Volume 12, Issue 25, July 28, 2020

CDC Science Clips: Volume 12, Issue 25, July 28, 2020

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week
    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      • Dietary omega polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and patient-reported outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus: The Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance Programexternal icon
        Charoenwoodhipong P, Harlow SD, Marder W, Hassett AL, McCune WJ, Gordon C, Helmick CG, Barbour KE, Wang L, Mancuso P, Somers EC, Zick SM.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2020 Jul;72(7):874-881.
        OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between dietary intake of omega-3 (n-3; generally antiinflammatory) and omega-6 (n-6; generally proinflammatory) fatty acids and patient-reported outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: This study was based on the population-based Michigan Lupus Epidemiology and Surveillance cohort. Estimates of n-3 and n-6 intake were derived from Diet History Questionnaire II items (past year with portion size version). Patient-reported outcomes included self-reported lupus activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire [SLAQ]). Multivariable regression, adjusted for age, sex, race, and body mass index, was used to assess associations between absolute intake of n-3 and n-6, as well as the n-6:n-3 ratio, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Among 456 SLE cases, 425 (93.2%) were female, 207 (45.4%) were African American, and the mean ± SD age was 52.9 ± 12.3 years. Controlling for potential confounders, the average SLAQ score was significantly higher by 0.3 points (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.1, 0.6; P = 0.013) with each unit increase of the n-6:n-3 ratio. Both lupus activity and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) sleep disturbance scores were lower with each 1-gram/1,000 kcal increase of n-3 fatty acids (SLAQ regression coefficient β = -0.8 [95% CI -1.6, 0.0]; P = 0.055; PROMIS sleep β = -1.1 [95% CI -2.0, -0.2]; P = 0.017). Higher n-3 intakes were nonsignificantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms and comorbid fibromyalgia, and with higher quality of life, whereas results for the n6:n3 ratio trended in the opposite direction. CONCLUSION: This population-based study suggests that higher dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and lower n-6:n-3 ratios are favorably associated with patient-reported outcomes in SLE, particularly self-reported lupus activity and sleep quality.

      • National trends in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status groups, 1988-2016external icon
        Vart P, Powe NR, McCulloch CE, Saran R, Gillespie BW, Saydah S, Crews DC.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jul 1;3(7):e207932.
        Importance: The overall prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has stabilized in the United States in recent years. However, it is unclear whether all major sociodemographic groups experienced this trend. Objective: To examine trends in CKD prevalence across major sociodemographic groups as defined by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 1988 to 1994 and every 2 years from 1999 to 2016 on individuals 20 years or older with information on race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and serum creatinine levels. Statistical analysis was conducted from May 1, 2017, to April 6, 2020. Exposures: Race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results: A total of 54554 participants (mean [SE] age, 46.2 [0.2] years; 51.7% female) were examined. The age-, sex- and race/ethnicity-adjusted overall prevalence of stage 3 and 4 CKD increased from 3.9% in 1988-1994 to 5.2% in 2003-2004 (difference, 1.3%; 95% CI, 0.9%-1.7%; P < .001 for change) and remained relatively stable thereafter at 5.1% in 2015-2016 (difference, -0.1%; 95% CI, -0.7% to 0.4%; P = .61 for change). The trend in adjusted CKD prevalence differed significantly by race/ethnicity (P = .009 for interaction). In non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black persons, CKD prevalence increased between 1988-1994 and 2003-2004 and remained stable thereafter. Among Mexican American persons, CKD prevalence was lower than in other racial/ethnic groups and remained stable between 1988-1994 and 2003-2004 but nearly doubled (difference, 2.1%; 95% CI, 0.9%-3.3%; P = .001 for change) between 2003-2004 and 2015-2016 to rates similar to those in other racial/ethnic groups. There were higher rates of CKD prevalence among groups with lower educational level and income (eg, 5.8% vs 4.3% and 4.3% vs 3.1% in low vs high education and income, respectively, in 1988-1994), but trends in CKD prevalence mirrored those for the overall population. The higher CKD prevalence among individuals with lower educational level and income remained largely consistent throughout the entire period. Results were similar in most subgroups when including albuminuria to define CKD. Conclusions and Relevance: The prevalence of CKD in the United States has stabilized overall in recent years but has increased among Mexican American persons. More important, gaps in CKD prevalence across racial/ethnic groups and levels of socioeconomic status largely persisted over 28 years. There is a need to identify and address causes of increasing CKD prevalence among Mexican American persons and a need to renew efforts to effectively mitigate persistent disparities in CKD prevalence.

    • Communicable Diseases
      • Addressing advanced HIV disease and mortality in global HIV programmingexternal icon
        Boyd AT, Oboho I, Paulin H, Ali H, Godfrey C, Date A, Sean Cavanaugh J.
        AIDS Res Ther. 2020 Jul 10;17(1):40.
        INTRODUCTION: The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) was launched to increase access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and to prevent new HIV infections globally. As new infections have decreased in many PEPFAR-supported countries, PEPFAR is increasingly focusing on understanding and decreasing mortality among PLHIV, specifically by addressing advanced HIV disease (AHD) and its attendant opportunistic infections (OIs). Several developments in identifying AHD, in preventing, diagnosing, and treating selected OIs, and in PEPFAR's support for mortality surveillance make this an opportune moment for PEPFAR to address HIV-related mortality. DISCUSSION: AHD upon diagnosis or re-engagement in HIV care is not uncommon, and it substantially increases risk of death from OIs. The World Health Organization provides evidence-based guidelines for a package of interventions for preventing, diagnosing, and treating common OIs, including tuberculosis (TB), cryptococcal meningitis, and severe bacterial infections. PEPFAR facilitates implementation of these guidelines. To identify PLHIV with low CD4, PEPFAR plans to support expanded access to CD4 testing, including a point-of-care assay that differentiates CD4 cell count as a binary of greater than or less than 200 cells/microL. To prevent AHD-related mortality, PEPFAR supports rapid ART initiation with integrase inhibitor-based regimens and implementation and documentation of TB preventive treatment. To diagnose selected OIs, PEPFAR is implementing urine lateral flow lipoarabinomannan use to identify TB among PLHIV who have a CD4 cell count < 200 cells/microL. To treat selected OIs, PEPFAR has focused on improving patient-centered care in TB/HIV co-infection services and scaling up implementation of new drug regimens for cryptococcal meningitis. To better understand mortality, PEPFAR has introduced an indicator, TX_ML, to routinely and systematically categorize outcomes, including deaths, among PLHIV on ART. CONCLUSIONS: PEPFAR is increasing its efforts to identify AHD; to prevent, diagnose, and treat OIs; and to track mortality in its programs. These ongoing efforts, done in collaboration with other stakeholders, seek to decrease mortality among PLHIV.

      • Household materials selection for homemade cloth face coverings and their filtration efficiency enhancement with triboelectric chargingexternal icon
        Zhao M, Liao L, Xiao W, Yu X, Wang H, Wang Q, Lin YL, Kilinc-Balci FS, Price A, Chu L, Chu MC, Chu S, Cui Y.
        Nano Lett. 2020 Jul 8;20(7):5544-5552.
        The COVID-19 pandemic is currently causing a severe disruption and shortage in the global supply chain of necessary personal protective equipment (e.g., N95 respirators). The U.S. CDC has recommended use of household cloth by the general public to make cloth face coverings as a method of source control. We evaluated the filtration properties of natural and synthetic materials using a modified procedure for N95 respirator approval. Common fabrics of cotton, polyester, nylon, and silk had filtration efficiency of 5-25%, polypropylene spunbond had filtration efficiency 6-10%, and paper-based products had filtration efficiency of 10-20%. An advantage of polypropylene spunbond is that it can be simply triboelectrically charged to enhance the filtration efficiency (from 6 to >10%) without any increase in pressure (stable overnight and in humid environments). Using the filtration quality factor, fabric microstructure, and charging ability, we are able to provide an assessment of suggested fabric materials for homemade facial coverings.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      • Precision health analytics with predictive analytics and implementation research: JACC state-of-the-art reviewexternal icon
        Pearson TA, Califf RM, Roper R, Engelgau MM, Khoury MJ, Alcantara C, Blakely C, Boyce CA, Brown M, Croxton TL, Fenton K, Green Parker MC, Hamilton A, Helmchen L, Hsu LL, Kent DM, Kind A, Kravitz J, Papanicolaou GJ, Prosperi M, Quinn M, Price LN, Shireman PK, Smith SM, Szczesniak R, Goff DC, Mensah GA.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Jul 21;76(3):306-320.
        Emerging data science techniques of predictive analytics expand the quality and quantity of complex data relevant to human health and provide opportunities for understanding and control of conditions such as heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders. To realize these opportunities, the information sources, the data science tools that use the information, and the application of resulting analytics to health and health care issues will require implementation research methods to define benefits, harms, reach, and sustainability; and to understand related resource utilization implications to inform policymakers. This JACC State-of-the-Art Review is based on a workshop convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to explore predictive analytics in the context of implementation science. It highlights precision medicine and precision public health as complementary and compelling applications of predictive analytics, and addresses future research and training endeavors that might further foster the application of predictive analytics in clinical medicine and public health.

    • Health Disparities
      • Transforming primary care for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: A collaborative quality improvement initiativeexternal icon
        Furness BW, Goldhammer H, Montalvo W, Gagnon K, Bifulco L, Lentine D, Anderson D.
        Ann Fam Med. 2020 Jul;18(4):292-302.
        PURPOSE: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people experience multiple disparities in access to care and health outcomes. We developed a quality improvement initiative, Transforming Primary Care for LGBT People, to enhance the capacity of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) to provide culturally affirming care for this population. METHODS: The 1-year intervention blended the models of Practice Improvement Collaboratives and Project ECHO (Extension for Community Health Outcomes) to facilitate learning and translate knowledge into action. FQHC teams received coaching in creating LGBT-inclusive environments, collecting sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, taking risk-based sexual histories, and screening LGBT people for syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhea, and HIV. We used a preintervention-postintervention evaluation design. RESULTS: We selected 10 FQHCs serving 441,387 patients in 123 clinical sites in 9 states. The intervention spread from 10 clinicians in 10 clinical sites to 431 clinicians in 79 clinical sites. FQHCs reported increases in culturally affirming practices, including collecting patient pronoun information (42.9% increase) and identifying LGBT patient liaisons (300.0% increase). Postintervention, among 9 FQHCs reporting SOGI data from electronic health records, SOGI documentation increased from 13.5% to 50.8% of patients (276.3% increase). Among 8 FQHCs reporting number of LGBT patients, screening of LGBT patients increased from 22.3% (95% CI, 4.9%-40.0%) to 34.6% (95% CI, 19.4%-48.6%) for syphilis (86.5% increase); from 25.3% (95% CI, 7.6%-43.1%) to 44.1% (95% CI, 30.2%-58.1%) for chlamydia and gonorrhea (109.0% increase); and from 14.8% (95% CI, 3.2%-26.5%) to 30.5% (95% CI, 26.7%-34.3%) for HIV (132.4% increase). CONCLUSIONS: FQHCs participating in this initiative reported improved capacity to provide culturally affirming care and targeted screening for LGBT patients.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      • Toxic metal-containing particles in aerosols from pod-type electronic cigarettesexternal icon
        Pappas RS, Gray N, Halstead M, Valentin-Blasini L, Watson C.
        J Anal Toxicol. 2020 Jul 16.
        The popularity of electronic cigarettes (electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) has grown rapidly over the past decade. With the continued evolution of ENDS, and the arrival of newer replaceable pod devices on the market, it is prudent to examine their emissions to help determine potential health risks to the user. Metal containing particles were examined in aerosol from several pod-based devices from three manufacturers that offer flavored liquids in their respective products. Previous ENDS metal emissions studies focused on the total toxic metal concentrations in aerosols and have suggested that the principal sources are oxidized internal metal components that are in contact with the liquid. Most metal oxides have limited solubility and it is likely that some metal content in ENDS aerosol may present as particles rather than dissolved forms. Examining the composition and number of particles in the ENDS aerosols is important because inhaled metal oxide particles cause pulmonary inflammation. Chronic inhalation of ENDS aerosol may lead to inflammatory cell activation in the lungs. Therefore, this study was designed to measure metal oxide particle concentrations and sizes in ENDS aerosols from select pod-based systems. Aerosol samples were generated with pod liquids (tobacco, mint or menthol) from devices produced by three manufacturers using CORESTA Recommended Method 81 parameters with a high purity fluoropolymer aerosol trap. Particle sizes for chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, tin, and lead oxides were measured in triplicate using single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and dynamic light scattering. A novel aspect of these measurements included using dual element particle analysis to infer particle source component material. Particle concentrations in aerosols from the devices were variable between devices and from pod to pod, ranging from no detectable chromium and zinc containing particles in aerosol from some pods to 222,000 lead containing particles per 10 puffs from individual pods.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      • Use of antihistamine medications during early pregnancy and selected birth defects: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2011external icon
        Hansen C, Desrosiers TA, Wisniewski K, Strickland MJ, Werler MM, Gilboa SM.
        Birth Defects Res. 2020 Jul 13.
        BACKGROUND: It is estimated that approximately 10-15% of pregnant women report antihistamine use during pregnancy. Although antihistamines are generally considered safe during pregnancy, results from published studies are inconsistent. METHODS: Using a case-control study design we analyzed 41,148 pregnancies (30,091 cases and 11,057 controls) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for 64 birth defect groupings in relation to early pregnancy exposure to 14 distinct antihistamines. Models were adjusted for maternal age, race, parity, education level, prenatal care, folic acid use, smoking and alcohol use, and study site. RESULTS: Approximately 13% of cases and controls were exposed to an antihistamine during early pregnancy. Analyses were restricted to those defects where more than five cases were exposed to the antihistamine of interest, generating 340 analyses which yielded 20 (5.9%) significant positive associations (adjusted ORs ranging from 1.21 to 4.34). CONCLUSIONS: Only a few of our findings were consistent with previous studies. There is a lack of strong evidence to conclude that birth defects are associated with exposure to antihistamines during early pregnancy.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      • Fentanyl and carfentanil permeation through commercial disposable glovesexternal icon
        Greenawald LA, Hofacre KC, Fisher EM.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2020 Jul 13:1-10.
        In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that opioid overdose deaths (including fentanyl and carfentanil) comprised 46,802 (69%) of the 67,367 total drug overdose deaths. The opioid overdose epidemic affects Americans not only at home but also in the workplace. First responders may be at risk of opioid exposure during incidents such as vehicle searches and responses to overdose calls. To reduce direct exposure to opioids and other hazardous drugs, first responders rely in part on personal protective equipment (PPE) as their last line of defense. First responders seek guidance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) regarding appropriate PPE selection for potential opioid exposure. There is limited empirical glove performance data for illicit drugs. Empirical data are needed to validate NIOSH's current recommendations regarding gloves to help prevent exposure to illicit drugs (i.e., powder-free nitrile gloves with a minimum thickness of 5 +/- 2 mil [0.127 +/- 0.051 millimeters]); however, no industry standard or test method currently exists for specifically evaluating PPE performance against fentanyl and its analogs. To understand the permeation qualities of gloves when challenged against fentanyl and carfentanil solutions, the ASTM International (formerly American Society for Testing and Materials) ASTM D6978-19 standard for chemotherapy drug glove permeation was adapted to test fentanyl and carfentanil hydrochloride solution permeation through twelve disposable glove models, including five models in which the manufacturers claim fentanyl protection. No nitrile glove models showed fentanyl or carfentanil permeation rates above the chemotherapy drug threshold criterion of 0.01 microg/cm(2)/min (i.e., thereby meeting the performance requirement) as calculated using the ASTM D6978-19 standard within the 240-min test. Latex and vinyl glove materials exhibited fentanyl and carfentanil permeation with permeation rates above this threshold. These findings are among the first empirical data to support NIOSH's current opioid glove recommendations and define procedures that could be used to support industry standards for evaluating opioid permeation through air-impermeable PPE materials.

