Volume 12, Issue, 7 March 3, 2020
CDC Science Clips: Volume 12, Issue 7, March 3, 2020
Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions!
NOTE: For current information on COVID-19, please consult the following resources:
CDC: Coronavirus Disease 2019
NIH: National Library of Medicine Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Resources and Informationexternal icon
WHO Information and Guidance: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreakexternal icon
WHO: Global Research on COVID-19external icon
- CDC Authored Publications
The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
- Chronic Diseases and Conditions
Cancer Informatics for Cancer Centers (CI4CC): Building a community focused on sharing ideas and best practices to improve cancer care and patient outcomesexternal icon
Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Rollison DE, Basu A, Borowsky AD, Bui A, DiGiovanna J, Garcia-Closas M, Genkinger JM, Gerke T, Induni M, Lacey JV, Mirel L, Permuth JB, Saltz J, Shenkman EA, Ulrich CM, Zheng WJ, Nadaf S, Kibbe WA.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform. 2020 Feb;4:108-116.
Characteristics and health status of informal unpaid caregivers - 44 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 2015-2017external icon
Edwards VJ, Bouldin ED, Taylor CA, Olivari BS, McGuire LC.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 21;69(7):183-188.
Tracking of obesity among 2- to 9-year-olds in an electronic heath record database from 2006 to 2018external icon
Freedman DS, Goodman AB, King RJ, Blanck HM.
Obes Sci Pract. 2020 .
Risk factors for ischemic stroke in younger adults: A focused updateexternal icon
Stroke. 2020 Feb 12.
Association of indoor tanning regulations with health and economic outcomes in North America and Europeexternal icon
Gordon LG, Rodriguez-Acevedo AJ, Koster B, Guy GP, Sinclair C, Van Deventer E, Green AC.
JAMA Dermatol. 2020 Feb 19.
Characterizing the weight-glycemia phenotypes of type 1 diabetes in youth and young adulthoodexternal icon
Kahkoska AR, Nguyen CT, Jiang X, Adair LA, Agarwal S, Aiello AE, Burger KS, Buse JB, Dabelea D, Dolan LM, Imperatore G, Lawrence JM, Marcovina S, Pihoker C, Reboussin BA, Sauder KA, Kosorok MR, Mayer-Davis EJ.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020 Jan;8(1).
Trends in diabetes incidence worldwide: Are the findings real?external icon
Magliano DJ, Chen L, Pavkov ME, Gregg EW, Shaw JE.
Maturitas. 2020 Feb 1.
Notes from the Field: Characteristics of Million Hearts hypertension control champions, 2012-2019external icon
Ritchey MD, Hannan J, Wall HK, George MG, Sperling LS.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 21;69(7):196-197.
Effects of comorbid cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus on hand osteoarthritis, pain, and functional state transitionsexternal icon
Scherzer ZA, Alvarez C, Renner JB, Murphy LB, Schwartz TA, Jordan JM, Golightly YM, Nelson AE.
J Rheumatol. 2020 Feb 15.
Impact of rurality on stage IV ovarian cancer at diagnosis: A Midwest Cancer Registry Cohort Studyexternal icon
Weeks KS, Lynch CF, West M, McDonald M, Carnahan R, Stewart SL, Charlton M.
J Rural Health. 2020 Feb 20.
- Communicable Diseases
Adherence and viral suppression among participants of the patient-centered Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Care Model Project: A collaboration between community-based pharmacists and HIV clinical providersexternal icon
Byrd KK, Hou JG, Bush T, Hazen R, Kirkham H, Delpino A, Weidle PJ, Shankle MD, Camp NM, Suzuki S, Clay PG.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 14;70(5):789-797.
Emerging priorities for HIV service deliveryexternal icon
Ford N, Geng E, Ellman T, Orrell C, Ehrenkranz P, Sikazwe I, Jahn A, Rabkin M, Ayisi Addo S, Grimsrud A, Rosen S, Zulu I, Reidy W, Lejone T, Apollo T, Holmes C, Kolling AF, Phate Lesihla R, Nguyen HH, Bakashaba B, Chitembo L, Tiriste G, Doherty M, Bygrave H.
PLoS Med. 2020 Feb;17(2):e1003028.
Primary healthcare centers engagement in tuberculosis treatment in Ukraineexternal icon
Geliukh E, Nabirova D, Davtyan K, Yesypenko S, Zachariah R.
J Infect Dev Ctries. 2019 Jul 31;13(7.1):83s-88s.
