Volume 11, Issue 43 October 29, 2019

CDC Science Clips: Volume 11, Issue 43, October 29, 2019

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      • Socio-economic, demographic, and clinical correlates of poor glycaemic control within insulin regimens among children with Type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Studyexternal icon
        Snyder LL, Stafford JM, Dabelea D, Divers J, Imperatore G, Law J, Lawrence JM, Pihoker C, Mayer-Davis EJ.
        Diabet Med. 2019 Aug;36(8):1028-1036.
        AIM: To examine the distribution and association of sociodemographic, adherence, and barriers-to-care factors in relation to glycaemic control within insulin regimens in US children with Type 1 diabetes in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. METHODS: Self- or parent-reported data from 1095 children with Type 1 diabetes aged 10-17 years were collected on insulin regimen, sociodemographics, diabetes self-management, diabetes-related family conflict and barriers to care. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified poor glycaemic control correlates within each insulin regimen. RESULTS: Participants included 694 children on insulin pump therapy, 188 receiving basal-bolus injections, and 213 on a mixed insulin regimen. Of these, 28.5%, 45.2% and 51.2%, respectively, had poor glycaemic control [HbA1c >/= 80 mmol/mol (9.5%)]. Family conflict between parent and child regarding diabetes management was the only factor significantly associated with poor glycaemic control in all insulin regimens (insulin pump, P</= 0.0001; basal-bolus injections, P=0.0002; mixed insulin regimen, P=0.0103). For children on insulin pump, poor control was significantly associated with non-white race (P=0.0008), living in multiple households (P=0.0331), having Medicaid insurance (P=0.0090), and decreased insulin adherence (P<0.0001). For children on a mixed insulin regimen, living in multiple households (P=0.0256) and not spending enough time with healthcare provider (P=0.0058) correlated with poor control. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of US children with Type 1 diabetes had poor glycaemic control, especially those not using an insulin pump. Early identification of children with risk factors associated with poor glycaemic control within insulin regimens and addressing diabetes-related family conflict may allow interventions to improve diabetes management.

    • Communicable Diseases
      • Longitudinal adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis from 6 weeks to 18 months postpartum amongst a cohort of mothers and infants in South Africaexternal icon
        Larsen A, Magasana V, Dinh TH, Ngandu N, Lombard C, Cheyip M, Ayalew K, Chirinda W, Kindra G, Jackson D, Goga A.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 16;19(Suppl 1):789.
        BACKGROUND: Despite improved policies to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis (NVP) is low in South Africa. We describe ART adherence amongst a cohort of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed but uninfected infants from 6 weeks until 18 months post-delivery and identify risk factors for nonadherence. METHODS: Data were collected in 2012-2014 through a nationally representative survey of PMTCT effectiveness. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled during the infant’s first immunization visit at 6 weeks. Mothers and HIV-exposed infants (2811 pairs) were followed to 18 months at 3-month intervals. Mothers who self-reported being on ART at 6 weeks postpartum (N = 1572 (55.9%)) and infants on NVP at 6 weeks (N = 2370 (84.3%)) were eligible for this analysis and information about their adherence was captured at each interview they attended thereafter. We defined nonadherence within each 3-month interval as self-report of missing > 5% of daily ART/NVP doses, estimated adherence using a Cox survival curve with Andersen & Gill setup for recurring events, and identified risk factors for nonadherence with an extended Cox regression model (separately for mothers and infants) in Stata 13. Results are not nationally representative as this is a subgroup analysis of the follow-up cohort. RESULTS: Amongst mothers on ART at 6 weeks postpartum, cumulative adherence to maternal ART until 18 months was 63.4%. Among infants on NPV at 6 weeks postpartum, adherence to NVP was 74.5%.. Risk factors for nonadherence to maternal ART, controlling for other factors, included mother’s age (16-24 years vs. >/=34 years, adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5), nondisclosure of HIV status to anyone (nondisclosure vs. disclosure: aHR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), and timing of ART initiation (initiated ART after delivery vs. initiated ART before delivery: aHR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0). Provincial variation was seen in nonadherence to infant NVP, controlling for other factors. CONCLUSION: Maintaining ART adherence until 18 months postpartum remains a crucial challenge, with maternal ART adherence among the six week maternal ART cohort below 65% and infant NVP adherence among breastfeeding infants in this cohort below 75%.This is gravely concerning, given the global policy shift to lifelong ART amongst pregnant and lactating women, and the need for extended infant prophylaxis amongst mothers who are not virally suppressed. Our findings suggest that young mothers and mothers who do not disclose their status should be targeted with messages to improve adherence, and that late maternal ART initiation (after delivery) increases the risk of maternal nonadherence.

      • Risk for invasive streptococcal infections among adults experiencing homelessness, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 2002-2015external icon
        Mosites E, Zulz T, Bruden D, Nolen L, Frick A, Castrodale L, McLaughlin J, Van Beneden C, Hennessy TW, Bruce MG.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Oct;25(10).
        The risk for invasive streptococcal infection has not been clearly quantified among persons experiencing homelessness (PEH). We compared the incidence of detected cases of invasive group A Streptococcus infection, group B Streptococcus infection, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal) infection among PEH with that among the general population in Anchorage, Alaska, USA, during 2002-2015. We used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Arctic Investigations Program surveillance system, the US Census, and the Anchorage Point-in-Time count (a yearly census of PEH). We detected a disproportionately high incidence of invasive streptococcal disease in Anchorage among PEH. Compared with the general population, PEH were 53.3 times as likely to have invasive group A Streptococcus infection, 6.9 times as likely to have invasive group B Streptococcus infection, and 36.3 times as likely to have invasive pneumococcal infection. Infection control in shelters, pneumococcal vaccination, and infection monitoring could help protect the health of this vulnerable group.

      • Pediatric bacterial meningitis surveillance in the World Health Organization African Region using the Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance Network, 2011-2016external icon
        Mwenda JM, Soda E, Weldegebriel G, Katsande R, Biey JN, Traore T, de Gouveia L, du Plessis M, von Gottberg A, Antonio M, Kwambana-Adams B, Worwui A, Gierke R, Schwartz S, van Beneden C, Cohen A, Serhan F, Lessa FC.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 5;69(Supplement_2):S49-s57.
        BACKGROUND: Bacterial meningitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed data from the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-preventable Diseases Surveillance Network (2011-2016) to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae meningitis within the WHO African Region. We also evaluated declines in vaccine-type pneumococcal meningitis following pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction. METHODS: Reports of meningitis in children <5 years old from sentinel surveillance hospitals in 26 countries were classified as suspected, probable, or confirmed. Confirmed meningitis cases were analyzed by age group and subregion (South-East and West-Central). We described case fatality ratios (CFRs), pathogen distribution, and annual changes in serotype and serogroup, including changes in vaccine-type Spn meningitis following PCV introduction. RESULTS: Among 49 844 reported meningitis cases, 1670 (3.3%) were laboratory-confirmed. Spn (1007/1670 [60.3%]) was the most commonly detected pathogen; vaccine-type Spn meningitis cases declined over time. CFR was the highest for Spn meningitis: 12.9% (46/357) in the South-East subregion and 30.9% (89/288) in the West-Central subregion. Meningitis caused by N. meningitidis was more common in West-Central than South-East Africa (321/954 [33.6%] vs 110/716 [15.4%]; P < .0001). Haemophilus influenzae (232/1670 [13.9%]) was the least prevalent organism. CONCLUSIONS: Spn was the most common cause of pediatric bacterial meningitis in the African region even after reported cases declined following PCV introduction. Sustaining robust surveillance is essential to monitor changes in pathogen distribution and to inform and guide vaccination policies.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
    • Health Disparities
      • Breastfeeding trends by race/ethnicity among US children born from 2009 to 2015external icon
        Li R, Perrine CG, Anstey EH, Chen J, MacGowan CA, Elam-Evans LD.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Oct 14:e193319.
        Importance: Large racial/ethnic disparities in breastfeeding are associated with adverse health outcomes. Objectives: To examine breastfeeding trends by race/ethnicity from 2009 to 2015 and changes in breastfeeding gaps comparing racial/ethnic subgroups with white infants from 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study used data from 167842 infants from the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child), a random-digit-dialed telephone survey among a complex, stratified, multistage probability sample of US households with children aged 19 to 35 months at the time of the survey. This study analyzed data collected from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2017, for children born between 2009 and 2015. Exposures: Child’s race/ethnicity categorized as Hispanic or non-Hispanic white, black, Asian, or American Indian or Alaskan Native. Main Outcomes and Measures: Breastfeeding rates, including ever breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months, and continuation of breastfeeding at 12 months. Results: This study included 167842 infants (mean [SD] age, 2.33 [0.45] years; 86321 [51.4%] male and 81521 [48.6%] female). Overall unadjusted breastfeeding rates increased from 2009 to 2015 by 7.1 percentage points for initiation, 9.2 percentage points for exclusivity, and 11.3 percentage points for duration, with considerable variation by race/ethnicity. Most racial/ethnic groups had significant increases in breastfeeding rates. From 2009-2010 to 2014-2015, disparities in adjusted breastfeeding rates became larger between black and white infants. For example, the difference for exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months between black and white infants widened from 0.5 to 4.5 percentage points with a 4.0% difference in difference (P < .001) from 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. In contrast, the breastfeeding differences between Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian or Alaskan Native infants and white infants became smaller or stayed the same except for continued breastfeeding at 12 months among Asians. For example, the difference in continued breastfeeding at 12 months between Hispanic and white infants decreased from 7.8 to 3.8 percentage points between 2 periods, yielding a -4.0% difference in difference (P < .001). Because of positive trends among all race/ethnicities, these reduced differences were likely associated with greater increases among white infants throughout the study years. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite breastfeeding improvements among each race/ethnicity group, breastfeeding disparities between black and white infants became larger when breastfeeding improvements decreased even further among black infants in 2014-2015. The reduced breastfeeding gaps among all other nonwhite groups may be associated with greater increases among white infants. More efforts appear to be needed to improve breastfeeding rates among black infants.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Mortality reduction benefits and intussusception risks of rotavirus vaccination in 135 low-income and middle-income countries: a modelling analysis of current and alternative schedulesexternal icon
        Clark A, Tate J, Parashar U, Jit M, Hasso-Agopsowicz M, Henschke N, Lopman B, Van Zandvoort K, Pecenka C, Fine P, Sanderson C.
        Lancet Glob Health. 2019 Nov;7(11):e1541-e1552.
        BACKGROUND: Infant rotavirus vaccines have led to substantial reductions in hospital admissions and deaths due to gastroenteritis, but some studies have reported an elevated risk of intussusception, a rare bowel disorder. This analysis aimed to provide evidence on the potential mortality reduction benefits and intussusception risks of current rotavirus vaccination schedules, and to explore whether alternative schedules could have advantages. METHODS: All 135 low-income and middle-income countries, defined by gross national income per capita of less than US$12 236 in the 2018 fiscal year, were included in the model. Mortality reduction benefits and intussusception risks of rotavirus vaccination were modelled by use of an Excel-based static cohort model with a finely disaggregated age structure. Numbers of rotavirus gastroenteritis deaths and intussusception deaths in each week of age were calculated for all infants born in the year 2015 between birth and age 5.0 years, with and without restrictions on age at administration. Benefit-risk ratios (rotavirus gastroenteritis deaths prevented per excess intussusception death) and other indicators were calculated for two vaccination schedules currently recommended by WHO and 16 alternative schedules. Of these schedules, it was assumed that between one and three doses would be given; the first dose of the rotavirus vaccine would be co-administered with either BCG or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)1; and the second or third dose would be co-administered with either DTP1, DTP2, DTP3, or measles (Meas)1. FINDINGS: A three-dose schedule co-administered with DTP (without age restrictions) could prevent about 74 000 (95% uncertainty interval 59 000-100 000) rotavirus gastroenteritis deaths (38% reduction) and could lead to 201 (77-550) excess intussusception deaths (1.4% increase) compared with no vaccination, resulting in a benefit-risk ratio of 369:1 (160:1-895:1). The benefit-risk ratio was most favourable when the relative risk of intussusception was assumed to decline with the national under-5 mortality rate (2386:1) and least favourable with pessimistic assumptions about access to hospital for intussusception treatment (168:1). Schedules that involve giving the first dose with BCG and the second with DTP1 had the fewest excess intussusception deaths and most favourable benefit-risk ratios. INTERPRETATION: Rotavirus vaccines have a favourable benefit-risk profile in LMICs. Neonatal schedules have the potential to prevent more rotavirus gastroenteritis deaths and cause fewer excess intussusception deaths than the schedules currently recommended by WHO, but more efficacious rotavirus vaccines would be needed to achieve more substantial mortality reduction benefits. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

