Volume 11, Issue 39 October 1, 2019

CDC Science Clips: Volume 11, Issue 39, October 1, 2019

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      • A public health framework to improve population health through health care and community clinical linkages: The ASTHO/CDC Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Learning Collaborativeexternal icon
        Felipe RA, Plescia M, Peterman E, Tomlin H, Sells M, Easley C, Ahmed K, Presley-Cantrell L.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Sep 12;16:E124.
        Thirty-one state and territorial public health agencies participated in a learning collaborative to improve diagnosis and management of hypertension in clinical and community settings. These health agencies implemented public health and clinical interventions in medical settings and health organizations using a logic model and rapid quality improvement process focused on a framework of 4 systems-change levers: 1) data-driven action, 2) clinical practice standardization, 3) clinical-community linkages, and 4) financing and policy. We provide examples of how public health agencies applied the systems-change framework in all 4 areas to assess and modify population-based interventions to improve control of hypertension. This learning collaborative approach illustrates the importance of public health in the prevention and control of chronic disease by supporting interventions that address community and clinical linkages to address medical risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

    • Communicable Diseases
      • Among the US civilian noninstitutionalized population aged 14 to 59 years in 2013 to 2016, prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in urine was 1.3% overall. Prevalence was 2.1% among females, 0.5% among males, and highest at 9.6% among non-Hispanic black females. Estimate instability limited analysis of factors beyond sex, age, and race/Hispanic ethnicity.

      • Impact of combination HIV interventions on HIV incidence in hyperendemic fishing communities in Uganda: a prospective cohort studyexternal icon
        Kagaayi J, Chang LW, Ssempijja V, Grabowski MK, Ssekubugu R, Nakigozi G, Kigozi G, Serwadda DM, Gray RH, Nalugoda F, Sewankambo NK, Nelson L, Mills LA, Kabatesi D, Alamo S, Kennedy CE, Tobian AA, Santelli JS, Ekstrom AM, Nordenstedt H, Quinn TC, Wawer MJ, Reynolds SJ.
        Lancet HIV. 2019 Sep 13.
        BACKGROUND: Targeting combination HIV interventions to locations and populations with high HIV burden is a global priority, but the impact of these strategies on HIV incidence is unclear. We assessed the impact of combination HIV interventions on HIV incidence in four HIV-hyperendemic communities in Uganda. METHODS: We did an open population-based cohort study of people aged 15-49 years residing in four fishing communities on Lake Victoria. The communities were surveyed five times to collect self-reported demographic, behavioural, and service-uptake data. Free HIV testing was provided at each interview, with referral to combination HIV intervention services as appropriate. From November, 2011, combination HIV intervention services were rapidly expanded in these geographical areas. We evaluated trends in HIV testing coverage among all participants, circumcision coverage among male participants, antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage and HIV viral load among HIV-positive participants, and sexual behaviours and HIV incidence among HIV-negative participants. FINDINGS: From Nov 4, 2011, to Aug 16, 2017, data were collected from five surveys. Overall, 8942 participants contributed 20 721 person-visits; 4619 (52%) of 8942 participants were male. HIV prevalence was 41% (1598 of 3870) in the 2011-12 baseline survey and declined to 37% (1740 of 4738) at the final survey (p<0.0001). 3222 participants who were HIV-negative at baseline, and who had at least one repeat visit, contributed 9477 person-years of follow-up, and 230 incident HIV infections occurred. From the first survey in 2011-12 to the last survey in 2016-17, HIV testing coverage increased from 68% (2613 of 3870) to 96% (4526 of 4738; p<0.0001); male circumcision coverage increased from 35% (698 of 2011) to 65% (1630 of 2525; p<0.0001); ART coverage increased from 16% (254 of 1598) to 82% (1420 of 1740; p<0.0001); and population HIV viral load suppression in all HIV-positive participants increased from 34% (546 of 1596) to 80% (1383 of 1734; p<0.0001). Risky sexual behaviours did not decrease over this period. HIV incidence decreased from 3.43 per 100 person-years (95% CI 2.45-4.67) in 2011-12 to 1.59 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.19-2.07) in 2016-17; adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.52 (95% CI 0.34-0.79). Declines in HIV incidence were similar among men (adjusted IRR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.93) and women (0.51, 0.27-0.96). The risk of incident HIV infection was lower in circumcised men than in uncircumcised men (0.46, 0.32-0.67). INTERPRETATION: Rapid expansion of combination HIV interventions in HIV-hyperendemic fishing communities is feasible and could have a substantial impact on HIV incidence. However, incidence remains higher than HIV epidemic control targets, and additional efforts will be needed to achieve this global health priority. FUNDING: The National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the National Institute of Child Health and Development, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases Division of Intramural Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Uganda, Karolinska Institutet, and the Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research.

    • Food Safety
      • A multistate outbreak of E Coli O157:H7 infections linked to soy nut butterexternal icon
        Hassan R, Seelman S, Peralta V, Booth H, Tewell M, Melius B, Whitney B, Sexton R, Dwarka A, Vugia D, Vidanes J, Kiang D, Gonzales E, Dowell N, Olson SM, Gladney LM, Jhung MA, Neil KP.
        Pediatrics. 2019 Sep 13.
        BACKGROUND: In 2017, we conducted a multistate investigation to determine the source of an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 infections, which occurred primarily in children. METHODS: We defined a case as infection with an outbreak strain of STEC O157:H7 with illness onset between January 1, 2017, and April 30, 2017. Case patients were interviewed to identify common exposures. Traceback and facility investigations were conducted; food samples were tested for STEC. RESULTS: We identified 32 cases from 12 states. Twenty-six (81%) cases occurred in children <18 years old; 8 children developed hemolytic uremic syndrome. Twenty-five (78%) case patients ate the same brand of soy nut butter or attended facilities that served it. We identified 3 illness subclusters, including a child care center where person-to-person transmission may have occurred. Testing isolated an outbreak strain from 11 soy nut butter samples. Investigations identified violations of good manufacturing practices at the soy nut butter manufacturing facility with opportunities for product contamination, although the specific route of contamination was undetermined. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation identified soy nut butter as the source of a multistate outbreak of STEC infections affecting mainly children. The ensuing recall of all soy nut butter products the facility manufactured, totaling >1.2 million lb, likely prevented additional illnesses. Prompt diagnosis of STEC infections and appropriate specimen collection aids in outbreak detection. Child care providers should follow appropriate hygiene practices to prevent secondary spread of enteric illness in child care settings. Firms should manufacture ready-to-eat foods in a manner that minimizes the risk of contamination.

    • Health Disparities
      • Successfully recruiting black and Hispanic/Latino adolescents for sexually transmitted infection and HIV prevention researchexternal icon
        Bradley EL, Lanier Y, Ukuku Miller AM, Brawner BM, Sutton MY.
        J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2019 Sep 13.
        Disparities in rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV between Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino adolescents and their white counterparts are well documented. Researchers may encounter notable challenges recruiting Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino adolescents for sexual risk reduction studies. In this article, we present information to assist with planning, implementing, and evaluating recruitment and retention strategies. We also provide practical examples of challenges and solutions from three STI/HIV epidemiologic or prevention intervention studies with different study purposes and populations. Researchers can use this information to aid proposal development, create or refine a recruitment/retention protocol before implementation, and troubleshoot challenges during implementation.

