California (4 patients); 17 had exposure to 3T HCDs. Whole-genome sequencing of the clinical and environmental isolates matched the global outbreak strain identified in 2015. METHODS: Investigations were conducted at each hospital to determine the cause of ongoing infections. Investigative methods included query of microbiologic records to identify additional cases, medical chart review, observations of operating room setup, HCD use and maintenance practices, and collection of HCD and environmental samples. RESULTS: Onsite observations identified deviations in the positioning and maintenance of the 3T HCDs from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations and the manufacturer's updated cleaning and disinfection protocols. Additionally, most 3T HCDs had not undergone the recommended vacuum and sealing upgrades by the manufacturer to decrease the dispersal of M. chimaera-containing aerosols into the operating room, despite hospital requests to the manufacturer. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need for continued awareness of the risk of M. chimaera infections associated with 3T HCDs, even if the devices are newly manufactured. Hospitals should maintain vigilance in adhering to FDA recommendations and the manufacturer's protocols and in identifying patients with potential M. chimaera infections with exposure to these devices.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Genomic surveillance of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in the period pre-PCV10 and post-PCV10 introduction in Brazilexternal icon
        Almeida SC, Lo SW, Hawkins PA, Gladstone RA, Cassiolato AP, Klugman KP, Breiman RF, Bentley SD, McGee L, Brandileone MC.
        Microb Genom. 2021 Oct;7(10).
        In 2010, Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into the national children's immunization programme. This study describes the genetic characteristics of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates before and after PCV10 introduction. A subset of 466 [pre-PCV10 (2008-2009): n=232, post-PCV10 (2012-2013): n=234;<5 years old: n=310, ≥5 years old: n=156] pneumococcal isolates, collected through national laboratory surveillance, were whole-genome sequenced (WGS) to determine serotype, pilus locus, antimicrobial resistance and genetic lineages. Following PCV10 introduction, in the <5 years age group, non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) serotype 3 and serotype 19A were the most frequent, and serotypes 12F, 8 and 9 N in the ≥5 years old group. The study identified 65 Global Pneumococcal Sequence Clusters (GPSCs): 49 (88 %) were GPSCs previously described and 16 (12 %) were Brazilian clusters. In total, 36 GPSCs (55 %) were NVT lineages, 18 (28 %) vaccine serotypes (VT) and 11 (17 %) were both VT and NVT lineages. In both sampling periods, the most frequent lineage was GPSC6 (CC156, serotypes 14/9V). In the <5 years old group, a decrease in penicillin (P=0.0123) and cotrimoxazole (P<0.0001) resistance and an increase in tetracycline (P=0.019) were observed. Penicillin nonsusceptibility was predicted in 40 % of the isolates; 127 PBP combinations were identified (51 predicted MIC≥0.125 mg l(-1)); cotrimoxazole (folA and/or folP alterations), macrolide (mef and/or ermB) and tetracycline (tetM, tetO or tetS/M) resistance were predicted in 63, 13 and 21.6 % of pneumococci studied, respectively. The main lineages associated with multidrug resistance in the post-PCV10 period were composed of NVT, GPSC1 (CC320, serotype 19A), and GPSC47 (ST386, serotype 6C). The study provides a baseline for future comparisons and identified important NVT lineages in the post-PCV10 period in Brazil.

      2. National introduction of HPV vaccination in Senegal-Successes, challenges, and lessons learnedexternal icon
        Casey RM, Adrien N, Badiane O, Diallo A, Loko Roka J, Brennan T, Doshi R, Garon J, Loharikar A.
        Vaccine. 2021 Sep 27.
        Following successful school-based demonstration programs in 2014-2016, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was introduced nationwide in Senegal for 9-year-old girls in 2018, using a routine service delivery strategy at health facilities, schools, and other outreach sites. We reviewed the HPV vaccine introduction in Senegal to understand the successes, challenges, and lessons learned. Focusing on three key domains (program decision-making, planning, and implementation), we conducted ten semi-structured interviews during 2019-2020 with purposively selected national-level stakeholders (government, expert advisory committee, key technical and implementation partners) and comprehensive desk reviews of country documents on HPV vaccine introduction. Due to the global HPV vaccine shortage, the introduction was limited to a single-age cohort; therefore, 9-year-old girls were chosen. This strategy enabled Senegal to potentially reach more girls in primary education because school enrolment rates decline thereafter. Vaccination through routine delivery platforms (i.e., health facility, school-based, and community outreach) was perceived to be more cost-effective than a campaign approach. High-level political commitment and collaborations between immunization and education partners were frequently cited by key informants as reasons for a successful vaccine introduction. All key informants reported that the health care worker (HCW) strike, rumors, and vaccine hesitancy negatively impacted the introduction. Other challenges noted included insufficient information on attitudes towards HPV vaccination among HCWs, teachers, and community members. Senegal successfully introduced HPV vaccine into the national immunization schedule, using a routine delivery strategy. Strong leadership and a multi-sectoral approach likely contributed to this success. To build sustainability of the HPV vaccination program in the future, it is important to improve the understanding and engagement among all stakeholders, including HCWs and community members, and to strengthen and innovate communication and crisis management strategies. To better understand the efficiency and effectiveness of Senegal's vaccination strategy, additional assessments of the operational costs and coverage achieved are needed.