      • Safety and immunogenicity of a multivalent HIV vaccine comprising envelope protein with either DNA or NYVAC vectors (HVTN 096): a phase 1b, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialexternal icon
        Pantaleo G, Janes H, Karuna S, Grant S, Ouedraogo GL, Allen M, Tomaras GD, Frahm N, Montefiori DC, Ferrari G, Ding S, Lee C, Robb ML, Esteban M, Wagner R, Bart PA, Rettby N, McElrath MJ, Gilbert PB, Kublin JG, Corey L.
        Lancet HIV. 2019 Oct 7.
        BACKGROUND: Up to now, immunisation regimens that have been assessed for development of HIV vaccines have included purified envelope (Env) protein among the boosting components of the regimen. We postulated that co-administration of Env protein with either a DNA or NYVAC vector during priming would result in early generation of antibody responses to the Env V1/V2 region, which are important markers for effective protection against infection. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a multivalent HIV vaccine including either DNA or NYVAC vectors alone or in combination with Env glycoprotein (gp120) followed by a co-delivered NYVAC and Env protein boost. METHODS: We did a single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1b trial at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (Lausanne, Switzerland). We included healthy volunteers aged 18-50 years who were at low risk of HIV infection. We randomly allocated participants using computer-generated random numbers to one of four vaccination schedules or placebo (4:1), and within these schedules participants were allocated either active treatment (T1, T2, T3, and T4) or placebo (C1, C2, C3, and C4). T1 consisted of two doses of NYVAC vector followed by two doses of NYVAC vector and gp120 Env protein; T2 comprised four doses of NYVAC vector and gp120 Env protein; T3 was two doses of DNA vector followed by two doses of NYVAC vector and gp120 Env protein; and T4 was two doses of DNA vector and gp120 Env protein followed by two doses of NYVAC vector and gp120 Env protein. Placebo injections were matched to the corresponding active treatment group. Doses were administered by injection at months 0, 1, 3, and 6. Primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine schedules. Immune response measures included cross-clade and epitope-specific binding antibodies, neutralising antibodies, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity measured 2 weeks after the month 1, 3, and 6 vaccinations. This trial is registered with, NCT01799954. FINDINGS: Between Aug 23, 2012, and April 18, 2013, 148 healthy adult volunteers were screened for the trial, of whom 96 participants were enrolled. 20 individuals were allocated to each active treatment group (groups T1-4; n=80) and four were assigned to each placebo group (groups C1-4; n=16). Vaccines containing the NYVAC vector (groups T1 and T2) were associated with more frequent severe reactogenicity and more adverse events than were vaccines containing the DNA vector (groups T3 and T4). The most frequent adverse events judged related to study product were lymphadenopathy (n=9) and hypoaesthesia (n=2). Two participants, one in the placebo group and one in the DNA-primed T3 group, had serious adverse events that were judged unrelated to study product. One participant in the T3 group died from cranial trauma after a motor vehicle accident. Across the active treatment groups, IgG responses 2 weeks after the 6-month dose of vaccine were 74-95%. Early administration of gp120 Env protein (groups T2 and T4) was associated with a substantially earlier and higher area under the curve for gp120 Env binding, production of anti-V1/V2 and neutralising antibodies, and better antibody-response coverage over a period of 18 months, compared with vaccination regimens that delayed administration of gp120 Env protein until the 3-month vaccination (groups T1 and T3). INTERPRETATION: Co-administration of gp120 Env protein components with DNA or NYVAC vectors during priming led to early and potent induction of Env V1/V2 IgG binding antibody responses. This immunisation approach should be considered for induction of preventive antibodies in future HIV vaccine efficacy trials. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      • OBJECTIVE: To describe obstetrician-gynecologists’ practices and attitudes related to opioid use among pregnant and postpartum women. STUDY DESIGN: A 2017 cross-sectional survey assessed U.S. obstetrician-gynecologists’ (N = 462; response rate = 34%) practices (management) and attitudes (knowledge, preparedness, confidence, barriers, and resources needed) related to opioid use among pregnant and postpartum women. Modified Poisson regression determined adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for advising medication-assisted therapy (MAT) for pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD) by knowledge, confidence, and preparedness. RESULTS: Of respondents, 33% always or usually advised MAT to pregnant women with OUD. Confidence in treating pregnant women who use opioids (aPR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8) and knowledge that substance use services were covered under the Affordable Care Act (aPR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8) were associated with advising MAT. CONCLUSION: Evidence suggests that efforts are needed to enhance physician confidence to manage pregnant and postpartum patients who use opioids, which may increase optimal care of this patient population.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Higher rates of bleeding and use of treatment products among young boys compared to girls with von Willebrand Diseaseexternal icon
        Abe K, Dupervil B, O’Brien SH, Oakley M, Kulkarni R, Gill JC, Byams V, Soucie MJ.
        Am J Hematol. 2019 Oct 15.
        There are limited observational studies among children diagnosed with von Willebrand Disease (VWD). We analyzed differences in bleeding characteristics by sex and type of VWD using the largest reported surveillance database of children with VWD (n = 2712), ages 2-12 years old. We found that the mean ages of first bleed and diagnosis were lowest among children with type 3 VWD. It was even lower among boys than girls among all VWD types, with statistically significant difference among children with type 1 or type 3 VWD. Children with type 3 VWD also reported higher proportions of ever having a bleed compared to other VWD types, with statistically higher proportions of boys compared to girls reporting ever having a bleed with type 1 and type 2 VWD. A similar pattern was observed with the use of treatment product, showing higher usage among type 3 VWD, and among boys than girls with type 1 and type 2 VWD. While there were no differences in life quality or in well-being status by sex, children with type 3 VWD showed a greater need for mobility assistance compared to children with type 1 and type 2 VWD. In an adjusted analysis among children with type 1 VWD, boys showed a significant association of ever bleeding [hazard ratio 1.4; P-value <.001)] compared to girls. Understanding phenotypic bleeding characteristics, well-being status, treatment, and higher risk groups for bleeding among pre-adolescent children with VWD will aid physicians in efforts to educate families about bleeding symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      2. PURPOSE: To examine self-reported oral health among adults age 40 years and older with and without vision impairment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional with a nationally representative sample. METHODS: We used publicly available data from the Oral Health Module, last administered in 2008 of the National Health Interview Survey. Outcome variables included fair/poor oral health status, mouth condition compared to others the same age, mouth problems (mouth sores, difficulty eating, dry mouth, bad breath and/or jaw pain), teeth problems (toothache; broken/missing fillings or teeth; loose, crooked or stained teeth; and/or bleeding gums) and lack of social participation. Using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression, we examined the association (p<0.05) between vision impairment and oral health outcomes by age-group, sociodemographic, and other explanatory variables. RESULTS: Our study sample included 12,090 adults; 12.8% of adults aged 40-64 years reported vision impairment, and among them, 44.5% reported fair/poor oral health status and 47.2% reported any mouth problems. Among adults aged >/=65 years, 17.3% reported vision impairment, of whom 36.3% reported fair/poor oral health status, and 57.3 reported any mouth problems. There is a strong association between vision impairment and poorer oral health of adults; adults aged 40-64 years with vision impairment reported 90% to 150% greater odds of oral health problems, including fair/poor oral health status, mouth problems, and teeth problems, compared to people without vision impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Oral health disparities exist between adults with and without vision impairment. Targeted interventions are required to improve oral health in this vulnerable population.

