Volume 11, Issue 21 May 28, 2019

CDC Science Clips: Volume 11, Issue 21, May 28, 2019

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreexternal icon to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      • Reach and use of diabetes prevention services in the United States, 2016-2017external icon
        Ali MK, McKeever Bullard K, Imperatore G, Benoit SR, Rolka DB, Albright AL, Gregg EW.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2019 May 3;2(5):e193160.
        Importance: Coordinated efforts by national organizations in the United States to implement evidence-based lifestyle modification programs are under way to reduce type 2 diabetes (hereinafter referred to as diabetes) and cardiovascular risks. Objective: To provide a status report on the reach and use of diabetes prevention services nationally. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationally representative, population-based cross-sectional analysis of 2016 and 2017 National Health Interview Survey data was conducted from August 3, 2017, through November 15, 2018. Nonpregnant, noninstitutionalized, civilian respondents 18 years or older at high risk for diabetes, defined as those with no self-reported diabetes diagnosis but with diagnosed prediabetes or an elevated American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk score (>5), were included in the analysis. Analyses were conducted for adults with (and in sensitivity analyses, for those without) elevated body mass index. Main Outcomes and Measures: Absolute numbers and proportions of adults at high risk with elevated body mass index receiving advice about diet, physical activity guidance, referral to weight loss programs, referral to diabetes prevention programs, or any of these, and those affirming engagement in each (or any) activity in the past year were estimated. To identify where gaps exist, a prevention continuum diagram plotted existing vs desired goal achievement. Variation in risk-reducing activities by age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, insurance status, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or body mass index was also examined. Results: This analysis included 50912 respondents (representing 223.0 million adults nationally) 18 years or older (mean [SE] age, 46.1 [0.2] years; 48.1% [0.3%] male) with complete data and no self-reported diabetes diagnosis by their health care professional. Of the represented population, 36.0% (80.0 million) had either a physician diagnosis of prediabetes (17.9 million), an elevated ADA risk score (73.3 million), or both (11.3 million). Among those with diagnosed prediabetes, 73.5% (95% CI, 71.6%-75.3%) reported receiving advice and/or referrals for diabetes risk reduction from their health care professional, and, of those, 35.0% (95% CI, 30.5%-39.8%) to 75.8% (95% CI, 73.2%-78.3%) reported engaging in the respective activity or program in the past year. Half of adults with elevated ADA risk scores but no diagnosed prediabetes (50.6%; 95% CI, 49.5%-51.8%) reported receiving risk-reduction advice and/or referral, of whom 33.5% (95% CI, 30.1%-37.0%) to 75.2% (95% CI, 73.4%-76.9%) reported engaging in activities and/or programs. Participation in diabetes prevention programs was exceedingly low. Advice from a health care professional, age range from 45 to 64 years, higher educational attainment, health insurance status, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were associated with higher engagement in risk-reducing activities and/or programs. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults at high risk for diabetes, major gaps in receiving advice and/or referrals and engaging in diabetes risk-reduction activities and/or programs were noted. These results suggest that risk perception, health care professional referral and communication, and insurance coverage may be key levers to increase risk-reducing behaviors in US adults. These findings provide a benchmark from which to monitor future program availability and coverage, identification of prediabetes, and referral to and retention in programs.

    • Communicable Diseases
      • International importations of measles virus into the United States during the postelimination era, 2001-2016external icon
        Lee AD, Clemmons NS, Patel M, Gastanaduy PA.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 19;219(10):1616-1623.
        BACKGROUND: Although measles was declared eliminated from the United States in 2000, measles cases and outbreaks continue to occur, resulting from importations of the disease from countries where it remains endemic. METHODS: We describe the epidemiology of international importations of measles virus into the United States during the postelimination era. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2016, 553 imported measles cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A median of 28 importations occurred each year (range: 18-80). The median age of imported case-patients was 18 years (range: 3 months-75 years); 87% were unvaccinated or had an unknown vaccination status. US residents (as opposed to foreign visitors) accounted for 62% of imported measles cases. Overall, 62% of all imported case-patients reported travel to countries in the Western Pacific and European Regions of the World Health Organization during their exposure periods. The number of measles importations from specific countries was related to the incidence of measles in and the volume of travel to and from the source country. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the importance of measles vaccination of US residents aged >/=6 months before international travel according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations and supporting global measles elimination efforts.