    • Public Health Leadership and Management
      • Gender disparity in academic rank and productivity among public health physician faculty in North Americaexternal icon
        Lee D, Jalal S, Nasrullah M, Ding J, Sanelli P, Khosa F.
        Cureus. 2020 Jun 10;12(6):e8553.
        Background The issue of gender disparity is particularly important in the domain of public health where the tone of its leadership is pivotal in bringing about impactful change to research, policies, and the wellbeing of our various populations. Our aim is to explore the gender disparity of author metrics and academic rankings of public health physician faculty through a cross-sectional study. Methods Data collection for this retrospective cross-sectional study took place during June and July of 2017. Public health and preventive medicine residency training programs in the United States and Canada were to compiled and all faculty members that met the inclusion criteria were recorded (n = 973). Variables of interest include gender, h-index, years of active research, and academic appointments. SCOPUS database (Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) was used to generate author metrics, and all statistical tests were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results Overall, 31.14% (n = 303) of faculty members we studied were from Canada, and 68.86% (n = 670) were from the United States. In both countries, males made up the majority of all faculty members. Female faculty comprised most of the early career positions, and their proportions tapered off with higher academic rank, whereas male faculty trended in the opposite direction. Males generally were higher in all academic measures across all appointments. Conclusions Gender disparity exists within the North American public health and preventive medicine discipline. There are underlying factors preventing women from moving beyond early career positions or engaging in academic research.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      • Towards a sustainable One Health approach to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever prevention: Focus areas and gaps in knowledgeexternal icon
        Sorvillo TE, Rodriguez SE, Hudson P, Carey M, Rodriguez LL, Spiropoulou CF, Bird BH, Spengler JR, Bente DA.
        Trop Med Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 7;5(3).
        Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) infection is identified in the 2018 World Health Organization Research and Development Blueprint and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIH/NIAID) priority A list due to its high risk to public health and national security. Tick-borne CCHFV is widespread, found in Europe, Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. It circulates between ticks and several vertebrate hosts without causing overt disease, and thus can be present in areas without being noticed by the public. As a result, the potential for zoonotic spillover from ticks and animals to humans is high. In contrast to other emerging viruses, human-to-human transmission of CCHFV is typically limited; therefore, prevention of spillover events should be prioritized when considering countermeasures. Several factors in the transmission dynamics of CCHFV, including a complex transmission cycle that involves both ticks and vertebrate hosts, lend themselves to a One Health approach for the prevention and control of the disease that are often overlooked by current strategies. Here, we examine critical focus areas to help mitigate CCHFV spillover, including surveillance, risk assessment, and risk reduction strategies concentrated on humans, animals, and ticks; highlight gaps in knowledge; and discuss considerations for a more sustainable One Health approach to disease control.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Epidemiological studies of low-dose ionizing radiation and cancer: Rationale and framework for the monograph and overview of eligible studiesexternal icon
        Berrington de Gonzalez A, Daniels RD, Cardis E, Cullings HM, Gilbert E, Hauptmann M, Kendall G, Laurier D, Linet MS, Little MP, Lubin JH, Preston DL, Richardson DB, Stram D, Thierry-Chef I, Schubauer-Berigan MK.
        J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2020 Jul 1;2020(56):97-113.
        Whether low-dose ionizing radiation can cause cancer is a critical and long-debated question in radiation protection. Since the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation report by the National Academies in 2006, new publications from large, well-powered epidemiological studies of low doses have reported positive dose-response relationships. It has been suggested, however, that biases could explain these findings. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological studies with mean doses less than 100 mGy published 2006-2017. We required individualized doses and dose-response estimates with confidence intervals. We identified 26 eligible studies (eight environmental, four medical, and 14 occupational), including 91 000 solid cancers and 13 000 leukemias. Mean doses ranged from 0.1 to 82 mGy. The excess relative risk at 100 mGy was positive for 16 of 22 solid cancer studies and 17 of 20 leukemia studies. The aim of this monograph was to systematically review the potential biases in these studies (including dose uncertainty, confounding, and outcome misclassification) and to assess whether the subset of minimally biased studies provides evidence for cancer risks from low-dose radiation. Here, we describe the framework for the systematic bias review and provide an overview of the eligible studies.

      2. Strengths and weaknesses of dosimetry used in studies of low-dose radiation exposure and cancerexternal icon
        Daniels RD, Kendall GM, Thierry-Chef I, Linet MS, Cullings HM.
        J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2020 Jul 1;2020(56):114-132.
        BACKGROUND: A monograph systematically evaluating recent evidence on the dose-response relationship between low-dose ionizing radiation exposure and cancer risk required a critical appraisal of dosimetry methods in 26 potentially informative studies. METHODS: The relevant literature included studies published in 2006-2017. Studies comprised case-control and cohort designs examining populations predominantly exposed to sparsely ionizing radiation, mostly from external sources, resulting in average doses of no more than 100 mGy. At least two dosimetrists reviewed each study and appraised the strengths and weaknesses of the dosimetry systems used, including assessment of sources and effects of dose estimation error. An overarching concern was whether dose error might cause the spurious appearance of a dose-response where none was present. RESULTS: The review included 8 environmental, 4 medical, and 14 occupational studies that varied in properties relative to evaluation criteria. Treatment of dose estimation error also varied among studies, although few conducted a comprehensive evaluation. Six studies appeared to have known or suspected biases in dose estimates. The potential for these biases to cause a spurious dose-response association was constrained to three case-control studies that relied extensively on information gathered in interviews conducted after case ascertainment. CONCLUSIONS: The potential for spurious dose-response associations from dose information appeared limited to case-control studies vulnerable to recall errors that may be differential by case status. Otherwise, risk estimates appeared reasonably free of a substantial bias from dose estimation error. Future studies would benefit from a comprehensive evaluation of dose estimation errors, including methods accounting for their potential effects on dose-response associations.

      3. Breathe Well, Live Well: Implementing an adult asthma self-management education programexternal icon
        Gardner EA, Kaplan BM, Collins P, Zahran H.
        Health Promot Pract. 2020 Jul 13.
        Asthma remains a significant health problem in the United States. Adults with poorly controlled asthma can affect their community in a number of ways, from lost productivity in the workplace to health care costs to premature death. Asthma self-management education helps individuals achieve better control of their asthma and is critical for the overall health and well-being of individuals with asthma. While there are numerous programs and initiatives targeting children with asthma, there is a lack of comparable focus on the needs of adults with asthma. The American Lung Association developed Breathe Well, Live Well, an adult asthma self-management education program, and launched it nationwide in 2007. The program for adults has a flexible delivery format for community-based implementation. This article describes the development, dissemination, and transformation of the program. Each stage of implementation showed positive changes in asthma self-management practices that contribute to better asthma control, and one local implementation additionally showed decreased reports of missed work and unscheduled health care visits among participants. The findings from the three evaluations support the use of Breathe Well, Live Well for broad community-based implementation to improve asthma self-management efficacy and behaviors.

      4. Variability of vision health responses across multiple national survey in the United Statesexternal icon
        Rein DB, Lamuda PA, Wittenborn JS, Okeke N, Davidson CE, Swenor BK, Saaddine J, Lundeen EA.
        Ophthalmology. 2020 Jul 11.
        OBJECTIVE: Lay the groundwork for future survey validation and harmonization efforts by comparing prevalence rates of self-reported visual impairment (VI) and blindness measured across federally-funded national surveys by age-groups and to prevalence rates of presenting impairment and blindness measured by physical examination. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of national surveys. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in: 2016 American Community Survey, the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the 2016 National Health Interview Survey, the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health. METHODS: We estimated VI and blindness prevalence rates and confidence intervals for each survey measure and age-group using the Clopper-Pearson method. We then estimated weighted self-reported VI and blindness prevalence rates across survey measures by age-group using inverse variance weighting, fitted trend lines to age-group estimates, and used the trend-line equations to estimate the number of U.S. persons with VI and blindness in 2016. We compared these self-report estimates to those generated from NHANES physical evaluations of presenting VI and blindness. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The variability of prevalence estimates of VI and blindness RESULTS: Survey response estimates of blindness varied between 0.1% and 5.6% for age-groups <65 years and between 0.6% to 16.6% for ages >=65. Estimates of VI varied between 1.6% and 24.8% for age-groups <65 years and between 2.2% and 26.6% for age-groups >=65. For summarized survey results and NHANES physical evaluation, prevalence rates for VI increased significantly with age-group. Blindness prevalence increased significantly with age-group for summarized survey responses but not for NHANES physical examination. Based on extrapolations of NHANES physical examination data to all ages, we estimated that in 2016, 23.4 million persons in the U.S. (7.2%) had VI or blindness, an evaluated visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better-seeing eye before correction; based on weighted self-reported surveys, we estimated 24.8 million persons (7.7%) had presenting VI or blindness. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates of VI and blindness obtained from national survey measures varied widely across surveys and age-groups. Additional research is needed to validate the ability of survey self-report measures of VI and blindness to replicate results obtained through clinical exam by an eye health professional.

