Volume 12, Issue 14, May 5, 2020

CDC Science Clips: Volume 12, Issue 14, May 5, 2020

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions!

Last week (April 24-30) was World Immunization Week.

During World Immunization Week (WIW) and every day, CDC celebrates health heroes who protect all of us—parents and caregivers, healthcare workers, frontline vaccinators, and our public health partners worldwide who work to save millions of lives from vaccine-preventable diseases. This year’s WIW is unlike any other. While we have made many gains toward eradication and elimination goals for vaccine-preventable diseases, we are focused on old and new challenges. The world has seen an increasing number of outbreaks of measles, diphtheria, yellow fever, vaccine-derived poliovirus, and other vaccine-preventable diseases over the past few years. Against this complex backdrop, we have the COVID-19 pandemic.

This week’s Science Clips features recent CDC-authored articles on immunization and articles on established or emerging vaccine-preventable diseases. To learn more about WIW, please visit

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas - World Immunization Week
    Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from the last 3 to 6 months of published literature. Key topic coincides monthly with other CDC products (e.g. Vital Signs). The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Investigation of a cluster of severe respiratory disease referred from Uganda to Kenya, February 2017external icon
        Okello PE, Majwala RK, Kalani R, Kwesiga B, Kizito S, Kabwama SN, Bulage L, Ndegwa LK, Ochieng M, Harris JR, Hunsperger E, Kajumbula H, Kadobera D, Zhu BP, Chaves SS, Ario AR, Widdowson MA.
        Health Secur. 2020 Mar/Apr;18(2):96-104.
        On February 22, 2017, Hospital X-Kampala and US CDC-Kenya reported to the Uganda Ministry of Health a respiratory illness in a 46-year-old expatriate of Company A. The patient, Mr. A, was evacuated from Uganda to Kenya and died. He had recently been exposed to dromedary camels (MERS-CoV) and wild birds with influenza A (H5N6). We investigated the cause of illness, transmission, and recommended control. We defined a suspected case of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) as acute onset of fever (>/=38 degrees C) with sore throat or cough and at least one of the following: headache, lethargy, or difficulty in breathing. In addition, we looked at cases with onset between February 1 and March 31 in a person with a history of contact with Mr. A, his family, or other Company A employees. A confirmed case was defined as a suspected case with laboratory confirmation of the same pathogen detected in Mr. A. Influenza-like illness was defined as onset of fever (>/=38 degrees C) and cough or sore throat in a Uganda contact, and as fever (>/=38 degrees C) and cough lasting less than 10 days in a Kenya contact. We collected Mr. A's exposure and clinical history, searched for cases, and traced contacts. Specimens from the index case were tested for complete blood count, liver function tests, plasma chemistry, Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and MERS-CoV. Robust field epidemiology, laboratory capacity, and cross-border communication enabled investigation.

      2. An international cohort study of birth outcomes associated with hospitalized acute respiratory infection during pregnancyexternal icon
        Regan AK, Feldman B, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Naleway AL, Williams J, Wyant BE, Simmonds K, Effler PV, Booth S, Ball SW, Katz MA, Fink RV, Thompson MG, Chung H, Kwong JC, Fell DB.
        J Infect. 2020 Apr 20.
        OBJECTIVES: Findings during the 2009 pandemic suggest severe maternal infection with pandemic influenza had adverse perinatal health consequences. Limited data exist evaluating the perinatal health effects of severe seasonal influenza and non-influenza infections during pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of pregnant women from Australia, Canada, Israel, and the United States was established using birth records to identify pregnancies and birth outcomes and hospital and laboratory testing records to identify influenza and non-influenza associated acute respiratory or febrile illness (ARFI) hospitalizations. ARFI hospitalized women were matched to non-hospitalized women (1:4) by country and season of conception. Log-binomial logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk (aRR) of preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and low birthweight (LBW) birth, adjusting for pre-existing medical conditions, maternal age, and parity. RESULTS: 950 pregnant women hospitalized with an ARFI were matched with 3,800 non-hospitalized pregnant women. Compared to non-hospitalized women, risk of PTB was greater among women hospitalized with influenza-associated ARFI (aRR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.15-2.15) and non-influenza ARFI (aRR: 2.78; 95% CI: 2.12-3.65). Similar results were observed for LBW; there were no associations with SGA birth. CONCLUSIONS: ARFI hospitalization during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of PTB and LBW.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Dispersal of female and male Aedes aegypti from discarded container habitats using a stable isotope mark-capture study design in South Texasexternal icon
        Juarez JG, Garcia-Luna S, Chaves LF, Carbajal E, Valdez E, Avila C, Tang W, Martin E, Barrera R, Hemme RR, Mutebi JP, Vuong N, Roark EB, Maupin CR, Badillo-Vargas IE, Hamer GL.
        Sci Rep. 2020 Apr 22;10(1):6803.
        Aedes aegypti is the main vector of arboviral diseases such as dengue, chikungunya and Zika. A key feature for disease transmission modeling and vector control planning is adult mosquito dispersal. We studied Ae aegypti adult dispersal by conducting a mark-capture study of naturally occurring Ae. aegypti from discarded containers found along a canal that divided two residential communities in Donna, Texas, USA. Stable isotopes were used to enrich containers with either (13)C or (15)N. Adult mosquitoes were collected outdoors in the yards of households throughout the communities with BG Sentinel 2 traps during a 12-week period. Marked mosquito pools with stable isotopes were used to estimate the mean distance travelled using three different approaches (Net, Strip or Circular) and the probability of detecting an isotopically marked adult at different distances from the larval habitat of origin. We consistently observed, using the three approaches that male (Net: 220 m, Strip: 255 m, Circular: 250 m) Ae. aegypti dispersed further in comparison to gravid (Net: 135 m, Strip: 176 m, Circular: 189 m) and unfed females (Net: 192 m, Strip: 213 m, Circular: 198 m). We also observed that marked male capture probability slightly increased with distance, while, for both unfed and gravid females, such probability decreased with distance. Using a unique study design documenting adult dispersal from natural larval habitat, our results suggest that Ae. aegypti adults disperse longer distances than previously reported. These results may help guide local vector control authorities in their fight against Ae. aegypti and the diseases it transmits, suggesting coverage of 200 m for the use of insecticides and innovative vector control tools.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Rotavirus vaccine is effective against rotavirus gastroenteritis resulting in outpatient care: Results from the MAAGE Studyexternal icon
        Burke RM, Groom HC, Naleway AL, Katz EM, Salas B, Mattison CP, Donald J, Tsaknaridis L, Biggs C, Bowen MD, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Schmidt M, Hall AJ.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 23.
        BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a common cause of severe pediatric acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Two vaccines are licensed in the United States and have demonstrated high effectiveness against moderate to severe disease. However, fewer data are available on rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) against milder disease. METHODS: We leveraged active surveillance data from Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW) to calculate rotavirus VE against medically attended rotavirus illness among age-eligible children. We utilized a test-negative case-control design and applied 4 distinct case definitions based on reverse-transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test results. VE was calculated as 100*(1 - Odds Ratio), and models were adjusted for age group. RESULTS: The VE analysis population comprised 842 children, 799 (95%) of which had mild disease requiring at most a clinic visit, and 698 (83%) of whom were fully vaccinated against rotavirus. Age-adjusted VE was 70% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37 - 86%) against disease defined solely by qRT-PCR results, 72% (95% CI: 31 - 89%) against disease as defined by qRT-PCR with a quantification cycle (Cq) value <27, 73% (95% CI: 32 - 90%) against disease that was qRT-PCR positive but EIA negative, and 62% (95% CI: -20 - 88%) against disease defined solely by EIA. Results were similar when restricting to disease resulting in at most an ambulatory clinic or emergency department visit. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in protecting U.S. children from mild to moderate as well as severe disease. Our findings are also useful to show the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination against qRT-PCR-defined illness.

      2. Persistence of varicella zoster virus specific plasma cells in adult human bone marrow following childhood vaccinationexternal icon
        Eberhardt CS, Wieland A, Nasti TH, Grifoni A, Wilson E, Schmid DS, Pulendran B, Sette A, Waller EK, Rouphael N, Ahmed R.
        J Virol. 2020 Apr 22.
        Childhood immunization with the live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine induces protective immune responses. Routine VZV vaccination started only two decades ago and thus there are few studies examining the longevity of vaccine-induced immunity. Herein, we analyzed the quantity of VZV-specific plasma cells (PCs) and CD4 T cells in the bone marrow (BM) of healthy young adults (n=15) following childhood VZV immunization. Long-lived BM resident plasma cells constitutively secrete antibodies and we detected VZV-specific PCs in the BM of all subjects. Anti-VZV plasma antibody titers correlated positively with the number of VZV-specific BM PCs. Furthermore, we quantified the number of IFNgamma-producing CD4 T cells specific for VZV glycoprotein E and all other structural and non-structural VZV proteins in both BM and blood (PBMCs). The frequency of VZV-specific IFNgamma-producing CD4 T cells was significantly higher in PBMCs compared to BM. Our study shows that VZV-specific PCs and VZV-specific CD4 memory T cells persist up to 20 years after vaccination. These findings indicate that childhood VZV vaccination can elicit long-lived immune memory responses in the bone marrow.IMPORTANCE Childhood varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunization induces immune memory responses that protect against primary VZV infection, chickenpox. In the US, routine childhood VZV vaccination has been introduced only two decades ago. Hence, there is limited information on the longevity of B and CD4 T cell memory which are both important for protection. Here we show in fifteen healthy young adults that VZV-specific B and CD4 T cell responses are detectable in bone marrow (BM) and blood up to 20 years after vaccination. Specifically, we measured antibody-secreting plasma cells in the BM and VZV-specific CD4 T cells in BM and blood. These findings suggest that childhood VZV vaccination induces long-lived immunity.