      3. Comparing statistical methods for detecting and estimating waning efficacy of rotavirus vaccines in developing countriesexternal icon
        Haber M, Tate JE, Lopman BA, Qi W, Ainslie KE, Parashar UD.
        Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2021 Oct 6:1-4.
        INTRODUCTION: Vaccination has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality resulting from rotavirus infection worldwide. However, rotavirus vaccine efficacy (VE) appears to wane over the first 2 years since vaccination, particularly in developing countries. Statistical methods for detecting VE waning and estimating its rate have been used in a few studies, but comparisons of methods for evaluating VE waning have not yet been performed. In this work we present and compare three methods - Durham's method, Tian's method, and time-dependent covariate (TDC) method - based on generalizations of the Cox proportional hazard model. METHODS: We developed a new stochastic agent-based simulation model to generate data from a hypothetical rotavirus vaccine trial where the protective efficacy of the vaccine may vary over time. Input parameters to the simulation model were obtained from studies on rotavirus infections in four developing countries. We applied each of the methods to four simulated datasets and compared the type-1 error probabilities and the powers of the resulting statistical tests. We also compared estimated and true values of VE over time. RESULTS: Durham's method had the highest power of detecting true VE waning of the three methods. This method also provided quite accurate estimates of VE in each period and of the per-period drop in VE. CONCLUSIONS: Durham's method is somewhat more powerful than the other two Cox proportional hazards model-based methods for detecting VE waning and provides more information about the temporal behavior of VE.

      4. Prevalence of indications for adult hepatitis A vaccination among hepatitis A outbreak-associated cases, three US states, 2016-2019external icon
        Hofmeister MG, Weng MK, Thoroughman D, Thomasson ED, McBee S, Foster MA, Collins J, Burkholder C, Augustine RJ, Spradling PR.
        Vaccine. 2021 Sep 28.
        BACKGROUND: Safe and effective hepatitis A vaccines have been recommended in the United States for at-risk adults since 1996; however, adult vaccination coverage is low. METHODS: Among a random sample of adult outbreak-associated hepatitis A cases from three states that were heavily affected by person-to-person hepatitis A outbreaks, we assessed the presence of documented Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) indications for hepatitis A vaccination, hepatitis A vaccination status, and whether cases that were epidemiologically linked to an outbreak-associated hepatitis A case had received postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). RESULTS: Overall, 74.1% of cases had a documented ACIP indication for hepatitis A vaccination. Fewer than 20% of epidemiologically linked cases received PEP. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts are needed to increase provider awareness of and adherence to ACIP childhood and adult hepatitis A vaccination and PEP recommendations in order to stop the current person-to-person hepatitis A outbreaks and prevent similar outbreaks in the future.

      5. A Research and Development (R&D) roadmap for influenza vaccines: Looking toward the futureexternal icon
        Moore KA, Ostrowsky JT, Kraigsley AM, Mehr AJ, Bresee JS, Friede MH, Gellin BG, Golding JP, Hart PJ, Moen A, Weller CL, Osterholm MT.
        Vaccine. 2021 Sep 23.
        Improved influenza vaccines are urgently needed to reduce the burden of seasonal influenza and to ensure a rapid and effective public-health response to future influenza pandemics. The Influenza Vaccines Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap (IVR) was created, through an extensive international stakeholder engagement process, to promote influenza vaccine R&D. The roadmap covers a 10-year timeframe and is organized into six sections: virology; immunology; vaccinology for seasonal influenza vaccines; vaccinology for universal influenza vaccines; animal and human influenza virus infection models; and policy, finance, and regulation. Each section identifies barriers, gaps, strategic goals, milestones, and additional R&D priorities germane to that area. The roadmap includes 113 specific R&D milestones, 37 of which have been designated high priority by the IVR expert taskforce. This report summarizes the major issues and priority areas of research outlined in the IVR. By identifying the key issues and steps to address them, the roadmap not only encourages research aimed at new solutions, but also provides guidance on the use of innovative tools to drive breakthroughs in influenza vaccine R&D.

      6. Evaluation of the impact of immunization second year of life training interventions on health care workers in Ghanaexternal icon
        Tchoualeu DD, Harvey B, Nyaku M, Opare J, Traicoff D, Bonsu G, Quaye P, Sandhu HS.
        Glob Health Sci Pract. 2021 Sep 30;9(3):498-507.
        INTRODUCTION: As part of a suite of training interventions to improve the knowledge and practice of immunization in the second year of life (2YL), training of trainers workshops were conducted with regional and district health management teams (DHMTs) in 15 districts in 3 regions of Ghana. Using adult learning principles, DHMTs implemented several capacity-building activities at the subdistrict and health facility levels, including health facility visits, on-the-job training, and review meetings. The current evaluation investigated whether frontline health care workers (HCWs) reported or demonstrated improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and practices after training interventions. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative methods with a utilization-focused approach guided the framework for this evaluation. A systematic random sample of 115 HCWs in 3 regions of Ghana was selected to complete a competency survey before and after training, which focused on 3 core competency areas-Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) policy; communication with caregivers; and immunization data management, recording, and use. Interviews and direct observations by data collectors were done to assess HCWs' knowledge, self-reported attitude, and behavior changes in practices. RESULTS: Of 115 HCWs, 102 were surveyed before and 4 months after receiving capacity-building interventions. Modest but not statistically significant improvements were found in knowledge on EPI policy, immunization data management, and communication skills with caregivers. HCWs reported that they had improved several attitudes and practices after the 2YL training. The most improved practice reported by HCWs and observed in all 3 regions was the creation of a defaulter list. DISCUSSION: Findings of this evaluation provide encouraging evidence in taking the first step toward improving HCW knowledge, attitudes, and practices for 3 core immunization competency areas. The use of learner-focused teaching methods combined with adult learning principles is helpful in solving specific performance problems (such as lack of knowledge of EPI policy).