Tuberculosis infection among people with diabetes: United States population differences by race/ethnicityexternal icon
Haddad MB, Lash TL, Castro KG, Hill AN, Navin TR, Gandhi NR, Magee MJ.
Am J Prev Med. 2020 Feb 13.
HIV prevention research on men who have sex with men: A scoping review of systematic reviews, 1988-2017external icon
Higa DH, Crepaz N, McDonald CM, Adegbite-Johnson A, DeLuca JB, Kamitani E, Sipe TA.
AIDS Educ Prev. 2020 Feb 19:1-24.
Strategies for active detection of tuberculosis in Ukraine: Comparative effectiveness amongst key populations (2014-2018)external icon
Kamenska N, Nabirova D, Davtyan K, Davtyan H, Zachariah R, Aslanyan G.
J Infect Dev Ctries. 2019 Jul 31;13(7.1):89s-94s.
A community-wide acute diarrheal disease outbreak associated with drinking contaminated water from shallow bore-wells in a tribal village, India, 2017external icon
Maramraj KK, Subbalakshmi G, Ali MS, Dikid T, Yadav R, Sodha SV, Jain SK, Singh SK.
BMC Public Health. 2020 Feb 14;20(1):231.
Community water service and incidence of respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal infections in rural Alaska, 2013-2015external icon
Mosites E, Lefferts B, Seeman S, January G, Dobson J, Fuente D, Bruce M, Thomas T, Hennessy T.
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2020 Feb 11;225:113475.
Impact of abstinence and of reducing illicit drug use without abstinence on human immunodeficiency virus viral loadexternal icon
Nance RM, Trejo ME, Whitney BM, Delaney JA, Altice FL, Beckwith CG, Chander G, Chandler R, Christopoulous K, Cunningham C, Cunningham WE, Del Rio C, Donovan D, Eron JJ, Fredericksen RJ, Kahana S, Kitahata MM, Kronmal R, Kuo I, Kurth A, Mathews WC, Mayer KH, Moore RD, Mugavero MJ, Ouellet LJ, Quan VM, Saag MS, Simoni JM, Springer S, Strand L, Taxman F, Young JD, Crane HM.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 14;70(5):867-874.
What's PrEP?: peer navigator acceptability among minority MSM in Washingtonexternal icon
Pagkas-Bather J, Jaramillo J, Henry J, Grandberry V, Ramirez LF, Cervantes L, Stekler JD, Andrasik MP, Graham SM.
BMC Public Health. 2020 Feb 18;20(1):248.
First case of high-level azithromycin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in North Carolinaexternal icon
Palavecino EL, Kilic A, Schmerer MW, Dobre-Buonya O, Toler C, McNeil CJ.
Sex Transm Dis. 2020 Feb 18.
Tuberculosis transmission or mortality among persons living with HIV, USA, 2011-2016external icon
Schmit KM, Shah N, Kammerer S, Bamrah Morris S, Marks SM.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2020 Feb 14.
Epidemiology, clinical features, and resource utilization associated with respiratory syncytial virus in the community and hospitalexternal icon
Smithgall M, Maykowski P, Zachariah P, Oberhardt M, Vargas CY, Reed C, LaRussa P, Saiman L, Stockwell MS.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2020 Feb 20.
- Disaster Control and Emergency Services
Did internal displacement from the 2010 earthquake in Haiti lead to long-term violence against children? A matched pairs study designexternal icon
Cerna-Turoff I, Kane JC, Devries K, Mercy J, Massetti G, Baiocchi M.
Child Abuse Negl. 2020 Feb 12;102:104393.
Nigeria's Joint External Evaluation and National Action Plan for Health Securityexternal icon
Ojo OE, Dalhat M, Garfield R, Lee C, Oyebanji O, Oyetunji A, Ihekweazu C.
Health Secur. 2020 Jan/Feb;18(1):16-20.
- Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
Vector competence studies with hard ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes: A reviewexternal icon
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2019 Dec 14:101359.
Preliminary evaluation of human personal protective measures against the nymphal stage of the Asian longhorned Tick (Acari: Ixodidae)external icon
Foster E, Fleshman AC, Ford SL, Levin ML, Delorey MJ, Eisen RJ, Eisen L.
J Med Entomol. 2020 Feb 19.
- Environmental Health
Spatial exploration of the CDC's Social Vulnerability Index and heat-related health outcomes in Georgiaexternal icon
Lehnert EA, Wilt G, Flanagan B, Hallisey E.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct. 2020 ;46.