      3. Reducing antibiotic use in ambulatory care through influenza vaccinationexternal icon
        Smith ER, Fry AM, Hicks LA, Fleming-Dutra KE, Flannery B, Ferdinands J, Rolfes MA, Martin ET, Monto AS, Zimmerman RK, Nowalk MP, Jackson ML, McLean HQ, Olson SC, Gaglani M, Patel MM.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 23.
        BACKGROUND: Improving appropriate antibiotic use is crucial for combating antibiotic resistance and unnecessary adverse drug reactions. Acute respiratory illness (ARI) commonly causes outpatient visits and accounts for ~41% of antibiotics used in the United States (U.S.). We examined the influence of influenza vaccination on reducing antibiotic prescriptions among outpatients with ARI. METHODS: We enrolled outpatients aged >/=6 months with ARI from 50-60 U.S. clinics during five winters (2013-2018) and tested for influenza with RT-PCR; results were unavailable for clinical decision-making and clinical influenza testing was infrequent. We collected antibiotic prescriptions and diagnosis codes for ARI syndromes. We calculated vaccine effectiveness (VE) by comparing vaccination odds among influenza-positive cases to test-negative controls. We estimated ARI visits and antibiotic prescriptions averted by influenza vaccination using estimates of VE, coverage, and prevalence of antibiotic prescriptions and influenza. RESULTS: Among 37,487 ARI outpatients, 9,659 (26%) were influenza-positive. Overall, 36% of ARI and 26% of influenza-positive patients were prescribed antibiotics. The top three prevalent ARI syndromes included: viral upper respiratory tract infection (47%), pharyngitis (18%), and allergy or asthma (11%). Among patients testing positive for influenza, 77% did not receive an ICD-CM diagnostic code for influenza. Overall, VE against influenza-associated ARI was 35% (95%CI 32-39). Vaccination prevented 5.6% of all ARI syndromes, ranging from 2.8% (sinusitis) to 11% (clinical influenza). Influenza vaccination averted 1 in 25 (3.8%; 95%CI 3.6%-4.1%) antibiotic prescriptions among ARI outpatients during influenza seasons. CONCLUSION: Vaccination and accurate influenza diagnosis may curb unnecessary antibiotic use and reduce the global threat of antibiotic resistance.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Analysis of the reiteration regions (R1 to R5) of varicella-zoster virusexternal icon
        Jensen NJ, Depledge DP, Ng TF, Leung J, Quinlivan M, Radford KW, Folster J, Tseng HF, LaRussa P, Jacobsen SJ, Breuer J, Schmid DS.
        Virology. 2020 ;546:38-50.
        The varicella-zoster virus (VZV) genome, comprises both unique and repeated regions. The genome also includes reiteration regions, designated R1 to R5, which are tandemly repeating sequences termed elements. These regions represent an understudied feature of the VZV genome. The R4 region is duplicated, with one copy in the internal repeat short (IRs) which we designated R4A and a second copy in the terminal repeat short (TRs) termed R4B. We developed primers to amplify and Sanger sequence these regions, including independent amplification of both R4 regions. Reiteration regions from >80 cases of PCR-confirmed shingles were sequenced and analyzed. Complete genome sequences for the remaining portions of these viruses were determined using Illumina MiSeq. We identified 28 elements not previously reported, including at least one element for each R region. Length heterogeneity was substantial in R3, R4A and R4B. Length heterogeneity between the two copies of R4 was common.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Quality of malaria data in public health facilities in three provinces of Mozambiqueexternal icon
        Colborn JM, Zulliger R, Da Silva M, Mathe G, Chico AR, Castel-Branco AC, Brito F, Andela M, de Leon GP, Saifodine A, Candrinho B, Plucinski MM.
        PLoS One. 2020 ;15(4):e0231358.
        BACKGROUND: Malaria data reported through Mozambique's routine health information system are used to guide the implementation of prevention and control activities. Although previous studies have identified issues with the quality of aggregated data reported from public health facilities in the country, no studies have evaluated the quality of routine indicators recorded in health facility registries. This study addresses this issue by comparing indicators calculated from data from exit interviews and re-examinations of patients with data based on registry records from health facilities in order to measure the quality of registry data and data reporting in three provinces in Mozambique. METHODS: Data were collected from 1,840 outpatients from 117 health facilities in Maputo, Zambezia, and Cabo Delgado Provinces interviewed and examined as part of a malaria-specific health facility survey. Key indicators based on exit interview / re-examination data were compared to the same indicators based on records from health facility registries. Multivariable regression was performed to identify factors associated with indicators matching in re-examination / exit interview data and health facility registries. Aggregated indicators abstracted from facility registries were compared to those reported through the routine health management information system (HMIS) for the same time period. RESULTS: Sensitivity of exit interview / re-examination data compared with those recorded in facility registries was low for all indicators in all facilities. The lowest sensitivities were in Maputo, where the sensitivity for recording negative RDT results was 9.7%. The highest sensitivity was for recording positive RDT results in Cabo Delgado, at 75%. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with agreement between gold standard and registry data showed patients were less likely to be asked about having a fever in the triage ward in Maputo and Cabo Delgado (adjusted Odds Ratio 0.75 and 0.39 respectively), and in the outpatient ward in Cabo Delgado (aOR = 0.37), compared with the emergency department. Patients with positive RDT were also more likely to have RDT results recorded in all three provinces when patients had been managed according to national treatment guidelines during initial examination. Comparison of retrospective data abstracted from facility registries to HMIS data showed discrepancies in all three provinces. The proportion of outpatient cases with suspected and confirmed malaria were similar in registry and HMIS data across all provinces (a relatively low difference between registry and HMIS data of 3% in Maputo and Zambezia), though the total number of all-cause outpatient cases was consistently higher in the HMIS. The largest difference was in Maputo, where a total of 87,992 all-cause outpatient cases were reported in HMIS, compared with a total of 42,431 abstracted from facility registries. CONCLUSION: This study shows that care should be taken in interpreting trends based solely on routine data due to data quality issues, though the discrepancy in all-cause outpatient cases may be indicative that register availability and storage are important factors. As such, simple steps such as providing consistent access and storage of registers that include reporting of patient fever symptoms might improve the quality of routine data recorded at health facilities.

      2. Malaria elimination using the 1-3-7 approach: lessons from Sampov Loun, Cambodiaexternal icon
        Kheang ST, Sovannaroth S, Barat LM, Dysoley L, Kapella BK, Po L, Nguon S, Gimnig J, Slot R, Samphornarann T, Meng SK, Dissanayake G, AlMossawi HJ, Longacre C, Kak N.
        BMC Public Health. 2020 Apr 22;20(1):544.
        BACKGROUND: Cambodia has targeted malaria elimination within its territory by 2025 and is developing a model elimination package of strategies and interventions designed to achieve this goal. METHODS: Cambodia adopted a simplified 1-3-7 surveillance model in the Sampov Loun operational health district in western Cambodia beginning in July 2015. The 1-3-7 approach targets reporting of confirmed cases within one day, investigation of specific cases within three days, and targeted control measures to prevent further transmission within seven days. In Sampov Loun, response measures included reactive case detection (testing of co-travelers, household contacts and family members, and surrounding households with suspected malaria cases), and provision of health education, and insecticide-treated nets. Day 28 follow up microscopy was conducted for all confirmed P. falciparum and P. falciparum-mixed-species malaria cases to assess treatment efficacy. RESULTS: The number of confirmed malaria cases in the district fell from 519 in 2015 to 181 in 2017, and the annual parasite incidence (API) in the district fell from 3.21 per 1000 population to 1.06 per 1000 population. The last locally transmitted case of malaria in Sampov Loun was identified in March 2016. In response to the 408 index cases identified, 1377 contacts were screened, resulting in the identification of 14 positive cases. All positive cases occurred among index case co-travelers. CONCLUSION: The experience of the 1-3-7 approach in Sampov Loun indicates that the basic essential malaria elimination package can be feasibly implemented at the operational district level to achieve the goal of malaria elimination in Cambodia and has provided essential information that has led to the refinement of this package.

      3. Impact of community-based mass testing and treatment on malaria infection prevalence in a high transmission area of western Kenya: A cluster randomized controlled trialexternal icon
        Samuels AM, Odero NA, Odongo W, Otieno K, Were V, Shi YP, Sang T, Williamson J, Wiegand R, Hamel MJ, Kachur SP, Slutsker L, Lindblade KA, Kariuki SK, Desai MR.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 23.
        BACKGROUND: Global gains towards malaria elimination have been heterogeneous and have recently stalled. Interventions targeting afebrile malaria infections may be needed to address residual transmission. We studied the efficacy of repeated rounds of community-based mass testing and treatment (MTaT) on malaria infection prevalence in western Kenya. METHODS: Twenty clusters were randomly assigned to three rounds of MTaT per year for two years or control (standard-of-care for testing and treatment at public health facilities along with government sponsored mass long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distributions). During rounds community health volunteers visited all households in intervention clusters and tested all consenting individuals with a rapid diagnostic test. Those positive were treated with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Cross-sectional community infection prevalence surveys were performed in both study arms at baseline and each year after three rounds of MTaT. The primary outcome was the effect size of MTaT on parasite prevalence by microscopy between arms by year adjusted for age, reported LLIN use, enhanced vegetative index, and socio-economic status. RESULTS: Demographic and behavioral characteristics, including LLIN usage, were similar between arms at each survey. MTaT coverage ranged between 75.0-77.5% and 81.9-94.3% between the three rounds in year 1 and year 2, respectively. The adjusted effect size of MTaT on the prevalence of parasitemia between arms was 0.93 (CI: 0.79-1.08) and 0.92 (0.76-1.10) after year 1 and 2, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MTaT performed three times per year over two years did not reduce malaria parasite prevalence in this high-transmission area.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Ebola virus disease preparedness assessment and risk mapping in Uganda, August-September 2018external icon
        Nanziri C, Ario AR, Ntono V, Monje F, Aliddeki DM, Bainomugisha K, Kadobera D, Bulage L, Nsereko G, Kayiwa J, Nakiire L, Walwema R, Tusiime PK, Mabumba E, Makumbi I, Ocom F, Lamorde M, Kasule JN, Ward SE, Merrill RD.
        Health Secur. 2020 Mar/Apr;18(2):105-113.
        Uganda's proximity to the tenth Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) presents a high risk of cross-border EVD transmission. Uganda conducted preparedness and risk-mapping activities to strengthen capacity to prevent EVD importation and spread from cross-border transmission. We adapted the World Health Organization (WHO) EVD Consolidated Preparedness Checklist to assess preparedness in 11 International Health Regulations domains at the district level, health facilities, and points of entry; the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Border Health Capacity Discussion Guide to describe public health capacity; and the CDC Population Connectivity Across Borders tool kit to characterize movement and connectivity patterns. We identified 40 ground crossings (13 official, 27 unofficial), 80 health facilities, and more than 500 locations in 12 high-risk districts along the DRC border with increased connectivity to the EVD epicenter. The team also identified routes and congregation hubs, including origins and destinations for cross-border travelers to specified locations. Ten of the 12 districts scored less than 50% on the preparedness assessment. Using these results, Uganda developed a national EVD preparedness and response plan, including tailored interventions to enhance EVD surveillance, laboratory capacity, healthcare professional capacity, provision of supplies to priority locations, building treatment units in strategic locations, and enhancing EVD risk communication. We identified priority interventions to address risk of EVD importation and spread into Uganda. Lessons learned from this process will inform strategies to strengthen public health emergency systems in their response to public health events in similar settings.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. A nationwide analysis of the excess death attributable to diabetes in Brazilexternal icon
        Bracco PA, Gregg EW, Rolka DB, Schmidt MI, Barreto SM, Lotufo PA, Bensenor I, Chor D, Duncan BB.
        J Glob Health. 2020 Jun;10(1):010401.
        Background: Data on mortality burden and excess deaths attributable to diabetes are sparse and frequently unreliable, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Estimates in Brazil to date have relied on death certificate data, which do not consider the multicausal nature of deaths. Our aim was to combine cohort data with national prevalence and mortality statistics to estimate the absolute number of deaths that could have been prevented if the mortality rates of people with diabetes were the same as for those without. In addition, we aimed to estimate the increase in burden when considering undiagnosed diabetes. Methods: We estimated self-reported diabetes prevalence from the National Health Survey (PNS) and overall mortality from the national mortality information system (SIM). We estimated the diabetes mortality rate ratio (rates of those with vs without diabetes) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), an ongoing cohort study. Joining estimates from these three sources, we calculated for the population the absolute number and the fraction of deaths attributable to diabetes. We repeated our analyses considering both self-reported and unknown diabetes, the latter estimated based on single point-in-time glycemic determinations in ELSA-Brasil. Finally, we compared results with diabetes-related mortality information from death certificates. Results: In 2013, 65 581 deaths, 9.1% of all deaths between the ages of 35-80, were attributable to known diabetes. If cases of unknown diabetes were considered, this figure would rise to 14.3%. In contrast, based on death certificates only, 5.3% of all death had diabetes as the underlying cause and 10.4% as any mentioned cause. Conclusions: In this first report of diabetes mortality burden in Brazil using cohort data to estimate diabetes mortality rate ratios and the prevalence of unknown diabetes, we showed marked underestimation of the current burden, especially when unknown cases of diabetes are also considered.