      3. Racial differences in performance of HbA1c for the classification of diabetes and prediabetes among US adults of non-Hispanic black and white raceexternal icon
        Ford CN, Leet RW, Kipling LM, Rhee MK, Jackson SL, Wilson PW, Phillips LS, Staimez LR.
        Diabet Med. 2019 Jun 12.
        AIM: To characterize differences between black and white people in optimal HbA1c thresholds for diagnoses of diabetes and prediabetes. METHODS: Data were included from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2014. Black and white adults (age 18-70 years) who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and had available fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose and HbA1c measurements were eligible for inclusion. Diabetes or prediabetes status was defined by fasting plasma glucose and 2-h plasma glucose using American Diabetes Association criteria. Classification of diabetes, prediabetes and dysglycaemia by HbA1c was evaluated for a range of HbA1c thresholds, with optimal thresholds defined as those values that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity (Youden’s index). RESULTS: In 5324 black (32.3%) and white (67.7%) individuals, Youden’s index (optimal) thresholds for HbA1c were >/=42 mmol/mol (6.0%) and >/=39 mmol/mol (5.7%) for discriminating diabetes vs non-diabetes, >/= 44 mmol/mol (6.2%) and >/=39 mmol/mol (5.7%) for discriminating diabetes vs prediabetes (excluding normoglycaemia), >/=39 mmol/mol (5.7%) and >/=37 mmol/mol (5.5%) for discriminating dysglycaemia vs normoglycaemia, and >/=39 mmol/mol (5.7%) and >/=37 mmol/mol (5.5%) for discriminating prediabetes vs normoglycaemia (excluding diabetes), in black and white people, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Consistently higher optimal HbA1c thresholds in black people than in white people suggest a need to individualize HbA1c relative to glucose levels if HbA1c is used to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes.

      4. Adoption and implementation of evidence-based colorectal cancer screening interventions among cancer control program grantees, 2009-2015external icon
        Hannon PA, Maxwell AE, Escoffery C, Vu T, Kohn MJ, Gressard L, Dillon-Sumner L, Mason C, DeGroff A.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Oct 10;16:E139.
        PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Although effective CRC screening tests exist, CRC screening is underused. Use of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase CRC screening could save many lives. The Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides a unique opportunity to study EBI adoption, implementation, and maintenance. We assessed 1) the number of grantees implementing 5 EBIs during 2011 through 2015, 2) grantees’ perceived ease of implementing each EBI, and 3) grantees’ reasons for stopping EBI implementation. INTERVENTION APPROACH: CDC funded 25 states and 4 tribal entities to participate in the CRCCP. Grantees used CRCCP funds to 1) provide CRC screening to individuals who were uninsured and low-income, and 2) promote CRC screening at the population level. One component of the CRC screening promotion effort was implementing 1 or more of 5 EBIs to increase CRC screening rates. EVALUATION METHODS: We surveyed CRCCP grantees about EBI implementation with an online survey in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2015. We conducted descriptive analyses of closed-ended items and coded open-text responses for themes related to barriers and facilitators to EBI implementation. RESULTS: Most grantees implemented small media (>/=25) or client reminders (>/=21) or both all program years. Although few grantees reported implementation of EBIs such as reducing structural barriers (n = 14) and provider reminders (n = 9) in 2011, implementation of these EBIs increased over time. Implementation of provider assessment and feedback increased over time, but was reported by the fewest grantees (n = 17) in 2015. Reasons for discontinuing EBIs included funding ending, competing priorities, or limited staff capacity. IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH: CRCCP grantees implemented EBIs across all years studied, yet implementation varied by EBI and did not get easier with time. Our findings can inform long-term planning for EBIs with state and tribal public health institutions and their partners.

      5. OBJECTIVE: Vascular complications of diabetes have declined substantially over the past 20 years. However, the impact of modern medical treatments on infectious diseases in people with diabetes remains unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We estimated rates of infections requiring hospitalizations in adults (>/=18 years) with versus without diabetes, using the 2000-2015 National Inpatient Sample and the National Health Interview Surveys. Annual age-standardized and age-specific hospitalization rates in groups with and without diabetes were stratified by infection type. Trends were assessed using Joinpoint regression with the annual percentage change (Delta%/year) reported. RESULTS: In 2015, hospitalization rates remained almost four times as high in adults with versus without diabetes (rate ratio 3.8 [95% CI 3.8-3.8]) and as much as 15.7 times as high, depending on infection type. Overall, between 2000 and 2015, rates of hospitalizations increased from 63.1 to 68.7 per 1,000 persons in adults with diabetes and from 15.5 to 16.3 in adults without diabetes. However, from 2008, rates declined 7.9% in adults without diabetes (from 17.7 to 16.3 per 1,000 persons; Delta%/year -1.5, P < 0.01), while no significant decline was noted in adults with diabetes. The lack of decline in adults with diabetes in the later period was driven by significant increases in rates of foot infections and cellulitis as well as by lack of decline for pneumonia and postoperative wound infections in young adults with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study highlight the need for greater infectious risk mitigation in adults with diabetes, especially young adults with diabetes.

      6. Engagement and weight loss: Results from the Mobile Health and Diabetes Trialexternal icon
        Muralidharan S, Ranjani H, Mohan Anjana R, Jena S, Tandon N, Gupta Y, Ambekar S, Koppikar V, Jagannathan N, Allender S, Mohan V.
        Diabetes Technol Ther. 2019 Sep;21(9):507-513.
        Background: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Identifying and targeting individuals at high risk, is essential for preventing T2D. Several studies point to mobile health initiatives delivered through personal smart devices being a promising approach to diabetes prevention, through weight loss. The aim of the mobile health and diabetes (mDiab) trial was twofold: to achieve 5% weight loss and to look at the association of weight loss with degree of engagement with the mDiab app. Methods: The mDiab randomized control trial was carried out among smartphone users who are at high risk for T2D mellitus in three cities-Chennai, Bengaluru, and New Delhi in India. The intervention was delivered through a mobile phone application along with weekly coach calls for 12 weeks. While individuals in the intervention group individuals received the app, which enabled tracking their weight, physical activity, and diet along with 12 weekly video lessons on T2D prevention and coach calls, the control group received usual care. Results: The intervention group experienced a significant 1 kg weight loss while the control group lost 0.3 kg (P < 0.05). More individuals in the intervention group (n = 139, 15%) met the 5% weight loss target than in the control group (n = 131, 9%). In the intervention group those who viewed the videos experienced greater weight loss (2.4 kg) than those who only attended coach calls (0.9 kg) (P < 0.01). Conclusions: An mHealth intervention helped to achieve moderate weight loss. Future studies should explore the sustainability of this weight loss.

      7. US trends in premature heart disease mortality over the past 50 years: Where do we go from here?external icon
        Ritchey MD, Wall HK, George MG, Wright JS.
        Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2019 Sep 27.
        Despite the premature heart disease mortality rate among adults aged 25-64 decreasing by 70% since 1968, the rate has remained stagnant from 2011 on and, in 2017, still accounted for almost 1-in-5 of all deaths among this age group. Moreover, these overall findings mask important differences and continued disparities observed by demographic characteristics and geography. For example, in 2017, rates were 134% higher among men compared to women and 87% higher among blacks compared to whites, and, while the greatest burden remained in the southeastern US, almost two-thirds of all US counties experienced increasing rates among adults aged 35-64 during 2010-2017. Continued high rates of uncontrolled blood pressure and increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity pose obstacles for re-establishing a downward trajectory for premature heart disease mortality; however, proven public health and clinical interventions exist that can be used to address these conditions.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Global epidemiology of diphtheria, 2000-2017external icon
        Clarke KE, MacNeil A, Hadler S, Scott C, Tiwari TS, Cherian T.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Oct;25(10):1834-1842.
        In 2017, a total of 8,819 cases of diphtheria were reported worldwide, the most since 2004. However, recent diphtheria epidemiology has not been well described. We analyzed incidence data and data from the literature to describe diphtheria epidemiology. World Health Organization surveillance data were 81% complete; completeness varied by region, indicating underreporting. As national diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) 3 coverage increased, the proportion of case-patients <15 years of age decreased, indicating increased protection of young children. In countries with higher case counts, 66% of case-patients were unvaccinated and 63% were <15 years of age. In countries with sporadic cases, 32% of case-patients were unvaccinated and 66% were >15 years of age, consistent with waning vaccine immunity. Global DTP3 coverage is suboptimal. Attaining high DTP3 coverage and implementing recommended booster doses are necessary to decrease diphtheria incidence. Collection and use of data on subnational and booster dose coverage, enhanced laboratory capacity, and case-based surveillance would improve data quality.

      2. Population-based assessment of clinical risk factors for Legionnaires’ Diseaseexternal icon
        Cooley LA, Pondo T, Francois Watkins LK, Shah P, Schrag S.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Aug 15.
        We used US population-based surveillance data to characterize clinical risk factors for Legionnaires’ disease (LD). The LD incidence increased by age and the risk was elevated for 12 clinical conditions, when compared to healthy adults. This information can be used to guide testing, treatment, and public health prevention efforts.

      3. Rising HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Nigeria: a trend analysisexternal icon
        Eluwa GI, Adebajo SB, Eluwa T, Ogbanufe O, Ilesanmi O, Nzelu C.
        BMC Public Health. 2019 Sep 2;19(1):1201.
        BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are conservatively estimated to be less than 1% of the Nigerian population yet nationally account for about 20% of new HIV infection. We estimated the trend in HIV prevalence and determined correlates of HIV infection among MSM. METHODS: This study used data from respondent-driven sampling in three rounds of integrated biological and behavioral surveillance survey (2007, 2010 and 2014) and covered three states in 2007, six states in 2010 and eight states in 2014. Each round used similar methodology and thus allows for comparison. Behavioral data were obtained using a structured pre-coded questionnaire. Differences in categorical variables were assessed with Chi Square. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV. RESULTS: A total of 879, 1545 and 3611 MSM were recruited in 2007, 2010 and 2014 respectively. Median age was 22 years for 2007 and 2014 while it was 24 years in 2010. About one-third of MSM in 2007 and 2014 and about two-fifths in 2010 had engaged in transactional sex. HIV prevalence increased from 14% in 2007 to 17% in 2010 to 23% in 2014 (p < 0.0001). Factors associated with HIV include older age >/= 25 years (adjusted odds ratio {AOR}:2.41; 95% CI:1.84-3.16); receptive anal sex (AOR:1.92; 95% CI:1.54-2.40) and history of sexually transmitted infections (AOR:1.26; 95% CI:1.02-1.55). CONCLUSION: There’s been a consistent and significant increase in HIV prevalence among MSM with about 10-percentage points relative increase per year over 7 years. Older MSM were more likely to be HIV positive and this may reflect their prolonged exposure to high risk sexual activities. Evidence based interventions are urgently needed to mitigate intra-group HIV transmission and propagation of HIV epidemic between MSM and the general population.