    • Health Economics
    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      • Hospital-level high-risk antibiotic use in relation to hospital-associated Clostridioides difficile infections: Retrospective analysis of 2016-2017 data from US hospitalsexternal icon
        Tabak YP, Srinivasan A, Yu KC, Kurtz SG, Gupta V, Gelone S, Scoble PJ, McDonald LC.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 Sep 16:1-7.
        OBJECTIVE: Antibiotics are widely used by all specialties in the hospital setting. We evaluated previously defined high-risk antibiotic use in relation to Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs). METHODS: We analyzed 2016-2017 data from 171 hospitals. High-risk antibiotics included second-, third-, and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and lincosamides. A CDI case was a positive stool C. difficile toxin or molecular assay result from a patient without a positive result in the previous 8 weeks. Hospital-associated (HA) CDI cases included specimens collected >3 calendar days after admission or </=3 calendar days from a patient with a prior same-hospital discharge within 28 days. We used the multivariable Poisson regression model to estimate the relative risk (RR) of high-risk antibiotic use on HA CDI, controlling for confounders. RESULTS: The median days of therapy for high-risk antibiotic use was 241.2 (interquartile range [IQR], 192.6-295.2) per 1,000 days present; the overall HA CDI rate was 33 (IQR, 24-43) per 10,000 admissions. The overall correlation of high-risk antibiotic use and HA CDI was 0.22 (P = .003), and higher correlation was observed in teaching hospitals (0.38; P = .002). For every 100-day (per 1,000 days present) increase in high-risk antibiotic therapy, there was a 12% increase in HA CDI (RR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.21; P = .002) after adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: High-risk antibiotic use is an independent predictor of HA CDI. This assessment of poststewardship implementation in the United States highlights the importance of tracking trends of antimicrobial use over time as it relates to CDI.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • HPV vaccine delivery practices by primary care physiciansexternal icon
        Kempe A, O’Leary ST, Markowitz LE, Crane LA, Hurley LP, Brtnikova M, Beaty BL, Meites E, Stokley S, Lindley MC.
        Pediatrics. 2019 Sep 16.
        BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To examine, among pediatricians and family physicians (FPs) (1) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine delivery practices, (2) delivery experiences, and (3) attitudes regarding new 2-dose HPV vaccination schedules. METHODS: We surveyed nationally representative networks of pediatricians and FPs by Internet or mail from July 2018 to September 2018. Multivariable regression was used to assess factors associated with refusal or deferral rates of >/=50% among 11- to 12-year-old patients. RESULTS: The response rate was 65% (302 pediatricians and 228 FPs included). Pediatricians who strongly recommended the HPV vaccine ranged from 99% for patients >/=15 years old (female) to 83% for those 11 to 12 years old (male); FPs ranged from 90% for patients >/=15 years old (female) to 66% for those 11 to 12 years old (male) (P < .0001 between specialties). Sixty-five percent of pediatricians and 42% of FPs always or almost always used presumptive style when discussing the HPV vaccine (P < .0001). Overall, 40% used standing orders and 42% had electronic alerts. Among pediatricians, the proportion reporting a refusal or deferral rate >/=50% was 19% for female patients and 23% for male patients 11 to 12 years old; FPs reported 27% and 36%, respectively. In the multivariable regression (both sexes), refusal or deferral was associated with physicians not strongly recommending the HPV vaccine to 11- to 12-year-old patients, not using a presumptive style, perceiving less resistance when introducing the HPV vaccine to a 13-year-old patient versus an 11- or 12-year-old patient, and anticipating an uncomfortable conversation when recommending the HPV vaccine to an 11- or 12-year-old patient. Eighty-nine percent of pediatricians and 79% of FPs reported that more adolescents <15 years old are completing the HPV series now that only 2 doses are recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Although most physicians strongly recommend the HPV vaccine to 11- to 12-year-old patients, our data reveal areas for improvement in recommendation and delivery methods. Most physicians perceive that the 2-dose schedule is resulting in higher HPV completion rates.

    • Injury and Violence
    • Maternal and Child Health
      • The association between maternal occupation and Down syndrome: A report from the national Down syndrome projectexternal icon
        Keen C, Hunter JE, Allen EG, Rocheleau C, Waters M, Sherman SL.
        Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2019 Sep 10.
        BACKGROUND: Among live births, Down syndrome (DS) due to trisomy 21 is the most commonly occurring autosomal trisomy, typically resulting from meiotic nondisjunction. Currently, advanced maternal age and altered recombination patterns are the only well-known risk factors for nondisjunction. Maternal occupation has not been investigated as a risk factor for maternally-derived cases of trisomy 21. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the association between maternal occupation and chromosome 21 nondisjunction, stratified by the stage of maternal error – either Meiosis I (MI) or Meiosis II (MII). Additionally, we investigated specific toxic agents associated with occupation classes. METHODS: Using narrative job descriptions from the National Down Syndrome Project (NDSP), a population-based case-control study, occupation was coded using the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). Odds ratios were calculated for the association between occupation class and having a child with DS, stratified by meiotic stage. An exposure analysis was performed within occupational classes that were statistically significant predictors of having a child with DS. Odds ratios were calculated to analyze associations between individual exposures and having a child with DS. RESULTS: The odds of MII nondisjunction were increased among Production Workers (OR=3.15; 95%CI=1.52,6.55). Women who worked as Life, Physical and Social Scientists or in Food Preparation and Serving-Related Occupations experienced greater likelihood of MI errors (OR=5.72(1.80,18.20), and OR=1.87(1.08,3.24), respectively). Exposure to solvents within the Production Worker group was a significant predictor (p<0.05) for MI nondisjunction. No other environmental agents had a significant association with nondisjunction. DISCUSSION: Specific maternal occupation classes were associated with MI and MII chromosome 21 nondisjunction. These occupation classes were selected for an exposure analysis, which determined solvents as highly predictive of MI nondisjunction among Production Workers. Findings from this analysis will serve to further explore the relationship between maternal occupation and chromosome 21 nondisjunction.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      • Rare mutations in Pfmdr1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum detected in clinical isolates from patients treated with anti-malarial drug in Nigeriaexternal icon
        Idowu AO, Oyibo WA, Bhattacharyya S, Khubbar M, Mendie UE, Bumah VV, Black C, Igietseme J, Azenabor AA.
        Malar J. 2019 Sep 18;18(1):319.
        BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest causative agent of malaria, has high prevalence in Nigeria. Drug resistance causing failure of previously effective drugs has compromised anti-malarial treatment. On this basis, there is need for a proactive surveillance for resistance markers to the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), for early detection of resistance before it become widespread. METHODS: This study assessed anti-malarial resistance genes polymorphism in patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Lagos, Nigeria. Sanger and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods were used to screen for mutations in thirty-seven malaria positive blood samples targeting the P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (Pfcrt), P. falciparum multidrug-resistance 1 (Pfmdr1), and P. falciparum kelch 13 (Pfk13) genes, which have been previously associated with anti-malarial resistance. RESULTS: Expectedly, the NGS method was more proficient, detecting six Pfmdr1, seven Pfcrt and three Pfk13 mutations in the studied clinical isolates from Nigeria, a malaria endemic area. These mutations included rare Pfmdr1 mutations, N504K, N649D, F938Y and S967N, which were previously unreported. In addition, there was moderate prevalence of the K76T mutation (34.6%) associated with chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance, and high prevalence of the N86 wild type allele (92.3%) associated with lumefantrine resistance. CONCLUSION: Widespread circulation of mutations associated with resistance to current anti-malarial drugs could potentially limit effective malaria therapy in endemic populations.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      • Smoking cessation behaviors among older U.S. adultsexternal icon
        Henley SJ, Asman K, Momin B, Gallaway MS, Culp MB, Ragan KR, Richards TB, Babb S.
        Prev Med Rep. 2019 ;16.
        Smoking cessation is a critical component of cancer prevention among older adults (age >/= 65 years). Understanding smoking cessation behaviors among older adults can inform clinical and community efforts to increase successful cessation. We provide current, national prevalence estimates for smoking cessation behaviors among older adults, including interest in quitting, quitting attempts, quitting successes, receiving advice to quit from a healthcare provider, and use of evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments. The 2015 National Health Interview Survey and Cancer Control Supplement were used to estimate cigarette smoking status and cessation behaviors among older US adults across selected socio-demographic and health characteristics. We found that four in five older adults who had ever smoked cigarettes had quit and more than half who currently smoked were interested in quitting but fewer than half made a past-year quit attempt. Two-thirds of older adults said that a healthcare provider advised them to quit smoking, but just over one-third who tried to quit used evidence-based tobacco cessation treatments and only one in 20 successfully quit in the past year. Prevalence estimates for smoking cessation behaviors were similar across most characteristics. Our study demonstrates that few older adults, across most levels of characteristics examined, successfully quit smoking, underscoring the importance of assisting smoking cessation efforts. Healthcare providers can help older adults quit smoking by offering or referring evidence-based cessation treatments. States and communities can implement population-based interventions including tobacco price increases, comprehensive smoke-free policies, high-impact tobacco education media campaigns, and barrier-free access to evidence-based tobacco cessation counseling and medications.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Communicable Diseases
      1. BACKGROUND: This study examined condom use and STI testing among unmarried, non-cohabiting women and men who had multiple past-year partnerships or perceived their partner’s involvement in another sexual relationship. METHODS: We identified 5,868 and 5,330 unmarried, non-cohabiting sexually active women and men aged 15-44 years using National Survey of Family Growth data for 2011-2017. To measure multiple partnerships, we created four dichotomous variables that included both past-year number of opposite-sex sex partners (one, two or more) and perceived partner non-monogamy (PPNM) (yes, no). Results were stratified by relationship type at last sex (“steady” vs. “casual”). RESULTS: Overall, 39.4% of women and 48.3% of men reported multiple partnerships and 23.4% and 24.0% reported PPNM. Lower condom use was seen for women and men who had two or more partners in the past year and PPNM than those with only one partner and no PPNM (women: 28.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 24.1, 32.9 vs. 39.3%; 36.6, 41.9); (men: 37.7%; 33.5, 41.8 vs. 54.9%; 51.9, 57.9). STI testing was higher for groups with PPNM. Men with a steady sex partner had higher prevalence of past-year STI testing if they reported PPNM than not (aPR=2.00; CI: 1.63, 2.45). CONCLUSION: Screening practices that include a standardized sexual risk assessment could identify those with multiple sex partners or PPNM and improve linkage to STI services. Availability of point-of-care tests and expedited partner therapy could provide targeted strategies that prioritize rapid diagnosis and effective partner treatment which may prevent further STI spread.