      2. Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in American Indian and Alaska Native adults, 2006-2017external icon
        Bullock A, Sheff K, Hora I, Burrows NR, Benoit SR, Saydah SH, Hardin CL, Gregg EW.
        BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020 Apr;8(1).
        INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to examine recent trends in diagnosed diabetes prevalence for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adults aged 18 years and older in the Indian Health Service (IHS) active clinical population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the IHS National Data Warehouse for AI/AN adults for each fiscal year from 2006 (n=729 470) through 2017 (n=1 034 814). The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes for each year and the annual percentage change were estimated for adults overall, as well as by sex, age group, and geographic region. RESULTS: After increasing significantly from 2006 to 2013, diabetes prevalence for AI/AN adults in the IHS active clinical population decreased significantly from 2013 to 2017. Prevalence was 14.4% (95% CI 13.9% to 15.0%) in 2006; 15.4% (95% CI 14.8% to 16.0%) in 2013; and 14.6% (95% CI 14.1% to 15.2%) in 2017. Trends for men and women were similar to the overall population, as were those for all age groups. For all geographic regions, prevalence either decreased significantly or leveled off in recent years. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes prevalence in AI/AN adults in the IHS active clinical population has decreased significantly since 2013. While these results cannot be generalized to all AI/AN adults in the USA, this study documents the first known decrease in diabetes prevalence for AI/AN people.

      3. Weight change 2 years after termination of the intensive lifestyle intervention in the Look AHEAD Studyexternal icon
        Chao AM, Wadden TA, Berkowitz RI, Blackburn G, Bolin P, Clark JM, Coday M, Curtis JM, Delahanty LM, Dutton GR, Evans M, Ewing LJ, Foreyt JP, Gay LJ, Gregg EW, Hazuda HP, Hill JO, Horton ES, Houston DK, Jakicic JM, Jeffery RW, Johnson KC, Kahn SE, Knowler WC, Kure A, Michalski KL, Montez MG, Neiberg RH, Patricio J, Peters A, Pi-Sunyer X, Pownall H, Reboussin D, Redmon B, Rejeski WJ, Steinburg H, Walker M, Williamson DA, Wing RR, Wyatt H, Yanovski SZ, Zhang P.
        Obesity (Silver Spring). 2020 May;28(5):893-901.
        OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated weight changes after cessation of the 10-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. It was hypothesized that ILI participants would be more likely to gain weight during the 2-year observational period following termination of weight-loss-maintenance counseling than would participants in the diabetes support and education (DSE) control group. METHODS: Look AHEAD was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of ILI and DSE on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in participants with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes. Look AHEAD was converted to an observational study in September 2012. RESULTS: Two years after the end of the intervention (EOI), ILI and DSE participants lost a mean (SE) of 1.2 (0.2) kg and 1.8 (0.2) kg, respectively (P = 0.003). In addition, 31% of ILI and 23.9% of DSE participants gained >/= 2% (P < 0.001) of EOI weight, whereas 36.3% and 45.9% of the respective groups lost >/= 2% of EOI weight (P = 0.001). Two years after the EOI, ILI participants reported greater use of weight-control behaviors than DSE participants. CONCLUSIONS: Both groups lost weight during the 2-year follow-up period, but more ILI than DSE participants gained >/= 2% of EOI weight. Further understanding is needed of factors that affected long-term weight change in both groups.

      4. CKD awareness among US adults by future risk of kidney failureexternal icon
        Chu CD, McCulloch CE, Banerjee T, Pavkov ME, Burrows NR, Gillespie BW, Saran R, Shlipak MG, Powe NR, Tuot DS.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2020 Apr 15.
        RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often unaware of their disease status. Efforts to improve CKD awareness may be most effective if focused on persons at highest risk for progression to kidney failure. STUDY DESIGN: Serial cross-sectional surveys. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Nonpregnant adults (aged>/=20 years) with CKD glomerular filtration rate categories 3-4 (G3-G4) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2016 (n = 3,713). PREDICTOR: 5-year kidney failure risk, estimated using the Kidney Failure Risk Equation. Predicted risk was categorized as minimal (<2%), low (2%-<5%), intermediate (5%-<15%), or high (>/=15%). OUTCOME: CKD awareness, defined by answering "yes" to the question "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you had weak or failing kidneys?" ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Prevalence of CKD awareness was estimated within each risk group using complex sample survey methods. Associations between Kidney Failure Risk Equation risk and CKD awareness were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. CKD awareness was compared with awareness of hypertension and diabetes during the same period. RESULTS: In 2011 to 2016, unadjusted CKD awareness was 9.6%, 22.6%, 44.7%, and 49.0% in the minimal-, low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. In adjusted analyses, these proportions did not change over time. Awareness of CKD, including among the highest risk group, remains consistently below that of hypertension and diabetes and awareness of these conditions increased over time. LIMITATIONS: Imperfect sensitivity of the "weak or failing kidneys" question for ascertaining CKD awareness. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults with CKD G3-G4 who have 5-year estimated risks for kidney failure of 5%-<15% and>/=15%, approximately half were unaware of their kidney disease, a gap that has persisted nearly 2 decades.

      5. BACKGROUND: There is limited research on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in humanitarian settings despite the overall global burden and disproportionate growth in many conflicts and disaster-prone settings. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of NCDs and assess the perceived effect of conflict on NCD severity and access to treatment among conflict-affected adults (>/= 30 years) in Ukraine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted two population-representative, stratified, cross-sectional household surveys: one among adult internally displaced people (IDPs) throughout Ukraine and one among adults living in Donbas in eastern Ukraine. One randomly selected adult per household answered questions about their demographics, height and weight, diagnosed NCDs, access to medications and healthcare since the conflict began, as well as questions assessing psychological distress, trauma exposure, and posttraumatic stress disorder. More than half of participants reported having at least one NCD (55.7% Donbas; 59.8% IDPs) A higher proportion of IDPs compared to adults in Donbas experienced serious psychological distress (29.9% vs. 18.7%), interruptions in care (9.7-14.3% vs. 23.1-51.3%), and interruptions in medication than adults in Donbas (14.9-45.6% vs. 30.2-77.5%). Factors associated with perceived worsening of disease included psychological distress (p: 0.002-0.043), displacement status (IDP vs. Donbas) (p: <0.001-0.011), interruptions in medication (p: 0.002-0.004), and inability to see a doctor at some point since the start of the conflict (p: <0.001-0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a high burden of NCDs among two conflict-affected populations in Ukraine and identified obstacles to accessing care and medication. Psychological distress, interruptions to care, and interruptions in medication were all reported by a higher proportion of IDPs than adults in Donbas. There is a need for targeted policies and programs to support the unique needs of displaced conflict-affected individuals in Ukraine that address the economic and perceived barriers to NCD treatment and care.

      6. BACKGROUND: We sought to characterize recent prostate cancer incidence, distant stage diagnosis, and mortality rates by region, race/ethnicity, and age-group. METHODS: In SEER*Stat, we examined age-specific and age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence, distant stage diagnosis, and mortality rates by race/ethnicity, Census region, and age group. Incidence and mortality analyses included men diagnosed with (n=723,269) and dying of (n=112,116) prostate cancer between 2012-2015. RESULTS: Non-Hispanic black (NHB) and NH Asian/Pacific Islander (NHAPI) men had the highest and lowest rates, respectively, for each indicator across regions and age-groups. Hispanic men had lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic white (NHW) men in all regions except the Northeast where they had higher incidence (RR 1.16 (95%CI 1.14-1.19)) and similar mortality. Hispanics had higher distant stage rates in the Northeast (RR 1.18 (95%CI 1.08-1.28)) and South (RR 1.22 (95%CI 1.15-1.30)), but similar rates in other regions. Non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaskan Native (NHAIAN) men had higher distant stage rates than NHWs in the West (RR 1.38 (95%CI 1.15-1.65)). NHBs and Hispanics had higher distant stage rates than NHWs among those ages 55-69 years (RR 2.91 (95% CI 2.81-3.02) and 1.24 (95% CI 1.18-1.31) respectively), despite lower overall incidence for Hispanics in this age group. CONCLUSIONS: For Hispanic and NHAIAN men, prostate cancer indicators varied by region, while NHB and NHAPI men consistently had the highest and lowest rates, respectively, across regions. IMPACT: Regional and age-group differences in prostate cancer indicators between populations may improve understanding of prostate cancer risk and help inform screening decisions.

      7. Daycare attendance and asthma control, Asthma Call-back Survey 2012-2014external icon
        Pennington AF, Hsu J, Sircar K, Mirabelli MC, Zahran HS.
        J Asthma. 2020 Apr 21:1-10.
        Objective: To examine the association between daycare attendance and asthma control among children aged 0 to 4 years with asthmaMethods: We analyzed 2012-2014 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Asthma Call-back Survey on 388 children with asthma aged 0 to 4 years with information on daycare attendance in the past 12 months. We calculated weighted prevalence ratios to assess the association between daycare attendance and asthma control (categorized based on day-time and night-time asthma symptoms, activity limitation, and short-acting beta agonist use). Adjusted models controlled for parent or guardian education, household income, race, sex, cost barriers to asthma care, long-term control medication use, and the number of other children in the child's household.Results: In this sample of children with asthma, representative of 520,400 children in 26 U.S. states, 34% attended daycare in the past 12 months. Only 32% of children who attended daycare in the past 12 months reported having an asthma action plan on file at the daycare they most recently attended. Presence of the asthma triggers of pets, mold, and smoking in a child's daycare were reported to be uncommon. Prevalence of uncontrolled asthma was 44% in children who attended daycare in the past 12 months and 68% in children who did not. The adjusted prevalence ratio between daycare attendance and uncontrolled asthma was 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.73, 1.25).Conclusions: When adjusting for covariates, we observed no evidence of an association between daycare attendance in early life and uncontrolled asthma.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Notes from the Field: Outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus infection among persons who inject drugs - Cabell County, West Virginia, 2018-2019external icon
        Atkins A, McClung RP, Kilkenny M, Bernstein K, Willenburg K, Edwards A, Lyss S, Thomasson E, Panneer N, Kirk N, Watson M, Adkins E, DiNenno E, Hogan V, Neblett Fanfair R, Napier K, Ridpath AD, Perdue M, Chen M, Surtees T, Handanagic S, Wood H, Kennebrew D, Cohn C, Sami S, Eubank S, Furukawa NW, Rose B, Thompson A, Spadafora L, Wright C, Balleydier S, Broussard D, Reynolds P, Carnes N, Haynes N, Sapiano T, McBee S, Campbell E, Batdorf S, Scott M, Boltz M, Wills D, Oster AM.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 24;69(16):499-500.

      2. Coccidioidomycosis skin testing in a commercially insured population, United States, 2014-2017(1)external icon
        Benedict K, McCotter OZ, Jackson BR.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Mar;26(3):619-621.
        Coccidioidomycosis skin testing appears to be uncommon, based on US health insurance claims data. Patient demographic features were consistent with the approval of the test for adults, but few patients had previous coccidioidomycosis diagnosis codes supporting its use for detecting delayed-type hypersensitivity in those with a history of pulmonary coccidioidomycosis.