      4. Prevention of influenza hospitalization among adults in the United States, 2015-2016: Results From the US Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN)external icon
        Ferdinands JM, Gaglani M, Martin ET, Middleton D, Monto AS, Murthy K, Silveira FP, Talbot HK, Zimmerman R, Alyanak E, Strickland C, Spencer S, Fry AM.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 13;220(8):1265-1275.
        BACKGROUND: Evidence establishing effectiveness of influenza vaccination for prevention of severe illness is limited. The US Hospitalized Adult Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (HAIVEN) is a multiyear test-negative case-control study initiated in 2015-2016 to estimate effectiveness of vaccine in preventing influenza hospitalization among adults. METHODS: Adults aged >/=18 years admitted to 8 US hospitals with acute respiratory illness and testing positive for influenza by polymerase chain reaction were cases; those testing negative were controls. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated with logistic regression adjusting for age, comorbidities, and other confounding factors and stratified by frailty, 2-year vaccination history, and clinical presentation. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 236 cases and 1231 controls; mean age was 58 years. More than 90% of patients had >/=1 comorbidity elevating risk of influenza complications. Fifty percent of cases and 70% of controls were vaccinated. Vaccination was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-65%) and 53% (95% CI, 11%-76%) effective in preventing hospitalization due to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B virus infection, respectively. Vaccine was protective for all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: During the 2015-2016 US influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant season, we found that vaccination halved the risk of influenza-association hospitalization among adults, most of whom were at increased risk of serious influenza complications due to comorbidity or age.

      5. Melioidosis after Hurricanes Irma and Maria, St. Thomas/St. John District, US Virgin Islands, October 2017external icon
        Guendel I, Ekpo LL, Hinkle MK, Harrison CJ, Blaney DD, Gee JE, Elrod MG, Boyd S, Gulvik CA, Liu L, Hoffmaster AR, Ellis BR, Hunte-Ceasar T, Ellis EM.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Oct;25(10):1952-1955.
        We report 2 cases of melioidosis in women with diabetes admitted to an emergency department in the US Virgin Islands during October 2017. These cases emerged after Hurricanes Irma and Maria and did not have a definitively identified source. Poor outcomes were observed when septicemia and pulmonary involvement were present.

      6. Epidemiology of gonorrhoea: a global perspectiveexternal icon
        Kirkcaldy RD, Weston E, Segurado AC, Hughes G.
        Sex Health. 2019 Sep 11.
        Although understanding the local epidemiology of gonorrhoea is critical for local efforts, understanding the multinational epidemiology may support development of national and international prevention and control policies and strategies. In this paper, current epidemiology of gonorrhoea is reviewed through an international lens and with a focus on selected populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that ~87 million new gonococcal infections occurred among people aged 15-49 years in 2016. Gonorrhoea rates are rising in many countries. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men, racial or ethnic minorities, Indigenous populations and sex workers appear to bear disproportionate burdens of gonorrhoea. International travel can facilitate spread of gonorrhoea, including resistant strains, across international borders. Critical gaps in epidemiological knowledge are highlighted, including data on gonorrhoea among transgender persons and the burden of extragenital gonorrhoea. Even as further data are gathered, action – informed by currently available data – is needed now to confront this growing international threat.

      7. Factoring prior treatment into tuberculosis infection prevalence estimates, United States, 2011-2012external icon
        Vonnahme LA, Haddad MB, Navin TR.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Oct;25(10):1949-1951.
        To refine estimates of how many persons in the United States are candidates for treatment of latent tuberculosis, we removed from analysis persons who self-reported prior treatment on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012. We estimate that 12.6 million persons could benefit from treatment to prevent active tuberculosis.

      8. Characteristics of Campylobacter and Salmonella infections and acute gastroenteritis in older adults in Australia, Canada, and the United Statesexternal icon
        White AE, Ciampa N, Chen Y, Kirk M, Nesbitt A, Bruce BB, Walter ES.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 15;69(9):1545-1552.
        BACKGROUND: The early detection of enteric infections in older adults is challenging because typical signs and symptoms of disease may be less common, absent, or overlooked. Understanding illness characteristics of enteric infections among older adults could improve the timeliness and accuracy of clinical diagnoses, thereby improving patient outcomes and increasing cases reported to surveillance. METHODS: Here, we describe illness characteristics (percentage reporting bloody diarrhea, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain; percentage hospitalized; duration of hospitalization; and duration of illness) among older adults (>/=65 years) with acute gastroenteritis and culture-confirmed Campylobacter and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in Australia, Canada, and the United States and compare these characteristics with those among younger people (<5 years, 5-24 years, and 25-64 years). RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was found between all symptoms and increasing age group, except for bloody diarrhea in cases of acute gastroenteritis. Adults aged >/=85 years reported bloody diarrhea in only 9% of nontyphoidal Salmonella and 4% of Campylobacter infections compared with 59% and 55% among children aged <5 years. Conversely, a greater percentage of older adults (>/=65) than younger persons (<5, 5-24, 25-64) reported being hospitalized, with an increasing linear relationship in age groups 65 years and older. CONCLUSIONS: Although older adults are more likely to have severe illness and be hospitalized, we found that the proportion of persons reporting symptoms typically associated with enteric infections decreases with age. These findings have implications for clinical recognition and treatment of gastrointestinal illness, as well as for public health research.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Bourbon virus in wild and domestic animals, Missouri, USA, 2012-2013external icon
        Jackson KC, Gidlewski T, Root JJ, Bosco-Lauth AM, Lash RR, Harmon JR, Brault AC, Panella NA, Nicholson WL, Komar N.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Sep;25(9):1752-1753.
        Since its recent discovery, Bourbon virus has been isolated from a human and ticks. To assess exposure of potential vertebrate reservoirs, we assayed banked serum and plasma samples from wildlife and domestic animals in Missouri, USA, for Bourbon virus-neutralizing antibodies. We detected high seroprevalence in raccoons (50%) and white-tailed deer (86%).

    • Environmental Health
      1. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and a polybrominated biphenyl and risk of thyroid cancer in women: Single and multi-pollutant approachesexternal icon
        Deziel NC, Alfonso-Garrido J, Warren JL, Huang H, Sjodin A, Zhang Y.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019 Oct;28(10):1755-1764.
        BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence is the most rapidly increasing malignancy; rates are three times higher in women than men. Thyroid hormone-disrupting flame-retardant chemicals, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), may contribute to this trend. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between PBDE/PBB exposure and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in 250 incident female papillary thyroid cancer cases and 250 female controls frequency-matched on age. Interviews and postdiagnostic serum samples were collected from 2010 to 2013. Serum samples were analyzed for 11 congeners. We calculated ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using single-pollutant logistic regression models for continuous and categorical lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of PBDE/PBB, adjusted for age, alcohol consumption, and education. We applied three multi-pollutant approaches [standard multipollutant regression models, hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression modeling (HBLR), principal components analysis (PCA)] to investigate associations with PBDE/PBB mixtures. RESULTS: In single-pollutant models, a decreased risk was observed at the highest (>90th percentile) versus lowest (<median) category of BDE-209 concentrations (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.98); an elevated PTC risk was observed at the highest versus lowest category of BB-153 concentrations (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.96-3.39). In standard multi-pollutant models, an interquartile range increase in BDE-100 concentrations was associated with increased PTC risk (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38). HBLR and PCA yielded no statistically significant results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results using single- and multi-pollutant modeling do not generally support a positive association with PBDE/PBB and PTC risk. IMPACT: Prospective studies with more advanced statistical approaches to analyze mixtures and populations with higher exposures could reveal new insights.

      2. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and DNA methylation in the Anniston Community Health Surveyexternal icon
        Pittman GS, Wang X, Campbell MR, Coulter SJ, Olson JR, Pavuk M, Birnbaum LS, Bell DA.
        Epigenetics. 2019 Oct 14:1-21.
        Anniston, Alabama was home to a major polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) production facility from 1929 until 1971. The Anniston Community Health Survey I and II (ACHS-I 2005-2007, ACHS-II 2013-2014) were conducted to explore the effects of PCB exposures. In this report we examined associations between PCB exposure and DNA methylation in whole blood using EPIC arrays (ACHS-I, n = 518; ACHS-II, n = 299). For both cohorts, 35 PCBs were measured in serum. We modelled methylation versus PCB wet-weight concentrations for: the sum of 35 PCBs, mono-ortho substituted PCBs, di-ortho substituted PCBs, tri/tetra-ortho substituted PCBs, oestrogenic PCBs, and antiestrogenic PCBs. Using robust multivariable linear regression, we adjusted for age, race, sex, smoking, total lipids, and six blood cell-type percentages. We carried out a two-stage analysis; discovery in ACHS-I followed by replication in ACHS-II. In ACHS-I, we identified 28 associations (17 unique CpGs) at p </= 6.70E-08 and 369 associations (286 unique CpGs) at FDR p </= 5.00E-02. A large proportion of the genes have been observed to interact with PCBs or dioxins in model studies. Among the 28 genome-wide significant CpG/PCB associations, 14 displayed replicated directional effects in ACHS-II; however, only one in ACHS-II was statistically significant at p </= 1.70E-04. While we identified many novel CpGs significantly associated with PCB exposures in ACHS-I, the differential methylation was modest and the effect was attenuated seven years later in ACHS-II, suggesting a lack of persistence of the associations between PCB exposures and altered DNA methylation in blood cells.