      7. Applying adult learning best practices to design immunization training for health care workers in Ghanaexternal icon
        Traicoff D, Tchoualeu DD, Opare J, Wardle M, Quaye P, Sandhu HS, Bonsu G.
        Glob Health Sci Pract. 2021 Sep 30;9(3):487-497.
        INTRODUCTION: A 2016 assessment of frontline health care workers (HCWs) in Ghana identified knowledge, skill, and attitude gaps related to immunization during the second year of life (2YL). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subsequently supported the Ghana Health Service Immunization Program to apply best practices of adult learning and training of trainers (TOT) for a cascade training program for 2YL. METHODS: Five districts from each of the 3 regions (Greater Accra, Northern, and Volta) were selected for the TOT based on key measles and rubella vaccination coverage indicators. The design incorporated best practices of adult learning and TOT. The curriculum integrated 3 major topical themes: technical (immunization topics), operational, and training adults. The technical and operational content was based on HCW tasks most directly affecting 2YL objectives. A cross-functional team developed all classroom, field activity, and training evaluation materials. RESULTS: Seventy-four participants attended TOT workshops in 2017. Based on a rubric defined by the course designers, 99% of the participants reported an acceptable level of confidence to apply and teach the course content. After the TOTs, participants conducted 65 workshops, 43 field visits, and 4 review meetings, reaching 1,378 HCWs within 7 months. Fifty-four percent of HCWs who received training from TOT participants reported an acceptable level of confidence in using the skills, and 92% reported they would prioritize applying the skills acquired during the training. DISCUSSION: The success factors for effective adult learning and TOT can be applied to design and implement high-quality TOT even in resource-limited settings. The factors include using a variety of approaches, spending enough class time to prepare TOT participants for their training role, setting specific expectations for cascading the training, and following up through mentorship and reporting. Strong collaboration across the administrative levels of the Ghana Health Service enabled cascade training.

    • Informatics
      1. Blueprint for aligned data exchange for research and public healthexternal icon
        Michaels M, Syed S, Lober WB.
        J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2021 Oct 6.
        Making EHR Data More Available for Research and Public Health (MedMorph) is a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-led initiative developing and demonstrating a reference architecture (RA) and implementation, including Health Level Seven International Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (HL7 FHIR) implementation guides (IGs), describing how to leverage FHIR for aligned research and public health access to clinical data for automated data exchange. MedMorph engaged a technical expert panel of more than 100 members to model representative use cases, develop IGs (architectural and content), align with existing efforts in the FHIR community, and demonstrate the RA in research and public health uses. The RA IG documents common workflows needed to automatically send research data to Research Patient Data Repositories for multiple use cases. Sharing a common RA and canonical data model will improve data sharing for research and public health needs and generate evidence. MedMorph delivers a robust, reusable method to utilize data from electronic health records addressing multiple research and public health needs.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. BACKGROUND: Most first-tier newborn screening (NBS) biomarkers are evaluated by a 2-min flow injection analysis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS) assay. The absence of separation prior to MS/MS analysis can lead to false positives and inconclusive results due to interferences by nominal isobars and isomers. Therefore, many presumptive positive specimens require confirmation by a higher specificity second-tier assay employing separations, which require additional time and resources prior to patient follow-up. METHODS: A 3.2-mm punch was taken from dried blood spot (DBS) specimens and extracted using a solution containing isotopically labeled internal standards for quantification. Analyses were carried out in positive mode using a commercially available microfluidic capillary electrophoresis (CE) system coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS). RESULTS: The CE-HRMS platform quantified 35 first- and second-tier biomarkers from a single injection in <2-min acquisition time, thus, successfully multiplexing first- and second-tier NBS for over 20 disorders in a single DBS punch. The CE-HRMS platform resolved problematic isobars and isomers that affect first-tier FIA-MS/MS assay specificity, while achieving similar quantitative results and assay linearity. CONCLUSIONS: Our CE-HRMS assay is capable of multiplexing first- and second-tier NBS biomarkers into a single assay with an acquisition time of <2 min. Such an assay would reduce the volume of false positives and inconclusive specimens flagged for second-tier screening.