Characterization of trace elements exposure in pregnant women in the United States, NHANES 1999-2016external icon
Watson CV, Lewin M, Ragin-Wilson A, Jones R, Jarrett JM, Wallon K, Ward C, Hilliard N, Irvin-Barnwell E.
Environ Res. 2020 Jan 31;183:109208.
Trends and patterns of phthalates and phthalate alternatives exposure in pregnant women from Mexico City during 2007-2010external icon
Wu H, Kupsco AJ, Deierlein AL, Just AC, Calafat AM, Oken E, Braun JM, Mercado-Garcia A, Cantoral A, Tellez-Rojo MM, Wright RO, Baccarelli AA.
Environ Sci Technol. 2020 Feb 4;54(3):1740-1749.
- Health Economics
Global and regional estimates and projections of diabetes-related health expenditure: results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9(th) editionexternal icon
Williams R, Karuranga S, Malanda B, Saeedi P, Basit A, Besancon S, Bommer C, Esteghamati A, Ogurtsova K, Zhang P, Collagiuri S.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Feb 13:108072.
- Healthcare Associated Infections
Molecular characterization and clinical outcomes of Candida auris infection: Single-center experience in Saudi Arabiaexternal icon
Almaghrabi RS, Albalawi R, Mutabagani M, Atienza E, Aljumaah S, Gade L, Forsberg K, Litvintseva A, Althawadi S.
Mycoses. 2020 Feb 18.
Digging deep in the microbiome to diagnose Clostridioides difficile infectionexternal icon
Halpin AL, McDonald LC.
Clin Chem. 2020 Feb 13.
Faces of resistance: Using real-world patients and their advocates to teach medical students about antimicrobial stewardshipexternal icon
Nori P, Cowman K, Jezek A, Nosanchuk JD, Slosar-Cheah M, Sarwar U, Bartash R, Ostrowsky B.
Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 ;6(12).
An innovative quality improvement approach for rapid improvement of infection prevention and control at health facilities in Sierra Leoneexternal icon
Rondinelli I, Dougherty G, Madevu-Matson CA, Toure M, Akinjeji A, Ogongo I, Kolwaite A, Weiss J, Gleason B, Lyman MM, Benya H, Rabkin M.
Int J Qual Health Care. 2020 Feb 13.
Genomic characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains from 2016 United States Sentinel Surveillance Displaying Reduced Susceptibility to Azithromycinexternal icon
Schmerer MW, Abrams AJ, Seby S, Thomas JC, Cartee J, Lucking S, Vidyaprakash E, Pham CD, Sharpe S, Pettus K, St Cyr SB, Torrone EA, Kersh EN, Gernert KM.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Feb 18.
- Immunity and Immunization
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine breakthrough infections: 2001-2016external icon
Adebanjo TA, Pondo T, Yankey D, Hill HA, Gierke R, Apostol M, Barnes M, Petit S, Farley M, Harrison LH, Holtzman C, Baumbach J, Bennett N, McGuire S, Thomas A, Schaffner W, Beall B, Whitney CG, Pilishvili T.
Pediatrics. 2020 Feb 13.
Post-vaccination serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A as a correlate of protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis across settingsexternal icon
Baker JM, Tate JE, Leon J, Haber MJ, Pitzer VE, Lopman BA.
J Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 15.
Interim estimates of 2019-20 seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness - United States, February 2020external icon
Dawood FS, Chung JR, Kim SS, Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Jackson ML, Jackson LA, Monto AS, Martin ET, Belongia EA, McLean HQ, Gaglani M, Dunnigan K, Foust A, Sessions W, DaSilva J, Le S, Stark T, Kondor RJ, Barnes JR, Wentworth DE, Brammer L, Fry AM, Patel MM, Flannery B.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 21;69(7):177-182.
Relative and absolute effectiveness of high-dose and standard-dose influenza vaccine against influenza-related hospitalization among older adults - United States, 2015-2017external icon
Doyle JD, Beacham L, Martin ET, Talbot HK, Monto A, Gaglani M, Middleton DB, Silveira FP, Zimmerman RK, Alyanak E, Smith ER, Flannery BL, Rolfes M, Ferdinands JM.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 18.
Practice guideline update summary: Vaccine-preventable infections and immunization in multiple sclerosis: Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurologyexternal icon
Farez MF, Correale J, Armstrong MJ, Rae-Grant A, Gloss D, Donley D, Holler-Managan Y, Kachuck NJ, Jeffery D, Beilman M, Gronseth G, Michelson D, Lee E, Cox J, Getchius T, Sejvar J, Narayanaswami P.
Neurology. 2019 Sep 24;93(13):584-594.