      3. Urinary concentrations of diisoheptyl phthalate biomarkers in convenience samples of U.S. adults in 2000 and 2018-2019external icon
        Silva MJ, Wong LY, Preau JL, Samandar E, Obi E, Calafat AM, Botelho JC.
        Toxics. 2019 Oct 11;7(4).
        We know little about the potential health risks from exposure to diisoheptyl phthalate (DiHpP), a plasticizer used in commercial applications. The production of DiHpP ended in the United States in 2010, but DiHpP may still be present in phthalate diester mixtures. To investigate human exposure to DiHpP, we used three oxidative metabolites of DiHpP: Monohydroxyheptyl phthalate (MHHpP), mono-oxoheptylphthalate (MOHpP), and monocarboxyhexyl phthalate (MCHxP) as exposure biomarkers. We analyzed urine collected anonymously in 2000 (N = 144) and 2018-2019 (N = 205) from convenience groups of U.S. adults using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. We detected MCHxP in all the samples tested in 2000 (GM = 2.01 ng/mL) and 2018-2019 (GM = 1.31 ng/mL). MHHpP was also detected in 100% of the 2018-2019 samples (GM = 0.59 ng/mL) and 96% of the 2000 urine samples analyzed (GM = 0.38 ng/mL). MOHpP was detected in 57% (2018-2019, GM = 0.03 ng/mL) and 92% (2000, GM = 0.19 ng/mL) of samples. The presence of MHHpP, MOHpP, and MCHxP in the 2018-2019 samples suggests recent exposure to DiHpP. Intercorrelations between metabolite concentrations were more significant in samples collected in 2000 than in samples collected in 2018-2019. The differences in urinary metabolite profiles and intercorrelations from samples collected during 2000 and 2018-2019 likely reflects changes in the composition of commercial DiHpP formulations before and after 2010.

    • Epidemiology and Surveillance
      1. Heterogeneous local dynamics revealed by classification analysis of spatially disaggregated time series dataexternal icon
        Perkins TA, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, Manore C, Siraj AS, Espana G, Barker CM, Johansson MA, Reiner RC.
        Epidemics. 2019 Jul 22:100357.
        Time series data provide a crucial window into infectious disease dynamics, yet their utility is often limited by the spatially aggregated form in which they are presented. When working with time series data, violating the implicit assumption of homogeneous dynamics below the scale of spatial aggregation could bias inferences about underlying processes. We tested this assumption in the context of the 2015-2016 Zika epidemic in Colombia, where time series of weekly case reports were available at national, departmental, and municipal scales. First, we performed a descriptive analysis, which showed that the timing of departmental-level epidemic peaks varied by three months and that departmental-level estimates of the time-varying reproduction number, R(t), showed patterns that were distinct from a national-level estimate. Second, we applied a classification algorithm to six features of proportional cumulative incidence curves, which showed that variability in epidemic duration, the length of the epidemic tail, and consistency with a cumulative normal density curve made the greatest contributions to distinguishing groups. Third, we applied this classification algorithm to data simulated with a stochastic transmission model, which showed that group assignments were consistent with simulated differences in the basic reproduction number, R0. This result, along with associations between spatial drivers of transmission and group assignments based on observed data, suggests that the classification algorithm is capable of detecting differences in temporal patterns that are associated with differences in underlying drivers of incidence patterns. Overall, this diversity of temporal patterns at local scales underscores the value of spatially disaggregated time series data.

      2. Web, or online, probing has the potential to supplement existing questionnaire design processes by providing structured cognitive data on a wider sample than typical qualitative-only question evaluation methods can achieve. One of the practical impediments to the further integration of web probing is the concern of survey managers about how the probes themselves may affect response to other items and to a questionnaire as a whole. This study explores the effects web probes had on response to a self-administered web survey by comparing two rounds of this survey – one without web probes and one with web probes – that were administered to a probability-based panel of approximately 100,000 American adults. While the item response to the probes themselves appears to be related to the way they are formatted, the findings indicate that web probes do not have an overall negative effect on a questionnaire in which they are embedded.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Genomic characterization of Haemophilus influenzae: a focus on the capsule locusexternal icon
        Potts CC, Topaz N, Rodriguez-Rivera LD, Hu F, Chang HY, Whaley MJ, Schmink S, Retchless AC, Chen A, Ramos E, Doho GH, Wang X.
        BMC Genomics. 2019 Oct 12;20(1):733.
        BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) can cause invasive diseases such as meningitis, pneumonia, or sepsis. Typeable Hi includes six serotypes (a through f), each expressing a unique capsular polysaccharide. The capsule, encoded by the genes within the capsule locus, is a major virulence factor of typeable Hi. Non-typeable (NTHi) does not express capsule and is associated with invasive and non-invasive diseases. METHODS: A total of 395 typeable and 293 NTHi isolates were characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Phylogenetic analysis and multilocus sequence typing were used to characterize the overall genetic diversity. Pair-wise comparisons were used to evaluate the capsule loci. A WGS serotyping method was developed to predict the Hi serotype. WGS serotyping results were compared to slide agglutination (SAST) or real-time PCR (rt-PCR) serotyping. RESULTS: Isolates of each Hi serotype clustered into one or two subclades, with each subclade being associated with a distinct sequence type (ST). NTHi isolates were genetically diverse, with seven subclades and 125 STs being detected. Regions I and III of the capsule locus were conserved among the six serotypes (>/=82% nucleotide identity). In contrast, genes in Region II were less conserved, with only six gene pairs from all serotypes showing >/=56% nucleotide identity. The WGS serotyping method was 99.9% concordant with SAST and 100% concordant with rt-PCR in determining the Hi serotype. CONCLUSIONS: Genomic analysis revealed a higher degree of genetic diversity among NTHi compared to typeable Hi. The WGS serotyping method accurately predicted the Hi capsule type and can serve as an alternative method for Hi serotyping.

    • Health Disparities
      1. Racial disparities in the incidence of primary chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus in the southeastern US: The Georgia Lupus Registryexternal icon
        Drenkard C, Parker S, Aspey LD, Gordon C, Helmick CG, Bao G, Lim SS.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2019 Jan;71(1):95-103.
        OBJECTIVE: Relative to studies of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), epidemiologic studies of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE) are rare and are limited to populations with no racial diversity. We sought to provide minimum estimates of the incidence of primary CCLE (CCLE in the absence of SLE) in a population comprised predominantly of white individuals and black individuals in the southeastern region of the US. METHODS: The Georgia Lupus Registry allowed for the use of multiple sources for case-finding, including dermatology and rheumatology practices, multispecialty health care facilities, and dermatopathology reports. Cases with a clinical or clinical/histologic diagnosis of CCLE were classified as definite. Cases ascertained exclusively from dermatopathology reports were categorized as probable. Age-standardized incidence rates stratified by sex and race were calculated for discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) in particular and for CCLE in general. RESULTS: The overall age-adjusted estimates for combined (definite and probable) CCLE were 3.9 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.4-4.5). The overall age-adjusted incidences of definite and combined DLE were 2.9 (95% CI 2.4-3.4) and 3.7 (95% CI 3.2-4.3) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. When capture-recapture methods were used, the age-adjusted incidence of definite DLE increased to 4.0 (95% CI 3.2-4.3). The black:white and female:male incidence ratios for definite DLE were 5.4 and 3.1, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the striking racial disparities in susceptibility to primary CCLE, with black individuals having a 3-fold to 5-fold increased incidence of CCLE in general, and DLE in particular, compared with white individuals. The observed sex differences were consistent with those reported previously, with a 3 times higher risk of DLE in women compared with men.

      2. We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of oncogenic HPV types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (16/18) and nonavalent HPV vaccine (31/33/45/52/58) in women diagnosed with CIN2/3/AIS after quadrivalent HPV vaccine introduction (2008-2015). Typing data from 1810 cervical tissue specimen from HPV-IMPACT (Alameda County, California, US), a population-based CIN2/3/AIS surveillance effort, were analyzed. Using log-binomial regression, we calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing type prevalence by race/ethnicity, adjusted for health insurance, age, CIN2/3/AIS grade, and time period, overall and in the “early vaccine era” (2008-2011) and “later vaccine era” (2012-2015). Overall, oncogenic HPV16/18 prevalence was significantly lower among black (43%) and Hispanic (43%) women compared with white (52%) women (aPR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.70, 0.93) and 0.80 (0.70, 0.91), respectively). In 2008-2011, proportion of HPV16/18 detected was significantly lower in black (47%), Hispanic (46%), and Asian (42%) women compared to white (58%) women (aPR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.67, 0.96), 0.75 (0.63, 0.90), and 0.73 (0.58, 0.90), respectively). There were no significant differences in 2012-2015. Between the two eras, HPV16/18 prevalence declined in white (-11%), black (-9%), and Hispanic (-6%) women, and increased in Asian women (12%). Decreasing HPV 16/18 prevalence in CIN2/3/AIS lesions in white, black, and Hispanic women may suggest benefit from quadrivalent vaccination. In our unadjusted analysis of HPV31/33/45/52/58, prevalence did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity, but was significantly higher among Hispanic women (32%) compared to white women (27%) after adjustment (aPR (95%CI): 1.22 (1.02, 1.47). Prevalence was also non-significantly higher among black (32%) and Asian (33%) women. This analysis suggests that the nonavalent vaccine’s potential for impact against cervical precancers will not be lower in women of color compared to white women. These data underscore the importance of equitable vaccination in facilitating continued declines of vaccine-preventable HPV types among all women.

    • Health Economics
      1. [No abstract]

      2. BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure (i.e. hypertension) and diabetes (BPD) are the two major noncommunicable diseases that expose households to high out-of-pocket treatment costs in low- and middle-income countries. Medication is the biggest share of BPD treatment expenses, and households with someone suffering from BPD may need to adjust consumption of other commodities to pay for essential BPD medicines. We assess how BPD medication expenditures are associated with crowding out of other household commodities in Pakistan. METHODS: We analyze self-reported household consumption data from the nationally representative Pakistan Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2015-16. We estimate conditional Engel curves under the Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System framework to examine the differences in average consumption shares between BPD medication-consuming and not-consuming households. RESULTS: We find that BPD medication expenditures are associated with crowding out of food and crowding in of other medical expenditures for all households, but the magnitudes of crowding out and crowding in are larger for the poorer households. BPD medication spending is also associated with crowding out of education and personal care for middle-class and wealthier households. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that allocations for essential commodities, like food and education, are lower for BPD medication-consuming households and inform policies for preventive health promotions and affordable treatment for hypertension and diabetes.