      2. Validation of commercial SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays in a Nigerian populationexternal icon
        Ige F, Hamada Y, Steinhardt L, Iriemenam NC, Uwandu M, Greby SM, Aniedobe M, Salako BL, Rangaka MX, Abubakar I, Audu R.
        Microbiol Spectr. 2021 Oct 6:e0068021.
        Validated assays are essential for reliable serosurveys; however, most SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays have been validated using specimens from China, Europe, or U.S. populations. We evaluated the performance of five commercial SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays to inform their use in serosurveys in Nigeria. Four semiquantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Euroimmun anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein [NCP] immunoglobulin G [IgG], Euroimmun spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG, Mologic Omega COVID-19 IgG, Bio-Rad Platelia SARS-CoV-2 Total Ab) and one chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG) were evaluated. We estimated the analytical performance characteristics using plasma from 100 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients from varied time points post-PCR confirmation and 100 prepandemic samples (50 HIV positive and 50 hepatitis B positive). The Bio-Rad assay failed the manufacturer-specified validation steps. The Euroimmun NCP, Euroimmun spike, and Mologic assays had sensitivities of 73.7%, 74.4%, and 76.9%, respectively, on samples taken 15 to 58 days after PCR confirmation and specificities of 97%, 100%, and 83.8%, respectively. The Abbott assay had 71.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity on the same panel. Parallel or serial algorithms combining two tests did not substantially improve the sensitivity or specificity. Our results showed lower sensitivity and, for one immunoassay, lower specificity compared to the manufacturers' results and other reported validations. Seroprevalence estimates using these assays might need to be interpreted with caution in Nigeria and similar settings. These findings highlight the importance of in-country validations of SARS-CoV-2 serological assays prior to use to ensure that accurate results are available for public health decision-making to control the COVID-19 pandemic in Africa. IMPORTANCE This study used positive and negative sample panels from Nigeria to test the performance of several commercially available SARS-CoV-2 serological assays. Using these prepandemic and SARS-CoV-2-positive samples, we found much lower levels of sensitivity in four commercially available assays than most assay manufacturer reports and independent evaluations. The use of these assays with suboptimal sensitivity and specificity in Nigeria or countries with population exposure to similar endemic pathogens could lead to a biased estimate of the seroprevalence, over- or underestimating the true disease prevalence, and limit efforts to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2. It is important to conduct in-country validations of serological SARS-CoV-2 assays prior to their widespread use, especially in countries with limited representation in published assay validations.

      3. A method for determining the fraction of free-base nicotine (α(fb)) in electronic cigarette liquids ("e-liquids") based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (h-SPME) is described. The free-base concentration c(e,fb) = α(fb)c(e,T), where c(e,T) is the total (free-base + protonated) nicotine in the liquid. For gas/liquid equilibrium of the volatile free-base form, the headspace nicotine concentration is proportional to c(e,fb) and thus also to α(fb). Headspace nicotine is proportionally absorbed with an SPME fiber. The fiber is thermally desorbed in the heated inlet of a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer: the desorbed nicotine is measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For a second h-SPME measurement, an adequate base is added to the sample vial to convert essentially all protonated nicotine to the free-base form (α(fb) → 1.0). The ratio of the first h-SPME measurement to the second h-SPME measurement gives α(fb) in the initial sample. Using gaseous ammonia as the added base, the method was (1) verified using lab-prepared e-liquid solutions with known α(fb) values and (2) used to determine the α(fb) values for 18 commercial e-liquids. The measured α(fb) values ranged from 0.0 to 1.0. Increasing measurement error with decreasing α(fb) caused modestly lower method precision at small α(fb). Adding a liquid organic base may be more convenient than adding gaseous ammonia: one of the samples was examined using triethylamine as the added base; the measurements agreed well (with ammonia, 0.27 ± 0.01; with triethylamine, 0.26 ± 0.04). Other workers have proposed examining the nicotine protonation state in e-liquids using three steps: (1) 1:10 dilution with CO(2)-free water; (2) measurement of pH; and (3) calculation of the resulting values for α(fb,w,1:10), the free-base fraction in the diluted mostly aqueous phase. As expected and verified here, because of the generally greater abilities of organic acids to protonate nicotine in water versus in an e-liquid phase, α(fb,w,1:10) values can be significantly less than actual e-liquid α(fb) values when α(fb) is not close to either 0 or 1.

      4. Comparative efficacy of rifapentine alone and in combination with isoniazid for latent tuberculosis infection: a translational pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling studyexternal icon
        Radtke KK, Ernest JP, Zhang N, Ammerman NC, Nuermberger E, Belknap R, Boyd R, Sterling TR, Savic RM.
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Oct 4:Aac0170521.
        Background Rifapentine has facilitated treatment shortening of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in combination with isoniazid once weekly for 3 months (3HP) or daily for 1 month (1HP). Objective We determine the optimal rifapentine dose for a 6-week monotherapy regimen (6wP) and predict clinical efficacy. Methods Rifapentine and isoniazid pharmacokinetics were simulated in mice and humans. Mouse lung colony-forming unit data were used to characterize exposure-response relationships of 1HP, 3HP, and 6wP and translated to predict clinical efficacy. Results A 600 mg daily dose for 6wP delivered greater cumulative rifapentine exposure than 1HP or 3HP. The maximum regimen effect (E(max)) was 0.24 day(-1). The regimen potencies, measured as concentration at 50% of E(max) (EC(50)), were estimated as 2.12 mg/L for 3HP, 3.72 mg/L for 1HP, and 4.71 mg/L for 6wP, suggesting that isoniazid contributes little to 1HP efficacy. Clinical translation predicted that 6wP reduces bacterial load at a faster rate than 3HP and a greater extent than 3HP and 1HP. Conclusions 6wP (600 mg daily) is predicted to result in equal or better efficacy than 1HP and 3HP for LTBI treatment without the potential added toxicity of isoniazid. Results from ongoing and future clinical studies will be required to support these findings.