      5. Productivity costs associated with metastatic breast cancer in younger, midlife, and older womenexternal icon
        Trogdon JG, Liu X, Reeder-Hayes KE, Rotter J, Ekwueme DU, Wheeler SB.
        Cancer. 2020 Jul 10.
        BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to estimate productivity costs due to metastatic breast cancer (mBC) via productive time lost among survivors and potential life-years lost from premature mortality among 3 age groups: younger (aged 18-44 years), midlife (aged 45-64 years), and older (aged >/=65 years) women. METHODS: The authors estimated the number of work and home productivity days missed due to mBC by age group using data from the 2000 to 2016 National Health Interview Survey. Years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to mBC were calculated for each age group using 2015 National Vital Statistics System data. The authors valued both sources of lost productivity time using the Current Population Survey and prior studies. RESULTS: The per-woman value of lost productive days (work and home) due to mBC ranged from $680 for older women to $5169 for younger women. In 2015, the value of lost work and home productivity days associated with mBC nationally was $67 million for younger women, $246 million for midlife women, and $66 million for older women. YPLL were highest among midlife women (403,786 life-years), followed by older women (248,522 life-years) and younger women (95,943 life-years). Midlife women were found to have the highest market value of YPLL ($4.1 billion), followed by younger women ($1.6 billion) and older women ($527 million). CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrated that mBC generates a high economic burden through lost productivity, especially among midlife women.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Trends in women with an HIV diagnosis at delivery hospitalization in the United States, 2006-2014external icon
        Aslam MV, Owusu-Edusei K, Nesheim SR, Gray KM, Lampe MA, Dietz PM.
        Public Health Rep. 2020 Jul 10:33354920935074.
        OBJECTIVES: The risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission can be reduced to </=0.5% if the mother's HIV status is known before delivery. This study describes 2006-2014 trends in diagnosed HIV infection documented on delivery discharge records and associated sociodemographic characteristics among women who gave birth in US hospitals. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2006-2014 National Inpatient Sample and identified delivery discharges and women with diagnosed HIV infection by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. We used a generalized linear model with log link and binomial distribution to assess trends and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with an HIV diagnosis on delivery discharge records. RESULTS: During 2006-2014, an HIV diagnosis was documented on approximately 3900-4400 delivery discharge records annually. The probability of having an HIV diagnosis on delivery discharge records decreased 3% per year (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), with significant declines identified among white women aged 25-34 (aRR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97) or those using Medicaid (aRR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.97); among black women aged 25-34 (aRR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99); and among privately insured women who were black (aRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99), Hispanic (aRR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86-0.98), or aged 25-34 (aRR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99). The probability of having an HIV diagnosis on delivery discharge records was greater for women who were black (aRR = 8.45; 95% CI, 7.56-9.44) or Hispanic (aRR = 1.56; 95% CI, 1.33-1.83) than white; for women aged 25-34 (aRR = 2.33; 95% CI, 2.12-2.55) or aged >/=35 (aRR = 3.04; 95% CI, 2.79-3.31) than for women aged 13-24; and for Medicaid recipients (aRR = 2.70; 95% CI, 2.45-2.98) or the uninsured (aRR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.60-2.19) than for privately insured patients. CONCLUSION: During 2006-2014, the probability of having an HIV diagnosis declined among select sociodemographic groups of women delivering neonates. High-impact prevention efforts tailored to women remaining at higher risk for HIV infection can reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission.

      2. Estimated community seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies - two Georgia counties, April 28-May 3, 2020external icon
        Biggs HM, Harris JB, Breakwell L, Dahlgren FS, Abedi GR, Szablewski CM, Drobeniuc J, Bustamante ND, Almendares O, Schnall AH, Gilani Z, Smith T, Gieraltowski L, Johnson JA, Bajema KL, McDavid K, Schafer IJ, Sullivan V, Punkova L, Tejada-Strop A, Amiling R, Mattison CP, Cortese MM, Ford SE, Paxton LA, Drenzek C, Tate JE, CDC Field Surveyor Team .
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jul 24;69(29):965-970.
        Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is ongoing in many communities throughout the United States. Although case-based and syndromic surveillance are critical for monitoring the pandemic, these systems rely on persons obtaining testing or reporting a COVID-19-like illness. Using serologic tests to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is an adjunctive strategy that estimates the prevalence of past infection in a population. During April 28-May 3, 2020, coinciding with the end of a statewide shelter-in-place order, CDC and the Georgia Department of Public Health conducted a serologic survey in DeKalb and Fulton counties in metropolitan Atlanta to estimate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the population. A two-stage cluster sampling design was used to randomly select 30 census blocks in each county, with a target of seven participating households per census block. Weighted estimates were calculated to account for the probability of selection and adjusted for age group, sex, and race/ethnicity. A total of 394 households and 696 persons participated and had a serology result; 19 (2.7%) of 696 persons had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected. The estimated weighted seroprevalence across these two metropolitan Atlanta counties was 2.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-4.5). Non-Hispanic black participants more commonly had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies than did participants of other racial/ethnic groups (p<0.01). Among persons with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 13 (weighted % = 49.9; 95% CI = 24.4-75.5) reported a COVID-19-compatible illness,* six (weighted % = 28.2; 95% CI = 11.9-53.3) sought medical care for a COVID-19-compatible illness, and five (weighted % = 15.7; 95% CI = 5.1-39.4) had been tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection, demonstrating that many of these infections would not have been identified through case-based or syndromic surveillance. The relatively low seroprevalence estimate in this report indicates that most persons in the catchment area had not been infected with SARS-CoV-2 at the time of the survey. Continued preventive measures, including social distancing, consistent and correct use of face coverings, and hand hygiene, remain critical in controlling community spread of SARS-CoV-2.

      3. Clinical characteristics and adverse clinical outcomes of invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype a cases - United States, 2011-2015external icon
        Bozio CH, Blain A, Edge K, Farley MM, Harrison LH, Poissant T, Schaffner W, Scheuer T, Torres S, Triden L, Briere E, Oliver SE.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 15.
        BACKGROUND: Incidence of invasive disease due to H. influenzae serotype a (Hia) increased an average of 13% annually from 2002-2015. We described clinical characteristics and adverse clinical outcomes of U.S. invasive Hia cases detected through multi-state surveillance during 2011-2015. METHODS: Medical record data were abstracted for cases reported in eight jurisdictions conducting active population- and laboratory-based surveillance for invasive Hia disease across the United States. Isolates from sterile sites were serotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Adverse clinical outcomes were defined as any possible complication of meningitis, bacteremic pneumonia, or bacteremia (including hearing loss, developmental delay, and speech delay, but excluding death), and were assessed at hospital discharge and one-year post-disease onset. RESULTS: During 2011-2015, 190 Hia cases were reported to the eight participating sites; 169 (88.9%) had data abstracted. Many patients were aged <5 years (42.6%) or >/=65 years (20.7%). Meningitis was the most common clinical presentation among <1 year olds (71.4%); bacteremic pneumonia was the most common presentation among persons aged >/=50 years (78.7%). Overall, 95.9% of patients were hospitalized: among those hospitalized, 47.5% were admitted to an intensive care unit, and 6.2% died during hospitalization. At hospital discharge and one-year post-disease onset, adverse outcomes were identified in 17.7% and 17.8% of patients overall, and in 43.9% and 48.5% of patients with meningitis (primarily children). CONCLUSIONS: Hia infection can cause severe disease requiring hospitalization and may also cause short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, especially among children. Novel vaccines could prevent morbidity and mortality.

      4. High sustained viral response among HCV genotype 3 patients with advanced liver fibrosis: real-world data of HCV elimination program in Georgiaexternal icon
        Butsashvili M, Gvinjilia L, Kamkamidze G, Metreveli D, Dvali S, Rukhadze T, Gamkrelidze A, Nasrullah M, Shadaker S, Morgan J, Averhoff F.
        BMC Res Notes. 2020 Jul 11;13(1):332.
        OBJECTIVE: In 2015, Georgia launched HCV elimination program. Initially, patients with advanced liver disease were treated with sofosbuvir-based regimen-the only DAA available for all genotypes. Purpose of the study was assessing real-world data of treatment outcome among patients with HCV GEN3 and advanced liver fibrosis with sofosbuvir-based regimens. RESULTS: Totally 1525 genotype 3 patients were eligible for analysis; most (72.6%) were aged > 45 years, majority were males (95.1%), and all (100%) had advanced liver disease (F3 or F4 by METAVIR score based on elastography). Of those who received sofosbuvir/ribavirin (SOF/RBV) for 24 weeks, 79.3% achieved SVR, while 96.5% who received sofosbuvir/pegylated interferon/ribavirin (SOF/PEG/RBV) for 12 weeks achieved SVR (p < 0.01). Among patients with liver cirrhosis (defined as F4) overall cure rate was 85.7% as opposed to 96.4% for those with F3. Females were more likely to be cured (98.7% vs 89.7%; OR = 8.54). Patients aged 31-45 years had higher likelihood of achieving SVR compared to patients aged 46-60 years (95.7% vs 87.4%; OR = 0.32,). Independent predictors of SVR were treatment with SOF/PEG/RBV (aOR = 6.72) and lower fibrosis stage (F3) (aOR = 4.18). Real-world experience among HCV GEN3 patients with advanced liver fibrosis and treated by sofosbuvir regimen w/o PEGIFN, demonstrated overall high SVR rate.

      5. Notes from the field: Effects of the COVID-19 response on tuberculosis prevention and control efforts - United States, March-April 2020external icon
        Cronin AM, Railey S, Fortune D, Wegener DH, Davis JB.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jul 24;69(29):971-972.

      6. Caution in identifying coronaviruses by electron microscopyexternal icon
        Goldsmith CS, Miller SE.
        J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 Jul 10.

      7. Detection and genetic characterization of community-based SARS-CoV-2 infections - New York City, March 2020external icon
        Greene SK, Keating P, Wahnich A, Weiss D, Pathela P, Harrison C, Rakeman J, Langley G, Tong S, Tao Y, Uehara A, Queen K, Paden CR, Szymczak W, Orner EP, Nori P, Lai PA, Jacobson JL, Singh HK, Calfee DP, Westblade LF, Vasovic LV, Rand JH, Liu D, Singh V, Burns J, Prasad N, Sell J, CDC COVID-19 Surge Laboratory Group .
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jul 17;69(28):918-922.
        To limit introduction of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the United States restricted travel from China on February 2, 2020, and from Europe on March 13. To determine whether local transmission of SARS-CoV-2 could be detected, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) conducted deidentified sentinel surveillance at six NYC hospital emergency departments (EDs) during March 1-20. On March 8, while testing availability for SARS-CoV-2 was still limited, DOHMH announced sustained community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (1). At this time, twenty-six NYC residents had confirmed COVID-19, and ED visits for influenza-like illness* increased, despite decreased influenza virus circulation.(†) The following week, on March 15, when only seven of the 56 (13%) patients with known exposure histories had exposure outside of NYC, the level of community SARS-CoV-2 transmission status was elevated from sustained community transmission to widespread community transmission (2). Through sentinel surveillance during March 1-20, DOHMH collected 544 specimens from patients with influenza-like symptoms (ILS)(§) who had negative test results for influenza and, in some instances, other respiratory pathogens.(¶) All 544 specimens were tested for SARS-CoV-2 at CDC; 36 (6.6%) tested positive. Using genetic sequencing, CDC determined that the sequences of most SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens resembled those circulating in Europe, suggesting probable introductions of SARS-CoV-2 from Europe, from other U.S. locations, and local introductions from within New York. These findings demonstrate that partnering with health care facilities and developing the systems needed for rapid implementation of sentinel surveillance, coupled with capacity for genetic sequencing before an outbreak, can help inform timely containment and mitigation strategies.

      8. Characteristics of GII.4 norovirus versus other genotypes in sporadic pediatric infections in Davidson County, Tennessee, USAexternal icon
        Haddadin Z, Batarseh E, Hamdan L, Stewart LS, Piya B, Rahman H, Spieker AJ, Chappell J, Wikswo ME, Dunn JR, Payne DC, Vinje J, Hall AJ, Halasa N.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 15.
        BACKGROUND: Norovirus is a leading cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in the U.S, with most outbreaks occurring during winter. The majority of outbreaks are caused by GII.4 noroviruses, but data supporting whether this is true for sporadic medically-attended AGE are limited. Therefore, we sought to compare the clinical characteristics and seasonality of GII.4 vs. non-GII.4 viruses in children presenting with vomiting and/or diarrhea. METHODS: Children from 15 days to 17 years with AGE symptoms were recruited from the outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient settings at Vanderbilt Children's Hospital, Davidson County, Nashville, TN from 12/2012-11/2015. Stool specimens were tested by RT-qPCR for GI and GII noroviruses and subsequently genotyped by sequencing a partial region of the capsid gene. RESULTS: A total of 3705 subjects were enrolled and stool specimens were collected and tested from 2885 (78%) of enrollees. Overall, 636 (22%) samples were norovirus-positive, of which 567 (89%) were GII. Of the 460 (81%) genotyped GII-positive samples, 233 (51%) were typed as GII.4 and 227 (49%) as non-GII.4. Compared to children with non-GII.4 infections, children with GII.4 infections were younger, more likely to have diarrhea and receive oral rehydration fluids. Norovirus was detected year-round but peaked during winter. CONCLUSION: Approximately half of sporadic pediatric norovirus AGE cases were caused by GII.4 norovirus. Children infected with GII.4 had more severe symptoms requiring more medical care. Seasonal variations were noticed among different genotypes. These data highlight the importance of continuous norovirus surveillance and provide important information on which strains pediatric norovirus vaccines should protect against.