      2. Correlates and determinants of Early Infant Diagnosis outcomes in north-central Nigeriaexternal icon
        Dakum P, Tola M, Iboro N, Okolo CA, Anuforom O, Chime C, Peters S, Jumare J, Ogbanufe O, Ahmad A, Ndembi N.
        AIDS Res Ther. 2019 Sep 14;16(1):27.
        BACKGROUND: A negative status following confirmatory Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) is the desired pediatric outcome of prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) programs. EID impacts epidemic control by confirming non-infected HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) and prompting timely initiation of ART in HIV-infected babies which improves treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We explored factors associated with EID outcomes among HEI in North-Central Nigeria. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study using EID data of PMTCT-enrollees matched with results of HEI’s dried blood samples (DBS), processed for DNA-PCR from January 2015 through July 2017. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS version 20.0 to generate frequencies and examine associations, including binomial logistic regression with p < 0.05 being statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 14,448 HEI in this analysis, 51.8% were female and 95% (n = 12,801) were breastfed. The median age of the infants at sample collection was 8 weeks (IQR 6-20), compared to HEI tested after 20 weeks of age, those tested earlier had significantly greater odds of a negative HIV result (</= 6 weeks: OR = 3.8; 6-8 weeks: OR = 2.1; 8-20 weeks: OR = 1.5) with evidence of a significant linear trend (p < 0.001). Similarly, HEI whose mothers received combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) before (OR = 11.8) or during the index pregnancy (OR = 8.4) had significantly higher odds as compared to those whose mothers did not receive cART. In addition, HEI not breastfed had greater odds of negative HIV result as compared to those breastfed (OR = 1.9). CONCLUSIONS: cART prior to and during pregnancy, earlier age of HEI at EID testing and alternative feeding other than breastfeeding were associated with an increased likelihood of being HIV-negative on EID. Therefore, strategies to scale-up PMTCT services are needed to mitigate the burden of HIV among children.

      3. What will it take for the Global Plan priority countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV?external icon
        Goga AE, Dinh TH, Essajee S, Chirinda W, Larsen A, Mogashoa M, Jackson D, Cheyip M, Ngandu N, Modi S, Bhardwaj S, Chirwa E, Pillay Y, Mahy M.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 16;19(Suppl 1):783.
        BACKGROUND: The 2016 ‘Start Free, Stay Free, AIDS Free’ global agenda, builds on the 2011-2015 ‘Global Plan’. It prioritises 22 countries where 90% of the world’s HIV-positive pregnant women live and aims to eliminate vertical transmission of HIV (EMTCT) and to keep mothers alive. By 2019, no Global Plan priority country had achieved EMTCT; however, 11 non-priority countries had. This paper synthesises the characteristics of the first four countries validated for EMTCT, and of the 21 Global Plan priority countries located in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We consider what drives vertical transmission of HIV (MTCT) in the 21 SSA Global Plan priority countries. METHODS: A literature review, using PubMed, Science direct and the google search engine was conducted to obtain global and national-level information on current HIV-related context and health system characteristics of the first four EMTCT-validated countries and the 21 SSA Global Plan priority countries. Data representing only one clinic, hospital or region were excluded. Additionally, key global experts working on EMTCT were contacted to obtain clarification on published data. We applied three theories (the World Health Organisation’s building blocks to strengthen health systems, van Olmen’s Health System Dynamics framework and Baral’s socio-ecological model for HIV risk) to understand and explain the differences between EMTCT-validated and non-validated countries. Additionally, structural equation modelling (SEM) and linear regression were used to explain associations between infant HIV exposure, access to antiretroviral therapy and two outcomes: (i) percent MTCT and (iii) number of new paediatric HIV infections per 100 000 live births (paediatric HIV case rate). RESULTS: EMTCT-validated countries have lower HIV prevalence, less breastfeeding, fewer challenges around leadership, governance within the health sector or country, infrastructure and service delivery compared with Global Plan priority countries. Although by 2016 EMTCT-validated countries and Global Plan priority countries had adopted a public health approach to HIV prevention, recommending lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women, EMCT-validated countries had also included contact tracing such as assisted partner notification, and had integrated maternal and child health (MCH) and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, with services for HIV infection, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Additionally, Global Plan priority countries have limited data on key SRH indicators such as unmet need for family planning, with variable coverage of antenatal care, HIV testing and triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) and very limited contact tracing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and linear regression analysis demonstrated that ART access protects against percent MTCT (p<0.001); in simple linear regression it is 53% protective against percent MTCT. In contrast, SEM demonstrated that the case rate was driven by the number of HIV exposed infants (HEI) i.e. maternal HIV prevalence (p<0.001). In linear regression models, ART access alone explains only 17% of the case rate while HEI alone explains 81% of the case rate. In multiple regression, HEI and ART access accounts for 83% of the case rate, with HEI making the most contribution (coef. infant HIV exposure=82.8, 95% CI: 64.6, 101.1, p<0.001 vs coef. ART access=-3.0, 95% CI: -6.2, 0.3, p=0.074). CONCLUSION: Reducing infant HIV exposure, is critical to reducing the paediatric HIV case rate; increasing ART access is critical to reduce percent MTCT. Additionally, our study of four validated countries underscores the importance of contact tracing, strengthening programme monitoring, leadership and governance, as these are potentially-modifiable factors.

      4. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance amongst newly diagnosed HIV-infected infants age 4-8 weeks, enrolled in three nationally representative PMTCT effectiveness surveys, South Africa: 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13external icon
        Hunt GM, Ledwaba J, Salimo A, Kalimashe M, Dinh TH, Jackson D, Sherman G, Puren A, Ngandu NK, Lombard C, Morris L, Goga A.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 16;19(Suppl 1):787.
        BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has expanded efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) to less than 2% at six weeks after birth and to less than 5% at 18 months postpartum by 2016. Despite improved antiretroviral regimens and coverage between 2001 and 2016, there is little data on infant HIV drug resistance. This paper tracks the prevalence of HIV drug resistance patterns amongst HIV infected infants from three nationally representative studies that assessed the effectiveness of national programs to prevent MTCT (PMTCT). The first study was conducted in 2010 (under the dual therapy PMTCT policy), the second from 2011 to 12 (PMTCT Option A policy) and the third from 2012 to 13 (PMTCT Option A policy). From 2010 to 2013, infant non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) exposure increased from single dose to daily throughout breastfeeding; maternal nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and NNRTI exposure increased with initiation of NNRTI-and NRTI- containing triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) earlier in gestation and at higher CD4 cell counts. METHODS: Three nationally representative surveys were conducted in 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13. During the surveys, mothers with known, unknown, or no exposure to antiretrovirals for PMTCT and their infants were included, and MTCT was measured. For this paper, infant dried blood spots (iDBS) from HIV PCR positive infants aged 4-8 weeks, with consent for additional iDBS testing, were analysed for HIV drug resistance at the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), SA, using an in-house assay validated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Total viral nucleic acid was extracted from 2 spots and amplified by nested PCR to generate a ~ 1 kb amplicon that was sequenced using Sanger sequencing technologies. Sequence assembly and editing was performed using RECall v3. RESULTS: Overall, HIV-1 drug resistance was detected in 51% (95% Confidence interval (CI) [45-58%]) of HIV PCR positive infants, 37% (95% CI [28-47%]) in 2010, 64% (95% CI [53-74%]) in 2011 and 63% (95% CI [47-77%]) in 2012 (p < 0.0001), particularly to the NNRTI drug class. Pooled analyses across all three surveys demonstrated that infants whose mothers received ART showed the highest prevalence of resistance (74%); 26% (21/82) of HIV PCR positive infants with no or undocumented antiretroviral drug (ARV) exposure harboured NNRTI resistance. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate increasing NNRTI resistance amongst newly-diagnosed infants in a high HIV prevalence setting where maternal ART coverage increased across the years, starting earlier in gestation and at higher CD4 cell counts. This is worrying as lifelong maternal ART coverage for HIV positive pregnant and lactating women is increasing. Also of concern is that resistant virus was detected in HIV positive infants whose mothers were not exposed to ARVs, raising questions about circulating resistant virus. Numbers in this group were too small to assess trends over the three years.

      5. BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a global public health target. Robust, feasible methodologies to measure population level impact of programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) are needed in high HIV prevalence settings. We present a summary of the protocol of the South African PMTCT Evaluation (SAPMTCTE) with its revision over three repeated rounds of the survey, 2010-2014. METHODS: Three cross sectional surveys (2010, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013) were conducted in 580 primary health care immunisation service points randomly selected after stratified multistage probability proportional to size sampling. All infants aged 4-8 weeks receiving their six-week immunisation at a sampled facility on the day of the visit were eligible to participate. Trained research nurses conducted interviews and took infant dried blood spot (iDBS) samples for HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and total nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Interviews were conducted using mobile phones and iDBS were sent to the National Health Laboratory for testing. All findings were adjusted for study design, non-response, and weighted for number of South African live-birth in each study round. In 2012 a national closed cohort of these 4 to 8-week old infants testing EIA positive (HIV Exposed Infants) from the 2012-2013 cross-sectional survey was established to estimate longer-term PMTCT impact to 18 months. Follow-up analyses were to estimate weighted cumulative MTCT until 18 months, postnatal MTCT from 6 weeks until 18 months and a combined outcome of MTCT-or-death, using a competing risks model, with death as a competing risk. HIV-free survival was defined as a child surviving and HIV-negative up to 18 months or last visit seen. A weighted cumulative incidence analysis was conducted, adjusting for survey design effects. DISCUSSION: In the absence of robust high-quality routine medical recording systems, in the context of a generalised HIV epidemic, national surveys can be used to monitor PMTCT effectiveness; however, monitoring long-term outcomes nationally is difficult due to poor retention in care.