      5. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance profiles in non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica strains isolated from Cambodian informal marketsexternal icon
        Schwan CL, Lomonaco S, Bastos LM, Cook PW, Maher J, Trinetta V, Bhullar M, Phebus RK, Gragg S, Kastner J, Vipham JL.
        Front Microbiol. 2021 ;12:711472.
        Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a pathogen of global importance, particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The presence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) strains in market environments poses a serious health threat to consumers. In this study we identified and characterized the genotypic and phenotypic AMR profiles of 81 environmental S. enterica strains isolated from samples from informal markets in Cambodia in 2018-2019. AMR genotypes were retrieved from the NCBI Pathogen Detection website ( and using ResFinder ( Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) were identified with SPIFinder ( Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) standard guidelines M100-S22 using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) Sensititre Gram Negative plate. A total of 17 unique AMR genes were detected in 53% (43/81) of the isolates, including those encoding tetracycline, beta-lactam, sulfonamide, quinolone, aminoglycoside, phenicol, and trimethoprim resistance. A total of 10 SPIs (SPI-1, 3-5, 8, 9, 12-14, and centisome 63 [C63PI]) were detected in 59 isolates. C63PI, an iron transport system in SPI-1, was observed in 56% of the isolates (n = 46). SPI-1, SPI-4, and SPI-9 were present in 13, 2, and 5% of the isolates, respectively. The most common phenotypic resistances were observed to tetracycline (47%; n = 38), ampicillin (37%; n = 30), streptomycin (20%; n = 16), chloramphenicol (17%; n = 14), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (16%; n = 13). This study contributes to understanding the AMR genes present in S. enterica isolates from informal markets in Cambodia, as well as support domestic epidemiological investigations of multidrug resistance (MDR) profiles.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Prevalence of delayed cord clamping among U.S. hospitals by facility characteristicsexternal icon
        Nakayama JY, Perrine CG, Hamner HC, Boundy EO.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Oct 7.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. The VitMin Lab Sandwich-ELISA Assays for iron and inflammation markers compared well with clinical analyzer reference-type assays in subsamples of the Nepal National Micronutrient Status Surveyexternal icon
        Fischer CM, Zhang M, Sternberg MR, Jefferds ME, Whitehead RD, Mei Z, Paudyal N, Joshi N, Parajuli KR, Adhikari DP, LaVoie DJ, Pfeiffer CM.
        J Nutr. 2021 Oct 4.
        BACKGROUND: The low cost and small specimen volume of the VitMin Lab ELISA assays for serum ferritin (Fer), soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) allowed their application to micronutrient surveys conducted in low-resource countries for ∼2 decades. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a comparison between the ELISA and reference-type assays used in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS: Using the Roche clinical analyzer as a reference, we measured random subsets of the 2016 Nepal National Micronutrient Status Survey (200 serum samples from children 6-59 mo; 100 serum samples from non-pregnant women) for Fer, sTfR, CRP, and AGP. We compared the combined data sets to the ELISA survey results using descriptive analyses. RESULTS: The Lin's concordance coefficients between the 2 assays were ≥ 0.89 except for sTfR (Lin's rho = 0.58). The median relative difference to the reference was: Fer -8.5%, sTfR 71.2%, CRP -19.5%, and AGP -8.2%. The percentage of VitMin samples agreeing within ± 30% of the reference was: Fer 88.5%, sTfR 1.70%, CRP 74.9%, and AGP 92.9%. The prevalence of abnormal results was comparable between the 2 assays for Fer, CRP, and AGP, and for sTfR after adjusting to the Roche assay. Continued biannual performance (2007-2019) of the VitMin assays in CDC's external quality assessment program (6 samples/y) demonstrated generally acceptable performance. CONCLUSION: Using samples from the Nepal survey, the VitMin ELISA assays produced mostly comparable results to the Roche reference-type assays for Fer, CRP, and AGP. The lack of sTfR assay standardization to a common reference material explains the large systematic difference observed for sTfR, which could be corrected by an adjustment equation pending further validation. This snapshot comparison together with the long-term external quality assessment links the survey data generated by the VitMin Lab to the Roche assays used in NHANES.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. The evidence for styrene's being a human lung carcinogen has been inconclusive. Occupational cohorts within the reinforced-plastics industry are an ideal population in which to study this association because of their relatively high levels of exposure to styrene and lack of concomitant exposures to other known carcinogens. However, healthy worker survivor bias (HWSB), where healthier workers stay employed longer and thus have higher exposure potential, is a likely source of confounding bias for exposure-response associations, in part due to styrene's acute effects. Through December 31, 2016, we studied a cohort of 5,163 boatbuilders exposed to styrene in Washington State who were employed between 1959 and 1978; prior regression analyses had demonstrated little evidence for an exposure-response relationship between styrene exposure and lung cancer mortality. Based on estimates of necessary components of HWSB, we found evidence for a potentially large HWSB. Using g-estimation of a structural nested model to account for HWSB, we estimated that 1 year of styrene exposure at more than 30 parts per million accelerated time to lung cancer death by 2.29 years (95% confidence interval: 1.53, 2.94). Our results suggest possibly strong HWSB in our small cohort and indicate that large, influential studies of styrene-exposed workers may suffer from similar biases, warranting a reassessment of the evidence of long-term health effects of styrene exposure.