Identifying vaccine-associated rash illness amidst a large measles outbreak - Minnesota, 2017external icon
Martin KG, Banerjee E, McMahon M, Kenyon C, Strain A, Muscoplat MH, Gastanaduy PA, Rota PA, Mody RK, Ehresmann K.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 18.
Multistate, population-based distributions of candidate vaccine targets, clonal complexes, and resistance features of invasive Group B Streptococci within the US: 2015-2017external icon
McGee L, Chochua S, Li Z, Mathis S, Rivers J, Metcalf B, Ryan A, Alden N, Farley MM, Harrison LH, Snippes Vagnone P, Lynfield R, Smelser C, Muse A, Thomas AR, Schrag S, Beall BW.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 15.
Health workers' perceptions and challenges in implementing meningococcal serogroup a conjugate vaccine in the routine childhood immunization schedule in Burkina Fasoexternal icon
Nkwenkeu SF, Jalloh MF, Walldorf JA, Zoma RL, Tarbangdo F, Fall S, Hien S, Combassere R, Ky C, Kambou L, Diallo AO, Krishnaswamy A, Ake FH, Hatcher C, Patel JC, Medah I, Novak RT, Hyde TB, Soeters HM, Mirza I.
BMC Public Health. 2020 Feb 19;20(1):254.
Principles of vaccine licensure, approval, and recommendations for useexternal icon
Pickering LK, Meissner HC, Orenstein WA, Cohn AC.
Mayo Clin Proc. 2020 Feb 13.
Continued evidence of the impact of rotavirus vaccine in children less than 3 years of age from the US New Vaccine Surveillance Network- a multi-site active surveillance program, 2006-2016external icon
Staat MA, Payne DC, Halasa N, Weinberg GA, Donauer S, Wikswo M, McNeal M, Edwards KM, Szilagyi PG, Bernstein DI, Curns AT, Sulemana I, Esona MD, Bowen MD, Parashar UD.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Feb 15.
- Injury and Violence
Microfinance and violence prevention: A review of the evidence and adaptations for implementation in the U.Sexternal icon
Matjasko JL, D'Inverno AS, Marshall KJ, Kearns MC.
Prev Med. 2020 Feb 10:106017.
- Laboratory Sciences
Brucella exposure risk events in 10 clinical laboratories, New York City, USA, 2015 to 2017external icon
Ackelsberg J, Liddicoat A, Burke T, Szymczak WA, Levi MH, Ostrowsky B, Hamula C, Patel G, Kopetz V, Saverimuttu J, Sordillo EM, D'Souza D, Mitchell EA, Lowe W, Khare R, Tang YW, Bianchi AL, Egan C, Perry MJ, Hughes S, Rakeman JL, Adams E, Kharod GA, Tiller R, Saile E, Lee S, Gonzalez E, Hoppe B, Leviton IM, Hacker S, Ni KF, Orsini RL, Jhaveri S, Mazariegos I, Dingle T, Koll B, Stoddard RA, Galloway R, Hoffmaster A, Fine A, Lee E, Dentinger C, Harrison E, Layton M.
J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Jan 28;58(2).
Clinical-laboratory interface interventions to improve impact of viral load and early infant diagnosis testing scale-upexternal icon
Alemnji GA, Pati R, Chun H, Zeh C, Mosha F, Siberry G, Ondoa P.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2020 Feb 19.
Rapid, sensitive, and accurate point-of-care detection of lethal amatoxins in urineexternal icon
Bever CS, Swanson KD, Hamelin EI, Filigenzi M, Poppenga RH, Kaae J, Cheng LW, Stanker LH.
Toxins (Basel). 2020 Feb 15;12(2).
Implementation of a three-tiered approach to identify and characterize anti-drug antibodies raised against HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodiesexternal icon
Bharadwaj P, Riekofski C, Lin S, Seaman MS, Garber DA, Montefiori D, Sarzotti-Kelsoe M, Ackerman ME, Weiner JA.
J Immunol Methods. 2020 Feb 15:112764.