      • Pregnancy intention and contraceptive use among HIV-positive Malawian women at 4-26 weeks post-partum: A nested cross-sectional studyexternal icon
        Thindwa D, Landes M, Lettow MV, Kanyemba A, Nkhoma E, Phiri H, Kalua T, Oosterhout JJ, Kim EJ, Barr BA.
        PLoS One. 2019 ;14(4):e0215947.
        BACKGROUND: Avoiding unintended pregnancies through family planning is a WHO strategy for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and maternal morbidity/mortality. We investigated factors associated with unintended index pregnancy, unmet contraceptive need, future pregnancy intention and current contraceptive use among Malawian women living with HIV in the Option B+ era. METHODS: Women who tested HIV positive at 4-26 weeks postpartum were enrolled into a cross-sectional study at high-volume Under-5 clinics. Structured baseline interviews included questions on socio-demographics, HIV knowledge, partner’s HIV status/disclosure, ART use, pregnancy intention and contraceptive use. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with outcomes. RESULTS: We enrolled 578 HIV-positive women between May 2015-May 2016; median maternal age was 28 years (y) (interquartile-range [IQR]: 23-32), median parity was 3 deliveries (IQR: 2-4) and median infant age was 7 weeks (IQR: 6-12). Overall, 41.8% women reported unintended index pregnancy, of whom 35.0% reported unmet contraceptive need and 65.0% contraceptive failure. In multivariable analysis, unintended index pregnancy was higher in >/=35y vs. 14-24y (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 1.0-4.2) and in women with parity >/=3 vs. primiparous (aOR: 2.9, 95%CI: 1.5-5.6). Unmet contraceptive need at conception was higher in 14-24y vs. >/=35y (aOR: 4.2, 95%CI: 1.8-9.9), primiparous vs. >/=3 (aOR: 8.3, 95%CI: 1.8-39.5), and women with a partner of unknown HIV-status (aOR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.2-4.0). Current contraceptive use was associated with being on ART in previous pregnancy (aOR: 2.5, 95%CI: 1.5-3.9). CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of unintended index pregnancy and unmet contraceptive need among HIV-positive women highlight the need for improved access to contraceptives. To help achieve reproductive goals and elimination of MTCT of HIV, integration of family planning into HIV care should be strengthened to ensure women have timely access to a wide range of family planning methods with low failure risk.

    • Environmental Health
      • Urinary concentrations of benzophenone-3 and reproductive outcomes among women undergoing infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologiesexternal icon
        Minguez-Alarcon L, Chiu YH, Nassan FL, Williams PL, Petrozza J, Ford JB, Calafat AM, Hauser R, Chavarro JE.
        Sci Total Environ. 2019 May 2;678:390-398.
        Benzophenone-3 is used in a variety of cosmetic products as a sunscreen, and has shown weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in animal and in vitro studies. Few studies have evaluated whether benzophenone-3 is associated with reproductive outcomes among women. We studied 304 women undergoing infertility treatment (2007-2017) in the prospective Environment and Reproductive Health cohort study and who underwent 449 treatment cycles (n=788 urines). Generalized linear mixed models were used with random intercepts to account for multiple cycles, and adjusting for confounders including physical activity. Analyses were also stratified by self-reported moderate/heavy outdoor work. The cycle-specific median (IQR) urinary benzophenone-3 concentration was 147 (58, 462) mcg/L, and 98% samples had detectable concentrations. Self-reported sunscreen use, physical activity, and time spent on moderate/heavy outdoor work were positively associated with urinary benzophenone-3. Adjusted probabilities of implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth were higher in increasing quartiles of benzophenone-3, but these associations were restricted to women who reported spending time outdoors performing moderate/heavy work. Specifically, among these women, those in the highest quartile of benzophenone-3 concentrations had 51% higher implantation (p,trend=0.02), 68% higher clinical pregnancy (p,trend=0.01) and 75% higher live birth (p,trend=0.02) adjusted probabilities than women in the lowest quartile. Benzophenone-3 was unrelated to these outcomes among women who did not report doing moderate/heavy work outdoors. These results confirm that sunscreen use is a source of benzophenone-3 exposure, and show positive associations between benzophenone-3 and pregnancy outcomes, especially among women who reported engaging in outdoor work. Since these associations may be subject to important residual confounding by lifestyle factors, further research is needed to confirm these novel results in other populations, and to investigate whether other factors may be affecting the relation of benzophenone-3 with fertility and other health outcomes.