      3. High level of pre-treatment and acquired HIV drug resistance in Honduras: a nationally representative survey, 2016-17external icon
        Giron-Callejas A, Garcia-Morales C, Mendizabal-Burastero R, Meza RI, Sierra T, Tapia-Trejo D, Perez-Garcia M, Quiroz-Morales VS, Paredes M, Rodriguez A, Juarez SI, Farach N, Videa G, Lara B, Rodriguez E, Ardon E, Sajquim E, Lorenzana R, Ravasi G, Northbrook S, Reyes-Teran G, Avila-Rios S.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 2020 Apr 17.
        BACKGROUND: Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) to NNRTIs has consistently increased in low-/middle-income countries during the last decade. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of pre-treatment HIVDR and acquired HIVDR among persons living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART for 12+/-3 months (ADR12) and >/=48 months (ADR48) in Honduras. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional survey with a two-stage cluster sampling was conducted from October 2016 to November 2017. Twenty-two of 54 total ART clinics representing >90% of the national cohort of adults on ART were included. HIVDR was assessed for protease and reverse transcriptase Sanger sequences using the Stanford HIVdb tool. RESULTS: A total of 729 PLHIV were enrolled; 26.3% (95% CI 20.1%-33.5%) ART initiators reported prior exposure to antiretrovirals. Pre-treatment HIVDR prevalence was 26.9% (95% CI 20.2%-34.9%) to any antiretroviral and 25.9% (19.2%-33.9%) to NNRTIs. NNRTI pre-treatment HIVDR was higher in ART initiators with prior exposure to antiretrovirals (P = 0.001). Viral load (VL) suppression rate was 89.7% (85.1%-93.0%) in ADR12 and 67.9% (61.7%-73.6%) in ADR48. ADR12 to any drug among PLHIV with VL >/=1000 copies/mL was 86.1% (48.9%-97.6%); 67.1% (37.4%-87.5%) had HIVDR to both NNRTIs and NRTIs, and 3.8% (0.5%-25.2%) to PIs. ADR48 was 92.0% (86.8%-95.3%) to any drug; 78.1% (66.6%-86.5%) to both NNRTIs and NRTIs, and 7.3% (1.8%-25.1%) to PIs. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of NNRTI pre-treatment HIVDR observed in Honduras warrants consideration of non-NNRTI-based first-line regimens for ART initiation. Programmatic improvements in HIVDR monitoring and adherence support may also be considered.

      4. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis care in the United Statesexternal icon
        Gobaud AN, Haley CA, Wilson JW, Bhavaraju R, Lardizabal A, Seaworth BJ, Goswami ND.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2020 Apr 1;24(4):409-413.
        BACKGROUND: To examine the utilization of the Tuberculosis (TB) Centers of Excellence (COE) medical consultation service and evaluate how these services were being employed for patients in relation to multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB).METHODS: Medical consults are documented in a secure database. The database was queried for MDR-TB consultations over the period 1 January 2013-31 December 2017. All were analyzed to assess provider type, center, setting, year of call, and type of patient (pediatric vs. adult). A subgroup was randomly selected for thematic analysis.RESULTS: The centers received 1560 MDR-TB consultation requests over this period. Providers requesting consults were primarily physicians (55%). The majority of requests were from public health departments (64%) and for adult patients (80%). Four major topic areas emerged: 1) initial management of MDR-TB, 2) MDR-TB longitudinal treatment and complications, 3) management of persons exposed to MDR-TB, and 4) MDR-TB treatment completion.CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of these consultations provides insight into the type of expert advice about MDR-TB that was provided. These findings highlight topics where increased medical training and education may help to improve MDR-TB-related practices.

      5. Outbreaks of adenovirus-associated respiratory illness on five college campuses in the United Statesexternal icon
        Kujawski SA, Lu X, Schneider E, Blythe D, Boktor S, Farrehi J, Haupt T, McBride D, Stephens E, Sakthivel SK, Bachaus B, Waller K, Bauman L, Marconi A, Lewis R, Dettinger L, Ernst R, Kinsey W, Lindstrom S, Gerber SI, Watson JT, Biggs HM.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 23.
        BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are commonly associated with acute respiratory illness. HAdV outbreaks are well documented in congregate military training settings, but less is known about outbreaks on college campuses. During fall 2018 and spring 2019, five U.S. colleges reported increases in HAdV-associated respiratory illness. Investigations were performed to better understand HAdV epidemiology in this setting. METHODS: A case was a student at one of the five colleges with acute respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed HAdV infection during October 2018-December 2018 or March-May 2019. Available respiratory specimens were typed by HAdV type-specific real-time PCR assays, and for a subset, whole genome sequencing was performed. We reviewed available medical records and cases were invited to complete a questionnaire, which included questions on symptom presentation, social history, and absenteeism. RESULTS: We identified 168 HAdV cases. Median age was 19 (range: 17-22) years and 102 cases (61%) were male. Eleven cases were hospitalized, 10 with pneumonia; two cases died. Among questionnaire respondents, 80% (75/94) missed >/=1 day of class because of their illness. Among those with a type identified (79%), HAdV types 4 and 7 were equally detected, with frequency of each varying by site. Genome types 4a1 and 7d were identified, respectively, by whole genome sequence analysis. CONCLUSIONS: HAdV respiratory illness was associated with substantial morbidity and missed class time among young, generally healthy adults on five U.S. college campuses. HAdVs should be considered a cause of respiratory illness outbreaks in congregate settings such as college campuses.

      6. Epidemiology and risk factors for extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Lebanonexternal icon
        O'Son L, Hulland E, Cookson ST, Castro KG, Yaacoub H.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2020 Apr 1;24(4):414-419.
        SETTING: Lebanon is a relatively low TB-burden country, but has a high proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Concern has been expressed that Syrian-born refugees could add to the TB burden and rates of EPTB: since 2011, >1 000 000 Syrian refugees have entered Lebanon.OBJECTIVE: The Lebanese National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) sought to identify factors for the high proportion of EPTB and to assess the potential impact of Syrian refugees.DESIGN: NTP line-listed data from 2014-2015 were analyzed with logistic regression identified risk factors for EPTB. A trend analysis for 2011-2015 assessed TB burden by nationality and site of TB.RESULTS: Of 1347 reported TB cases from 2014 to 2015, 507 (38%) were EPTB and 46% were Lebanese. In analysis limited to Lebanese-born, the proportion of EPTB cases was relatively stable, 47% in 2011 and 52% in 2015. Modeling identified risk factors for EPTB as being female (aOR 1.79, 95%CI 1.39-2.32) and 5-15 years old (aOR 3.31, 95%CI 1.47-7.45) compared with children aged <5 years. Between 2011 and 2015, the proportion of TB cases among Syrian-born increased from 3% in 2011 to 21% in 2015 (P < 0.001); however, the proportion of EPTB versus PTB cases among Syrians remained stable (P = 0.264).CONCLUSION: Syrian TB cases increased almost 10-fold in five years (2011-2015) but their contribution to EPTB did not change. The high proportion of EPTB in Lebanon and those aged 5-15 years merits further investigation.

      7. Preexposure prophylaxis for prevention of HIV acquisition among adolescents: Clinical considerations, 2020external icon
        Tanner MR, Miele P, Carter W, Valentine SS, Dunville R, Kapogiannis BG, Smith DK.
        MMWR Recomm Rep. 2020 Apr 24;69(3):1-12.
        Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral medication has been proven effective in reducing the risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The fixed-dose combination tablet of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as PrEP for adults in 2012. Since then, recognition has been increasing that adolescents at risk for acquiring HIV can benefit from PrEP. In 2018, FDA approved revised labeling for TDF/FTC that expanded the indication for PrEP to include adolescents weighing at least 77 lb (35 kg) who are at risk for acquiring HIV. In 2019, FDA approved the combination product tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC as PrEP for adolescents and adults weighing at least 77 lb (35 kg), excluding those at risk for acquiring HIV through receptive vaginal sex. This exclusion is due to the lack of clinical data regarding the efficacy of TAF/FTC in cisgender women.Clinical providers who evaluate adolescents for PrEP use must consider certain topics that are unique to the adolescent population. Important considerations related to adolescents include PrEP safety data, legal issues about consent for clinical care and confidentiality, the therapeutic partnership with adolescents and their parents or guardians, the approach to the adolescent patient's clinical visit, and medication initiation, adherence, and persistence during adolescence. Overall, data support the safety of PrEP for adolescents. PrEP providers should be familiar with the statutes and regulations about the provision of health care to minors in their states. Providers should partner with the adolescent patient for PrEP decisions, recognizing the adolescent's autonomy to the extent allowable by law and including parents in the conversation about PrEP when it is safe and reasonable to do so. A comprehensive approach to adolescent health is recommended, including considering PrEP as one possible component of providing medical care to adolescents who inject drugs or engage in sexual behaviors that place them at risk for acquiring HIV. PrEP adherence declined over time in the studies evaluating PrEP among adolescents, a trend that also has been observed among adult patients. Clinicians should implement strategies to address medication adherence as a routine part of prescribing PrEP; more frequent clinical follow-up is one possible approach.PrEP is an effective HIV prevention tool for protecting adolescents at risk for HIV acquisition. For providers, unique considerations that are part of providing PrEP to adolescents include the possible need for more frequent, supportive interactions to promote medication adherence. Recommendations for PrEP medical management and additional resources for providers are available in the U.S. Public Health Service clinical practice guideline Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States - 2017 Update and the clinical providers' supplement Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection in the United States - 2017 Update: Clinical Providers' Supplement (

      8. Expanded access to viral load testing and use of second line regimens in Haiti: time trends from 2010-2017external icon
        Wang Y, Barnhart S, Francois K, Robin E, Kalou M, Perrin G, Hall L, Koama JB, Marinho E, Balan JG, Honore JG, Puttkammer N.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2020 Apr 16;20(1):283.
        BACKGROUND: Haiti initiated the scale-up of HIV viral load (VL) testing in 2015-2016, with plans to achieve 100% coverage for all patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treatment of HIV/AIDS. In the absence of HIV drug susceptibility testing, VL testing is a key tool for monitoring response to ART and optimizing treatment results. This study describes trends in expanded use of VL testing, VL results, and use of second-line ART regimens, and explores the association between VL testing and second-line regimen switching in Haiti from 2010 to 2017. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with 66,042 patients drawn from 88 of Haiti's 160 national ART clinics. Longitudinal data from the iSante electronic data system was used to analyze the trends of interest. We described patients' VL testing status in five categories based on up to two most recent VL test results: no test; suppressed; unsuppressed followed by no test; re-suppressed; and confirmed failure. Among those with confirmed failure, we described ART adherence level. Finally, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the risk of second-line regimen switching by VL testing status, after adjusting for other individual characteristics. RESULTS: The number of patients who had tests done increased annually from 11 in 2010 to 18,828 in the first 9 months of 2017, while the number of second-line regimen switches rose from 21 to 279 during this same period. Compared with patients with no VL test, the hazard ratio (HR) for switching to a second-line regimen was 22.2 for patients with confirmed VL failure (95% confidence interval [CI] for HR: 18.8-26.3; p < 0.005) after adjustment for individual characteristics. Among patients with confirmed VL failure, 44.7% had strong adherence, and fewer than 20% of patients switched to a second-line regimen within 365 days of VL failure. CONCLUSIONS: Haiti has significantly expanded access to VL testing since 2016. In order to promote optimal patient health outcomes, it is essential for Haiti to continue broadening access to confirmatory VL testing, to expand evidence-based initiatives to promote strong ART adherence, and to embrace timely switching for patients with confirmed ART failure despite strong ART adherence.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. Applying the ready, willing, and able framework to assess agency public health emergency preparedness: The CDC perspectiveexternal icon
        Chiang SC, Fisher HH, Bridwell ME, Trigoso SM, Rasulnia BB, Kuwabara SA.
        Health Secur. 2020 Mar/Apr;18(2):75-82.
        Public health emergencies in the United States have been complex, frequent, and increasingly costly in the past decade, at times overwhelming government agencies that are primarily resourced for routine, nonemergency health functions. Emergencies are not always predictable, and adequate resources are not always available to prepare staff in advance for emergency response roles and to mobilize them quickly when a new threat emerges. Additionally, real-world data that connect preparedness levels to response outcomes may be difficult to obtain, further limiting continuous quality improvement efforts by public health officials. In this article, we apply the Ready, Willing, and Able (RWA) framework to identify areas for improvement related to organizational and staff readiness, willingness, and ability to respond during a public health emergency. We share emergency response deployment, training, and personnel data collected as part of emergency response activations (2008 to 2018) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to illustrate how the framework may be applied at government agencies to improve response processes and effectiveness. Additionally, we propose potential metrics aligned with the framework constructs that may help emergency managers consistently assess agency preparedness and, over time, be incorporated into broader standardized measurement methods. We conclude that the RWA framework is a practical tool that can complement other preparedness approaches currently in use at government public health agencies.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. We added a vector control component to our existing abundance model to simulate intensive vector control in Puerto Rico. Removing 20-30% of gravid females in the model matches observed 60-80% reductions. The model's capacity to reproduce vector control increases its utility for planning and evaluation strategies.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Prenatal phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure and childhood allergic and respiratory outcomes: Evaluating exposure to chemical mixturesexternal icon
        Berger K, Coker E, Rauch S, Eskenazi B, Balmes J, Kogut K, Holland N, Calafat AM, Harley K.
        Sci Total Environ. 2020 Apr 3;725:138418.
        BACKGROUND: Chemicals found in personal care products and plastics have been associated with asthma, allergies, and lung function, but methods to address real life exposure to mixtures of these chemicals have not been applied to these associations. METHODS: We quantified urinary concentrations of eleven phthalate metabolites, four parabens, and five other phenols in mothers twice during pregnancy and assessed probable asthma, aeroallergies, and lung function in their age seven children. We implemented Bayesian Profile Regression (BPR) to cluster women by their exposures to these chemicals and tested the clusters for differences in outcome measurements. We used Bayesian Kernel Machine Regression (BKMR) to fit biomarkers into one model as joint independent variables. RESULTS: BPR clustered women into seven groups characterized by patterns of personal care product and plastic use, though there were no significant differences in outcomes across clusters. BKMR showed that monocarboxyisooctyl phthalate and 2,4-dichlorophenol were associated with probable asthma (predicted probability of probable asthma per IQR of biomarker z-score (standard deviation) = 0.08 (0.09) and 0.11 (0.12), respectively) and poorer lung function (predicted probability per IQR = -0.07 (0.05) and -0.07 (0.06), respectively), and that mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate and bisphenol A were associated with aeroallergies (predicted probability per IQR = 0.13 (0.09) and 0.11 (0.08), respectively). Several biomarkers demonstrated positive additive effects on other associations. CONCLUSIONS: BPR and BKMR are useful tools to evaluate associations of biomarker concentrations within a mixture of exposure and should supplement single-chemical regression models when data allow.