      2. BACKGROUND: This study estimated the prevalence of hearing protection device (HPD) non-use among US workers exposed to hazardous workplace noise and provided risk estimates. METHODS: Self-reported data from the National Health Interview Survey in 2007 (15,852 workers) and 2014 (23,656 workers) were examined. Weighted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios of HPD non-use (using HPDs half the time or less when exposed to hazardous noise) were estimated by demographic, industry, and occupation. Differences in the prevalences of non-use were estimated and compared. RESULTS: The prevalence of HPD non-use was 53% among all noise-exposed workers in 2014. Workers in the Accommodation and Food Services industry had the highest prevalence (90%) and risk (PR: 2.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.54-3.96) of HPD non-use. The industries with the lowest prevalences of noise exposure, including Finance and Insurance (2%) and Health Care and Social Assistance (4%), had some of the highest prevalences of HPD non-use (80% and 83%, respectively). There were no statistically significant changes in HPD non-use among industries between 2007 and 2014. Among occupations, HPD non-use increased 37% in Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports and Media, and decreased 39% in Architecture and Engineering. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPD non-use remains high; especially within industries and occupations with fewer noise-exposed workers. These groups need targeted attention to increase awareness and compliance. Employers should require HPD use and trainings among noise-exposed workers and provide an assortment of HPDs tailored to noise level and type, workplace environment, communication and audibility needs, and individual comfort and convenience.

      3. Understanding of how Total Worker Health&#174; (TWH) guidelines are implemented in employment organizations in the USA is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to explore how the principles of the Hierarchy of Controls Applied to NIOSH Total Worker Health (TWH HoC), have been implemented among organizations featured as Promising Practices for TWH between 2012-2019, with special focus on the work-related issues of fatigue, stress, sedentary work, and tobacco control. We also sought to identify benefits, obstacles, and lessons learned in the implementation of the TWH HoC. Eighteen organizations were identified to be included in the study. Using a qualitative cross-sectional design and purposive sampling, seven in-depth interviews were conducted with thirteen key informants. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to guide the thematic analysis and interpretation of qualitative data. Four themes identified include recognition of the TWH approach and TWH HoC, implementation of the TWH HoC, barriers and facilitators in addressing specific work-related issues, and implementation climate primes benefits, obstacles, and lessons learned. The inner setting (i.e., culture, implementation climate, readiness for implementation) of organizations was a prominent determinant of the implementation of integrated worker safety, health, and well-being interventions.

      4. Aerosol analysis using handheld raman spectrometer: On-site quantification of trace crystalline silica in workplace atmospheresexternal icon
        Wei S, Johnson B, Breitenstein M, Zheng L, Snawder J, Kulkarni P.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2021 Oct 5.
        A method for aerosol chemical analysis using handheld Raman spectrometer has been developed and its application to measurement of crystalline silica concentration in workplace atmosphere is described. The approach involves collecting aerosol as a spot sample using a wearable optical aerosol monitor, followed by direct-on-filter quantitative analysis of the spot sample for crystalline silica using handheld Raman spectrometer. The filter cassette of a commercially available optical aerosol monitor (designed to collect aerosol for post-shift analysis) was modified to collect 1.5-mm-diameter spot sample, which provided adequate detection limits for short-term measurements over a few tens of minutes or hours. The method was calibrated using aerosolized α-quartz standard reference material in the laboratory. Two Raman spectrometers were evaluated, one a handheld unit (weighing less than 410 g) and the other a larger probe-based field-portable unit (weighing about 5 kg). The lowest limit of quantification for α-quartz of 16.6 μg m-3 was obtained using the handheld Raman unit at a sample collection time of 1 h at 0.4 l min-1. Short-term measurement capability and sensitivity of the Raman method were demonstrated using a transient simulated workplace aerosol. Workplace air and personal breathing zone concentrations of crystalline silica of workers at a hydraulic fracturing worksite were measured using the Raman method. The measurements showed good agreement with the co-located samples analyzed using the standard X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) method, agreeing within 0.15-23.2% of each other. This magnitude of difference was comparable to the inter- and intra-laboratory analytical precision of established XRD and infrared methods. The pilot study shows that for silica-containing materials studied in this work it is possible to obtain quantitative measurements with good analytical figures of merit using handheld or portable Raman spectrometers. Further studies will be needed to assess matrix interferences and measurement uncertainty for several other types of particle matrices to assess the broader applicability of the method.