      9. Sharing the cure: Building primary care and public health infrastructure to improve the hepatitis C care continuum in Marylandexternal icon
        Irvin R, Ntiri-Reid B, Kleinman M, Agee T, Hitt J, Anaedozie O, Arowolo T, Cassidy-Stewart H, Bush C, Wilson LE, Millman AJ, Nelson NP, Canary L, Brinkley S, Moon J, Falade-Nwulia O, Sulkowski MS, Thomas DL, Melia MT.
        J Viral Hepat. 2020 Jul 15.
        In 2014, trained health care provider capacity was insufficient to deliver care to an estimated 70,000 persons in Maryland with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The goal of Maryland Community Based Programs to Test and Cure Hepatitis C, a public health implementation project, was to improve HCV treatment access by expanding the workforce. Sharing the Cure (STC) was a package of services deployed 10/1/14 to 9/30/18 that included enhanced information technology and public health infrastructure, primary care provider training, and practice transformation. Nine primary care sites enrolled. HCV clinical outcomes were documented among individuals who presented for care at sites and met criteria for HCV testing including risk factor or birth cohort (born between 1945 and 1965) based testing. Fifty-three providers completed the STC training. STC providers identified 3,237 HCV antibody positive patients of which 2,624 (81%) were RNA+. Of those HCV RNA+, 1,739 (66%) were staged, 932 (36%) were prescribed treatment, 838 (32%) started treatment, 721 (28%) completed treatment, and 543 (21%) achieved cure. Among 1,739 patients staged, 693 (40%) patients had a liver fibrosis assessment score < F2, rendering them ineligible for treatment under Maryland Medicaid guidelines. HCV RNA testing among HCV antibody positive people increased from 40% (baseline) to 95% amongst STC providers. Of 554 patients with virologic data reported, 543 (98%) achieved cure. Primary care practices can effectively serve as HCV treatment centers to expand treatment access. However, criteria by insurance providers in Maryland was a major barrier to treatment.

      10. Risk factors for intensive care unit admission and in-hospital mortality among hospitalized adults identified through the U.S. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)external icon
        Kim L, Garg S, O'Halloran A, Whitaker M, Pham H, Anderson EJ, Armistead I, Bennett NM, Billing L, Como-Sabetti K, Hill M, Kim S, Monroe ML, Muse A, Reingold AL, Schaffner W, Sutton M, Talbot HK, Torres SM, Yousey-Hindes K, Holstein R, Cummings C, Brammer L, Hall AJ, Fry AM, Langley GE.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 16.
        BACKGROUND: Currently, the United States has the largest number of reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths globally. Using a geographically diverse surveillance network, we describe risk factors for severe outcomes among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2,491 adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during March 1-May 2, 2020 identified through the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network comprising 154 acute care hospitals in 74 counties in 13 states. We used multivariable analyses to assess associations between age, sex, race and ethnicity, and underlying conditions with intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Ninety-two percent of patients had >/=1 underlying condition; 32% required ICU admission; 19% invasive mechanical ventilation; and 17% died. Independent factors associated with ICU admission included ages 50-64, 65-74, 75-84 and >/=85 years versus 18-39 years (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.53, 1.65, 1.84 and 1.43, respectively); male sex (aRR 1.34); obesity (aRR 1.31); immunosuppression (aRR 1.29); and diabetes (aRR 1.13). Independent factors associated with in-hospital mortality included ages 50-64, 65-74, 75-84 and >/=85 years versus 18-39 years (aRR 3.11, 5.77, 7.67 and 10.98, respectively); male sex (aRR 1.30); immunosuppression (aRR 1.39); renal disease (aRR 1.33); chronic lung disease (aRR 1.31); cardiovascular disease (aRR 1.28); neurologic disorders (aRR 1.25); and diabetes (aRR 1.19). CONCLUSION: In-hospital mortality increased markedly with increasing age. Aggressive implementation of prevention strategies, including social distancing and rigorous hand hygiene, may benefit the population as a whole, as well as those at highest risk for COVID-19-related complications.

      11. Acute fulminant cerebral edema: A newly recognized phenotype in children with suspected encephalitisexternal icon
        Krishnan P, Glenn OA, Samuel MC, Sheriff H, Foster-Barber A, Sejvar JJ, Roy-Burman A, Wadford DA, Preas CP, Tureen JH, Glaser CA.
        J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Jul 15.
        BACKGROUND: Encephalitis is a severe neurological syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The California Encephalitis Project (CEP) enrolled patients for more than a decade. A subset of patients with acute and fulminant cerebral edema was noted. METHODS: All pediatric encephalitis patients with cerebral edema referred to the CEP between 1998 and 2012 were reviewed. A case definition was developed for acute fulminant cerebral edema (AFCE) that included the CEP case definition for encephalitis and progression to diffuse cerebral edema on neuroimaging and/or autopsy, and no other recognized etiology for cerebral edema (eg, organic, metabolic, toxin). Prodromic features, demographic and laboratory data, neuroimaging, and outcomes were compared with non-AFCE encephalitis cases. RESULTS: Of 1955 pediatric cases referred to the CEP, 30 (1.5%) patients met the AFCE case definition. The median age for AFCE and non-AFCE cases was similar: 8.2 years (1-18 years) and 8.0 years (0.5-18 years), respectively. Asian-Pacific Islanders comprised a larger proportion of AFCE cases (44%) compared with non-AFCE cases (14%, P < .01). AFCE cases often had a prodrome of high fever, vomiting, and profound headache. Mortality among AFCE patients was significantly higher than among non-AFCE patients (80% vs 13%, P < .01). A confirmed etiology was identified in only 2 cases (enterovirus, human herpes virus type 6), while 10 others had evidence of a respiratory pathogen.Thirty pediatric patients referred to the California Encephalitis Project with a unique, and often fatal, form of encephalitis are reported. Demographic and clinical characteristics, possible etiologies and a proposed case definition for acute fulminant cerebral edema (AFCE) are described. CONCLUSIONS: AFCE is a recently recognized phenotype of encephalitis with a high mortality. AFCE may be triggered by common pediatric infections. Here, we propose a case definition.

      12. Development and validation of a sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics-based risk-score algorithm for targeting HIV testing among adults in Kenyaexternal icon
        Muttai H, Guyah B, Musingila P, Achia T, Miruka F, Wanjohi S, Dande C, Musee P, Lugalia F, Onyango D, Kinywa E, Okomo G, Moth I, Omondi S, Ayieko C, Nganga L, Joseph RH, Zielinski-Gutierrez E.
        AIDS Behav. 2020 Jul 10.
        To inform targeted HIV testing, we developed and externally validated a risk-score algorithm that incorporated behavioral characteristics. Outpatient data from five health facilities in western Kenya, comprising 19,458 adults >/= 15 years tested for HIV from September 2017 to May 2018, were included in univariable and multivariable analyses used for algorithm development. Data for 11,330 adults attending one high-volume facility were used for validation. Using the final algorithm, patients were grouped into four risk-score categories: </= 9, 10-15, 16-29 and >/= 30, with increasing HIV prevalence of 0.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.75], 1.35% (95% CI 0.85-1.84), 2.65% (95% CI 1.8-3.51), and 15.15% (95% CI 9.03-21.27), respectively. The algorithm's discrimination performance was modest, with an area under the receiver-operating-curve of 0.69 (95% CI 0.53-0.84). In settings where universal testing is not feasible, a risk-score algorithm can identify sub-populations with higher HIV-risk to be prioritized for HIV testing.

      13. Minimal transmission in an influenza A (H3N2) human challenge-transmission model within a controlled exposure environmentexternal icon
        Nguyen-Van-Tam JS, Killingley B, Enstone J, Hewitt M, Pantelic J, Grantham ML, Bueno de Mesquita PJ, Lambkin-Williams R, Gilbert A, Mann A, Forni J, Noakes CJ, Levine MZ, Berman L, Lindstrom S, Cauchemez S, Bischoff W, Tellier R, Milton DK.
        PLoS Pathog. 2020 Jul 13;16(7):e1008704.
        Uncertainty about the importance of influenza transmission by airborne droplet nuclei generates controversy for infection control. Human challenge-transmission studies have been supported as the most promising approach to fill this knowledge gap. Healthy, seronegative volunteer 'Donors' (n = 52) were randomly selected for intranasal challenge with influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2). 'Recipients' randomized to Intervention (IR, n = 40) or Control (CR, n = 35) groups were exposed to Donors for four days. IRs wore face shields and hand sanitized frequently to limit large droplet and contact transmission. One transmitted infection was confirmed by serology in a CR, yielding a secondary attack rate of 2.9% among CR, 0% in IR (p = 0.47 for group difference), and 1.3% overall, significantly less than 16% (p<0.001) expected based on a proof-of-concept study secondary attack rate and considering that there were twice as many Donors and days of exposure. The main difference between these studies was mechanical building ventilation in the follow-on study, suggesting a possible role for aerosols.

      14. A rare cause of left-sided weakness in an elderly woman: amoebic encephalitisexternal icon
        Pan D, Bridges LR, du Parcq J, Mahadeva U, Roy S, Ali IK, Cosgrove CA, Chiodini PL, Zhang L.
        Lancet. 2020 Jul 11;396(10244):e1.

      15. Recent declines in HIV infections at Silom Community Clinic Bangkok, Thailand corresponding to HIV prevention scale up: an open cohort assessment 2005-2018external icon
        Pattanasin S, van Griensven F, Mock PA, Sukwicha W, Winaitham S, Satumay K, O'Connor S, Hickey AC, Siraprapasiri T, Woodring JV, Sirivongrangson P, Holtz TH, Dunne EF.
        Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 10.
        OBJECTIVES: We assessed HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending Silom Community Clinic (SCC) in Bangkok, Thailand from 2005-2018. Since 2014, Thailand increased implementation of HIV prevention strategies including pre-exposure prophylaxis and Treatment as Prevention. METHODS: MSM attending SCC were tested for HIV using rapid tests. We assessed trends in HIV prevalence, incidence and compared incidence before and after 2014. RESULTS: From 2005-2018, 14,034 clients attended SCC for HIV testing. The HIV prevalence increased from 19.2% in 2005-2006 to 34.0% in 2010, remained stable until 2016 and decreased to 17.2% in 2018 (p < 0.0001). The HIV incidence was 4.1 per 100 person-years (PY), with an inverted U-shape trend and a peak in 2009 (p < 0.0001). Incidence among young MSM aged 13-21 years remained high at 10.0 per 100 PY. Among those aged 22-29 years, lower incidence was found from Q 3 2016, with a relative risk reduction of 46.2% (p <0.001); and a similar reduction among those aged >/= 30 years from Q4 2014, corresponding to scale up of HIV prevention strategies. CONCLUSION: We find a decline in HIV infection among MSM. However, incidence remained high among young MSM.

      16. Putting the "A" into WaSH: a call for integrated management of water, animals, sanitation, and hygieneexternal icon
        Prendergast AJ, Gharpure R, Mor S, Viney M, Dube K, Lello J, Berger C, Siwila J, Joyeux M, Hodobo T, Hurt L, Brown T, Hoto P, Tavengwa N, Mutasa K, Craddock S, Chasekwa B, Robertson RC, Evans C, Chidhanguro D, Mutasa B, Majo F, Smith LE, Hirai M, Ntozini R, Humphrey JH, Berendes D.
        Lancet Planet Health. 2019 Aug;3(8):e336-e337.

      17. Estimated county-level prevalence of selected underlying medical conditions associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness - United States, 2018external icon
        Razzaghi H, Wang Y, Lu H, Marshall KE, Dowling NF, Paz-Bailey G, Twentyman ER, Peacock G, Greenlund KJ.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jul 24;69(29):945-950.
        Risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated illness (illness requiring hospitalization, intensive care unit [ICU] admission, mechanical ventilation, or resulting in death) increases with increasing age as well as presence of underlying medical conditions that have shown strong and consistent evidence, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and obesity (1-4). Identifying and describing the prevalence of these conditions at the local level can help guide decision-making and efforts to prevent or control severe COVID-19-associated illness. Below state-level estimates, there is a lack of standardized publicly available data on underlying medical conditions that increase the risk for severe COVID-19-associated illness. A small area estimation approach was used to estimate county-level prevalence of selected conditions associated with severe COVID-19 disease among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years (5,6) using self-reported data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and U.S. Census population data. The median prevalence of any underlying medical condition in residents among 3,142 counties in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) was 47.2% (range = 22.0%-66.2%); counties with the highest prevalence were concentrated in the Southeast and Appalachian region. Whereas the estimated number of persons with any underlying medical condition was higher in population-dense metropolitan areas, overall prevalence was higher in rural nonmetropolitan areas. These data can provide important local-level information about the estimated number and proportion of persons with certain underlying medical conditions to help guide decisions regarding additional resource investment, and mitigation and prevention measures to slow the spread of COVID-19.