      6. HIV testing, access to HIV-related services, and late-stage HIV diagnoses across US states, 2013-2016external icon
        Krueger A, Van Handel M, Dietz PM, Williams WO, Patel D, Johnson AS.
        Am J Public Health. 2019 Sep 19:e1-e7.
        Objectives. To examine state-level factors associated with late-stage HIV diagnoses in the United States.Methods. We examined state-level factors associated with late-stage diagnoses by estimating negative binomial regression models. We used 2013 to 2016 data from the National HIV Surveillance System (late-stage diagnoses), the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (HIV testing), and the American Community Survey (sociodemographics).Results. Among individuals 25 to 44 years old, a 5% increase in the percentage of the state population tested for HIV in the preceding 12 months was associated with a 3% decrease in late-stage diagnoses. Among both individuals 25 to 44 years of age and those aged 45 years and older, a 5% increase in the percentage of the population living in a rural area was associated with a 2% to 3% increase in late-stage diagnoses.Conclusions. Increasing HIV testing may lower late-stage HIV diagnoses among younger individuals. Increasing HIV-related services may benefit both younger and older people in rural areas. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 19, 2019: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2019.305273).

      7. Longitudinal adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis from 6 weeks to 18 months postpartum amongst a cohort of mothers and infants in South Africaexternal icon
        Larsen A, Magasana V, Dinh TH, Ngandu N, Lombard C, Cheyip M, Ayalew K, Chirinda W, Kindra G, Jackson D, Goga A.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 16;19(Suppl 1):789.
        BACKGROUND: Despite improved policies to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis (NVP) is low in South Africa. We describe ART adherence amongst a cohort of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed but uninfected infants from 6 weeks until 18 months post-delivery and identify risk factors for nonadherence. METHODS: Data were collected in 2012-2014 through a nationally representative survey of PMTCT effectiveness. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled during the infant’s first immunization visit at 6 weeks. Mothers and HIV-exposed infants (2811 pairs) were followed to 18 months at 3-month intervals. Mothers who self-reported being on ART at 6 weeks postpartum (N = 1572 (55.9%)) and infants on NVP at 6 weeks (N = 2370 (84.3%)) were eligible for this analysis and information about their adherence was captured at each interview they attended thereafter. We defined nonadherence within each 3-month interval as self-report of missing > 5% of daily ART/NVP doses, estimated adherence using a Cox survival curve with Andersen & Gill setup for recurring events, and identified risk factors for nonadherence with an extended Cox regression model (separately for mothers and infants) in Stata 13. Results are not nationally representative as this is a subgroup analysis of the follow-up cohort. RESULTS: Amongst mothers on ART at 6 weeks postpartum, cumulative adherence to maternal ART until 18 months was 63.4%. Among infants on NPV at 6 weeks postpartum, adherence to NVP was 74.5%.. Risk factors for nonadherence to maternal ART, controlling for other factors, included mother’s age (16-24 years vs. >/=34 years, adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5), nondisclosure of HIV status to anyone (nondisclosure vs. disclosure: aHR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), and timing of ART initiation (initiated ART after delivery vs. initiated ART before delivery: aHR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0). Provincial variation was seen in nonadherence to infant NVP, controlling for other factors. CONCLUSION: Maintaining ART adherence until 18 months postpartum remains a crucial challenge, with maternal ART adherence among the six week maternal ART cohort below 65% and infant NVP adherence among breastfeeding infants in this cohort below 75%.This is gravely concerning, given the global policy shift to lifelong ART amongst pregnant and lactating women, and the need for extended infant prophylaxis amongst mothers who are not virally suppressed. Our findings suggest that young mothers and mothers who do not disclose their status should be targeted with messages to improve adherence, and that late maternal ART initiation (after delivery) increases the risk of maternal nonadherence.

      8. Improved capacity for influenza surveillance in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: Progress in a challenging settingexternal icon
        Malik MR, Abubakar A, Kholy AE, Buliva E, Khan WM, Lamichhane J, Moen A, McCarron M, Zureick K, Obtel M.
        J Infect Public Health. 2019 Sep 12.
        BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean has partnered with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to strengthen pandemic influenza preparedness and response in the Region since 2006. This partnership focuses on pandemic preparedness planning, establishing and enhancing influenza surveillance systems, improving laboratory capacity for detection of influenza viruses, estimating the influenza disease burden, and providing evidence to support policies for the introduction and increased use of seasonal influenza vaccines. METHODS: Various published and unpublished data from public and WHO sources, programme indicators of the CDC cooperative agreement and Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework were reviewed and analysed. Analyses and review of the programme indicators and published articles enabled us to generate information that was unavailable from only WHO sources. RESULTS: Most (19/22) countries of the Region have established influenza surveillance system; 16 countries in the Region have designated National Influenza Centres. The Region has seen considerable improvement in geographic coverage of influenza surveillance and influenza detection. Virus sharing has improved and almost all of the participating laboratories have achieved a 100% efficiency score in the WHO external quality assessment programme. At least seven countries have estimated their influenza disease burden using surveillance data and at least 17 are now using seasonal influenza vaccines as a control strategy for influenza illness. CONCLUSION: The Region has achieved substantial progress in surveillance and response to seasonal influenza, despite the adverse effects to the health systems of many countries due to acute and protracted emergencies and other significant challenges.

      9. Uptake of care and treatment amongst a national cohort of HIV positive infants diagnosed at primary care level, South Africaexternal icon
        Mathivha E, Olorunju S, Jackson D, Dinh TH, du Plessis N, Goga A.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 16;19(Suppl 1):790.
        BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up after a positive infant HIV diagnosis negates the potential benefits of robust policies recommending immediate triple antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV positive infants. Whilst the diagnosis and follow-up of HIV positive infants in urban, specialized settings is easier to institutionalize, there is little information about access to care amongst HIV positive children diagnosed at primary health care clinic level. We sought to understand the characteristics of HIV positive children diagnosed with HIV infection at primary health care level, across all provinces of South Africa, their attendance at study-specific exit interviews and their reported uptake of HIV-related care. The latter could serve as a marker of knowledge, access or disclosure. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data gathered about HIV positive children, participating in an HIV-exposed infant national observational cohort study between October 2012 and September 2014, was undertaken. HIV infected children were identified by total nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction using standardized procedures in a nationally accredited central laboratory. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the HIV positive infant population, who were treated as a case series in this analysis. Data from interviews conducted at baseline (six-weeks post-delivery) and on study exit (the first visit following infant HIV positive diagnosis) were analysed. RESULTS: Of the 2878 HIV exposed infants identified at 6 weeks, 1803 (62.2%), 1709, 1673, 1660, 1680 and 1794 were see at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months respectively. In total, 101 tested HIV positive (67 at 6 weeks, and 34 postnatally). Most (76%) HIV positive infants were born to single mothers with a mean age of 26 years and an education level above grade 7 (76%). Although only 33.7% of pregnancies were planned, 83% of mothers reported receiving antiretroviral drugs to prevent MTCT. Of the 44 mothers with a documented recent CD4 cell count, the median was 346.8 cell/mm(3). Four mothers (4.0%) self-reported having had TB. Only 59 (58.4%) HIV positive infants returned for an exit interview after their HIV diagnosis; there were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between HIV positive infants who returned for an exit interview and those who did not. Amongst HIV positive infants who returned for an exit interview, only two HIV positive infants (3.4%) were reportedly receiving triple antiretroviral therapy (ART). If we assume that all HIV positive children who did not return for their exit interview received ART, then ART uptake amongst these HIV positive children < 18 months would be 43.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Early ART uptake amongst children aged 15 months and below was low. This raises questions about timely, early paediatric ART uptake amongst HIV positive children diagnosed in primary health care settings. Qualitative work is needed to understand low and delayed paediatric ART uptake in young children, and more work is needed to measure progress with infant ART initiation at primary care level since 2014.