CoMPARA: Collaborative modeling project for androgen receptor activityexternal icon
Mansouri K, Kleinstreuer N, Abdelaziz AM, Alberga D, Alves VM, Andersson PL, Andrade CH, Bai F, Balabin I, Ballabio D, Benfenati E, Bhhatarai B, Boyer S, Chen J, Consonni V, Farag S, Fourches D, Garcia-Sosa AT, Gramatica P, Grisoni F, Grulke CM, Hong H, Horvath D, Hu X, Huang R, Jeliazkova N, Li J, Li X, Liu H, Manganelli S, Mangiatordi GF, Maran U, Marcou G, Martin T, Muratov E, Nguyen DT, Nicolotti O, Nikolov NG, Norinder U, Papa E, Petitjean M, Piir G, Pogodin P, Poroikov V, Qiao X, Richard AM, Roncaglioni A, Ruiz P, Rupakheti C, Sakkiah S, Sangion A, Schramm KW, Selvaraj C, Shah I, Sild S, Sun L, Taboureau O, Tang Y, Tetko IV, Todeschini R, Tong W, Trisciuzzi D, Tropsha A, Van Den Driessche G, Varnek A, Wang Z, Wedebye EB, Williams AJ, Xie H, Zakharov AV, Zheng Z, Judson RS.
Environ Health Perspect. 2020 Feb;128(2):27002.
- Maternal and Child Health
Fragile X syndrome-associated emergency department visits in the United States, 2006-2011external icon
Do TQ, Riley C, Paramsothy P, Ouyang L, Bolen J, Grosse SD.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2020 Mar;125(2):103-108.
Evaluation of stress-control layout at the Subtropolis Mine, Petersburg, Ohioexternal icon
Iannacchione A, Miller T, Esterhuizen G, Slaker B, Murphy M, Cope N, Thayer S.
Int J Min Sci Technol. 2020 .
- Occupational Safety and Health
Three-dimensional printer emissions and employee exposures to ultrafine particles during the printing of thermoplastic filaments containing carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibersexternal icon
Dunn KL, Dunn KH, Hammond D, Lo S.
J Nanopart Res. 2020 ;22(2).
The CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard: An assessment tool to promote employee health and well-beingexternal icon
Lang JE, Mummert A, Roemer EC, Kent KB, Koffman DM, Goetzel RZ.
Am J Health Promot. 2020 Mar;34(3):319-321.
Prevalence of workplace health practices and policies in hospitals: Results from the Workplace Health in America Studyexternal icon
Mulder L, Belay B, Mukhtar Q, Lang JE, Harris D, Onufrak S.
Am J Health Promot. 2020 Feb 20:890117120905232.
- Parasitic Diseases
Molecular surveillance for polymorphisms associated with artemisinin-based combination therapy resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in the state of Roraima, Brazilexternal icon
Lucchi NW, Abdallah R, Louzada J, Udhayakumar V, Oliveira-Ferreira J.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Feb;102(2):310-312.
Autochthonous Chagas disease - Missouri, 2018external icon
Turabelidze G, Vasudevan A, Rojas-Moreno C, Montgomery SP, Baker M, Pratt D, Enyeart S.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 21;69(7):193-195.
- Physical Activity
Physical activity types among US adults with mobility disability, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2017external icon
Hollis ND, Zhang QC, Cyrus AC, Courtney-Long E, Watson K, Carroll DD.
Disabil Health J. 2020 Feb 3:100888.
- Public Health Law
State and territorial laws prohibiting sales of tobacco products to persons aged <21 years - United States, December 20, 2019external icon
Marynak K, Mahoney M, Williams KS, Tynan MA, Reimels E, King BA.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Feb 21;69(7):189-192.
- Public Health Leadership and Management
Associations between Medicaid expansion and nurse staffing ratios and hospital readmissionsexternal icon
Health Serv Res. 2020 Feb 13.
- Substance Use and Abuse
Resurgent methamphetamine use at treatment admission in the United States, 2008-2017external icon
Jones CM, Olsen EO, O'Donnell J, Mustaquim D.
Am J Public Health. 2020 Feb 20:e1-e8.
Modes of marijuana use - smoking, vaping, eating, and dabbing: Results from the 2016 BRFSS in 12 Statesexternal icon
Schauer GL, Njai R, Grant-Lenzy AM.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 Feb 6;209:107900.
- Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
Rickettsia felis identified in two fatal cases of acute meningoencephalitisexternal icon
Mawuntu AH, Johar E, Anggraeni R, Feliana F, Bernadus JB, Safari D, Yudhaputri FA, Dhenni R, Dewi YP, Kato C, Powers AM, Rosenberg R, Soebandrio A, Myint KS.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Feb 18;14(2):e0007893.
- Chronic Diseases and Conditions
CDC Science Clips Production Staff
- Takudzwa Sayi, Editor
- Gail Bang, MLIS, Librarian
- Kathy Tucker, Librarian
- William (Bill) Thomas, MLIS, Librarian
- Jarvis Sims, MIT, MLIS, Librarian
DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.