      18. HIV rapid testing algorithms (RTAs) using any two orthogonal rapid tests (RTs) allow for on-site confirmation of infection. RTs vary in performance characteristics therefore the selection of RTs in an algorithm may affect identification of infection, particularly if acute. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) assessed RTAs among men who have sex with men recruited using anonymous venue-based sampling. Different algorithms were evaluated among participants who self-reported never having received a positive HIV test result prior to the interview. NHBS project areas performed sequential or parallel RTs using whole blood. Participants with at least one reactive RT were offered anonymous linkage to care and provided a dried blood spot (DBS) for testing at CDC. Discordant results (RT-1 reactive/RT-2 non-reactive) were tested at CDC with lab protocols modified for DBS. DBS were also tested for HIV-1 RNA (VL) and antiretroviral (ARV) drug levels. Of 6500 RTAs, 238 were RT-1 reactive; of those, 97.1% (231/238) had concordant results (RT-1/RT-2 reactive) and 2.9% (7/238) had discordant results. Five DBS associated with discordant results were available for confirmation at CDC. Four had non-reactive confirmatory test results that implied RT-1 false reactivity; one had ambiguous confirmatory test results which was non-reactive in further testing. Regardless of order and type of RT used, RTAs demonstrated high concordant results in the population surveyed. Additional laboratory testing on DBS following discordant results confirmed no infection. Implementing RTAs in the context of anonymous venue-based HIV testing could be an option when laboratory follow-up is not practicable.

      19. CDC's Community-Based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project: Perspectives for researchers, implementers and fundersexternal icon
        Williams WO, Uhl G, Eke A, Fisher H, Joshua T, Heitgerd J, Marano M, Moore A, Sapiano T, Shelley G, Stein R.
        AIDS Behav. 2020 Jul 9.
        Behavioral interventions have been a crucial tool for the prevention of HIV transmission since early in the epidemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has provided funding for evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBIs) at health departments and community-based organizations (CBOs) since 2004. From 2006 to 2015, CDC funded 25 CBOs to evaluate one or more of seven EBIs designed to prevent HIV through the Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project (CBOP) as implemented outside of a research setting. For each EBI, CBOP showed that most HIV risk behaviors improved after the intervention, and improvements were similar to those observed in research studies. Our findings show that behavioral interventions can be successfully implemented in real-world settings. Although the focus of HIV prevention has largely shifted toward biomedical interventions in recent years, successful implementation often depends on behavioral components. Lessons from CBOP can inform future efforts to develop and implement behavioral interventions for HIV and other areas of public health.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in lambs in Djelfa, the central steppe of Algeriaexternal icon
        Benhassine S, Baroudi D, Hakem A, Thomas M, Laatamna A, Belkessa S, Feng Y, Roellig D, Chen X, Adjou KT, Xiao L.
        Parasitol Res. 2020 Jul 14.
        Little is known of the prevalence and genetic identity of Giardia duodenalis in sheep in Algeria. The present study aimed at characterizing G. duodenalis in lambs up to 6 months of age in Djelfa, Algeria. A total of 346 fecal specimens were collected from 28 farms and screened for G. duodenalis cysts by zinc sulfate flotation microscopy, and positive specimens were confirmed using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Microscopy-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes to determine G. duodenalis assemblages. Coprological examination indicated that the overall infection rate was 7.0% (24/346). Lambs under 3 months of age had higher infection rate (18/197, 9.0%) than older (6/149, 4.0%) animals, and animals with diarrhea (7/44, 16.0%) had higher infection rate than animals without diarrhea (17/302, 5.6%). PCR sequence analyses of the 15 G. duodenalis isolates revealed the presence of assemblages A in 6 isolates, assemblage E in 7 isolates, and both in 2 isolates. Assemblage A was only found in pre-weaned lambs with diarrhea, while assemblage E was mostly found in post-weaned lambs without diarrhea. The assemblage E isolates from sheep were genetically related to those from cattle in Algeria, while assemblage A isolates were from a well-known subtype prevalent in humans. Data generated from the study improve our understanding of the transmission of G. duodenalis in Algeria.

      2. Distribution and occurrence of Amblyomma maculatum sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae) and Rickettsia parkeri (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), Arizona and New Mexico, 2017-2019external icon
        Hecht JA, Allerdice ME, Karpathy SE, Yaglom HD, Casal M, Lash RR, Delgado-de la Mora J, Licona-Enriquez JD, Delgado-de la Mora D, Groschupf K, Mertins JW, Moors A, Swann DE, Paddock CD.
        J Med Entomol. 2020 Jul 10.
        Amblyomma maculatum Koch sensu lato (s.l.) ticks are the vector of Rickettsia parkeri in Arizona, where nine cases of R. parkeri rickettsiosis have been identified since the initial case in 2014. The current study sought to better define the geographic ranges of the vector and pathogen and to assess the potential public health risk posed by R. parkeri in this region of the southwestern United States. A total of 275 A. maculatum s.l. ticks were collected from 34 locations in four counties in Arizona and one county in New Mexico and screened for DNA of Rickettsia species. Rickettsia parkeri was detected in 20.4% of the ticks, including one specimen collected from New Mexico, the first report of R. parkeri in A. maculatum s.l. from this state. This work demonstrates a broader distribution of A. maculatum s.l. ticks and R. parkeri in the southwestern United States than appreciated previously to suggest that R. parkeri rickettsiosis is underrecognized in this region.

    • Environmental Health
      1. The science behind the combined effect of (and possible interaction between) physical activity and air pollution exposure on health endpoints is not well established, despite the fact that independent effects of physical activity and air pollution on health are well known. The objective of this review is to systematically assess the available literature pertaining to exposure to air pollution while being physically active, in order to assess statistical interaction. Articles published during 2000-2020 were identified by searching PubMed, Science Direct, and ProQuest Agricultural & Environmental Science Database for terms encompassing air pollution and exercise/physical activity. Articles were included if they examined the following four scenarios: at rest in clean air, physical activity in clean air, at rest in polluted air, and physical activity in polluted air. Risk of bias assessment was performed on all included articles. We identified 25 articles for inclusion and determined risk of bias was low to moderate. Nine articles identified evidence of statistical interaction between air pollution exposure and physical activity, while 16 identified no such interaction. However, pollutant levels, exercise intensity, and the population studied appeared to influence statistical interaction. Even in low levels of air pollution, low-intensity activities (i.e., walking), may intensify the negative impacts of air pollution, particularly among those with pre-existing conditions. However, among healthy adults, the review suggests that exercise is generally beneficial even in high air pollution environments. Particularly, the review indicates that moderate to high-intensity exercise may neutralize any short-term negative effects of air pollution.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. Use of technology for public health surveillance reporting: opportunities, challenges and lessons learnt from Kenyaexternal icon
        Njeru I, Kareko D, Kisangau N, Langat D, Liku N, Owiso G, Dolan S, Rabinowitz P, Macharia D, Ekechi C, Widdowson MA.
        BMC Public Health. 2020 Jul 13;20(1):1101.
        BACKGROUND: Effective public health surveillance systems are crucial for early detection and response to outbreaks. In 2016, Kenya transitioned its surveillance system from a standalone web-based surveillance system to the more sustainable and integrated District Health Information System 2 (DHIS2). As part of Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) initiatives in Kenya, training on use of the new system was conducted among surveillance officers. We evaluated the surveillance indicators during the transition period in order to assess the impact of this training on surveillance metrics and identify challenges affecting reporting rates. METHODS: From February to May 2017, we analysed surveillance data for 13 intervention and 13 comparison counties. An intervention county was defined as one that had received refresher training on DHIS2 while a comparison county was one that had not received training. We evaluated the impact of the training by analysing completeness and timeliness of reporting 15 weeks before and 12 weeks after the training. A chi-square test of independence was used to compare the reporting rates between the two groups. A structured questionnaire was administered to the training participants to assess the challenges affecting surveillance reporting. RESULTS: The average completeness of reporting for the intervention counties increased from 45 to 62%, i.e. by 17 percentage points (95% CI 16.14-17.86) compared to an increase from 49 to 52% for the comparison group, i.e. by 3 percentage points (95% CI 2.23-3.77). The timeliness of reporting increased from 30 to 51%, i.e. by 21 percentage points (95% CI 20.16-21.84) for the intervention group, compared to an increase from 31 to 38% for the comparison group, 7 percentage points (95% CI 6.27-7.73). Major challenges for the low reporting rates included lack of budget support from government, lack of airtime for reporting, health workers strike, health facilities not sending surveillance data, use of wrong denominator to calculate reporting rates and surveillance officers having other competing tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Training plays an important role in improving public health surveillance reporting. However, to improve surveillance reporting rates to the desired national targets, other challenges affecting reporting must be identified and addressed accordingly.

    • Health Behavior and Risk
      1. Physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behaviors associated with indicators of mental health and suicide riskexternal icon
        Michael SL, Lowry R, Merlo C, Cooper AC, Hyde ET, McKeon R.
        Prev Med Rep. 2020 Sep;19:101153.
        We used data from the 2017 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey to examine associations between physical activity, sedentary, and healthy dietary behaviors and indicators of mental health, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal attempts among a representative sample of US high school students. Sex-stratified logistic regression was used to separately model each mental health-related outcome on the health-related behaviors, while controlling for race/ethnicity, grade, and body weight status. Significant associations were found between insufficient physical activity, sedentary, and less healthy dietary behaviors and the mental health-related outcomes. Feeling sad and hopeless was associated with not eating breakfast on all 7 days (past week), drinking soda or pop (female only), not meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline (male only), not playing on at least one sports team, and playing video/computer games or using a computer more than two hours (per day). Suicidal thoughts were associated with not eating breakfast on all 7 days, drinking soda or pop, not meeting the aerobic physical activity guideline, and playing video/computer games or using a computer more than two hours per day. Attempted suicide was associated with not eating breakfast on all 7 days, drinking soda or pop, drinking sports drinks, watching television more than two hours per day, and playing video or computer games or using a computer more than two hours per day (male only). While limiting sedentary behaviors and increasing physical activity and healthy dietary behaviors is not a sole solution for improving mental health among adolescents, it could be another possible strategy used in schools to benefit all students.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Meningococcal carriage 7 years after introduction of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine in Burkina Faso: results from four cross-sectional carriage surveysexternal icon
        Mbaeyi S, Sampo E, Dinanibe K, Yameogo I, Congo-Ouedraogo M, Tamboura M, Sawadogo G, Ouattara K, Sanou M, Kiemtore T, Dioma G, Sanon B, Somlare H, Kyetega A, Ba AK, Ake F, Tarbangdo F, Aboua FA, Donnou Y, Kamate I, Patel JC, Schmink S, Spiller MW, Topaz N, Novak R, Wang X, Bicaba B, Sangare L, Ouedraogo-Traore R, Kristiansen PA.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 9.
        BACKGROUND: In the first 2 years after a nationwide mass vaccination campaign of 1-29-year-olds with a meningococcal serogroup A conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac) in Burkina Faso, carriage and disease due to serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis were nearly eliminated. We aimed to assess the long-term effect of MenAfriVac vaccination on meningococcal carriage and herd immunity. METHODS: We did four cross-sectional studies of meningococcal carriage in people aged 9 months to 36 years in two districts of Burkina Faso between May 2, 2016, and Nov 6, 2017. Demographic information and oropharyngeal swabs were collected. Meningococcal isolates were characterised using whole-genome sequencing. FINDINGS: Of 14 295 eligible people, 13 758 consented and had specimens collected and laboratory results available, 1035 of whom were meningococcal carriers. Accounting for the complex survey design, prevalence of meningococcal carriage was 7.60% (95% CI 5.67-9.52), including 6.98% (4.86-9.11) non-groupable, 0.48% (0.01-0.95) serogroup W, 0.10% (0.01-0.18) serogroup C, 0.03% (0.00-0.80) serogroup E, and 0% serogroup A. Prevalence ranged from 5.44% (95% CI 4.18-6.69) to 9.14% (6.01-12.27) by district, from 4.67% (2.71-6.64) to 11.17% (6.75-15.59) by round, and from 3.39% (0.00-8.30) to 10.43% (8.08-12.79) by age group. By clonal complex, 822 (88%) of 934 non-groupable isolates were CC192, all 83 (100%) serogroup W isolates were CC11, and nine (69%) of 13 serogroup C isolates were CC10217. INTERPRETATION: Our results show the continued effect of MenAfriVac on serogroup A meningococcal carriage, for at least 7 years, among vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts. Carriage prevalence of epidemic-prone serogroup C CC10217 and serogroup W CC11 was low. Continued monitoring of N meningitidis carriage will be crucial to further assess the effect of MenAfriVac and inform the vaccination strategy for future multivalent meningococcal vaccines. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

      2. Rotavirus group A genotype circulation patterns across Kenya before and after nationwide vaccine introduction, 2010-2018external icon
        Mwanga MJ, Owor BE, Ochieng JB, Ngama MH, Ogwel B, Onyango C, Juma J, Njeru R, Gicheru E, Otieno GP, Khagayi S, Agoti CN, Bigogo GM, Omore R, Addo OY, Mapaseka S, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Hunsperger E, Verani JR, Breiman RF, Nokes DJ.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 13;20(1):504.
        BACKGROUND: Kenya introduced the monovalent G1P [8] Rotarix(R) vaccine into the infant immunization schedule in July 2014. We examined trends in rotavirus group A (RVA) genotype distribution pre- (January 2010-June 2014) and post- (July 2014-December 2018) RVA vaccine introduction. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from children aged < 13 years from four surveillance sites across Kenya: Kilifi County Hospital, Tabitha Clinic Nairobi, Lwak Mission Hospital, and Siaya County Referral Hospital (children aged < 5 years only). Samples were screened for RVA using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and VP7 and VP4 genes sequenced to infer genotypes. RESULTS: We genotyped 614 samples in pre-vaccine and 261 in post-vaccine introduction periods. During the pre-vaccine introduction period, the most frequent RVA genotypes were G1P [8] (45.8%), G8P [4] (15.8%), G9P [8] (13.2%), G2P [4] (7.0%) and G3P [6] (3.1%). In the post-vaccine introduction period, the most frequent genotypes were G1P [8] (52.1%), G2P [4] (20.7%) and G3P [8] (16.1%). Predominant genotypes varied by year and site in both pre and post-vaccine periods. Temporal genotype patterns showed an increase in prevalence of vaccine heterotypic genotypes, such as the commonly DS-1-like G2P [4] (7.0 to 20.7%, P < .001) and G3P [8] (1.3 to 16.1%, P < .001) genotypes in the post-vaccine introduction period. Additionally, we observed a decline in prevalence of genotypes G8P [4] (15.8 to 0.4%, P < .001) and G9P [8] (13.2 to 5.4%, P < .001) in the post-vaccine introduction period. Phylogenetic analysis of genotype G1P [8], revealed circulation of strains of lineages G1-I, G1-II and P [8]-1, P [8]-III and P [8]-IV. Considerable genetic diversity was observed between the pre and post-vaccine strains, evidenced by distinct clusters. CONCLUSION: Genotype prevalence varied from before to after vaccine introduction. Such observations emphasize the need for long-term surveillance to monitor vaccine impact. These changes may represent natural secular variation or possible immuno-epidemiological changes arising from the introduction of the vaccine. Full genome sequencing could provide insights into post-vaccine evolutionary pressures and antigenic diversity.