      5. Workers compensation claim counts and rates by injury event/exposure among state-insured private employers in Ohio, 2007-2017external icon
        Wurzelbacher SJ, Meyers AR, Lampl MP, Bushnell PT, Bertke S, Robins D, Tseng C, Naber SJ.
        J Saf Res. 2021 .
        Introduction: This study analyzed workers compensation (WC) claims among private employers insured by the Ohio state-based WC carrier to identify high-risk industries by detailed cause of injury. Methods: A machine learning algorithm was used to code each claim by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) event/exposure. The codes assigned to lost-time (LT) claims with lower algorithm probabilities of accurate classification or those LT claims with high costs were manually reviewed. WC data were linked with the state's unemployment insurance (UI) data to identify the employer's industry and number of employees. BLS data on hours worked per employee were used to estimate full-time equivalents (FTE) and calculate rates of WC claims per 100 FTE. Results: 140,780 LT claims and 633,373 medical-only claims were analyzed. Although counts and rates of LT WC claims declined from 2007 to 2017, the shares of leading LT injury event/exposures remained largely unchanged. LT claims due to Overexertion and Bodily Reaction (33.0%) were most common, followed by Falls, Slips, and Trips (31.4%), Contact with Objects and Equipment (22.5%), Transportation Incidents (7.0%), Exposure to Harmful Substances or Environments (2.8%), Violence and Other Injuries by Persons or Animals (2.5%), and Fires and Explosions (0.4%). These findings are consistent with other reported data. The proportions of injury event/exposures varied by industry, and high-risk industries were identified. Conclusions: Injuries have been reduced, but prevention challenges remain in certain industries. Available evidence on intervention effectiveness was summarized and mapped to the analysis results to demonstrate how the results can guide prevention efforts. Practical Applications: Employers, safety/health practitioners, researchers, WC insurers, and bureaus can use these data and machine learning methods to understand industry differences in the level and mix of risks, as well as industry trends, and to tailor safety, health, and disability prevention services and research. 2021

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. In vivo efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine and amodiaquine-artesunate for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mozambique, 2018external icon
        Nhama A, Nhamússua L, Macete E, Bassat Q, Salvador C, Enosse S, Candrinho B, Carvalho E, Nhacolo A, Chidimatembue A, Saifodine A, Zulliger R, Lucchi N, Svigel SS, Moriarty LF, Halsey ES, Mayor A, Aide P.
        Malar J. 2021 Oct 2;20(1):390.
        BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Mozambique since 2006, with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and amodiaquine-artesunate (AS-AQ) as the first choice. To assess efficacy of currently used ACT, an in vivo therapeutic efficacy study was conducted. METHODS: The study was conducted in four sentinel sites: Montepuez, Moatize, Mopeia and Massinga. Patients between 6 and 59 months old with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (2000-200,000 parasites/µl) were enrolled between February and September of 2018, assigned to either an AL or AS-AQ treatment arm, and monitored for 28 days. A Bayesian algorithm was applied to differentiate recrudescence from new infection using genotyping data of seven neutral microsatellites. Uncorrected and PCR-corrected efficacy results at day 28 were calculated. RESULTS: Totals of 368 and 273 patients were enrolled in the AL and AS-AQ arms, respectively. Of these, 9.5% (35/368) and 5.1% (14/273) were lost to follow-up in the AL and AS-AQ arms, respectively. There were 48 and 3 recurrent malaria infections (late clinical and late parasitological failures) in the AL and AS-AQ arms, respectively. The day 28 uncorrected efficacy was 85.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 81.3-89.2%) for AL and 98.8% (95% CI 96.7-99.8%) for AS-AQ, whereas day 28 PCR-corrected efficacy was 97.9% (95% CI 95.6-99.2%) for AL and 99.6% (95% CI 97.9-100%) for AS-AQ. Molecular testing confirmed that 87.4% (42/48) and 33.3% (1/3) of participants with a recurrent malaria infection in the AL and AS-AQ arms were new infections; an expected finding in a high malaria transmission area. Adverse events were documented in less than 2% of participants for both drugs. CONCLUSION: Both AL and AS-AQ have therapeutic efficacies well above the 90% WHO recommended threshold and remain well-tolerated in Mozambique. Routine monitoring of therapeutic efficacy should continue to ensure the treatments remain efficacious. Trial registration NCT04370977.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Walking and other common physical activities among adults with arthritis - United States, 2019external icon
        Guglielmo D, Murphy LB, Theis KA, Boring MA, Helmick CG, Watson KB, Duca LM, Odom EL, Liu Y, Croft JB.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Oct 8;70(40):1408-1414.
        The numerous health benefits of physical activity include reduced risk for chronic disease and improved mental health and quality of life (1). Physical activity can improve physical function and reduce pain and fall risk among adults with arthritis, a group of approximately 100 conditions affecting joints and surrounding tissues (most commonly osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus) (1). Despite these benefits, the 54.6 million U.S. adults currently living with arthritis are generally less active than adults without arthritis, and only 36.2% of adults with arthritis are aerobically active (i.e., meet aerobic physical activity guidelines*) (2). Little is known about which physical activities adults with arthritis engage in. CDC analyzed 2019 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to examine the most common nonwork-related physical activities among adults with arthritis who reported any physical activity during the past month, nationally and by state. In 2019, 67.2% of adults with arthritis reported engaging in physical activity in the past month; among these persons, the most commonly reported activities were walking (70.8%), gardening (13.3%), and weightlifting (7.3%). In 45 U.S. states, at least two thirds of adults with arthritis who engaged in physical activity reported walking. Health care providers can help inactive adults with arthritis become active and, by encouraging physical activity and referring these persons to evidence-based physical activity programs, improve their health and quality of life.