      10. Factors associated with non-attendance at scheduled infant follow-up visits in an observational cohort of HIV-exposed infants in South Africa, 2012-2014external icon
        Ngandu NK, Jackson D, Lombard C, Nsibande DF, Dinh TH, Magasana V, Mogashoa M, Goga AE.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 16;19(Suppl 1):788.
        BACKGROUND: Since 2001 the South African guidelines to improve child health and prevent vertical HIV transmission recommended frequent infant follow-up with HIV testing at 18 months postpartum. We sought to understand non-attendance at scheduled follow-up study visits up to 18 months, and for the 18-month infant HIV test amongst a nationally representative sample of HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) infants from a high HIV-prevalence African setting. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data drawn from a nationally representative observational cohort study (conducted during October 2012 to September 2014) of HEU infants and their primary caregivers was undertaken. Participants were eligible (N = 2650) if they were 4-8 weeks old and HEU at enrolment. All enrolled infants were followed up every 3 months up to 18 months. Each follow-up visit was scheduled to coincide with each child’s routine health visit, where possible. The denominator at each time point comprised HEU infants who were alive and HIV-free at the previous visit. We assessed baseline maternal and early HIV care characteristics associated with the frequency of ‘Missed visits’ (MV-frequency), using a negative binomial regression model adjusting for the follow-up time in the study, and associated with missed visits at 18 months (18-month MV) using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: The proportion of eligible infants with MV was lowest at 3 months (32.7%) and 18 months (31.0%) and highest at 12 months (37.6%). HIV-positive mothers not on triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) by 6-weeks postpartum had a significantly increased occurrence rate of ‘MV-frequency’ (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-1.4), p < 0.0001). Compared to those mothers with ART, these mothers also increased the risk of ’18-month-MV’ (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3 (CI, 1.1-1.6), p = 0.006). Unknown infant nevirapine-intake status increased the rate of ‘MV-frequency’ (p = 0.02). Mothers > 24 years had a significantly reduced rate of ‘MV-frequency’ (p </= 0.01) and risk of ’18-month-MV’ (p < 0.01) compared to younger women. Shorter travel time to health facility lowered the occurrence of ‘MV-frequency’ (p </= 0.004). CONCLUSION: Late initiation of maternal ART and infant prophylaxis under the Option- A policy and extended travel time to clinics (measured at 6 weeks postpartum), contributed to higher postnatal MV rates. Mothers older than 24 years had lower MV rates. Targeted interventions may be needed during the current PMTCT Option B+ (lifelong ART to pregnant and lactating women at HIV diagnosis) to circumvent these risk factors and reduce missed visits during HIV-care.

      11. The performance of different case definitions for severe influenza surveillance among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children aged <5 years in South Africa, 2011-2015external icon
        Ngobeni H, Tempia S, Cohen AL, Walaza S, Kuonza L, Musekiwa A, von Gottberg A, Hellferscee O, Wolter N, Treurnicht FK, Moyes J, Naby F, Mekgoe O, Cohen C.
        PLoS One. 2019 ;14(9):e0222294.
        In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a new severe influenza surveillance case definition, which has not been evaluated in a high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence setting. Our study aimed to assess the performance of this proposed case definition in identifying influenza among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children aged <5 years in South Africa. We prospectively enrolled children aged <5 years hospitalised with physician-diagnosed lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) at two surveillance sites from January 2011 to December 2015. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected. We tested nasopharyngeal aspirates for influenza using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We used logistic regression to assess factors associated with influenza positivity among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children. We calculated sensitivity and specificity for different signs and symptoms and combinations of these for laboratory-confirmed influenza. We enrolled 2,582 children <5 years of age with LRTI of whom 87% (2,257) had influenza and HIV results, of these 14% (318) were HIV-infected. The influenza detection rate was 5% (104/1,939) in HIV-uninfected and 5% (16/318) in HIV-infected children. Children with measured fever (>/=38 degrees C) were two times more likely to test positive for influenza than those without measured fever among the HIV-uninfected (OR 2.2, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.5-3.4; p<0.001). No significant association was observed between fever and influenza infection among HIV-infected children. Cough alone had sensitivity of 95% (95% CI 89-98%) in HIV-uninfected and of 100% (95% CI 79-100%) in HIV-infected children but low specificity: 7% (95% CI 6-8%) and 6% (95% CI 3-9%) in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children, respectively. The WHO post-2014 case definition for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI-an acute respiratory infection with history of fever or measured fever of >/= 38 degrees C and cough; with onset within the last ten days and requires hospitalization), had a sensitivity of 66% (95% CI 56-76%) and specificity of 46% (95% CI 44-48%) among HIV-uninfected and a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI 35-84%) and a specificity of 42% (95% CI 36-48%) among HIV-infected children. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO post-2014 case definition for SARI were similar among HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children. Our findings support the adoption of the 2014 WHO case definition for children aged <5 years irrespective of HIV infection status.

      12. Transgender women have higher human papillomavirus prevalence than men who have sex with men – two U.S. cities, 2012-2014external icon
        Singh V, Gratzer B, Gorbach PM, Crosby RA, Panicker G, Steinau M, Amiling R, Unger ER, Markowitz LE, Meites E.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2019 Oct;46(10):657-662.
        BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence is high among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet little is known about HPV among transgender women (TGW). We assessed HPV prevalence and knowledge among TGW compared with MSM. METHODS: We enrolled TGW and MSM aged 18 to 26 years from clinics in Chicago and Los Angeles during 2012 to 2014. Participants self-reported gender identity, HIV status, HPV knowledge, and vaccination status. Self-collected anal and oral specimens were tested for HPV DNA (37 types); serum was tested for HPV antibodies (4 vaccine types). Prevalence among unvaccinated TGW and MSM was compared using prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Participants without DNA or serologic evidence of HPV were considered naive. RESULTS: Among 1033 participants, 49 were TGW. Among 44 TGW and 855 MSM who were unvaccinated, any HPV DNA was detected in anal specimens from 39 (88.6%) TGW and 606 (70.9%) MSM (PR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4), and oral specimens from 4 (9.1%) TGW and 81 (9.5%) MSM (PR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.5). Antibodies were detected among 37 (84.1%) TGW and 467 (54.6%) MSM (PR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8). Most participants were naive to 1 or more HPV vaccine type/s, including 29 (65.9%) TGW and 775 (90.6%) MSM (PR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9). Most TGW (55.1%) had never heard of HPV vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Among TGW, HPV prevalence was high and knowledge was low. Most were still naive to 1 or more HPV vaccine type. Although vaccination ideally occurs prior to exposure, findings support existing national recommendations to vaccinate TGW and MSM, and suggest additional outreach might increase vaccination.

      13. Syphilis testing among men who have had rectal gonorrhea and chlamydia tests, United Statesexternal icon
        Tao G, Peterman TA, Gift TL, Nye MB.
        J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2019 Sep;9(3):153-157.
        The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends syphilis screening at least annually for sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM). The objective of this study is to assess the frequency of MSM testing for syphilis and how syphilis test results compared with results of rectal gonorrhea and chlamydia tests. In collaboration with a large US commercial laboratory, we identified men aged 15-60 years who had rectal chlamydia or gonorrhea tests during 09/01/2013-09/30/2015 as presumed MSM. We classified MSM as having current or past syphilis if during the study period they had (1) either a reactive qualitative non-treponemal test or at least a 1:1 quantitative non-treponemal test, and (2) they had a reactive treponemal test. Of 52,771 MSM, 14.3% had no syphilis testing, 4.8% had only treponemal testing (37.8% were reactive), 63.2% had only non-treponemal testing (2.0% were reactive), and 17.7% had both non-treponemal and treponemal testing (86.6% had current or past syphilis). Of those MSM who had reactive qualitative non-treponemal tests, at least 90% had no quantitative non-treponemal tests. Current or past syphilis was more common among MSM with positive rectal gonorrhea or chlamydia tests (24.1%) than MSM with negative rectal gonorrhea and chlamydia tests (13.0%, p < 0.005). Of MSM with any syphilis testing during 09/01/2013-09/30/2014, 64.8% also had annual repeat testing. Syphilis testing in general and repeat syphilis testing were frequent but suboptimal among MSM. It is important to continually monitor syphilis for MSM, especially for those MSM who had rectal chlamydia or gonorrhea infection.

      14. Using latent class analysis to identify money boys at highest risk of HIV infectionexternal icon
        Yu MH, Guo CM, Gong H, Li Y, Li CP, Liu Y, Guo M, Zhao YQ, Xu J, Li Z, Gao YJ, Yang J, Cui Z.
        Public Health. 2019 Sep 16;177:57-65.
        OBJECTIVES: Limited research has been conducted to investigate the characteristics of money boys (MBs) in China. This study was aimed to identify the subgroups of MBs based on sexual behaviors, Net-based venue sex-seeking, and substance abuse. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used to recruit MBs from December 2014 to June 2015 in Tianjin, China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 330 MBs, and trained interviewers collected data. RESULTS: The laboratory-confirmed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive rate was 11.52% among 330 MBs. Four classes were identified through latent class analysis (LCA) method: ‘relatively safe behavior’ group, ‘higher sexual risk’ group, ‘multiple sexual-partners’ group, and ‘unprotected sex and substance abuse’ group, and there is a significant difference based on the HIV status. Significant differences were found in original residence, monthly income, duration in sex trade, employment, history of sexually transmitted infection (STI), HIV testing, knowledge of free antiviral treatment policy, and awareness of free AIDS testing between the four latent classes (P < 0.05). MBs who used Net-based venues to seek sexual partners; who have inconsistent condom use, substance abuse, a longer duration in sex trade, multiple sexual clients, and multiple anal sex; and who were full-time employed had the highest risk of HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The utility of LCA to identify subgroups based on risky behaviors attributes to formulating targeted intervention strategy.