      3. Exome sequencing: value is in the eye of the beholderexternal icon
        Grosse SD, Rasmussen SA.
        Genet Med. 2019 Oct 14.

        [No abstract]

      4. Utilization and cost of mammography screening among commercially insured women 50 to 64 years of age in the United States, 2012-2016external icon
        Khushalani JS, Ekwueme DU, Richards TB, Sabatino SA, Guy GP, Zhang Y, Tangka F.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2019 Oct 15.
        Background: In recent years, most insurance plans eliminated cost-sharing for breast cancer screening and recommended screening intervals changed, and newer modalities-digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis-became more widely available. The objectives of this study are to examine how these changes affected utilization, frequency, and costs of breast cancer screening among commercially insured women, and to understand factors associated with utilization and frequency of screening. Materials and Methods: This study used commercial insurance claims data for women 50 to 64 years of age, continuously enrolled in commercial insurance plans during 2012-2016. Results: Of the 685,737 eligible women, 20% were not screened, 40% received annual screening, 24% received biennial screening, and 16% were screened less frequently than recommended during the time period examined. Sociodemographic factors such as age <60 years, rurality, and fee-for-service insurance were associated with low screening utilization. Patients who received annual screening incurred approximately 1.78 times higher costs compared to those who received biennial screening during the study period. Digital mammography was the most costly and commonly used modality along with computer-aided detection. Conclusions: Evidence-based interventions to promote screening among women who are screened less frequently are needed along with interventions to move toward biennial screening rather than annual screening. Increasing provider awareness regarding breast cancer screening rates and frequency among various sociodemographic groups is essential to guide provider recommendations and shared decision making. The results of this study can guide targeted public health interventions to reduce barriers to screening, and can also serve as inputs for economic analyses of screening interventions and programs.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Self-reported National Healthcare Safety Network knowledge and enrollment: A national survey of nursing homesexternal icon
        Fu CJ, Agarwal M, Dick AW, Bell JM, Stone ND, Chastain AM, Stone PW.
        Am J Infect Control. 2019 Oct 9.
        Predictors of nursing home staff knowledge of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) and facility enrollment were explored in a national survey. Facility participation in Quality Innovation Network-Quality Improvement Organization initiatives was positively associated with both knowledge and enrollment. In addition, engaging clinical personnel in decision making on NHSN enrollment was positively associated with staff knowledge of NHSN.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. [No abstract]

      2. Vaccination coverage by age 24 months among children born in 2015 and 2016 – National Immunization Survey-Child, United States, 2016-2018external icon
        Hill HA, Singleton JA, Yankey D, Elam-Evans LD, Pingali SC, Kang Y.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Oct 18;68(41):913-918.
        The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that children be vaccinated against 14 potentially serious illnesses during the first 24 months of life (1). CDC used data from the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) to assess vaccination coverage with the recommended number of doses of each vaccine at the national, state, territorial, and selected local levels* among children born in 2015 and 2016. Coverage by age 24 months was at least 90% nationally for >/=3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, >/=1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), >/=3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and >/=1 dose of varicella vaccine, although MMR coverage was <90% in 20 states. Children were least likely to be up to date by age 24 months with >/=2 doses of influenza vaccine (56.6%). Only 1.3% of children born in 2015 and 2016 had received no vaccinations by the second birthday. Coverage was lower for uninsured children and for children insured by Medicaid than for those with private health insurance. Vaccination coverage can be increased by improving access to vaccine providers and eliminating missed opportunities to vaccinate children during health care visits. Increased use of local vaccination coverage data is needed to identify communities at higher risk for outbreaks of measles and other vaccine-preventable diseases.

      3. BACKGROUND: Surveillance of AEFI is fundamental for improving safety and maintaining public support for vaccination. In SEAR, billions of doses of vaccine are given annually. The objective of the 2019 SEAR AEFI training workshop was to further strengthen in-country vaccine safety, assess capacity compared to 2014 and to better integrate communication into the AEFI causality assessment program. METHODS: A 3 (1/2) day workshop with AEFI experts from all 11 SEAR countries. Participants outlined each county’s AEFI data, critiqued their AEFI program, reviewed and critiqued causality assessment of 23 anonymized serious AEFI cases and proposed communication plans for each. RESULTS: Between 2016 and 2018, over 2.9 billion doses of vaccine were given in SEAR. Compared to 2014, AEFI detection and causality assessment skills had improved. AEFI experts’ communication planning skills markedly improved during the workshop. Good concordance was found between country causality assessment findings and the workshop critiques. A list of targeted recommendations (country, regional and global levels) arose from the workshop. CONCLUSIONS: SEAR countries have much improved their AEFI detection and causality assessment expertise since 2014. Given the high volume of doses administered and the AEFI technical expertise, SEAR countries can well monitor safety of regionally produced vaccines. Integration of AEFI communication into AEFI causality assessment can help mitigate potential negative impacts of serious AEFIs.

      4. Vaccination coverage with selected vaccines and exemption rates among children in kindergarten – United States, 2018-19 school yearexternal icon
        Seither R, Loretan C, Driver K, Mellerson JL, Knighton CL, Black CL.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Oct 18;68(41):905-912.
        State and local school vaccination requirements exist to ensure that students are protected against vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by state and local immunization programs* on vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten in 49 states, exemptions for kindergartners in 50 states, and provisional enrollment and grace period status for kindergartners in 30 states. Nationally, vaccination coverage(dagger) was 94.9% for the state-required number of doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); 94.7% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR); and 94.8% for the state-required doses of varicella vaccine. Whereas 2.5% of kindergartners had an exemption from at least one vaccine,( section sign) 2.8% of kindergartners were not up to date for MMR and did not have a vaccine exemption. Nearly all states could achieve the recommended >/=95% MMR coverage if all nonexempt kindergartners were vaccinated in accordance with local and state vaccination policies.

      5. Characteristics and preparation of the last-minute traveler: analysis of vaccine usage in the Global TravEpiNet Consortiumexternal icon
        Yates JA, Rao SR, Walker AT, Esposito DH, Sotir M, LaRocque RC, Ryan ET.
        J Travel Med. 2019 Sep 2;26(6).
        BACKGROUND: Last-minute travellers (LMTs) present challenges for health care providers because they may have insufficient time for recommended vaccinations or pre-travel preparation. Our objective was to obtain a better understanding of LMTs in order to help travel medicine providers develop improved strategies to decrease the number of LMTs and potentially reduce travel-related morbidity. METHODS: We defined LMTs as travellers with a departure date of 7 days or fewer from the medical encounter. We analysed the characteristics and health preparation of 12 494 LMTs who presented to a network of US clinical practices for pre-travel health advice between January 2009 and December 2015. RESULTS: LMTs comprised 16% of all travellers. More LMTs than non-LMTs travelled for business or to visit friends and relatives (VFR) (26% vs 16% and 15% vs 8%, respectively; P < 0.0001). More LMTs also travelled for longer than 1 month (27% vs 21%; P < 0.0001) and visited only urban areas (40% vs 29%; P < 0.0001). At least one travel vaccine was deferred by 18% of LMTs because of insufficient time before departure. Vaccines that required multiple vaccinations, such as Japanese encephalitis and rabies, were the most likely to be deferred because of time constraints. CONCLUSION: Interventions to improve the timing of pre-travel health consultations should be developed, particularly for business and VFR travellers. Recently endorsed accelerated vaccine schedules for Japanese encephalitis and rabies may help some LMTs receive protection against these infections despite late presentation for pre-travel health care.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Using a Community Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation to prevent and reduce intimate partner violence and sexual violenceexternal icon
        Okasako-Schmucker DL, Cole KH, Finnie RK, Basile KC, DeGue S, Niolon PH, Swider SM, Remington PL.
        J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2019 Oct;28(10):1335-1337.
        Intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) are preventable public health problems affecting millions in the United States. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF), an independent panel of experts that develops evidence-based recommendations based on rigorous systematic reviews, recommends interventions that aim to prevent or reduce IPV and SV among youth aged 12-24 years. Decision makers can use these findings to select interventions appropriate for their populations, identify additional areas for research, and justify funding requests.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. [No abstract]

      2. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of West Nile virus NS5 methyltransferase mutantsexternal icon
        Kaiser JA, Luo H, Widen SG, Wood TG, Huang CY, Wang T, Barrett AD.
        Vaccine. 2019 Oct 10.
        Although West Nile virus (WNV) causes annual cases of neurological disease and deaths in humans, a vaccine has not been licensed for human use. Several WNV genes have been targeted for mutagenesis in attempts to generate live attenuated vaccine candidates, including the non-structural protein NS5. Specifically, mutation of WNV NS5-K61A or NS5-E218A in the catalytic tetrad of the methyltransferase decreases enzyme activity of the NS5 protein and correspondingly attenuates the virus in mice. In this report, NS5-K61A, NS5-E218A, and a double mutant encoding both mutations (NS5-K61A/E218A) were compared both in vitro and in vivo. Each single mutant was strongly attenuated in highly susceptible outbred mice, whereas the double mutant unexpectedly was not attenuated. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that the double mutant was capable of reversion at both residues NS5-61 and NS5-218, whereas the genotype of the single mutants did not show evidence of reversion. Overall, either NS5-K61A or NS5-E218A methyltransferase mutations could be potential mutations to include in a candidate live WNV vaccine; however, multiple mutations in the catalytic tetrad of the methyltransferase are not tolerated.