      3. The role of the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program in developing countries: the experience of Kenyaexternal icon
        Tesfaye B, Makam. J. K., Sergon K, Onuekwusi I, Muitherero C, Sowe A.
        BMC Public Health. 2020 Jul 14;20(1):1110.
        BACKGROUND: In 1988, the 41(st) World Health Assembly (WHA) marked the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) for the eradication of polio. A key component of the GPEI has been the development and deployment of a skilled workforce to implement eradication activities. In 1989, the Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) was initiated to address skilled human resource gaps and strengthen poliovirus surveillance. This paper describes the role of the STOP 52 team in technical capacity building and health system strengthening in the implementation of polio eradication strategies in Kenya following the outbreak of Circulating Vaccine-derived Poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2). METHODS: Overview of the STOP program, deployment, and the modality of support are described. Descriptive analysis was conducted using data collected by the STOP 52 team during integrated supportive supervisory visits conducted from July 2018 to September 2019. Analyses were carried out using Epi-Info statistical software (Version 7.0) and maps were developed using Quantum Geographic Information System (Q-GIS) (version 3.12.0). RESULTS: The STOP 52 team supportively supervised 870 health facilities on Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), and Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and other Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (VPDs) surveillance in 16 (34.1%) of the 47 counties during the study period. AFP surveillance was conducted in all health facilities supervised leading to the detection and investigation of 11 unreported AFP cases. The STOP 52 team, as part of the outbreak response, provided technical support to five successive rounds of polio Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) conducted during the study period. Moreover, in addressing programmatic data needs, the STOP 52 Data Manager played a valuable role in enhancing the quality and use of data for evidence-based planning and decision-making. The STOP 52 team contributed to the development of operational plans, guidelines and training manuals, and participated in the delivery of various Training of Trainers (TOT) and On-the-Job Training (OJT) on EPI, AFP and other VPDs surveillance including data management. CONCLUSION: The STOP 52 team has contributed to polio eradication efforts in Kenya by enhancing AFP and other VPDs surveillance, supporting polio SIAs, strengthening EPI, use of quality EPI, AFP and other VPDs data, and capacity building of Frontline Health Workers (FLWs). The use of Open Data Kit (ODK) technology during supportive supervision, and AFP and other VPDs surveillance was found to be advantageous. A national STOP program should be modeled to produce a homegrown workforce to ensure the availability of more sustainable technical support for polio eradication efforts in Kenya and possibly other polio-affected countries.

    • Informatics
      1. An earlier version of this manuscript was presented by the authors at the biennial conference of the Association of College and Research Libraries, April 13, 2019. The authors wish to acknowledge the Research and Publication Committee of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library, which provided support for the completion of this research. We would also like to thank Janet Swatscheno, the Digital Publishing Librarian at the University of Illinois Chicago, for her helpful comments on an earlier draft of this article. This article summarizes the results of interviews with Digital Public Library of America (DPLA) service hub participants to determine whether and how standardized rights metadata is included in their digital collections. Providing accurate standardized rights metadata is crucial to communicating with patrons regarding how they can use objects in digital collections. Results from the interviews reveal key findings on effective rights statement implementation techniques as well as common tools used by librarians when applying rights statements to digital collections.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Associations between social media and suicidal behaviors during a youth suicide cluster in Ohioexternal icon
        Swedo EA, Beauregard JL, de Fijter S, Werhan L, Norris K, Montgomery MP, Rose EB, David-Ferdon C, Massetti GM, Hillis SD, Sumner SA.
        J Adolesc Health. 2020 Jul 7.
        PURPOSE: Youth suicide clusters may be exacerbated by suicide contagion-the spread of suicidal behaviors. Factors promoting suicide contagion are poorly understood, particularly in the advent of social media. Using cross-sectional data from an ongoing youth suicide cluster in Ohio, this study examines associations between suicide cluster-related social media and suicidal behaviors. METHODS: We surveyed 7th- to 12th-grade students in northeastern Ohio during a 2017-2018 suicide cluster to assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation (SI), suicide attempts (SAs), and associations with potential contagion-promoting factors such as suicide cluster-related social media, vigils, memorials, news articles, and watching the Netflix series 13 Reasons Why before or during the cluster. Generalized estimating equations examined associations between potential contagion-promoting factors and SI/SA, adjusting for nonmodifiable risk factors. Subgroup analyses examined whether associations between cluster-related factors and SI/SA during the cluster varied by previous history of SI/SA. RESULTS: Among participating students, 9.0% (876/9,733) reported SI and 4.9% attempted suicide (481/9,733) during the suicide cluster. Among students who posted suicide cluster-related content to social media, 22.9% (267/1,167) reported SI and 15.0% (175/1,167) attempted suicide during the suicide cluster. Posting suicide cluster-related content was associated with both SI (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4-2.0) and SA during the cluster (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.5). In subgroup analyses, seeing suicide cluster-related posts was uniquely associated with increased odds of SI and SA during the cluster among students with no previous history of SI/SA. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to suicide cluster-related social media is associated with both SI and SA during a suicide cluster. Suicide interventions could benefit from efforts to mitigate potential negative effects of social media and promote prevention messages.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Clinical/laboratory interface interventions to improve impact of viral load and early infant diagnosis testing scale-upexternal icon
        Alemnji G, Pati R, Chun H, Zeh C, Mosha F, Siberry G, Ondoa P.
        AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2020 Jul;36(7):550-555.
        Despite tremendous improvements in viral load (VL) monitoring and early infant diagnosis (EID) in many countries, low VL and EID testing rates and low VL suppression rates persist in specific regions and among certain subpopulations. The VL/EID cascade includes patient and provider demand creation, sample collection and transportation, laboratory testing, results transmission back to the clinic, and patient management. Gaps in communication and coordination between clinical and laboratory counterparts can lead to suboptimal outcomes, such as delay or inability to collect and transport samples to the laboratory for testing and failure of test results to reach providers and patients in an efficient, timely, and effective manner. To bridge these gaps and optimize the impact of VL/EID scale-up, we reviewed the components of the cascade and their interrelationships to identify barriers and facilitators. As part of this process, people living with HIV must be engaged in creating demand for VL/EID testing. In addition, there should be strong communication and collaboration between the clinical and laboratory teams throughout the cascade, along with joint performance review, site visits, and continuous quality improvement activities. Strengthening the clinical/laboratory interface requires innovative solutions and implementation of best practices, including the use of point-of-care diagnostics, simplified data systems, and an efficient supply chain system to minimize interface gaps.

      2. Vaccines provide effective protection against many infectious diseases as well as therapeutics for select pathologies, such as cancer. Many viral vaccines require amplification of virus in cell cultures during manufacture. Traditionally, cell cultures, such as VERO, have been used for virus production in bovine serum-containing culture media. However, due to concerns of potential adventitious agents present in fetal bovine serum (FBS), regulatory agencies suggest avoiding the use of bovine serum in vaccine production. Current serum-free media suitable for VERO-based virus production contains high concentrations of undefined plant hydrolysates. Although these media have been extensively used, the lack of chemical definition has potential to adversely affect cell growth kinetics and subsequent virus production. As plant hydrolysates are made from plant raw materials, performance variations could be significant among different lots of production. We developed a chemically defined, serum-free medium, OptiVERO, that was optimized specifically for VERO cells. VERO cell growth kinetics were demonstrated to be equivalent to EMEM-10% FBS in this chemically defined medium while the plant hydrolysate-containing medium demonstrated a slower doubling time in both 2D and 3D cultures. Virus production comparisons demonstrated that the chemically defined OptiVERO medium performed at least as good as the EMEM-10%FBS and better than the plant hydrolysate-containing media. We report the success in using recombinant proteins to replace undefined plant hydrolysates to formulate a chemically defined medium that can efficiently support VERO cell expansion and virus production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      3. Within-host microevolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae is rapid and adaptive during natural colonisationexternal icon
        Chaguza C, Senghore M, Bojang E, Gladstone RA, Lo SW, Tientcheu PE, Bancroft RE, Worwui A, Foster-Nyarko E, Ceesay F, Okoi C, McGee L, Klugman KP, Breiman RF, Barer MR, Adegbola RA, Antonio M, Bentley SD, Kwambana-Adams BA.
        Nat Commun. 2020 Jul 10;11(1):3442.
        Genomic evolution, transmission and pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae, an opportunistic human-adapted pathogen, is driven principally by nasopharyngeal carriage. However, little is known about genomic changes during natural colonisation. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing to investigate within-host microevolution of naturally carried pneumococci in ninety-eight infants intensively sampled sequentially from birth until twelve months in a high-carriage African setting. We show that neutral evolution and nucleotide substitution rates up to forty-fold faster than observed over longer timescales in S. pneumoniae and other bacteria drives high within-host pneumococcal genetic diversity. Highly divergent co-existing strain variants emerge during colonisation episodes through real-time intra-host homologous recombination while the rest are co-transmitted or acquired independently during multiple colonisation episodes. Genic and intergenic parallel evolution occur particularly in antibiotic resistance, immune evasion and epithelial adhesion genes. Our findings suggest that within-host microevolution is rapid and adaptive during natural colonisation.

      4. RATIONALE: Over 2,700 e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) cases have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during August 2019-February 2020. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from 51 EVALI and 99 non-EVALI cases were analyzed for toxicants including petroleum distillates. We describe a novel method to measure petroleum distillates in BAL fluid using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). METHODS: n-Hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, methylcyclopentane, and cyclohexane were measured in BAL fluid specimens by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We created and characterized BAL fluid pools from non-EVALI individuals to determine assay accuracy, precision, linearity, limits of detection, and analytical specificity. All measurements were conducted in accordance with the CDC's Division of Laboratory Sciences rigorous method validation procedures. RESULTS: Matrix validation experiments showed that calibration curves in BAL fluid and saline had similar slopes, with differences less than 5%. Assay precision ranged from 1.98% to 18%. In addition, the limits of detection for the five analytes ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 mug/L, and their linearity was confirmed with R(2) values >0.99. The analysis of selected petroleum distillates in BAL fluid analysis was shown to be comparable with their analysis in blood in which the 95(th) percentiles are below detection. CONCLUSIONS: We developed and validated a method to quantify petroleum distillates in BAL fluid specimens using GC/MS. The assay provided precise and accurate analyses of EVALI and non-EVALI BAL fluid specimens in support of CDC's EVALI response. This method is applicable to the determination of a broad range of VOCs in BAL fluid specimens.

      5. Long-acting cabotegravir protects macaques against repeated penile simian-human immunodeficiency virus exposuresexternal icon
        Dobard C, Makarova N, Nishiura K, Dinh C, Holder A, Sterling M, Lipscomb J, Mitchell J, Deyounks F, Garber D, Khalil G, Spreen W, Heneine W, Garcia-Lerma JG.
        J Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 6;222(3):391-395.
        We used a novel penile simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) transmission model to investigate whether long-acting cabotegravir (CAB LA) prevents penile SHIV acquisition in macaques. Twenty-two macaques were exposed to SHIV via the foreskin and urethra once weekly for 12 weeks. Of these, 6 received human-equivalent doses of CAB LA, 6 received oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, and 10 were untreated. The efficacy of CAB LA was high (94.4%; 95% confidence interval, 58.2%-99.3%) and similar to that seen with oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (94.0%; 55.1%-99.2%). The high efficacy of CAB LA in the penile transmission model supports extending the clinical advancement of CAB LA preexposure prophylaxis to heterosexual men.