      2. Prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and maternal and neonatal thyroid function in the Project Viva Cohort: A mixtures approachexternal icon
        Preston EV, Webster TF, Claus Henn B, McClean MD, Gennings C, Oken E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Pearce EN, Calafat AM, Fleisch AF, Sagiv SK.
        Environ Int. 2020 Apr 17;139:105728.
        BACKGROUND: Maternal and neonatal thyroid function is critical for growth and neurodevelopment. Exposure to individual per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) can alter circulating thyroid hormone levels, but few studies have investigated effects of combined exposure to multiple PFAS. OBJECTIVES: Estimate associations of exposure to multiple PFAS during early pregnancy with maternal and neonatal thyroid function. METHODS: The study population consisted of 726 mothers and 465 neonates from Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts area longitudinal pre-birth cohort. We measured six PFAS [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido)acetate (EtFOSAA), and 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido)acetate (MeFOSAA)] and thyroxine (T4), Free T4 Index (FT4I), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in maternal plasma samples collected during early pregnancy, and neonatal T4 in postpartum heel sticks. We estimated individual and joint effects of PFAS exposure with thyroid hormone levels using weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), and evaluated potential non-linearity and interactions among PFAS using BKMR. RESULTS: Higher concentrations of the PFAS mixture were associated with significantly lower maternal FT4I, with MeFOSAA, EtFOSAA, PFOA, and PFHxS contributing most to the overall mixture effect in BKMR and WQS regression. In infants, higher concentrations of the PFAS mixture were associated with lower T4 levels, primarily in males, with PFHxS and MeFOSAA contributing most in WQS, and PFHxS contributing most in BKMR. The PFAS mixture was not associated with maternal T4 or TSH levels. However, in maternal BKMR analyses, ln-PFOS was positively associated with T4 levels (Delta25(th) to 75th percentile: 0.21 microg/dL; 95% credible interval: -0.03, 0.47) and ln-PFHxS was associated with a non-linear effect on TSH levels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that there may be combined effects of prenatal exposure to multiple PFAS on maternal and neonatal thyroid function, but the direction and magnitude of these effects may vary across individual PFAS.

      3. Perfluoroalkyl substances and anthropomorphic measures in children (ages 3-11 years), NHANES 2013-2014external icon
        Scinicariello F, Buser MC, Abadin HG, Attanasio R.
        Environ Res. 2020 Apr 15;186:109518.
        BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are man-made compounds that are persistent in the environment and highly bioaccumulative in the body. Humans are exposed to a mixture of these substances, and the effects of these mixtures may be different than the effects noted for individual compounds. Prenatal exposure to PFAAs has been associated with decreased birth weight. The objective of the present study is to evaluate concurrent serum PFAA levels, as single compounds and as mixtures, in relation to anthropomorphic measures in children. METHODS: Using multivariate linear regression, we evaluated the association between single or PFAA mixtures and with height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and BMI (BMIZ) z-scores in children (ages 3-11 years) participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014. Analyses were also stratified by sex. The PFAA mixture was based on relative potency factors express in terms of PFOA equivalency (CmixRPFi) or as molar sum of the PFAA congeners ( summation operatormolPFAA). RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association of PFHxS and PFOS with decreased HAZ in boys. The significantly decreased HAZ in boys was also found when the PFAAs were analyzed as mixtures: CmixRPFi (beta = -0.33; 95%CI: 0.63, -0.04) or SigmamolPFAAs (beta = -0.30; 95%CI: 0.56, -0.04). In boys, PFHxS was also associated with decreased WAZ and BMIZ. The only statistically significant association found in girls was between decreased HAZ and PFHxS. CONCLUSIONS: We found sex differences in the association between concurrent serum PFAA levels and anthropomorphic measures in children 3-11 years old. PFAA levels, as single congeners or as mixture concentrations were associated with decreased height-for-age z-score in boys.

      4. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposures during pregnancy and maternal depressionexternal icon
        Vuong AM, Yolton K, Braun JM, Sjodin A, Calafat AM, Xu Y, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP, Chen A.
        Environ Int. 2020 Apr 4;139:105694.
        BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in rodents suggest that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may contribute to depressive symptoms. Few studies have examined the impact of these chemicals on depression in adults. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between serum PBDE and PFAS concentrations during pregnancy and repeated measures of depressive symptoms in women assessed from pregnancy to 8 years postpartum. METHODS: This study was based on 377 women from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a birth cohort in Cincinnati, OH (USA). PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, and summation operatorPBDEs) and PFAS (perfluorooctanoate [PFOA], perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS], perfluorohexane sulfonate [PFHxS], perfluorononanoate [PFNA]) were quantified in maternal serum at 16 +/- 3 weeks gestation. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) at ~20 weeks gestation and up to seven times during postpartum visits (4 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 years). We used linear mixed models to estimate covariate-adjusted associations between chemical concentrations and repeated measures of BDI-II. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the relative risk ratios of having a medium or high depression trajectory. RESULTS: We found that a 10-fold increase in BDE-28 at 16 +/- 3 weeks gestation was associated with significantly increased BDI-II scores (beta = 2.5 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8, 4.2) from pregnancy to 8 years postpartum. Significant positive associations were also observed with BDE-47, -100, -153, and summation operatorPBDEs. A 10-fold increase in summation operatorPBDEs was associated with a 4.6-fold increased risk (95% CI 1.8, 11.8) of a high trajectory for BDI-II compared to a low trajectory. We observed no significant associations between PFAS and BDI-II scores. CONCLUSION: PBDEs during pregnancy were associated with more depressive symptoms among women in this cohort.

      5. Topical application of the antimicrobial agent triclosan induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation and mitochondrial dysfunctionexternal icon
        Weatherly LM, Shane HL, Friend SA, Lukomska E, Baur R, Anderson SE.
        Toxicol Sci. 2020 Apr 22.
        5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (triclosan) is an antimicrobial chemical widely used in consumer household and clinical healthcare products. Human and animal studies have associated triclosan exposure with allergic disease. Mechanistic studies have identified triclosan as a mitochondrial uncoupler; recent studies suggest that mitochondria play an important role in immune cell function and are involved in activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In the present study, early immunological effects were evaluated via NLRP3 activation following dermal triclosan application in a BALB/c murine model. These investigations revealed rapid caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1beta secretion in the skin and draining lymph nodes (dLNs) after 1.5 and 3% triclosan exposure. Correspondingly, pro-Il-1b and S100a8 gene expression increased along with extracellular ATP in the skin. Peak gene expression of chemokines associated with caspase-1 activation occurred after 2 days of exposure in both skin tissue and dLNs. Phenotypic analysis showed an increase in neutrophils and macrophages in the dLN and myeloid and inflammatory monocytes in the skin tissue. Triclosan also caused mitochondrial dysfunction shown through effects on mitochondrial ROS, mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial morphology. These results indicate that following triclosan exposure, activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome occurs in both the skin tissue and dLNs, providing a possible mechanism for triclosan's effects on allergic disease and further support a connection between mitochondrial involvement in immunological responses.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. The 2017 solar eclipse: Implementing enhanced syndromic surveillance on the path of totality in Kentuckyexternal icon
        Heitzinger K, Thoroughman DA, Johnson BD, Chandler A, Prather JW, Walls HM, Robeson SD, Porter KA.
        Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020 Apr 23:1-4.
        OBJECTIVE: The 2017 solar eclipse was associated with mass gatherings in many of the 14 states along the path of totality. The Kentucky Department for Public Health implemented an enhanced syndromic surveillance system to detect increases in emergency department (ED) visits and other health care needs near Hopkinsville, Kentucky, where the point of greatest eclipse occurred. METHODS: EDs flagged visits of patients who participated in eclipse events from August 17-22. Data from 14 area emergency medical services and 26 first-aid stations were also monitored to detect health-related events occurring during the eclipse period. RESULTS: Forty-four potential eclipse event-related visits were identified, primarily injuries, gastrointestinal illness, and heat-related illness. First-aid stations and emergency medical services commonly attended to patients with pain and heat-related illness. CONCLUSIONS: Kentucky's experience during the eclipse demonstrated the value of patient visit flagging to describe the disease burden during a mass gathering and to investigate epidemiological links between cases. A close collaboration between public health authorities within and across jurisdictions, health information exchanges, hospitals, and other first-response care providers will optimize health surveillance activities before, during, and after mass gatherings.

    • Food Safety
      1. Notes from the field: Multiple cruise ship outbreaks of norovirus associated with frozen fruits and berries - United States, 2019external icon
        Rispens JR, Freeland A, Wittry B, Kramer A, Barclay L, Vinje J, Treffiletti A, Houston K.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 24;69(16):501-502.