      3. Exposure to 4,4′-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in the occupational setting may lead to development of occupational asthma (OA), and the underlying molecular mechanisms of MDI-induced disease pathogenesis remain an active area of research. Using a nose-only mouse inhalation model, we find that circulating microRNA (miR)-206-3p and miR-381-3p are downregulated after MDI exposure; however, cellular miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p responses after MDI aerosol exposure and their pathophysiological roles in MDI-OA are unknown. We hypothesize that miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p-regulated mechanisms cause increased expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) after MDI aerosol exposure. We examined cellular miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p, calcineurins, nuclear factors of activated T-cells (NFATs) and iNOS levels from both nose-only exposed murine bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALCs) and differentiated THP-1 macrophages treated with MDI-glutathione (GSH) conjugates. Both in vivo murine MDI aerosol exposure and in vitro MDI-GSH exposures in THP-1 macrophages results in downregulation of endogenous miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p and upregulation of PPP3CA and iNOS expression. Transfection of THP-1 macrophages with miR-inhibitor-206-3p and miR-inhibitor-381-3p resulted in the upregulation of PPP3CA and iNOS. Using RNA-induced silencing complex immunoprecipitation (RISC-IP) and translational reporter assays, we verified that PPP3CA, but not iNOS, is directly targeted by both miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p. Downregulation of miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p following by MDI exposure induces Calcineurin/NFAT signaling-mediated iNOS transcription in macrophages and BALCs.

      4. Next generation sequencing and bioinformatics methodologies for infectious disease research and public health: Approaches, applications, and considerations for development of laboratory capacityexternal icon
        Maljkovic Berry I, Melendrez MC, Bishop-Lilly KA, Rutvisuttinunt W, Pollett S, Talundzic E, Morton L, Jarman RG.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Oct 14.
        Next generation sequencing (NGS) combined with bioinformatics has successfully been used in a vast array of analyses for infectious disease research of public health relevance. For instance, NGS and bioinformatics approaches have been used to identify outbreak origins, track transmissions, investigate epidemic dynamics, determine etiological agents of a disease, and discover novel human pathogens. However, implementation of high-quality NGS and bioinformatics in research and public health laboratories can be challenging. These challenges mainly include the choice of the sequencing platform and the sequencing approach, the choice of bioinformatics methodologies, access to the appropriate computation and information technology infrastructure, and recruiting and retaining personnel with the specialized skills and experience in this field. In this review, we summarize the most common NGS and bioinformatics workflows in the context of infectious disease genomic surveillance and pathogen discovery, and highlight the main challenges and considerations for setting up an NGS and bioinformatics-focused infectious disease research public health laboratory. We describe the most commonly used sequencing platforms and review their strengths and weaknesses. We review sequencing approaches that have been used for various pathogens and study questions, as well as the most common difficulties associated with these approaches that should be considered when implementing in a public health or research setting. In addition, we provide a review of some common bioinformatics tools and procedures used for pathogen discovery and genome assembly, along with the most common challenges and solutions. Finally, we summarize the bioinformatics of advanced viral, bacterial, and parasite pathogen characterization, including types of study questions that can be answered when utilizing NGS and bioinformatics.

      5. Susceptibility of influenza A, B, C, and D viruses to Baloxavirexternal icon
        Mishin VP, Patel MC, Chesnokov A, De La Cruz J, Nguyen HT, Lollis L, Hodges E, Jang Y, Barnes J, Uyeki T, Davis CT, Wentworth DE, Gubareva LV.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Oct;25(10):1969-1972.
        Baloxavir showed broad-spectrum in vitro replication inhibition of 4 types of influenza viruses (90% effective concentration range 1.2-98.3 nmol/L); susceptibility pattern was influenza A > B > C > D. This drug also inhibited influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin, including viruses that have pandemic potential and those resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors.

      6. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: Paramyxoviridaeexternal icon
        Rima B, Balkema-Buschmann A, Dundon WG, Duprex P, Easton A, Fouchier R, Kurath G, Lamb R, Lee B, Rota P, Wang L.
        J Gen Virol. 2019 Oct 14.
        The family Paramyxoviridae consists of large enveloped RNA viruses infecting mammals, birds, reptiles and fish. Many paramyxoviruses are host-specific and several, such as measles virus, mumps virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus and several parainfluenza viruses, are pathogenic for humans. The transmission of paramyxoviruses is horizontal, mainly through airborne routes; no vectors are known. This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the family Paramyxoviridae. which is available at

      7. Five months of voluntary wheel running downregulates skeletal muscle LINE-1 gene expression in ratsexternal icon
        Romero MA, Mumford PW, Roberson PA, Osburn SC, Parry HA, Kavazis AN, Gladden LB, Schwartz TS, Baker BA, Toedebusch RG, Childs TE, Booth FW, Roberts MD.
        Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2019 Oct 16.
        Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA and constitute approximately half of the human genome. LINE-1 (L1) is the only active autonomous TE in the mammalian genome and has been implicated in a number of diseases as well as aging. We have previously reported skeletal muscle L1 expression is lower following acute and chronic exercise training in humans. Herein, we used a rodent model of voluntary wheel running to determine if long-term exercise training affects markers of skeletal muscle L1 regulation. Selectively-bred high running female Wistar rats (n=11 per group) were either given access to a running wheel (EX) or not (SED) at 5 weeks of age, and these conditions were maintained until 27 weeks of age. Thereafter, mixed gastrocnemius tissue was harvested and analyzed for L1 mRNA expression and DNA content along with other L1 regulation markers. We observed significantly (p<0.05) lower L1 mRNA expression, higher L1 DNA methylation, and less L1 DNA in accessible chromatin regions in EX versus SED rats. We followed these experiments with 3-h in vitro drug treatments in L6 myotubes to mimic transient exercise-specific signaling events. The AMPK agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR; 4mM) significantly decreased L1 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. However, this effect was not facilitated through increased L1 DNA methylation. Collectively, these data suggest long-term voluntary wheel running downregulates skeletal muscle L1 mRNA, and this may occur through chromatin modifications. Enhanced AMPK signaling with repetitive exercise bouts may also decrease L1 mRNA expression, albeit the mechanism of action remains unknown.

      8. FluChip-8G Insight: HA and NA subtyping of potentially pandemic influenza A viruses in a single assayexternal icon
        Toth E, Dawson ED, Taylor AW, Stoughton RS, Blair RH, Johnson JE, Slinskey A, Fessler R, Smith CB, Talbot S, Rowlen K.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 Oct 13.
        BACKGROUND: Global influenza surveillance in humans and animals is a critical component of pandemic preparedness. The FluChip-8G Insight assay was developed to subtype both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza viruses in a single assay with a same day result. FluChip-8G Insight uses whole gene segment RT-PCR-based amplification to provide robustness against genetic drift and subsequent microarray detection with artificial neural network-based data interpretation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to verify and validate the performance of the FluChip-8G Insight assay for the detection and positive identification of human and animal origin non-seasonal influenza A specimens. METHODS: We evaluated the ability of the FluChip-8G Insight technology to type and HA and NA subtype a sample set consisting of 297 results from 180 unique non-seasonal influenza A strains (49 unique subtypes). RESULTS: FluChip-8G Insight demonstrated a positive percent agreement >/=93% for 5 targeted HA and 5 targeted NA subtypes except for H9 (88%), and negative percent agreement exceeding 95% for all targeted subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: The FluChip-8G Insight neural network-based algorithm used for virus identification performed well over a data set of 297 naive sample results, and can be easily updated to improve performance on emerging strains without changing the underlying assay chemistry.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. State variability in diagnosed conditions for IDEA Part C Eligibilityexternal icon
        Barger B, Squires J, Greer M, Noyes-Grosser D, Eile J, Rice C, Shaw E, Surprenant KS, Twombly E, London S, Zubler J, Wolf RB.
        Infants Young Child. 2019 ;32(4):231-244.
        An infant or toddler can begin the process of receiving Part C early intervention services by having a diagnosed condition with a high probability of developmental delay (Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 2004). How states define those diagnosed conditions that begin the initiation process varies widely. Lists of diagnosed conditions were collected from state Part C websites and Part C coordinators for a descriptive analysis. Across 49 states, the District of Columbia, and 4 territories, a final list of 620 unique conditions was compiled. No single condition was listed by all jurisdictions. Hearing impairment was the condition listed by the most states (n = 38), followed by fetal alcohol syndrome (n = 34). Of the 620 conditions, 168 (27%) were listed by only 1 state, 554 (89%) were listed by fewer than 10 states, and 66 (11%) were listed by 10 or more states. Of these 66 conditions, 47 (71%) were listed by fewer than 20 states. Most of these 66 conditions (n = 48; 72.7%) had a prevalence of “very rare or rare,” 8 (12%) were “common,” 6 (9%) were “very common,” and 4 (6.1%) were “unknown.” The wide heterogeneity in the number and type of diagnostic conditions listed across states should be further investigated as it may represent imbalances in children with diagnosed conditions gaining access to Part C evaluations and individualized family service plans and potentially the services themselves across states. In addition, providing ready access to lists of diagnosed conditions is a simple step that could help states and Part C programs facilitate access to services.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. Mixed methods evaluation explains bypassing of vouchers in micronutrient powder trial in Mozambiqueexternal icon
        Tumilowicz A, Vossenaar M, Kjaer K, Vettersand J, Possolo E, Pelto GH, Jefferds ME, Norte A, Dos Santos Dias K, Osman N, Gonzalez W, Poonawala A, Neufeld LM.
        Matern Child Nutr. 2019 Oct;15(S5):e12718.
        Micronutrient powders (MNP) are recommended by the World Health Organization as an effective intervention to address anaemia in children. A formative process evaluation was conducted to assess the viability of a model using free vouchers in two districts of Mozambique to deliver MNP and motivate adherence to recommendations regarding its use. The evaluation consisted of (a) an examination of programme outcomes using a cross-sectional survey among caregivers of children 6-23 months (n = 1,028) and (b) an ethnographic study to investigate delivery experiences and MNP use from caregiver perspectives (n = 59), programme managers (n = 17), and programme implementers (n = 168). Using a mixed methods approach allowed exploration of unexpected programme outcomes and triangulation of findings. The survey revealed that receiving a voucher was the main implementation bottleneck. Although few caregivers received vouchers (11.5%, CI [9.7, 13.6]), one-fourth received MNP by bypassing the voucher system (26.3%, CI [23.6, 29.0]). Caregivers’ narratives indicated that caregivers were motivated to redeem vouchers but encountered obstacles, including not knowing where or how to redeem them or finding MNP were not available at the shop. Observing these challenges, many programme implementers redeemed vouchers and distributed MNP to caregivers. Virtually, all caregivers who received MNP reported ever feeding it to their child. This study’s findings are consistent with other studies across a range of contexts suggesting that although programmes are generally effective in motivating initial use, more attention is required to improve access to MNP and support continued use.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Background: Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are mixtures with inhalation exposures as mists, dusts, and vapors, and dermal exposure in the dispersed and bulk liquid phase. A quantitative risk assessment was performed for exposure to MWF and respiratory disease. Methods: Risks associated with MWF were derived from published studies and NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluations, and lifetime risks were calculated. The outcomes analyzed included adult onset asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary function impairment, and reported symptoms. Incidence rates were compiled or estimated, and annual proportional loss of respiratory capacity was derived from cross-sectional assessments. Results: A strong healthy worker survivor effect was present. New-onset asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, at 0.1 mg/m3 MWF under continuous outbreak conditions, had a lifetime risk of 45%; if the associated microbiological conditions occur with only 5% prevalence, then the lifetime risk would be about 3%. At 0.1 mg/m3, the estimate of excess lifetime risk of attributable pulmonary impairment was 0.25%, which may have been underestimated by a factor of 5 or more by a strong healthy worker survivor effect. The symptom prevalence associated with respiratory impairment at 0.1 mg/m3 MWF was estimated to be 5% (published studies) and 21% (Health Hazard Evaluations). Conclusion: Significant risks of impairment and chronic disease occurred at 0.1 mg/m3 for MWFs in use mostly before 2000. Evolving MWFs contain new ingredients with uncharacterized long-term hazards.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Integrate classroom physical activity in schoolsexternal icon
        Chen BH, Michael S, Borgogna B, Holmes K, Hughes K, Jew L, Juergens M.
        J Phys Educ Recreat Dance. 2019 ;90(8):10-19.
        The 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth reported that only 24% of U.S. children and youth ages 6 to 17 meet the national recommendation of 60 minutes of daily physical activity, grading the nation at a D-. Schools can help students meet this national recommendation, as close to 60 million children and adolescents attend school. The purpose of this article is to explain the health and academic benefits of classroom physical activity, describe strategies and resources to help schools integrate classroom physical activity throughout the school day, and highlight the possible role of physical educators in supporting the implementation of classroom physical activity strategies. Throughout, there will be quotations with practical ideas and shared learning from state and local practitioners across the country who support and implement classroom physical activity.