      6. Evaluation of a novel multiplex PCR amplicon sequencing assay for detection of human pathogens in Ixodes ticksexternal icon
        Hojgaard A, Osikowicz LM, Eisen L, Eisen RJ.
        Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 2020 ;11(6).
        Tickborne diseases are an increasing public health concern in the United States, where the majority of notifiable cases are caused by pathogens vectored by Ixodes ticks. To better monitor changes in acarological risk of human encounters with these ticks and their associated pathogens, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently established a national tick and tickborne pathogen surveillance program. Here, we describe and evaluate a new Multiplex PCR Amplicon Sequencing (MPAS) assay for potential use in surveillance programs targeting two common human-biting vector ticks, Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus. The ability of the MPAS assay to detect five Ixodes-associated human pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia mayonii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti) was compared to that of a previously published and routinely used probe-based (TaqMan) PCR testing algorithm for pathogen detection in Ixodes ticks. Assay performance comparisons included a set of 175 host-seeking Ixodes nymphs collected in Connecticut as well as DNA from our pathogen reference collection. The MPAS assay and the CDC standard TaqMan PCR pathogen testing algorithm were found to have equivalent detection sensitivity for Ixodes-associated human pathogens. However, the MPAS assay was able to detect a broader range of tick-associated microorganisms, more effectively detected co-infections of multiple pathogens in a single tick (including different species within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex), and required a smaller volume of test sample (thus preserving more sample for future testing).

      7. Dried blood spots for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae detection and serotyping among children < 5 years old in rural Mozambiqueexternal icon
        Pimenta FC, Moiane B, Lessa FC, Venero AL, Moura I, Larson S, Massora S, Chauque A, Tembe N, Mucavele H, Verani JR, Whitney CG, Sigauque B, Carvalho MG.
        BMC Pediatr. 2020 Jul 2;20(1):326.
        BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) have been proposed as potentially tool for detecting invasive bacterial diseases. METHODS: We evaluated the use of DBS for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae detection among children in Mozambique. Blood for DBS and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected from children with pneumonia and healthy aged < 5 years. Bacterial detection and serotyping were performed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) (NP and DBS; lytA gene for pneumococcus and hpd for H. influenzae) and culture (NP). Combined detection rates were compared between children with pneumonia and healthy. RESULTS: Of 325 children enrolled, 205 had pneumonia and 120 were healthy. Pneumococci were detected in DBS from 20.5 and 64.2% of children with pneumonia and healthy, respectively; NP specimens were positive for pneumococcus in 80.0 and 80.8%, respectively. H. influenzae was detected in DBS from 22.9% of children with pneumonia and 59.2% of healthy; 81.4 and 81.5% of NP specimens were positive for H. influenzae, respectively. CONCLUSION: DBS detected pneumococcal and H. influenzae DNA in children with pneumonia and healthy. Healthy children were often DBS positive for both bacteria, suggesting that qPCR of DBS specimens does not differentiate disease from colonization and is therefore not a useful diagnostic tool for children.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Identification of substance-exposed newborns and neonatal abstinence syndrome using ICD-10-CM - 15 hospitals, Massachusetts, 2017external icon
        Goyal S, Saunders KC, Moore CS, Fillo KT, Ko JY, Manning SE, Shapiro-Mendoza C, Gupta M, Romero L, Coy KC, McDow KB, Keaton AA, Sinatra J, Jones K, Alpren C, Barfield WD, Diop H.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jul 24;69(29):951-955.
        Opioid use disorder and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) increased in Massachusetts from 1999 to 2013 (1,2). In response, in 2016, the state passed a law requiring birth hospitals to report the number of newborns who were exposed to controlled substances to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH)* by mandating monthly reporting of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) diagnostic codes related to maternal dependence on opioids (F11.20) or benzodiazepines (F13.20) and to newborns affected by maternal use of drugs of addiction (P04.49) or experiencing withdrawal symptoms from maternal drugs of addiction (P96.1) separately.(†) MDPH uses these same codes for monthly, real-time crude estimates of NAS and uses P96.1 alone for official NAS state reporting.(§) MDPH requested CDC's assistance in evaluating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of either maternal or newborn codes to identify substance-exposed newborns, and of newborn exposure codes (both exposure [P04.49] or withdrawal [P96.1]) and the newborn code for withdrawal alone (P96.1) to identify infants with NAS cases related to three exposure scenarios: 1) opioids, 2) opioids or benzodiazepines, and 3) any controlled substance. Confirmed diagnoses of substance exposure and NAS abstracted from linked clinical records for 1,123 infants born in 2017 and their birth mothers were considered the diagnostic standard and were compared against hospital-reported ICD-10-CM codes. For identifying substance-exposed newborns across the three exposure scenarios, the newborn exposure codes had higher sensitivity (range = 31%-61%) than did maternal drug dependence codes (range = 16%-41%), but both sets of codes had high PPV (≥74%). For identifying NAS, for all exposure scenarios, the sensitivity for either newborn code (P04.49 or P96.1) was ≥92% and the PPV was ≥64%; for P96.1 alone the sensitivity was ≥79% and the PPV was ≥92% for all scenarios. Whereas ICD-10-CM codes are effective for NAS surveillance in Massachusetts, they should be applied cautiously for substance-exposed newborn surveillance. Surveillance for substance-exposed newborns using ICD-10-CM codes might be improved by increasing the use of validated substance-use screening tools and standardized facility protocols and improving communication between patients and maternal health and infant health care providers.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. BACKGROUND: Personal protective equipment (PPE) are stockpiled across the nation to offset supply depletion during public health emergencies. Stockpiled PPE inventories vary across the U.S. by type, model, quantity, and the conditions in which they are stored. Over the past decade, federal, state, and local stockpile managers have had concerns for the viability of aging PPE. METHODS: To understand factors that may affect stockpiled PPE, we explored the breadth of stockpile storage conditions and respirator and surgical gown inventories through collaboration with the national PPE community, qualitative observations collected at 10 different U.S. stockpiles, and by compiling stockpile PPE inventories and climate data from a convenience sample of U.S. stockpiles. RESULTS: The aggregated inventory from 20 stockpiles is reported, accounting for approximately 53 million respirators. Most respirators (69% or 35.8 million) have been stored between 5 and 10 years. Upon visiting 10 stockpile facilities, we report on the storage conditions observed and summarize the storage environment data collected. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify common PPE types, inventories, and storage conditions across federal, state, and local government stockpile facilities as well as healthcare organization-managed caches. These findings will be leveraged to guide the development of sampling protocols for air-purifying respirators and surgical gowns in U.S. stockpiles to understand the performance viability after long-term storage.

      2. Testing and clinical management of health care personnel potentially exposed to hepatitis C virus - CDC Guidance, United States, 2020external icon
        Moorman AC, de Perio MA, Goldschmidt R, Chu C, Kuhar D, Henderson DK, Naggie S, Kamili S, Spradling PR, Gordon SC, Russi MB, Teshale EH.
        MMWR Recomm Rep. 2020 Jul 24;69(6):1-8.
        Exposure to hepatitis viruses is a recognized occupational risk for health care personnel (HCP). This report establishes new CDC guidance that includes recommendations for a testing algorithm and clinical management for HCP with potential occupational exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Baseline testing of the source patient and HCP should be performed as soon as possible (preferably within 48 hours) after the exposure. A source patient refers to any person receiving health care services whose blood or other potentially infectious material is the source of the HCP's exposure. Two options are recommended for testing the source patient. The first option is to test the source patient with a nucleic acid test (NAT) for HCV RNA. This option is preferred, particularly if the source patient is known or suspected to have recent behaviors that increase risk for HCV acquisition (e.g., injection drug use within the previous 4 months) or if risk cannot be reliably assessed. The second option is to test the source patient for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), then if positive, test for HCV RNA. For HCP, baseline testing for anti-HCV with reflex to a NAT for HCV RNA if positive should be conducted as soon as possible (preferably within 48 hours) after the exposure and may be simultaneous with source-patient testing. If follow-up testing is recommended based on the source patient's status (e.g., HCV RNA positive or anti-HCV positive with unavailable HCV RNA or if the HCV infection status is unknown), HCP should be tested with a NAT for HCV RNA at 3-6 weeks postexposure. If HCV RNA is negative at 3-6 weeks postexposure, a final test for anti-HCV at 4-6 months postexposure is recommended. A source patient or HCP found to be positive for HCV RNA should be referred to care. Postexposure prophylaxis of hepatitis C is not recommended for HCP who have occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids. This guidance was developed based on expert opinion (CDC. Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR Recommend Rep 2001;50[No. RR-11]; Supplementary Figure, and reflects updated guidance from professional organizations that recommend treatment for acute HCV infection. Health care providers can use this guidance to update their procedures for postexposure testing and clinical management of HCP potentially exposed to hepatitis C virus.

      3. Health care workers have an increased incidence of allergic disease compared to the general public and are exposed to a variety of high-level disinfectants. While exposure to these agents has been associated with allergic disease, findings between epidemiology and animal studies often conflict respecting immunological mechanisms. Therefore, we hypothesized that previous exposure to a representative IgE-mediated sensitizer, (Ortho-phthalaldehyde [OPA]) alters immune responses to a representative T-cell mediated sensitizer (didecyldimethlyammonium chloride [DDAC]). Here, BALB/c mice were topically exposed to OPA (0.5%) for 3-days, rested, then topically exposed to DDAC (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25%) for 14-days. Co-exposure resulted in phenotypic changes in draining lymph node (dLN) cells, including a decreased frequency of CD8+ T cells and increased frequency and number of B cells compared to DDAC-only treated mice. The co-exposed mice also had enhanced Th2 responses, including significant alterations in: dLN Il4 (increased), B-cell activation (increased), CD8 T-cell activation (decreased), and local and systemic IgE production (increased). These changes were not observed if mice were exposed to DDAC prior to OPA. Exposure to OPA alone shows Th2 skewing, indicated by increased activation of skin type 2 innate lymphoid cells, increased frequency and activation of draining lymph node B cells, and increased levels of type 2 cytokines. These findings suggest that the OPA-induced immune environment may alter the response to DDAC, resulting in increased IgE mediated immune responses. This data may partially explain the discordance between epidemiological and laboratory studies regarding disinfectants and provide insight into the potential immunological implications of mixed chemical exposures.

      4. Evidence for environmental-human microbiota transfer at a manufacturing facility with novel work-related respiratory diseaseexternal icon
        Wu BG, Kapoor B, Cummings KJ, Stanton ML, Nett RJ, Kreiss K, Abraham JL, Colby TV, Franko AD, Green FH, Sanyal S, Clemente JC, Gao Z, Coffre M, Meyn P, Heguy A, Li Y, Sulaiman I, Borbet TC, Koralov SB, Tallaksen RJ, Wendland D, Bachelder VD, Boylstein RJ, Park JH, Cox-Ganser JM, Virji MA, Crawford JA, Edwards NT, Veillette M, Duchaine C, Warren K, Lundeen S, Blaser MJ, Segal LN.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Jul 16.
        INTRODUCTION: Workers' exposure to metalworking fluid (MWF) has been associated with respiratory disease. As part of a public health investigation of a manufacturing facility, we performed paired environmental and human sampling to evaluate cross-pollination of microbes between environment and host and possible effects on lung pathology present among workers. METHODS: Workplace environmental microbiota was evaluated in air and MWF samples. Human microbiota was evaluated in lung tissue samples from workers with respiratory symptoms found to have lymphocytic bronchiolitis and alveolar ductitis with B-cell follicles and emphysema, lung tissue controls, and in skin, nasal and oral samples from 302 workers from different areas of the facility. In vitro effects of MWF exposure on murine B-cells were assessed. RESULTS: Increased similarity of microbial composition was found between MWF samples and lung tissue samples of case workers compared to controls. Among workers in different locations within the facility, those that worked in machine shop area had skin, nasal and oral microbiota more closely related to the microbiota present in MWF samples. Lung samples from four index cases, and skin and nasal samples from workers in machine shop area were enriched with Pseudomonas, the dominant taxa in MWF. Exposure to used MWF stimulated murine B-cell proliferation in vitro, a hallmark cell subtype found in pathology of index cases. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of a manufacturing facility with a cluster of workers with respiratory disease supports cross-pollination of microbes from MWF to humans and suggests the potential for exposure to these microbes to be a health hazard.