      15. HIV control in hyperendemic communities in east Africaexternal icon
        Zielinski-Gutierrez EC, De Cock KM.
        Lancet HIV. 2019 Sep 13.

        [No abstract]

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. The logic model for Uganda’s health sector preparedness for public health threats and emergenciesexternal icon
        Ario AR, Makumbi I, Bulage L, Kyazze S, Kayiwa J, Wetaka MM, Kasule JN, Ocom F.
        Glob Health Action. 2019 ;12(1):1664103.
        Background: Uganda is an ecological hot-spot with infectious disease transmission belts which exacerbates its vulnerability to epidemics. Its proximity to the Congo Basin, climate change pressure on eco-systems, increased international travel and globalization, and influx of refugees due to porous borders, has compounded the problem. Public Health Events are a major challenge in the region with significant impact on Global Health Security. Objective: The country developed a multi-hazard plan with the purpose of harmonizing processes and guiding stakeholders on strengthening emergency preparedness and response. Method: Comprehensive risk profiling, identification of preparedness gaps and capacities were developed using a preparedness logic model, which is a step by step process. A multidisciplinary team was constituted; the Strategic Tool for Analysis of Risks was used for risk profiling and identification of hazards; a desk review of relevant documents informed the process and finally, approval was sought from the National Task Force for public health emergencies. Results: Target users and key public health preparedness and response functions of the multi-hazard plan were identified. The key capabilities identified were: coordination; epidemiology and surveillance; laboratory; risk communication and social mobilization. In each of these capabilities, key players were identified. Risk profiling classified road traffic accident, cholera, malaria and typhoid as very high risk. Meningitis, VHF, drought, industrial accidents, terrorism, floods and landslides were high risk. Hepatitis E, avian influenza and measles were low risk and the only plague fell into the category of very low risk. Risk profiling using STAR yielded good results. All risk categories required additional preparedness activities, and very high and high-risk categories required improved operational response capacity and risk mitigation measures. Conclusion: Uganda successfully developed a national multi-hazard emergency preparedness and response plan using the preparedness logic model. The plan is now ready for implementation by the Uganda MoH and partners.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Methods, availability, and applications of PM2.5 exposure estimates derived from ground measurements, satellite, and atmospheric modelsexternal icon
        Diao M, Holloway T, Choi S, O’Neill SM, Al-Hamdan MZ, van Donkelaar A, Martin RV, Jin X, Fiore AM, Henze DK, Lacey F, Kinney PL, Freedman F, Larkin NK, Zou Y, Kelly JT, Vaidyanathan A.
        J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2019 Sep 17.
        Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a well-established risk factor for public health. To support both health risk assessment and epidemiological studies, data are needed on spatial and temporal patterns of PM2.5 exposures. This review article surveys publicly available exposure datasets for surface PM2.5 mass concentrations over the contiguous U.S., summarizes their applications and limitations, and provides suggestions on future research needs. The complex landscape of satellite instruments, model capabilities, monitor networks, and data synthesis methods offers opportunities for research development, but would benefit from guidance for new users. Guidance is provided to access publicly available PM2.5 datasets, to explain and compare different approaches for dataset generation, and to identify sources of uncertainties associated with various types of datasets. Three main sources used to create PM2.5 exposure data are: ground-based measurements (especially regulatory monitoring), satellite retrievals (especially aerosol optical depth, AOD), and atmospheric chemistry models. We find inconsistencies among several publicly available PM2.5 estimates, highlighting uncertainties in the exposure datasets that are often overlooked in health effects analyses. Major differences among PM2.5 estimates emerge from the choice of data (ground-based, satellite, and/or model), the spatiotemporal resolutions, and the algorithms used to fuse data sources.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Cryptosporidium genotyping for epidemiology trackingexternal icon
        Roellig DM, Xiao L.
        Methods Mol Biol. 2020 ;2052:103-116.
        Cryptosporidium genotyping has made significant contributions to the species structure and population genetics of Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, the standardized method has shown utility in epidemiologic investigations identifying case linkages and contamination sources that could not be determined with traditional epidemiologic tools. The standardized method for Cryptosporidium genotyping from stool specimens described here comprises multiple individual protocols to amplify and sequence regions of the SSU rRNA and gp60 genes of Cryptosporidium.

      2. Multistate population and whole genome sequence based strain surveillance of invasive pneumococci recovered in the United States during 2017external icon
        Varghese J, Chochua S, Tran T, Walker H, Li Z, Snippes Vagnone PM, Lynfield R, McGee L, Li Y, Metcalf B, Pilishvili T, Beall B.
        Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 Sep 16.
        OBJECTIVES: We aimed to provide population and whole genome sequence (WGS)-based characterization of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) isolates collected from multistate surveillance in the United States during 2017. METHODS: We obtained short read WGS from 2881 isolates with associated bioinformatics pipeline strain feature predictions. For quality control, capsular serotypes and antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were also obtained conventionally from 442 isolates. Annotated WGS was provided (inclusive of serotypes, MICs, multilocus sequence types, pilus type(s)) from 2723 isolates. For 158 isolates with suboptimal WGS, antimicrobial MICs were obtained conventionally. RESULTS: There were 127 isolates from children <5 years and 2754 isolates from those > 5 in 2017. One of 43 different serotypes were predicted for 2877 of the 2881 isolates. Serotypes in 13-valent conjugate vaccine together with 6C (PCV13+6C) accounted for 816 (28.3%) isolates, with PCV13 serotype 3 being the most common serotype overall. Non-PCV13-6C- serotypes accounted for 2,065 (71.7%) isolates, comprising 96 (75.6%) isolates from children < 5 and 1969 (61.4%) isolates from those > 5. Of 36 different categories of recently emerged serotype-switch variants, three showed marked increases relative to 2015-2016 in that the number from 2017 surpassed the number from 2015-2016 combined. Two of these included antimicrobial-resistant serotype 11A and 35B serotype-switch variants of the ST156 clonal complex. CONCLUSIONS: PCV13+6C strains are still identified in 2017 but non-PCV13-type strains impose considerable burden. This well-annotated year 2017 WGS/strain dataset will prove useful for a broad variety of analyses and improved our understanding of IPD-causing strains in the post-PCV13 era.

      3. Novel quinolone resistance determinant, qepA8, in Shigella flexneri isolated in the United States, 2016external icon
        Webb HE, Tagg KA, Chen JC, Kim J, Lindsey R, Francois Watkins LK, Karp BE, Sugawara Y, Folster JP.
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Sep 16.
        Enterobacteriaceae, quinolone resistance is largely attributed to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, and plasmid-italiciated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (e.g., qnr genes, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, or qepA)…..

    • Health Disparities
      1. Extensive evidence indicates the causal association of school outcomes and long-term health. We combined the findings of two studies by Chetty and colleagues to estimate the life expectancy associated with achievement scores in the eighth grade. We linked the dependent variable of the first study and the independent variable of the second study. The first study (of students in Tennessee) found a positive correlation between school achievement scores in eighth grade and income at age 25-27. Controlling for family background, a one percentile increase in eighth grade test score was associated with an increase of $148 (95% CI: $125, $172) in 2009 $U.S. in mean yearly wages at ages 25-27years. Based on estimated mean annual income growth of 3.35%, $148 would increase 1.59 fold to $235 (CI: $199, $273) in 14years, at age 40-$251 (CI: $213, $292) in 2012 $U.S. adjusted for inflation. The second study (of the U.S. population) found that a one percentile household income ($1500 in 2012 $U.S.) was associated with one month life expectancy at age 40. We calculate that an increase in income at age 40 attributable to one percentile increase in eighth grade test scores, i.e., $251, would increase life expectancy by 17% (i.e., $251/$1500) (CI: 14%, 19%) of one month per percentile eighth grade test score. Estimates of long-term health outcomes associated with educational outcomes can be made with caution. Applicability of findings from the Tennessee to the U.S. population is discussed.

      2. Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV preexposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men – 23 urban areas, 2017external icon
        Kanny D, Jeffries WL, Chapin-Bardales J, Denning P, Cha S, Finlayson T, Wejnert C.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Sep 20;68(37):801-806.
        In 2017, preliminary data show that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 67% of new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, that MSM who inject drugs accounted for an additional 3%, and that African American/black (black) and Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) MSM were disproportionately affected (1). During 2010-2015, racial/ethnic disparities in HIV incidence increased among MSM; in 2015, rates among black and Hispanic MSM were 10.5 and 4.9 times as high, respectively, as the rate among white MSM (compared with 9.2 and 3.8 times as high, respectively, in 2010) (2). Increased use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which reduces the risk for sexual acquisition of HIV infection by approximately 99% when taken daily as prescribed,* would help to reduce these disparities and support the Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America initiative(dagger) (3). Although PrEP use has increased among all MSM since 2014 (4), racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use could increase existing disparities in HIV incidence among MSM (5). To understand racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP awareness, discussion with a health care provider, and use (steps in the HIV PrEP continuum of care) (6), CDC analyzed 2017 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data. Black and Hispanic MSM were significantly less likely than were white MSM to be aware of PrEP, to have discussed PrEP with a health care provider, or to have used PrEP within the past year. Among those who had discussed PrEP with a health care provider within the past year, 68% of white MSM, 62% of Hispanic MSM, and 55% of black MSM, reported PrEP use. Prevention efforts need to increase PrEP use among all MSM and target eliminating racial/ethnic disparities in PrEP use.( section sign).