      2. Development of the Fitness Education Index: A scale of organizational level capacityexternal icon
        Chen YT, Barcelona JM, Cance JD, Calvert HG, Barnes SP, Wargo J, Castelli DM.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2019 Oct 16:1-7.
        Purpose: Fitness education is essential for children’s health, but determining the effectiveness of instruction related to health-related fitness is difficult. The present study developed and confirmed the validity of a 20-item scale, adapted from the School Health Index (Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014), to evaluate the success of fitness education portion of the Presidential Youth Fitness Program (PYFP) across a sample of 785 teachers. Method: The initial subset (n = 373) represented 353 schools and was used for conducting an exploratory factor analysis. The second subset (n = 412) representing 404 schools, was used to conduct the confirmatory factor analysis. Teachers self-assessed their perceived degree of implementation of fitness education (full, partial, under development, not in place) within their school (i.e., teachers helped students set fitness goals). Results: An initial exploratory factor analysis revealed that the Fitness Education Index questions clustered into six factors. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis conducted using Mplus concluded the six-factor solution was a good fit (CFI = 0.90, TLI = 0.88, RMSEA = 0.08, SRMR = 0.06). Conclusion: This scale is a valid measure of a school’s readiness to initiate and track progress toward the full implementation of fitness education.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Tobacco use and tobacco-related behaviors – 11 countries, 2008-2017external icon
        Ahluwalia IB, Arrazola RA, Zhao L, Shi J, Dean A, Rainey E, Palipudi K, Twentyman E, Armour BS.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Oct 18;68(41):928-933.
        Each year, tobacco use is responsible for approximately 8 million deaths worldwide, including 7 million deaths among persons who use tobacco and 1.2 million deaths among nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) (1). Approximately 80% of the 1.1 billion persons who smoke tobacco worldwide reside in low- and middle-income countries (2,3). The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides the foundation for countries to implement and manage tobacco control through the MPOWER policy package,* which includes monitoring tobacco use, protecting persons from SHS, warning them about the danger of tobacco, and enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, or sponsorship (tobacco advertising) (4). CDC analyzed data from 11 countries that completed two or more rounds of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) during 2008-2017. Tobacco use and tobacco-related behaviors that were assessed included current tobacco use, SHS exposure, thinking about quitting because of warning labels, and exposure to tobacco advertising. Across the assessed countries, the estimated percentage change in tobacco use from the first round to the most recent round ranged from -21.5% in Russia to 1.1% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in SHS exposure ranged from -71.5% in Turkey to 72.9% in Thailand. Estimated percentage change in thinking about quitting because of warning labels ranged from 77.4% in India to -33.0% in Turkey. Estimated percentage change in exposure to tobacco advertising ranged from -66.1% in Russia to 44.2% in Thailand. Continued implementation and enforcement of proven tobacco control interventions and strategies at the country level, as outlined in MPOWER, can help reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality worldwide (3,5,6).

      2. Evidence of the Impact of the Tips From Former Smokers Campaign: Results From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Systemexternal icon
        Davis KC, Murphy-Hoefer R, Levine B, King BA, Hu S, Rodes R.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Oct 10;16:E137.
        The Tips From Former Smokers campaign (Tips) has demonstrated significant impact as a population-based intervention for smoking cessation in the United States. Since 2012, evaluations of Tips have relied on web-panel data to attribute the campaign to smoking cessation outcomes. We re-examined the relationship between market-level doses of the campaign and quit attempts by using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to triangulate prior findings. We found that Tips was associated with increased quit attempts among smokers, which validates prior evaluation research on the impact of Tips. These results suggest that continued investments in Tips may help sustain its impact on cessation-related outcomes.

      3. Background: Drug use-associated infective endocarditis (DUA-IE) is increasing as a result of the opioid epidemic. Infective endocarditis may require valve surgery, but surgical treatment of DUA-IE has invoked controversy, and the extent of its use is unknown. Objective: To examine hospitalization trends for DUA-IE, the proportion of hospitalizations with surgery, patient characteristics, length of stay, and charges. Design: 10-year analysis of a statewide hospital discharge database. Setting: North Carolina hospitals, 2007 to 2017. Patients: All patients aged 18 years or older hospitalized for IE. Measurements: Annual trends in all IE admissions and in IE hospitalizations with valve surgery, stratified by patients’ drug use status. Characteristics of DUA-IE surgical hospitalizations, including patient demographic characteristics, length of stay, disposition, and charges. Results: Of 22 825 IE hospitalizations, 2602 (11%) were for DUA-IE. Valve surgery was performed in 1655 IE hospitalizations (7%), including 285 (17%) for DUA-IE. Annual DUA-IE hospitalizations increased from 0.92 to 10.95 and DUA-IE hospitalizations with surgery from 0.10 to 1.38 per 100 000 persons. In the final year, 42% of IE valve surgeries were performed in patients with DUA-IE. Compared with other surgical patients with IE, those with DUA-IE were younger (median age, 33 vs. 56 years), were more commonly female (47% vs. 33%) and white (89% vs. 63%), and were primarily insured by Medicaid (38%) or uninsured (35%). Hospital stays for DUA-IE were longer (median, 27 vs. 17 days), with higher median charges ($250 994 vs. $198 764). Charges for 282 DUA-IE hospitalizations exceeded $78 million. Limitation: Reliance on administrative data and billing codes. Conclusion: DUA-IE hospitalizations and valve surgeries increased more than 12-fold, and nearly half of all IE valve surgeries were performed in patients with DUA-IE. The swell of patients with DUA-IE is reshaping the scope, type, and financing of health care resources needed to effectively treat IE. Primary Funding Source: National Institutes of Health.

      4. Update: Interim guidance for health care providers evaluating and caring for patients with suspected e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury – United States, October 2019external icon
        Siegel D, Jatlaoui T, Koumans E, Kiernan E, Layer M, Cates J, Kimball A, Weissman D, Petersen E, Reagan-Steiner S, Godfred-Cato S, Moulia D, Moritz E, Lehnert J, Mitchko J, London J, Zaki S, King B, Jones C, Patel A, Meaney Delman D, Koppaka R.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 ;68:919-927.
        Forty-nine states, the District of Columbia, and one U.S. territory have reported 1,299 cases of lung injury associated with the use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, products. Twenty-six deaths have been reported from 21 states. Based on the most current data, CDC’s updated interim guidance provides a framework for health care providers in their initial assessment, evaluation, management, and follow-up of persons with symptoms of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use associated lung injury (EVALI). Rapid recognition by health care providers of patients with EVALI and an increased understanding of treatment considerations could reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this injury.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Prevalence and incidence of Zika virus infection among household contacts of patients with Zika virus disease, Puerto Rico, 2016-2017external icon
        Rosenberg ES, Doyle K, Munoz-Jordan JL, Klein L, Adams L, Lozier M, Weiss K, Sharp TM, Paz-Bailey G.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Aug 9;220(6):932-939.
        BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence or incidence of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in settings affected by the 2015-2016 Zika pandemic and associated risk factors. We assessed these factors among household contacts of patients with ZIKV disease enrolled in a cohort study in Puerto Rico during 2016-2017. METHODS: Household contacts of index case patients completed a questionnaire and gave specimens for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing to detect ZIKV infection. We measured the prevalence of ZIKV infection among contacts and associated individual and household factors, examined sexual transmission using a sexual-networks approach, and assessed incident infection among initially uninfected household contacts 2-4 months later. RESULTS: Of 366 contacts, 34.4% had evidence of ZIKV infection at enrollment, including 11.2% by RT-PCR. Having open doors and windows that were either screened (prevalence ratio [PR], 2.1 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-3.6]) or unscreened (PR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.5-4.1]) was associated with increased prevalence. Sexual partners were more likely to both be RT-PCR positive relative to other relationships (odds ratio, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.1-4.5]). At follow-up, 6.1% of contacts had evidence of incident infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified sexual contact as a risk factor for ZIKV infection. Persons living with ZIKV-infected individuals should be a focus of public health efforts.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: November 1, 2019, 12:00 AM