    • Occupational Safety and Health - Mining
      1. Diesel and welding aerosols in an underground mineexternal icon
        Bugarski AD, Barone TL, Hummer JA.
        Int J Min Sci Technol. 2020 .
        Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a study in an isolated zone of an underground mine to characterize aerosols generated by: (1) a diesel-powered personnel carrier vehicle operated over a simulated light-duty cycle and (2) the simulated repair of existing equipment using manual metal arc welding (MMAW). Both the diesel-powered vehicle and MMAW process contributed to concentrations of nano and ultrafine aerosols in the mine air. The welding process also contributed to aerosols with electrical mobility and aerodynamic mobility count median diameters of approximately 140 and 480 nm, respectively. The welding particles collected on the filters contained carbon, iron, manganese, calcium, and aluminum.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. Reproductive coercion among African American female adolescents: Associations with contraception and sexually transmitted diseasesexternal icon
        Kraft JM, Snead MC, Brown JL, Sales JM, Kottke MJ, Hatfield-Timajchy K, Goedken P.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2020 Jul 13.
        Background: Among adolescents, racial disparities in reproductive health outcomes persist. The question of whether reproductive coercion (RC) influences these outcomes has received increased attention. Little is known about whether RC is independently associated with contraceptive use and having a sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African American female adolescents. Materials and Methods: Survey data for self-identified African American young women 14-19 years of age (n = 735) who accessed services at a publicly funded clinic were used to assess the extent of RC, the association between RC and other forms of intimate partner violence (IPV), and whether RC was independently associated with contraceptive use and an STD diagnosis. Results: Approximately 20% of participants had experienced RC; there was a statistically significant bivariate association between RC and other forms of IPV. In multivariate analyses, experiencing two or more forms of RC (vs. not experiencing any RC) was associated with reduced odds of contraceptive use in the past 3 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24-0.76) and with increased odds of having an STD (aOR = 2.43; 95% CI = 2.35-4.37). Experiencing only one type of RC and experiencing other forms of IPV were not associated with the outcomes. Although ease of partner communication (aOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.80-0.98) was associated with having an STD, few other psychosocial variables were associated with the outcomes. Conclusions: RC is associated with reduced contraceptive use and increased STDs among African American adolescent women. Interventions to prevent and respond to RC that engage adolescent women and men are needed.

      2. Number of embryos transferred and diagnosis of preeclampsiaexternal icon
        Sites CK, Wilson D, Bernson D, Boulet S, Zhang Y.
        Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2020 Jul 11;18(1):68.
        BACKGROUND: Multiple births and first pregnancy are associated with higher preeclampsia risk. It is unknown if the transfer of multiple embryos or first embryo transfer with assisted reproductive technology (ART) is also associated with greater preeclampsia risk. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of IVF clinics and hospitals in Massachusetts. We used linked ART surveillance, birth certificate, and maternal hospitalization discharge data for 21,188 births, considering resident singleton (12,810) and twin (8378) live-births from autologous or donor eggs from 2005 to 2012. We used log binomial and Poisson regression to calculate adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between preeclampsia and predictors of preeclampsia. Outcomes were stratified by singleton and twin birth, donor versus autologous cycles, and use of fresh versus cryopreserved embryos. RESULTS: Considering all singleton births, the transfer of multiple embryos increased the risk of preeclampsia [aRR = 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01-1.19)]. Relative risks were greatest for fresh non-donor cycles [aRR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26)]. Vanishing twin and number of prior ART cycles was not associated with preeclampsia among singleton births [aRR = 1.18 (95% CI: 0.91-1.53)], and aRR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.96-1.05)], respectively. Considering all twin births, the transfer of > 2 embryos increased the risk of preeclampsia [aRR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.001-1.19)]. Vanishing triplet and number of prior ART cycles were not associated with preeclampsia among twin births [aRR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.69-1264), and aRR = 0.98 (CI: 0.95-1.02)], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among ART births, the transfer of more than 1 embryo for singleton gestations and more than 2 embryos for twin gestations increased the risk for preeclampsia diagnosis.

    • Substance Use and Abuse

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Japanese encephalitis virus infection in non-encephalitic acute febrile illness patientsexternal icon
        Ma'roef CN, Dhenni R, Megawati D, Fadhilah A, Lucanus A, Artika IM, Masyeni S, Lestarini A, Sari K, Suryana K, Yudhaputri FA, Jaya UA, Sasmono RT, Ledermann JP, Powers AM, Myint KS.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020 Jul;14(7):e0008454.
        Although Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is considered endemic in Indonesia, there are only limited reports of JEV infection from a small number of geographic areas within the country with the majority of these being neuroinvasive disease cases. Here, we report cases of JEV infection in non-encephalitic acute febrile illness patients from Bali, Indonesia. Paired admission (S1) and discharge (S2) serum specimens from 144 acute febrile illness patients (without evidence of acute dengue virus infection) were retrospectively tested for anti-JEV IgM antibody and confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for JEV infection. Twenty-six (18.1%) patients were anti-JEV IgM-positive or equivocal in their S2 specimens, of which 5 (3.5%) and 8 (5.6%) patients met the criteria for confirmed and probable JEV infection, respectively, based on PRNT results. Notably, these non-encephalitic JE cases were less likely to have thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and lower hematocrit compared with confirmed dengue cases of the same cohort. These findings highlight the need to consider JEV in the diagnostic algorithm for acute febrile illnesses in endemic areas and suggest that JEV as a cause of non-encephalitic disease has likely been underestimated in Indonesia.

      2. A retrospective cohort investigation of seroprevalence of Marburg virus and ebolaviruses in two different ecological zones in Ugandaexternal icon
        Nyakarahuka L, Schafer IJ, Balinandi S, Mulei S, Tumusiime A, Kyondo J, Knust B, Lutwama J, Rollin P, Nichol S, Shoemaker T.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 1;20(1):461.
        BACKGROUND: Uganda has experienced seven Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks and four Marburg Virus Disease (MVD) outbreaks between 2000 and 2019. We investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for Marburg virus and ebolaviruses in gold mining communities around Kitaka gold mine in Western Uganda and compared them to non-mining communities in Central Uganda. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered and human blood samples were collected from three exposure groups in Western Uganda (gold miners, household members of miners, non-miners living within 50 km of Kitaka mine). The unexposed controls group sampled was community members in Central Uganda far away from any gold mining activity which we considered as low-risk for filovirus infection. ELISA serology was used to analyse samples, detecting IgG antibodies against Marburg virus and ebolaviruses (filoviruses). Data were analysed in STATA software using risk ratios and odds ratios. RESULTS: Miners in western Uganda were 5.4 times more likely to be filovirus seropositive compared to the control group in central Uganda (RR = 5.4; 95% CI 1.5-19.7) whereas people living in high-risk areas in Ibanda and Kamwenge districts were 3.6 more likely to be seropositive compared to control group in Luweeero district (RR = 3.6; 95% CI 1.1-12.2). Among all participants, filovirus seropositivity was 2.6% (19/724) of which 2.3% (17/724) were reactive to Sudan virus only and 0.1% (1/724) to Marburg virus. One individual seropositive for Sudan virus also had IgG antibodies reactive to Bundibugyo virus. The risk factors for filovirus seropositivity identified included mining (AOR = 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-8.5), male sex (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.01-9.5), going inside mines (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.2-8.2), cleaning corpses (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.04-9.1) and contact with suspect filovirus cases (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.04-14.5). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that filovirus outbreaks may go undetected in Uganda and people involved in artisan gold mining are more likely to be exposed to infection with either Marburg virus or ebolaviruses, likely due to increased risk of exposure to bats. This calls for active surveillance in known high-risk areas for early detection and response to prevent filovirus epidemics.

      3. Yellow fever (YF) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus found in Sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America. The virus causes YF, a viral hemorrhagic fever, which can be prevented by a live-attenuated vaccine, strain 17D. Despite the vaccine being very successful at decreasing disease risk, YF is considered a re-emerging disease due to the increased numbers of cases in the last 30 years. Until 2014, the vaccine was recommended to be administered with boosters every 10 years, but in 2014 the World Health Organization recommended removal of booster doses for all except special populations. This recommendation has been questioned and there have been reports of waning antibody titers in adults over time and more recently in pediatric populations. Clearly, the potential of waning antibody titers is a very important issue that needs to be carefully evaluated. In this Perspective, we review what is known about the correlate of protection for full-dose YF vaccine, current information on waning antibody titers, and gaps in knowledge. Overall, fundamental questions exist on the durability of protective immunity induced by YF vaccine, but interpretation of studies is complicated by the use of different assays and different cut-offs to measure seroprotective immunity, and differing results among certain endemic versus non-endemic populations. Notwithstanding the above, there are few well-characterized reports of vaccine failures, which one would expect to observe potentially more with the re-emergence of a severe disease. Overall, there is a need to improve YF disease surveillance, increase primary vaccination coverage rates in at-risk populations, and expand our understanding of the mechanism of protection of YF vaccine.

      4. Evaluation of online risk assessment to identify rabies exposures among health care workers - Utah, 2019external icon
        Whitehouse ER, Peterson D, McCaffrey K, Eichenbaum A, Gruninger R, Dascomb KK, Frame C, Wallace R, Bonwitt J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Jul 24;69(29):956-959.
        On November 7, 2018, the Utah Department of Health (UDOH) reported the first confirmed human rabies death in the state since 1944 (1). The case occurred in a person who had been treated over a period of 19 days at four health care facilities and an emergency medical transport service across three counties and two states. Human rabies is preventable through preexposure or postexposure vaccination but is invariably fatal upon symptom onset. Timely identification of persons who might have been exposed to rabies virus is therefore crucial to administer postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Because of the large number of health care workers who had been involved in the patient's care, a standardized online risk assessment survey was developed by UDOH based on Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations (2). This online tool was evaluated for accuracy, acceptability, and administrative obligation by reviewing the results from the tool and conducting focus group discussions and a follow-up survey. Among 90 health care workers initially identified by the online risk assessment as being potentially exposed to infectious material, 74 were classified as exposed. All 74 health care workers received PEP following consultation with occupational health staff members, indicating a positive predictive value of the assessment tool of 82%. In a follow-up survey, 42 (76%) of the 55 respondents reported that they were satisfied with the assessment process. In focus group discussions, participants suggested that the survey could be improved by providing additional information about rabies exposures because many of them were unfamiliar with human-to-human rabies transmission. This evaluation highlighted the importance of adopting clear communication strategies, demonstrated the benefits of using an online risk assessment during a mass rabies exposure, and provided specific feedback for CDC to improve resources available for states and health care facilities after mass rabies exposures.

      5. Evolving viral and serological stages of Zika virus RNA-positive blood donors and estimation of incidence of infection during the 2016 Puerto Rican Zika epidemic: an observational cohort studyexternal icon
        Williamson PC, Biggerstaff BJ, Simmons G, Stone M, Winkelman V, Latoni G, Alsina J, Bakkour S, Newman C, Pate LL, Galel SA, Kleinman S, Busch MP.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2020 Jul 13.
        BACKGROUND: Puerto Rico began screening blood donations for Zika virus RNA with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) on April 3, 2016, because of an emerging Zika virus outbreak. We followed up positive donors to assess the dynamics of viral and serological markers during the early stages of Zika virus infection and update the estimate of infection incidence in the Puerto Rican population during the outbreak. METHODS: Blood donations from volunteer donors in Puerto Rico were screened for the presence of Zika virus RNA using the cobas Zika NAAT. Positive donations were further tested to confirm infection, estimate viral load, and identify Zika virus-specific IgM antibodies. Individuals with positive blood donations were invited to attend follow-up visits. Donations with confirmed infection (defined as detection of Zika virus RNA or IgM on additional testing of index or follow-up samples) were assessed for stage of infection according to Zika virus RNA detectability in simulated minipools, viral load, and Zika virus IgM status. A three-step process was used to estimate the mean duration of NAAT reactivity of Zika virus in human plasma from individuals identified pre-seroconversion with at least one follow up visit and to update the 2016 incidence estimate of Zika virus infection. FINDINGS: Between April 3 and Dec 31, 2016, 53 112 blood donations were screened for Zika virus, of which 351 tested positive, 339 had confirmed infections, and 319 could be staged. Compared with IgM-positive index donations (n=110), IgM-negative index donations (n=209) had higher mean viral loads (1.1 x 10(6)vs 8.3 x 10(4) international units per mL) and were more likely to be detected in simulated minipools (93% [n=194] vs 26% [n=29]). The proportions of donations with confirmed infections that had viral RNA detected only in individual-donation NAATs (ie, not in simulated minipools) and were IgM positive increased as the epidemic evolved. The estimated mean duration of NAAT detectability in the 140 donors included in the follow-up study was 11.70 days (95% CI 10.06-14.36). Applying this detection period to the observed proportion of donations that were confirmed NAAT positive yielded a Zika virus seasonal incidence estimate of 21.1% (95% CI 18.1-24.1); 768 101 infections in a population of 3 638 773 in 2016. INTERPRETATION: Characterisation of early Zika virus infection has implications for blood safety because infectivity of blood donations and utility of screening methods likely correlate with viral load and serological stage of infection. Our findings also have implications for diagnostic testing, public health surveillance, and epidemiology, and we estimate that around 21% of the Puerto Rican population was infected during the 2016 outbreak. FUNDING: Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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