    • Health Economics
      1. OBJECTIVE: Guidelines on the standard care of diabetes recommend that glycemic treatment goals for older adults consider the patient’s complications and life expectancy. In this study, we examined the influence of diabetes complications and associated life expectancies on the cost-effectiveness (CE) of HbA1c treatment goals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the 2011 to 2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to generate nationally representative subgroups of older individuals with diabetes with various health states. We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-RTI International diabetes CE model to estimate the long-term consequences of two treatment goals-a stringent control goal (HbA1c <7.5%) and a moderate control goal (HbA1c <8.5%)-on health and cost. Our simulation population represented typical patients, and all individuals in each health subgroup had average characteristics, which did not account for person-level variations. The CE study was conducted from a health system perspective and followed the study samples over a lifetime. We used $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) as the incremental CE threshold. RESULTS: A stringent goal was, on average, cost-effective for individuals with no complications ($10,007 per QALY) or only microvascular complications (excluding renal failure; $19,621 per QALY), but it was not cost-effective for individuals with one or more macrovascular complications (all >$82,413 per QALY). Further, a stringent goal was not cost-effective when an individual had less than 7 years of life remaining. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the guideline recommendation that glycemic goals for older adults should consider the complexity of their complications and their life expectancy from a CE perspective.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. BACKGROUND: Currently, powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) are not recommended for usage in close proximity to sterile fields owing to concerns that exhaled, unfiltered air potentially may cause contamination; however, this has not been confirmed by experimental study. METHODS: After establishing background levels of airborne contamination, our team placed settling plates in a sterile field and collected contamination from participants who were performing particulate-generating actions. Participants performed the actions while wearing various forms of respiratory protection, including: (1) a full facepiece PAPR, (2) a full facepiece PAPR with a shoulder-length hood, (3) a surgical mask, and (4) no facial covering (as a positive control to determine contamination-reduction effectiveness). Specimens were collected at the end of a 10-minute sampling time frame. After incubation at 36.5 C for 72 hours, we tabulated colony forming units as a marker of contamination. RESULTS: Surgical masks and the 2 PAPR configurations all drastically reduced aerosolized droplet contamination. Surgical masks reduced contamination by 98.48%, and both PAPRs reduced contamination by 100% (compared with the usage of no facial covering). There was no statistical difference between their effectiveness (surgical mask vs both PAPRs, P value=.588 and no hood PAPR vs hood PAPR, P value >.999). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, the tested PAPR configurations are effective at reducing aerosolized droplet contamination into a sterile field, and further testing is warranted to assess other PAPR configurations as well as PAPR suitability in an operating room.

      2. Effect of glove decontamination on bacterial contamination of healthcare personnel handsexternal icon
        Kpadeh-Rogers Z, Robinson GL, Alserehi H, Morgan DJ, Harris AD, Herrera NB, Rose LJ, Noble-Wang J, Johnson JK, Leekha S.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 13;69(Supplement_3):S224-s227.
        We examined the effect of glove decontamination prior to removal on bacterial contamination of healthcare personnel hands in a laboratory simulation study. Glove decontamination reduced bacterial contamination of hands following removal. However, hand contamination still occurred with all decontamination methods, reinforcing the need for hand hygiene following glove removal.

      3. Improving the use of personal protective equipment: Applying lessons learnedexternal icon
        Reddy SC, Valderrama AL, Kuhar DT.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 13;69(Supplement_3):S165-s170.
        Unrecognized transmission of pathogens in healthcare settings can lead to colonization and infection of both patients and healthcare personnel. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is an important strategy to protect healthcare personnel from contamination and to prevent the spread of pathogens to subsequent patients. However, optimal PPE use is difficult, and healthcare personnel may alter delivery of care because of the PPE. Here, we summarize recent research from the Prevention Epicenters Program on healthcare personnel contamination and improvement of the routine use of PPE as well as Ebola-specific PPE. Future efforts to optimize the use of PPE should include increasing adherence to protocols for PPE use, improving PPE design, and further research into the risks, benefits, and best practices of PPE use.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Declines in vaccine-type human papillomavirus prevalence in females across racial/ethnic groups: Data from a national surveyexternal icon
        McClung NM, Lewis RM, Gargano JW, Querec T, Unger ER, Markowitz LE.
        J Adolesc Health. 2019 Sep 9.
        PURPOSE: To monitor human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine impact in the U.S., we evaluated quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV)-type prevalence among females aged 14-34 years in the prevaccine (2003-2006) and vaccine (2013-2016) eras overall and by race/ethnicity in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. METHODS: We analyzed HPV DNA prevalence in self-collected cervicovaginal specimens, demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and self-reported/parent-reported vaccination status. We compared prevaccine to vaccine era 4vHPV-type prevalence, using unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). PRs were calculated by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white [NHW], non-Hispanic black [NHB], and Mexican American [MA]). Overall aPRs were adjusted for race/ethnicity, lifetime sex partners, and poverty. RESULTS: Overall, 4,674 females had HPV typing results; 3,915 reported NHW, NHB, or MA race/ethnicity. Vaccination coverage of >/=1 dose was 53.9% among 14- to 19-year-olds (NHW 52.6%, NHB 58.1%, and MA 59.5%) and 51.5% among 20- to 24-year-olds (NHW 58.8%, NHB 45.0%, MA 33.8%). Among 14- to 19-year-olds, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased overall (11.5% to 1.8%; aPR = .14 [CI: .08-.24]) and in NHW (PR = .14 [CI: .06-.29]), NHB (PR = .26 [CI: .12-.54]), and MA (PR = .13 [CI: .03-.53]). In 20- to 24-year-olds, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased overall (18.5% to 5.3%; aPR = .29 [CI: .15-.56]) and in NHW (PR = .27 [CI: .11-.67]) and NHB (PR = .38 [CI: .18-.80]). No significant declines were observed in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Within 10 years of vaccine introduction, 4vHPV-type prevalence declined 86% among 14- to 19-year-olds, with declines observed in NHW, NHB, and MA females, and 71% among 20- to 24-year-olds, with declines in NHW and NHB females. These extraordinary declines should lead to substantial reductions in HPV-associated cancers.

      2. Diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in Botswana before and after introduction of the monovalent rotavirus vaccineexternal icon
        Mokomane M, Esona MD, Bowen MD, Tate JE, Steenhoff AP, Lechiile K, Gaseitsiwe S, Seheri LM, Magagula NB, Weldegebriel G, Pernica JM, Mwenda JM, Kasvosve I, Parashar UD, Goldfarb DM.
        Vaccine. 2019 Sep 14.
        BACKGROUND: Globally, rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in children aged <5years. Botswana introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) in July 2012. To study the impact of this vaccine on rotavirus genotypes circulating in Botswana, a comparison of the genotypes pre-vaccination (2011-2012) and post-vaccination (2013-2018) periods was conducted. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Residual samples from 284 children <5years of age that tested positive for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay were genotyped. One hundred and five samples were from the pre-vaccination period and 179 were from the post-vaccination period. Genotyping was performed using two multiplexed one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for the amplification and genotyping of rotavirus VP7 (G) and VP4 (P) genes. RESULTS: Prior to vaccine introduction, the predominant rotavirus circulating genotypes were G9P[8] (n=63, 60%) and G1P[8] (n=22, 21%). During the vaccine period, G2P[4] was the predominant genotype (n=49, 28%), followed by G9P[8] (n=40, 22%) and G1P[8] (n=33, 18.5%). There was a significant decline in the prevalence of G9P[8] (p=0.001) in the post-vaccination period. There was also a notable decline in G1P[8]. A spike in G2P[4] was observed in 2013, one year post-vaccine introduction. Rotavirus strain G3P[4] (n=8) was only detected in the post-vaccine introduction period. In 2018 there was a marked increase in genotype G3P[8] (p=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of circulating rotavirus genotypes in Botswana changed after vaccine implementation. Further studies are needed to examine whether these changes are related to vaccination or simply represent natural secular variation.