    • Social and Behavioral Sciences
      1. National and state trends in anxiety and depression severity scores among adults during the COVID-19 pandemic - United States, 2020-2021external icon
        Jia H, Guerin RJ, Barile JP, Okun AH, McKnight-Eily L, Blumberg SJ, Njai R, Thompson WW.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Oct 8;70(40):1427-1432.
        Recent studies indicate an increase in the percentage of adults who reported clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic (1-3). For example, based on U.S. Census Bureau Household Pulse Survey (HPS) data, CDC reported significant increases in symptoms of anxiety and depressive disorders among adults aged ≥18 years during August 19, 2020-February 1, 2021, with the largest increases among adults aged 18-29 years and among those with less than a high school education (1). To assess more recent national trends, as well as state-specific trends, CDC used HPS data (4) to assess trends in reported anxiety and depression among U.S. adults in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) during August 19, 2020-June 7, 2021 (1). Nationally, the average anxiety severity score increased 13% from August 19-31, 2020, to December 9-21, 2020 (average percent change [APC] per survey wave = 1.5%) and then decreased 26.8% from December 9-21, 2020, to May 26-June 7, 2021 (APC = -3.1%). The average depression severity score increased 14.8% from August 19-31, 2020, to December 9-21, 2020 (APC = 1.7%) and then decreased 24.8% from December 9-21, 2020, to May 26-June 7, 2021 (APC = -2.8%). State-specific trends were generally similar to national trends, with both anxiety and depression scores for most states peaking during the December 9-21, 2020, or January 6-18, 2021, survey waves. Across the entire study period, the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms was positively correlated with the average number of daily COVID-19 cases. Mental health services and resources, including telehealth behavioral services, are critical during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain recommends that providers consider co-prescribing naloxone when factors that increase the risk of overdose are present. Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist that counteracts the effects of an opioid overdose. This paper explores trends in naloxone dispensing and out-of-pocket costs among commercially insured individuals in the United States. Administrative claims data from the IBM Watson Health MarketScan database are analyzed to assess trends in naloxone dispensing from 2015 to 2018. Descriptive statistics on concurrent dispensing of naloxone with opioid analgesics are performed among several at-risk populations. The rate of commercially insured individuals being co-dispensed naloxone increased between 2015 and 2018 across all population sub-groups. In 2018, 16.2 individuals were co-dispensed naloxone for every 1000 receiving an opioid dosage ≥ 90 MME/day compared to 0.9 in 2015, 27.6 individuals were co-dispensed naloxone for every 1000 concurrently dispensed benzodiazepines and an opioid dosage ≥ 90 MME/day compared to 7.6 in 2015, and 43.7 individuals were co-dispensed naloxone for every 1000 receiving an opioid dosage ≥90 MME/day with a past overdose compared to 17.6 in 2015. Median out-of-pocket cost for naloxone increased from $12 in 2015 to $25 in 2018. Despite increases in naloxone dispensing from 2015 to 2018, the provision of naloxone to the commercially insured population remains low. Opportunities remain to increase the supply of naloxone to at-risk populations. Considering ways to reduce out-of-pocket costs associated with naloxone may be a potential strategy to increase access to this life-saving drug.

      2. Impact of Medicaid expansion and methadone coverage as a medication for opioid use disorder on foster care entries during the opioid crisisexternal icon
        Tang S, Matjasko JL, Harper CR, Rostad WL, Ports KA, Strahan AE, Florence C.
        Child Youth Serv Rev. 2021 ;130.
        Between 2012 and 2018, incidents of opioid-involved injuries surged and the number of children in foster care due to parental drug use disorder increased. Treatments for opioid use disorder (OUD) might prevent or reduce the amount of time that children spend in the child welfare system. Using administrative data, we examined the impact of Medicaid expansion and state support for methadone as a medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) on first-time foster care placements. Results show that first-time foster care entries due to parental drug use disorder experienced a reduction of 28 per 100,000 children in Medicaid expansion states with methadone MOUD covered by their state Medicaid programs. The largest reduction was found among non-Hispanic Black children and the youngest children (age 0–1 years). Policies that increase OUD treatment access may reduce foster care placements by reducing parents’ drug use, a risk factor for child abuse/neglect and subsequent home removal. © 2021

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Genomic investigation of a household SARS-CoV-2 disease cluster in Arizona involving a cat, dog, and pet ownerexternal icon
        Yaglom HD, Hecht G, Goedderz A, Jasso-Selles D, Ely JL, Ruberto I, Bowers JR, Engelthaler DM, Venkat H.
        One Health. 2021 Dec;13:100333.
        Arizona's COVID-19 and Pets Program is a prospective surveillance study being conducted to characterize how SARS-CoV-2 impacts companion animals living in households with SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Among the enrolled pets, we identified a SARS-CoV-2-infected cat and dog from the same household; both animals were asymptomatic but had close contact with the symptomatic and SARS-CoV-2-positive owner. Whole genome sequencing of animal and owner specimens revealed identical viral genomes of the B.1.575 lineage, suggesting zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human to at least one pet. This is the first report of the B.1.575 lineage in companion animals. Genetically linking SARS-CoV-2 between people and animals, and tracking changes in SARS-CoV-2 genomes is essential to detect any cross-species SARS-CoV-2 transmission that may lead to more transmissible or severe variants that can affect humans. Surveillance studies, including genomic analyses of owner and pet specimens, are needed to further our understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 impacts companion animals.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: October 19, 2021, 12:00 AM