    • Health Economics

      1. Little is known about the association between health insurance literacy and financial hardship among cancer survivors. Using the 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Experiences with Cancer self-administered questionnaire, we evaluated the associations between health insurance literacy and medical financial hardship and nonmedical financial sacrifices among adult cancer survivors in the United States. Of the survivors, 18.9% aged 18-64 years and 14.6% aged 65 years and older reported health insurance literacy problems. In both age groups (18-64 and >65 years), from multivariable logistic regressions, survivors with health insurance literacy problems were more likely to report any material (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.53 to 5.96; AOR = 3.33, 95% CI = 1.69 to 6.57, respectively) or psychological (AOR = 5.53, 95% CI = 2.35 to 13.01; AOR = 8.79, 95% CI = 4.55 to 16.97, respectively) hardship, as well as all types of nonmedical financial sacrifices than those without these problems. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to test causality and assess whether improving health insurance literacy can mitigate financial hardship.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Opportunities to improve antibiotic appropriateness in U.S. ICUs: A multicenter evaluationexternal icon
        Trivedi KK, Bartash R, Letourneau AR, Abbo L, Fleisher J, Gagliardo C, Kelley S, Nori P, Rieg GK, Silver P, Srinivasan A, Vargas J, Ostrowsky B.
        Crit Care Med. 2020 Apr 17.
        OBJECTIVES: To use a standardized tool for a multicenter assessment of antibiotic appropriateness in ICUs and identify local antibiotic stewardship improvement opportunities. DESIGN: Pilot point prevalence conducted on October 5, 2016; point prevalence survey conducted on March 1, 2017. SETTING: ICUs in 12 U.S. acute care hospitals with median bed size 563. PATIENTS: Receiving antibiotics on participating units on March 1, 2017. INTERVENTIONS: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention tool for the Assessment of Appropriateness of Inpatient Antibiotics was made actionable by an expert antibiotic stewardship panel and implemented across hospitals. Data were collected by antibiotic stewardship program personnel at each hospital, deidentified and submitted in aggregate for benchmarking. hospital personnel identified most salient reasons for inappropriate use by category and agent. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-seven ICUs participated. Most hospitals (83%) identified as teaching with median licensed ICU beds of 70. On March 1, 2017, 362 (54%) of 667 ICU patients were on antibiotics (range, 8-81 patients); of these, 112 (31%) were identified as inappropriate and administered greater than 72 hours among all 12 hospitals (range, 9-82%). Prophylactic antibiotic regimens and PICU patients demonstrated a statistically significant risk ratio of 1.76 and 1.90 for inappropriate treatment, respectively. Reasons for inappropriate use included unnecessarily broad spectrum (29%), no infection or nonbacterial syndrome (22%), and duration longer than necessary (21%). Of patients on inappropriate antibiotic therapy in surgical ICUs, a statistically significant risk ratio of 2.59 was calculated for noninfectious or nonbacterial reasons for inappropriate therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter point prevalence study, 31% of ICU antibiotic regimens were inappropriate; prophylactic regimens were often inappropriate across different ICU types, particularly in surgical ICUs. Engaging intensivists in antibiotic stewardship program efforts is crucial to sustain the efficacy of antibiotics and quality of infectious diseases care in critical care settings. This study underscores the value of standardized assessment tools and benchmarking to be shared with local leaders for targeted antibiotic stewardship program interventions.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Update on vaccine-derived poliovirus outbreaks - worldwide, July 2019-February 2020external icon
        Alleman MM, Jorba J, Greene SA, Diop OM, Iber J, Tallis G, Goel A, Wiesen E, Wassilak SG, Burns CC.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 24;69(16):489-495.
        Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) can emerge in areas with low poliovirus immunity and cause outbreaks* of paralytic polio (1-5). Among the three types of wild poliovirus, type 2 was declared eradicated in 2015 (1,2). The use of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV; types 1, 2, and 3 Sabin strains) ceased in April 2016 via a 1-month-long, global synchronized switch to bivalent OPV (bOPV; types 1 and 3 Sabin strains) in immunization activities (1-4). Monovalent type 2 OPV (mOPV2; type 2 Sabin strain) is available for cVDPV type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreak response immunization (1-5). The number and geographic breadth of post-switch cVDPV2 outbreaks have exceeded forecasts that trended toward zero outbreaks 4 years after the switch and assumed rapid and effective control of any that occurred (4). New cVDPV2 outbreaks have been seeded by mOPV2 use, by both suboptimal mOPV2 coverage within response zones and recently mOPV2-vaccinated children or contacts traveling outside of response zones, where children born after the global switch are fully susceptible to poliovirus type 2 transmission (2-4). In addition, new emergences can develop by inadvertent exposure to Sabin OPV2-containing vaccine (i.e., residual response mOPV2 or tOPV) (4). This report updates the January 2018-June 2019 report with information on global cVDPV outbreaks during July 2019-February 2020 (as of March 25, 2020)(dagger) (2). Among 33 cVDPV outbreaks reported during July 2019-February 2020, 31 (94%) were cVDPV2; 18 (58%) of these followed new emergences. In mid-2020, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) plans to introduce a genetically stabilized, novel OPV type 2 (nOPV2) that has a lower risk for generating VDPV2 than does Sabin mOPV2; if nOPV2 is successful in limiting new VDPV2 emergences, GPEI foresees the replacement of Sabin mOPV2 with nOPV2 for cVDPV2 outbreak responses during 2021 (2,4,6).

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Cleaning and disinfectant chemical exposures and temporal associations with COVID-19 - National Poison Data System, United States, January 1, 2020-March 31, 2020external icon
        Chang A, Schnall AH, Law R, Bronstein AC, Marraffa JM, Spiller HA, Hays HL, Funk AR, Mercurio-Zappala M, Calello DP, Aleguas A, Borys DJ, Boehmer T, Svendsen E.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020 Apr 24;69(16):496-498.
        On January 19, 2020, the state of Washington reported the first U.S. laboratory-confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 (1). As of April 19, a total of 720,630 COVID-19 cases and 37,202 associated deaths* had been reported to CDC from all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and four U.S. territories (2). CDC recommends, with precautions, the proper cleaning and disinfection of high-touch surfaces to help mitigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (3). To assess whether there might be a possible association between COVID-19 cleaning recommendations from public health agencies and the media and the number of chemical exposures reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS), CDC and the American Association of Poison Control Centers surveillance team compared the number of exposures reported for the period January-March 2020 with the number of reports during the same 3-month period in 2018 and 2019. Fifty-five poison centers in the United States provide free, 24-hour professional advice and medical management information regarding exposures to poisons, chemicals, drugs, and medications. Call data from poison centers are uploaded in near real-time to NPDS. During January-March 2020, poison centers received 45,550 exposure calls related to cleaners (28,158) and disinfectants (17,392), representing overall increases of 20.4% and 16.4% from January-March 2019 (37,822) and January-March 2018 (39,122), respectively. Although NPDS data do not provide information showing a definite link between exposures and COVID-19 cleaning efforts, there appears to be a clear temporal association with increased use of these products.

      2. Trends in the incidence and lethality of suicidal acts in the United States, 2006 to 2015external icon
        Wang J, Sumner SA, Simon TR, Crosby AE, Annor FB, Gaylor E, Xu L, Holland KM.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2020 Apr 22.
        Importance: Understanding changes in the incidence rates and lethality of suicidal acts may explain increasing suicide rates. Objective: To examine trends in the incidence rates and lethality of suicidal acts from 2006 to 2015 among persons aged 10 to 74 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2, 2018, to January 30, 2019. Medically treated nonfatal suicide attempts were identified from the 2006 to 2015 Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Nationwide Emergency Department Sample databases. Suicides were identified from the 2006 to 2015 mortality files of the National Vital Statistics System. Main Outcomes and Measures: The incidence rate of suicidal acts was calculated by dividing the number of total suicidal acts by the US population. Lethality was measured through the case fatality rates (CFRs) of suicidal acts by dividing the number of suicides by the total number of suicidal acts. Results: A total of 1222419 (unweighted) suicidal acts, which included both suicides and nonfatal suicide attempts, were identified from 2006 to 2015. Overall, the incidence rates of total suicidal acts increased 10% from 2006 to 2015 (annual percentage change [APC], 0.8%; 95% CI, 0.3%-1.3%), and the CFRs of suicidal acts increased 13% during the 2006 to 2015 period (APC, 2.3%; 95% CI, 1.3%-3.3%). In subgroup analyses, incidence rates increased by 1.1% (95% CI, 0.6%-1.6%) per year for female individuals during the 2006 to 2015 period but remained stable for male individuals. The CFRs increased for both sexes (APC, 5.0% [95% CI, 3.1%-6.9%] since 2010 for female individuals; 1.6% [95% CI, 0.6%-2.5%] since 2009 for male individuals). Incidence rates increased among adolescents from 2011 to 2015 and among older adults aged 65 to 74 years throughout the 2006 to 2015 period. Conversely, the CFRs increased since 2009 among persons aged 20 to 44 years (APC, 3.7%; 95% CI, 2.5%-5.0%) and since 2012 for those aged 45 to 64 years (APC, 2.7%; 95% CI, 0.0%-5.4%). Persons aged 20 to 44 years and 45 to 64 years experienced increases in suicidal acts by more lethal means, whereas adolescents and older adults aged 65 to 74 years showed increased incidence by all means. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found increased suicidal acts among female persons, adolescents, and older adults aged 65 to 74 years, implying the need to address emerging or exacerbating suicide risk factors for these populations. The findings on the increased lethality particularly among persons aged 20 to 64 years highlighted the need to reduce access to materials that could be used as lethal means among persons at risk of suicide. These findings on population-level epidemiologic patterns can be used to guide the development of comprehensive suicide prevention strategies.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. MOTIVATION: Methods for analyzing microbiome data generally fall into one of two groups: tests of the global hypothesis of any microbiome effect, which do not provide any information on the contribution of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs); and tests for individual OTUs, which do not typically provide a global test of microbiome effect. Without a unified approach, the findings of a global test may be hard to resolve with the findings at the individual OTU level. Further, many tests of individual OTU effects do not preserve the false discovery rate (FDR). RESULTS: We introduce the linear decomposition model (LDM), that provides a single analysis path that includes global tests of any effect of the microbiome, tests of the effects of individual OTUs while accounting for multiple testing by controlling the FDR, and a connection to distance-based ordination. The LDM accommodates both continuous and discrete variables (e.g., clinical outcomes, environmental factors) as well as interaction terms to be tested either singly or in combination, allows for adjustment of confounding covariates, and uses permutation-based p-values that can control for correlation. The LDM can also be applied to transformed data, and an "omnibus" test can easily combine results from analyses conducted on different transformation scales. We also provide a new implementation of PERMANOVA based on our approach. For global testing, our simulations indicate the LDM provided correct type I error and can have comparable power to existing distance-based methods. For testing individual OTUs, our simulations indicate the LDM controlled the FDR well. In contrast, DESeq2 often had inflated FDR; MetagenomeSeq generally had the lowest sensitivity. The flexibility of the LDM for a variety of microbiome studies is illustrated by the analysis of data from two microbiome studies. We also show that our implementation of PERMANOVA can outperform existing implementations. AVAILABILITY: The R package LDM is available on GitHub at in formats appropriate for Macintosh or Windows. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

      2. Expanding U.S. laboratory capacity for Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing through the CDC's Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Networkexternal icon
        Kersh EN, Pham CD, Papp JR, Myers R, Steece R, Kubin G, Gautom R, Nash EE, Sharpe S, Gernert KM, Schmerer M, Raphael BH, Henning T, Gaynor AM, Soge O, Schlanger K, Kirkcaldy RD, St Cyr SB, Torrone EA, Bernstein K, Weinstock H.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2020 Mar 25;58(4).
        U.S. gonorrhea rates are rising, and antibiotic-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (AR-Ng) is an urgent public health threat. Since implementation of nucleic acid amplification tests for N. gonorrhoeae identification, the capacity for culturing N. gonorrhoeae in the United States has declined, along with the ability to perform culture-based antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). Yet AST is critical for detecting and monitoring AR-Ng. In 2016, the CDC established the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (AR Lab Network) to shore up the national capacity for detecting several resistance threats including N. gonorrhoeae AR-Ng testing, a subactivity of the CDC's AR Lab Network, is performed in a tiered network of approximately 35 local laboratories, four regional laboratories (state public health laboratories in Maryland, Tennessee, Texas, and Washington), and the CDC's national reference laboratory. Local laboratories receive specimens from approximately 60 clinics associated with the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), enhanced GISP (eGISP), and the program Strengthening the U.S. Response to Resistant Gonorrhea (SURRG). They isolate and ship up to 20,000 isolates to regional laboratories for culture-based agar dilution AST with seven antibiotics and for whole-genome sequencing of up to 5,000 isolates. The CDC further examines concerning isolates and monitors genetic AR markers. During 2017 and 2018, the network tested 8,214 and 8,628 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, respectively, and the CDC received 531 and 646 concerning isolates and 605 and 3,159 sequences, respectively. In summary, the AR Lab Network supported the laboratory capacity for N. gonorrhoeae AST and associated genetic marker detection, expanding preexisting notification and analysis systems for resistance detection. Continued, robust AST and genomic capacity can help inform national public health monitoring and intervention.