      3. Prevalence, incidence, and clearance of human papillomavirus types covered by current vaccines in men with human immunodeficiency virus in the SUN Studyexternal icon
        Patel P, Bush T, Conley L, Unger ER, Darragh TM, Henry K, Escota G, Brooks JT, Kojic EM.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 19.
        BACKGROUND: High-risk anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is prevalent among men living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); the association between 9-valent (9v) high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) vaccine types and abnormal cytology has not been well characterized. METHODS: We followed a prospective cohort study of persons with HIV at 7 HIV clinics in 4 US cities from March 2004 through June 2012. Annually, providers collected separate anal swabs for HPV detection and cytopathologic examination. Among men, we examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of 9v HR-HPV vaccine types, compared with other HR types, and associations with abnormal cytology to assess potential vaccine impact. RESULTS: Baseline prevalence of any anal 9v HR-HPV type among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) was 74% and 25% (P < .001), respectively. Among 299 MSM, abnormal cytology was detected in 161 (54%) MSM and was associated with the presence of any 9v HR-HPV (relative risk [RR], 1.8 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.6]; P < .001). Among 61 MSW, abnormal anal cytology was detected in 12 (20%) and was associated with the presence of any 9v HR-HPV (RR, 4.3 [95% CI, 1.6-11.5]; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Among men with HIV, the prevalence of the 7 HR-HPV types in the 9v vaccine was high and was associated with abnormal cytology. These findings indicate that men with HIV could benefit from prophylactic administration of the 9v HPV vaccine.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Objective: In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) published an evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) among children. This commentary summarizes the key recommendations in the CDC Pediatric mTBI Guideline most relevant for neuropsychologists and discusses research gaps and topics that should receive attention in future iterations of the Guideline. Method: We described the methods used to develop the Guideline, which included a comprehensive Systematic Review. We also distilled and presented key practice strategies reflected in Guideline. Results: To optimize care of pediatric patients with mTBI, neuropsychologists should: use validated, age-appropriate symptom scales, assess evidence-based risk factors for prolonged recovery, provide patients with instructions on return to activity customized to their symptoms, and counsel patients to return gradually to nonsports activities after a short period of rest. Future iterations of the Guideline should encompass a review and guidance on care of patients with psychiatric and psychological difficulties, as well as the potential use of imaging to assess patients with persistent symptoms. Expanded research on mTBI among girls, children age 8 and under, and effective treatments for pediatric mTBI will be beneficial to inform care practices. Conclusions: Recommendations in the CDC Pediatric mTBI Guideline highlight multiple opportunities for neuropsychologists to take action to improve the care of young patients with mTBI and to advance research in the field. Multiple resources and tools are available to support implementation of these recommendations into clinical practice.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Widespread release of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) or Yersinia pestis (plague) would prompt a public health emergency. During an exposure event, high-quality whole genome sequencing (WGS) can identify genetic engineering, including the introduction of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Here, we developed rapid WGS laboratory and bioinformatics workflows using a long-read nanopore sequencer (MinION) for Y. pestis (6.5 h) and B. anthracis (8.5 h) and sequenced strains with different AMR profiles. Both salt-precipitation and silica-membrane extracted DNA were suitable for MinION WGS using both rapid and field library preparation methods. In replicate experiments, nanopore quality metrics were defined for genome assembly and mutation analysis. AMR markers were correctly detected and >99% coverage of chromosomes and plasmids was achieved using 100,000 raw sequencing reads. While chromosomes and large and small plasmids were accurately assembled, including novel multimeric forms of the Y. pestis virulence plasmid, pPCP1, MinION reads were error-prone, particularly in homopolymer regions. MinION sequencing holds promise as a practical, front-line strategy for on-site pathogen characterization to speed the public health response during a biothreat emergency.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Systematic identification of facility-based stillbirths and neonatal deaths through the piloted use of an adapted RAPID tool in Liberia and Nepalexternal icon
        Greene-Cramer B, Boyd AT, Russell S, Hulland E, Tromble E, Widiati Y, Sharma S, Pun A, Roth Allen D, Dokubo EK, Handzel E.
        PLoS One. 2019 ;14(9):e0222583.
        Maternal, fetal, and neonatal health outcomes are interdependent. Designing public health strategies that link fetal and neonatal outcomes with maternal outcomes is necessary in order to successfully reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality, particularly in low- and middle- income countries. However, to date, there has been no standardized method for documenting, reporting, and reviewing facility-based stillbirths and neonatal deaths that links to maternal health outcomes would enable a more comprehensive understanding of the burden and determinants of poor fetal and neonatal outcomes. We developed and pilot-tested an adapted RAPID tool, Perinatal-Neonatal Rapid Ascertainment Process for Institutional Deaths (PN RAPID), to systematically identify and quantify facility-based stillbirths and neonatal deaths and link them to maternal health factors in two countries: Liberia and Nepal. This study found an absence of stillbirth timing documented in records, a high proportion of neonatal deaths occurring within the first 24 hours, and an absence of documentation of pregnancy-related and maternal factors that might be associated with fetal and neonatal outcomes. The use of an adapted RAPID methodology and tools was limited by these data gaps, highlighting the need for concurrent strengthening of death documentation through training and standardized record templates.

      2. Risk factors associated with increased mortality from intussusception in African infantsexternal icon
        Pindyck T, Parashar U, Mwenda JM, Tadesse A, Armah G, Omore R, Ngwira B, Jani B, Mpabalwani EM, Mbuwayesango B, Tate J.
        J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019 Sep 11.
        OBJECTIVES: Morbidity and mortality from intussusception, the leading cause of bowel obstruction in infants, is higher in Africa than in other regions of the world, but the reasons have not been well examined. We sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with death or intestinal resection following intussusception. METHODS: Infants with intussusception from 7 sub-Saharan African countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe) were enrolled through active, hospital-based surveillance from February 2012 to December 2016. We examined demographic, clinical, and socioeconomic factors associated with death or intestinal resection following intussusception, using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1017 infants <1 year of age with intussusception were enrolled. Overall, 13% of children (133/1017) died during the hospitalization, and 48% (467/966) required intestinal resection. In multivariable analyses, female sex (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-3.3), longer duration of symptoms prior to presentation (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0-1.2), and undergoing intestinal resection (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9-6.1) were associated with death after intussusception. Diagnosis by ultrasound or enema (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.3-0.7), and employment of a household member (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.4-1.0) were protective against intestinal resection. CONCLUSION: Delays in hospital presentation and female sex were significantly associated with death, whereas higher socioeconomic status and availability of radiologic diagnosis reduced likelihood of undergoing resection. Efforts should be intensified to improve the awareness, diagnosis, and management of intussusception in sub-Saharan African countries to reduce morbidity and mortality from intussusception in these resource limited settings.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. BACKGROUND: Timely and reliable national estimates of the occurrence of occupational injury and illness are needed to monitor the burden of occupational morbidity and mortality, establish research and intervention priorities, and evaluate the progress and effectiveness of prevention efforts. METHODS: We provide updated estimates of morbidity from occupational injuries and selected illnesses, using current general population incidence rates, the proportion of the general public with a particular workplace exposure, and the relative risk of illness from that exposure. We provide estimates for the total U.S. working population and for specific industry sectors. RESULTS: We estimate that, in 2012, between 5 712 362 and 5 961 620 total occupational cases, including 0.7 to 1.0 million incident illnesses and 5.0 million injuries, occurred in the United States. CONCLUSION: The variety of disparate data sources and methods required to compile these estimates highlight the need for more comprehensive and compatible occupational health surveillance in the United States.

      2. Heat exposure and occupational injuries: Review of the literature and implicationsexternal icon
        Spector JT, Masuda YJ, Wolff NH, Calkins M, Seixas N.
        Curr Environ Health Rep. 2019 Sep 13.
        PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The burden of heat-related adverse occupational health effects, as well as traumatic injuries, is already substantial. Projected increases in mean temperatures and extreme events may increase the risk of adverse heat health effects and enhance disparities among exposed workers. This article reviews the emerging literature on the relationship between heat exposure and occupational traumatic injuries and discusses implications of this work. RECENT FINDINGS: A recent meta-analysis of three case-crossover and five time series studies in industrialized settings reported an association of increasing occupational injuries with increasing heat exposure, with increased effect estimates for male gender and age less than 25 years, although heterogeneity in exposure metrics and sources of bias were demonstrated to varying degrees across studies. A subsequent case-crossover study in outdoor construction workers reported a 0.5% increase in the odds of traumatic injuries per 1 degrees C increase in maximum daily humidex (odds ratio 1.005 [95% CI 1.003-1.007]). While some studies have demonstrated reversed U-shaped associations between heat exposure and occupational injuries, different risk profiles have been reported in different industries and settings. Studies conducted primarily in industrialized settings suggest an increased risk of traumatic injury with increasing heat exposure, though the exact mechanisms of heat exposure’s effects on traumatic injuries are still under investigation. The effectiveness of heat-related injury prevention approaches has not yet been established. To enhance the effectiveness of prevention efforts, prioritization of approaches should take into account not only the hierarchy of controls, social-ecological models, community and stakeholder participation, and tailoring of approaches to specific local work settings, but also methods that reduce local and global disparities and better address the source of heat exposure, including conservation-informed land-use planning, built environment, and prevention through design approaches. Participation of occupational health experts in transdisciplinary development and integration of these approaches is needed.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: October 7, 2019, 12:00 AM