      3. Analysis and modeling of coolants and coolers for specimen transportationexternal icon
        Lowe DE, Pellegrini G, LeMasters E, Carter AJ, Weiner ZP.
        PLoS One. 2020 ;15(4):e0231093.
        Maintaining cold chain while transporting medical supplies and samples is difficult in remote settings. Failure to maintain temperature requirements can lead to degraded sample quality and inaccuracies in sample analysis. We performed a systematic analysis on different types of transport coolers (polystyrene foam, injection-molded, and rotational molded) and transport coolants (ice, cold packs, frozen water bottles) frequently in use in many countries. Polystyrene foam coolers stayed below our temperature threshold (6 degrees C) longer than almost all other types of coolers, but were not durable. Injection-molded coolers were durable, but warmed to 6 degrees C the quickest. Rotational molded coolers were able to keep temperatures below our threshold for 24 hours longer than injection molded coolers and were highly durable. Coolant systems were evaluated in terms of cost and their ability to maintain cold temperatures. Long lasting commercial cold packs were found to be less cost effective and were below freezing for the majority of the testing period. Frozen plastic water bottles were found to be a reusable and economical choice for coolant and were only below freezing briefly. Finally, we modeled the coolers performance at maintaining internal temperatures below 6 degrees C and built a highly accurate linear model to predict how long a cooler will remain below 6 degrees C. We believe this data may be useful in the planning and design of specimen transportation systems in the field, particularly in remote or resource limited settings.

      4. Comparison of Illumina MiSeq and the Ion Torrent PGM and S5 platforms for whole-genome sequencing of picornaviruses and calicivirusesexternal icon
        Marine RL, Magana LC, Castro CJ, Zhao K, Montmayeur AM, Schmidt A, Diez-Valcarce M, Fan Ng TF, Vinje J, Burns CC, Allan Nix W, Rota PA, Oberste MS.
        J Virol Methods. 2020 Apr 14:113865.
        Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for virological surveillance. While Illumina(R) and Ion Torrent(R) sequencing platforms are used extensively for generating viral RNA genome sequences, there is limited data comparing different platforms. The Illumina MiSeq, Ion Torrent PGM and Ion Torrent S5 platforms were evaluated using a panel of sixteen specimens containing picornaviruses and human caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses). The specimens were processed, using combinations of three library preparation and five sequencing kits, to assess the quality and completeness of assembled viral genomes, and an estimation of cost per sample to generate the data was calculated. The choice of library preparation kit and sequencing platform was found to impact the breadth of genome coverage and accuracy of consensus viral genomes. The Ion Torrent S5 510 chip runs produced more reads at a lower cost per sample than the highest output Ion Torrent PGM 318 chip run, and generated the highest proportion of reads for enterovirus D68 samples. However, indels at homopolymer regions impacted the accuracy of consensus genome sequences. For lower throughput sequencing runs (i.e., Ion Torrent 510 and Illumina MiSeq Nano V2), the cost per sample was lower on the MiSeq platform, whereas with higher throughput runs (Ion Torrent 530 and Illumina MiSeq V2) there is less of a difference in the cost per sample between the two sequencing platforms ($5.47-$10.25 more per sample for an Ion Torrent 530 chip run when multiplexing 24 samples). These findings suggest that the Ion Torrent S5 and Illumina MiSeq platforms are both viable options for genomic sequencing of RNA viruses, each with specific advantages and tradeoffs.

      5. BACKGROUND: The Reveal G4 antibody rapid test is FDA-approved for HIV-1 detection using the versions LAB S/P and POC in CLIA-moderate complexity settings with serum/plasma and whole blood, respectively. The same Reveal tests are CE-marked for HIV-1 and HIV-2 detection in laboratory and point-of-care (POC) settings. OBJECTIVE: We compared the performance of G4 LAB S/P with plasma and POC with whole blood (blood) for detecting early and established HIV-1/HIV-2 infections. STUDY DESIGN: Matched well-characterized plasma and simulated blood were used to evaluate: sensitivity in 104 HIV-1 and 55 HIV-2 established infections, specificity in 49 HIV-negative, and reactivity in early HIV-1 infection in a performance panel (n=38) and 18 plasma panels from seroconverters (SCs, n=183). Median number of days after first RNA-positive was calculated for 13 SCs. Impact of viral suppression (VS) was evaluated in 3 SCs receiving early antiretroviral therapy (ART). RESULTS: Sensitivity was 100 % for HIV-1 and 98.18 % for HIV-2, while specificity was 100 %. All 38 plasma and blood become reactive by Fiebig stage V. Of 18 SCs, 10 had similar reactivity in plasma/blood, 7 showed delayed reactivity in blood, and 1 was nonreactive in plasma/blood. The median days for a G4-reactive after first RNApositive was 13 for plasma and 14 for blood. Long-term VS had no impact on G4 reactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Overall reactivity in early HIV-1 infections is delayed by one day in blood compared to plasma. If FDA-approved for POC settings, the G4 POC is a fast sensitive screening tool for HIV-1/HIV-2-specific IgG even during VS.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake among pregnant and non-pregnant women of reproductive ageexternal icon
        Lundeen EA, Park S, Woo Baidal JA, Sharma AJ, Blanck HM.
        Matern Child Health J. 2020 Apr 18.
        OBJECTIVES: Frequent sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is associated with weight gain in women, and pre-pregnancy overweight and excessive gestational weight gain are linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. SSB intake information for women of reproductive age (WRA) is limited. We described SSB intake among non-pregnant and pregnant WRA and identified correlates of daily intake. METHODS: Using 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data, we analyzed SSB intake (regular soda, fruit drinks, sweet tea, sports/energy drinks) for 11,321 non-pregnant and 392 pregnant WRA (18-49 years) in 12 states and D.C. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for daily (>/= 1 time/day) SSB intake (reference: < 1 time/day) by characteristics were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 27.3% of non-pregnant and 21.9% of pregnant women reported consuming SSBs >/= 1 time/day; 12.6% and 9.7%, respectively, consumed SSBs >/= 2 times/day. Among non-pregnant women, odds of daily SSB intake were higher for women who were non-Hispanic black (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.55-2.69) vs. non-Hispanic white; had </= high school education (aOR 2.79, CI 2.26-3.44) or some college (aOR 1.85, CI 1.50-2.27) vs. college graduates; lived in nonmetropolitan counties (aOR 1.35, CI 1.11-1.63) vs. metropolitan; had no physical activity (aOR 1.72, CI 1.43-2.07) vs. some; were former (aOR 1.51, CI 1.17-1.94) or current (aOR 3.48, CI 2.82-4.28) smokers vs. nonsmokers. Among pregnant women, those not married had higher odds (aOR 2.81, CI 1.05-7.51) for daily SSB intake than married women. CONCLUSIONS: One in five pregnant women and one in four non-pregnant women of reproductive age consumed SSBs at least once per day. Sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of daily SSB intake were identified.

      2. Landscape analysis of breastfeeding-related physician education in the United Statesexternal icon
        Meek JY, Nelson JM, Hanley LE, Onyema-Melton N, Wood JK.
        Breastfeed Med. 2020 Apr 22.
        Background: Breastfeeding is the preferred form of infant nutrition supporting optimal health of mothers and children. Research shows that medical training is deficient in preparing physicians to develop the knowledge base, clinical management skills, and attitudes to provide optimal support for breastfeeding families. We developed this project to assess the current gaps in breastfeeding education during medical training for physicians and to inform the plan to address those gaps. Materials and Methods: We conducted key informant interviews with nine professionals representing medical education, physician professional membership organizations, and ancillary stakeholders with an interest in improving physician education and training with respect to breastfeeding. Using those results, we developed and conducted a survey of physicians to identify training in breastfeeding received during medical school, residency/fellowship, and continuing medical education; confidence in managing breastfeeding; and attitudes about breastfeeding training. A total of 816 respondents completed the survey from the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. Results: Gaps exist in the training of physicians in terms of knowledge base, and clinical skills in breastfeeding support as highlighted through detailed key informant interviews and physician surveys. Physicians surveyed in the disciplines of pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, and family medicine indicated a desire to have more breastfeeding education integrated into their training, especially addressing clinical evaluation and management of breastfeeding problems. Conclusion: The landscape analysis demonstrates that medical education in breastfeeding remains inadequate despite previous efforts to address the gaps and that physicians desire more training in breastfeeding, especially clinical skills training, to improve provider confidence and competence. The analysis provides the foundation for further efforts to develop a comprehensive plan to enhance physician education in breastfeeding.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether physician-diagnosed asthma modifies the associations between multiple lifestyle factors, sick leave and work ability in a general working population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Telemark County, Norway, in 2013. A sample of 16 099 respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire. We obtained complete data on lifestyle, work ability and sick leave for 10 355 employed persons aged 18-50 years. We modelled sick leave and work ability using multiple logistic regression, and introduced interaction terms to investigate whether associations with lifestyle factors were modified by asthma status. RESULTS: Several lifestyle risk factors and a multiple lifestyle risk index were associated with sick leave and reduced work ability score among persons both with and without physician-diagnosed asthma. A stronger association between lifestyle and sick leave among persons with asthma was confirmed by including interaction terms in the analysis: moderate lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.02-2.1); high lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.3); very high lifestyle risk score * asthma OR = 1.6 (95% CI 0.97-2.7); obesity * asthma OR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.02-2.1); past smoking * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.01-1.9); and current smoking * asthma OR = 1.4 (95% CI 1.03-2.0). There was no significant difference in the association between lifestyle and work ability score among respondents with and without asthma. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found that physician-diagnosed asthma modified the association between lifestyle risk factors and sick leave. Asthma status did not significantly modify these associations with reduced work ability score. The results indicate that lifestyle changes could be of particular importance for employees with asthma.

      2. From 2011-2015, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nanotechnology Field Studies Team conducted 11 evaluations at worksites that either produced engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) via a wet process or used ENMs in a wetted, suspended, or slurry form. Wet handling or processing of ENMs reduces potential exposure compared to dry handling or processing; however, air sampling data indicated exposures may still occur. Information was gathered about each company, production processes, ENMs of interest, and control measures. Exposure assessments included air sampling using filter media, surface wipe sampling, and real-time particle counting by direct-reading instruments. Electron microscopy analysis of air filters confirmed the presence of ENMs of interest (10 of 11 sites). When a method was available, chemical analysis of filters was also used to detect the presence of ENMs (nine of 11 sites). Wipe samples were collected at four of the 11 sites, and, in each case, confirmed the presence of ENMs on surfaces. Direct-reading data showed potential nanomaterial emissions (nine of 11 sites). Engineering controls included fume hoods, cleanrooms, and enclosed processes. Personal protective equipment was required during all 11 evaluations. Recommendations to address potential exposures were provided to each company following the hierarchy of controls.

      3. Cannabis: An emerging occupational allergen?external icon
        Sussman GL, Beezhold DH, Cohn JR, Silvers WS, Zeiger JS, Nayak AP.
        Ann Work Expo Health. 2020 Apr 23.
        Cannabis is the most commonly used psychoactive drug. In recent years, Cannabis access has expanded for both medicinal and non-medicinal has grown. This is also marked with an increasing number of individuals gaining employment in this emerging industry. In this article, we briefly discuss the health hazards associated with Cannabis exposure with an emphasis on the potential for allergic reactions in workers who handle and process Cannabis plant.

    • Occupational Safety and Health - Mining
      1. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) have given a significant effort over the past four decades in researching and developing engineering controls and interventions to reduce mine workers’ dust exposures during the bagging and palletizing of industrial minerals. Workers performing manual bagging and palletizing of 50- to 100-pound bags typically have some of the highest dust exposures of all workers at mining and mineral processing operations. This paper will provide an overview of available dust control technologies for bagging operations and present the findings of a recent case study that was conducted at four different industrial sand operations to identify the current types of bagging and palletizing technologies being used and to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing workers’ exposures to respirable crystalline silica dust. An evaluation will also be performed to determine if further reductions in respirable dust levels can be achieved by incorporating additional modifications or improvements into the existing technology.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. OBJECTIVES: Healthy People 2020 establishes objectives for reducing the proportion of pregnancies in the United States that are unintended and for improving contraceptive use. This analysis describes ways to more closely align measurement of contraceptive use with periods of risk for unintended pregnancy using the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). METHODS: Using the 2011-2015 NSFG we constructed two measures of contraceptive use for women we defined as at risk of an unintended pregnancy: (1) we augmented a measure of recent contraceptive use by recoding non-users according to their method use during their last month of sex in the past 12 months; (2) we augmented use at last sex in the past 12 months by excluding women who were pregnant at last sex. Estimates were compared overall and within 5-year age groups. RESULTS: The augmented measure of recent contraceptive use found fewer women to be using no contraception than the standard measure (7.3% vs 15.4%; p<0.001); greater differences were found between the two measures for younger women. When considering contraceptive use at last sex, the augmented measure identified fewer women as using no contraception (15.8% vs 21.0%; p<.001) than the standard measure and more women to be using a most effective method (33.3% vs 31.1%; p=.04) than the standard measure. CONCLUSIONS: Aligning periods of unintended pregnancy risk with contraceptive use assessment reduced estimates of no contraceptive use; changes in estimates by method type varied by age. IMPLICATIONS: When assessing contraceptive use for the purpose of unintended pregnancy prevention, researchers may consider the methods described here to further align contraceptive use measurement with periods of unintended pregnancy risk.

    • Sciences, General
      1. The understanding of how synchronization in directed networks is influenced by structural changes in network topology is far from complete. While the addition of an edge always promotes synchronization in a wide class of undirected networks, this addition may impede synchronization in directed networks. In this paper, we develop the augmented graph stability method, which allows for explicitly connecting the stability of synchronization to changes in network topology. The transformation of a directed network into a symmetrized-and-augmented undirected network is the central component of this new method. This transformation is executed by symmetrizing and weighting the underlying connection graph and adding new undirected edges with consideration made for the mean degree imbalance of each pair of nodes. These new edges represent "non-existent ties" in the original directed network and often control the location of critical nodes whose directed connections can be altered to manipulate the stability of synchronization in a desired way. In particular, we show that the addition of small-world shortcuts to directed networks, which makes "non-existent ties" disappear, can worsen the synchronizability, thereby revealing a destructive role of small-world connections in directed networks. An extension of our method may open the door to studying synchronization in directed multilayer networks, which cannot be effectively handled by the eigenvalue-based methods.

    • Substance Use and Abuse

      1. Hospitalizations and deaths associated with EVALIexternal icon
        Werner AK, Koumans EH, Chatham-Stephens K, Salvatore PP, Armatas C, Byers P, Clark CR, Ghinai I, Holzbauer SM, Navarette KA, Danielson ML, Ellington S, Moritz ED, Petersen EE, Kiernan EA, Baldwin GT, Briss P, Jones CM, King BA, Krishnasamy V, Rose DA, Reagan-Steiner S.
        N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 23;382(17):1589-1598.
        BACKGROUND: As of January 7, 2020, a total of 2558 hospitalized patients with nonfatal cases and 60 patients with fatal cases of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). METHODS: In a national study, we compared the characteristics of patients with fatal cases of EVALI with those of patients with nonfatal cases to improve the ability of clinicians to identify patients at increased risk for death from the condition. Health departments reported cases of EVALI to the CDC and included, when available, data from medical-record abstractions and patient interviews. Analyses included all the patients with fatal or nonfatal cases of EVALI that were reported to the CDC as of January 7, 2020. We also present three case reports of patients who died from EVALI to illustrate the clinical characteristics common among such patients. RESULTS: Most of the patients with fatal or nonfatal cases of EVALI were male (32 of 60 [53%] and 1666 of 2498 [67%], respectively). The proportion of patients with fatal or nonfatal cases was higher among those who were non-Hispanic white (39 of 49 [80%] and 1104 of 1818 [61%], respectively) than among those in other race or ethnic groups. The proportion of patients with fatal cases was higher among those 35 years of age or older (44 of 60 [73%]) than among those younger than 35 years, but the proportion with nonfatal cases was lower among those 35 years of age or older (551 of 2514 [22%]). Among the patients who had an available medical history, a higher proportion of those with fatal cases than those with nonfatal cases had a history of asthma (13 of 57 [23%] vs. 102 of 1297 [8%]), cardiac disease (26 of 55 [47%] vs. 115 of 1169 [10%]), or a mental health condition (32 of 49 [65%] vs. 575 of 1398 [41%]). A total of 26 of 50 patients (52%) with fatal cases had obesity. Half the patients with fatal cases (25 of 54 [46%]) were seen in an outpatient setting before hospitalization or death. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic conditions, including cardiac and respiratory diseases and mental health conditions, were common among hospitalized patients with EVALI.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Symptom screening at illness onset of health care personnel with SARS-CoV-2 infection in King County, Washingtonexternal icon
        Chow EJ, Schwartz NG, Tobolowsky FA, Zacks RL, Huntington-Frazier M, Reddy SC, Rao AK.
        Jama. 2020 Apr 17.

      2. West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause clinical disease ranging from febrile illness to encephalitis. The standard for serological diagnosis is immunoglobulin M (IgM) testing followed by confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to differentiate the infecting virus. However, the PRNT is time-consuming and requires manipulation of live virus. During concurrent WNV and SLEV outbreaks in Arizona in 2015, we assessed use of a diagnostic algorithm to simplify testing. It incorporated WNV and SLEV ratios based on positive-to-negative (P/N) values derived from the IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared each sample's ratio-based result with the confirmed WNV or SLEV sample result indicated by PRNT or PCR testing. We analyzed data from 70 patients with 77 serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples, including 53 patients with confirmed WNV infection and 17 patients with confirmed SLEV infection. Both WNV and SLEV ratios had specificity >/=95%, indicating a high likelihood that each ratio was correctly identifying the infecting virus. The SLEV ratio sensitivity of 30% was much lower than the WNV ratio sensitivity of 91%, likely because of higher cross-reactivity of SLEV antibodies and generation of lower P/N values. The standard for serological diagnosis of WNV and SLEV infections remains IgM testing followed by PRNT. However, these results suggest the ratios could potentially be used as part of a diagnostic algorithm in outbreaks to substantially reduce the need for PRNTs.

      3. Outbreak of human infections with uncommon Salmonella serotypes linked to pet bearded dragons, 2012-2014external icon
        Kiebler CA, Bottichio L, Simmons L, Basler C, Klos R, Gurfield N, Roberts E, Kimura A, Lewis LS, Bird K, Stiles F, Schlater LK, Lantz K, Edling T, Barton Behravesh C.
        Zoonoses Public Health. 2020 Apr 18.
        Reptiles are one of the fastest growing sectors in the United States pet industry. Reptile-associated salmonellosis (RAS) continues to be an important public health problem, especially among children. We investigated an outbreak of human Salmonella infections resulting from serotypes Cotham and Kisarawe, predominately occurring among children. An outbreak of illnesses was identified in persons with exposure to pet bearded dragon lizards. Human and animal health officials, in cooperation with the pet industry, conducted epidemiologic, traceback and laboratory investigations. Onsite sampling was conducted at two US breeding facilities, one foreign breeding facility, and a large pet retail chain. A total of 166 patients in 36 states were identified with illness onset dates from 02/2012-06/2014. The median patient age was 3 years (range, <1-79 years), 57% were aged </=5 years, and 37% were aged </=1 year. Forty-four patients (37%) were hospitalized, predominantly children. Sampling at breeding facilities and a national pet store chain resulted in isolation of outbreak serotypes at each facility; isolation proportions ranged from 2%-24% of samples collected at each facility.Epidemiologic, microbiologic and traceback evidence linked an outbreak of uncommon Salmonella serotypes to contact with pet bearded dragons. The high proportion of infants involved in this outbreak highlights the need to educate owners about the risk of RAS in children and the potential for household contamination by pet reptiles or their habitats. Strategies should be developed to improve breeding practices, biosecurity and monitoring protocols to reduce Salmonella in the pet reptile trade.

      4. Public health implementation considerations for state-level Ebola monitoring and movement restrictionsexternal icon
        Sell TK, Shearer MP, Meyer D, Leinhos M, Thomas E, Carbone EG.
        Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2020 Apr 20:1-6.
        OBJECTIVE: This article describes implementation considerations for Ebola-related monitoring and movement restriction policies in the United States during the 2013-2016 West Africa Ebola epidemic. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted between January and May 2017 with 30 individuals with direct knowledge of state-level Ebola policy development and implementation processes. Individuals represented 17 jurisdictions with variation in adherence to US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, census region, predominant state political affiliation, and public health governance structures, as well as the CDC. RESULTS: Interviewees reported substantial resource commitments required to implement Ebola monitoring and movement restriction policies. Movement restriction policies, including for quarantine, varied from voluntary to mandatory programs, and, occasionally, quarantine enforcement procedures lacked clarity. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to improve future monitoring and movement restriction policies may include addressing surge capacity to implement these programs, protocols for providing support to affected individuals, coordination with law enforcement, and guidance on varying approaches to movement restrictions.

      5. Long-term clinical prognosis of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China after hospitalizationexternal icon
        Wang Q, Jiang H, Xie Y, Zhang T, Liu S, Wu S, Sun Q, Song S, Wang W, Deng X, Ren L, Qin T, Horby P, Uyeki T, Yu H.
        EClinicalMedicine. 2020 Mar;20:100282.
        Background: Mainland China has experienced five epidemics of human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection since 2013. We conducted a prospective study to assess long-term clinical, pulmonary function testing, and chest computed tomography (CT) imaging findings after patients were discharged from hospital. Methods: A(H7N9) survivors in five provinces and one municipality underwent follow-up visits from August 2013 to September 2018, at three, six, and 12 months after illness onset, and a subset was also assessed at 18 and 64 months after onset. Thirteen patients were enrolled from the first A(H7N9) epidemic in 2013, 36 from the 2013-2014 second epidemic, and 12 from the 2016-2017 fifth epidemic. At each visit, A(H7N9) survivors received a medical examination, including the mMRC (modified Medical Research Council) dyspnea scale assessment, chest auscultation, pulmonary function testing and chest CT scans. Findings: The median age of 61 A(H7N9) survivors was 50 years. The cumulative rate of pulmonary dysfunction was 38.5% and 78.2% for chest CT scan abnormalities at the end of follow-up. Restrictive ventilation dysfunction was common during follow-up. Mild dyspnea was documented at three to 12-month follow-up visits. Interpretation: Patients who survived severe illness from A(H7N9) virus infection had evidence of persistent lung damage and long-term pulmonary dysfunction. Funding: National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (grant number 81525023); Program of Shanghai Academic/Technology Research Leader (grant number 18XD1400300); National Science and Technology Major Project of China (grant numbers 2017ZX10103009-005, 2018ZX10201001-010).

Back to Top

CDC Science Clips Production Staff

  • Takudzwa Sayi, Editor
  • Gail Bang, MLIS, Librarian
  • Kathy Tucker, Librarian
  • William (Bill) Thomas, MLIS, Librarian
  • Jarvis Sims, MIT, MLIS, Librarian


DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: May 5, 2020, 12:00 AM