    • Health Economics
      • Economic impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on the Republic of Korea’s tourism-related industriesexternal icon
        Joo H, Maskery BA, Berro AD, Rotz LD, Lee YK, Brown CM.
        Health Secur. 2019 Mar/Apr;17(2):100-108.
        The 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in the Republic of Korea (ROK) is an example of an infectious disease outbreak initiated by international travelers to a high-income country. This study was conducted to determine the economic impact of the MERS outbreak on the tourism and travel-related service sectors, including accommodation, food and beverage, and transportation, in the ROK. We projected monthly numbers of noncitizen arrivals and indices of services for 3 travel-related service sectors during and after the MERS outbreak (June 2015 to June 2016) using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models. Tourism losses were estimated by multiplying the monthly differences between projected and actual numbers of noncitizen arrivals by average tourism expenditure per capita. Estimated tourism losses were allocated to travel-related service sectors to understand the distribution of losses across service sectors. The MERS outbreak was correlated with a reduction of 2.1 million noncitizen visitors corresponding with US$2.6 billion in tourism loss for the ROK. Estimated losses in the accommodation, food and beverage service, and transportation sectors associated with the decrease of noncitizen visitors were US$542 million, US$359 million, and US$106 million, respectively. The losses were demonstrated by lower than expected indices of services for the accommodation and food and beverage service sectors in June and July 2015 and for the transportation sector in June 2015. The results support previous findings that public health emergencies due to traveler-associated outbreaks of infectious diseases can cause significant losses to the broader economies of affected countries.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Vaccination-related activities at schools with kindergartners: Evidence from a school nurse surveyexternal icon
        Leidner AJ, Maughan ED, Bjork A, Black C, Mazyck D, Underwood JM.
        J Sch Nurs. 2019 May 14:1059840519847730.
        Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten varies across the country and within states. We surveyed a convenience sample of kindergarten school nurses to investigate self-reported vaccination-related activities conducted at schools nationwide. The majority of the 1,435 kindergarten school nurses responding reported that their schools communicate with parents and guardians of undervaccinated students by phone (96%), postal mail (67%), newsletters (61%), and e-mail (59%). Most respondents reported documenting vaccination coverage in electronic systems (85%) and sharing coverage reports with health departments (69%). A total of 41% of school nurses worked with external partners for vaccination efforts, the most common support received from partners being vaccine administration (38%) and providing materials/vaccines (21%). School nurses also reported that 95% of kindergartners were up to date for all vaccines. School-based vaccination-related activities are essential to sustaining high levels of vaccination coverage for the protection of children at schools and in the broader community.

    • Injury and Violence
      • Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Studyexternal icon
        Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, Williamson DF, Spitz AM, Edwards V, Koss MP, Marks JS.
        Am J Prev Med. 2019 ;56(6):774-786.
        Background: The relationship of health risk behavior and disease in adulthood to the breadth of exposure to childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, and household dysfunction during childhood has not previously been described. Methods: A questionnaire about adverse childhood experiences was mailed to 13,494 adults who had completed a standardized medical evaluation at a large HMO; 9,508 (70.5%) responded. Seven categories of adverse childhood experiences were studied: psychological, physical, or sexual abuse; violence against mother; or living with household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill or suicidal, or ever imprisoned. The number of categories of these adverse childhood experiences was then compared to measures of adult risk behavior, health status, and disease. Logistic regression was used to adjust for effects of demographic factors on the association between the cumulative number of categories of childhood exposures (range: 0-7)and risk factors for the leading causes of death in adult life. Results: More than half of respondents reported at least one, and one-fourth reported >/=2 categories of childhood exposures. We found a graded relationship between the number of categories of childhood exposure and each of the adult health risk behaviors and diseases that were studied (P <.001). Persons who had experienced four or more categories of childhood exposure, compared to those who had experienced none, had 4- to 12-fold increased health risks for alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, and suicide attempt; a 2- to 4-fold increase in smoking, poor self-rated health, >/=50 sexual intercourse partners, and sexually transmitted disease; and a 1.4- to 1.6-fold increase in physical inactivity and severe obesity. The number of categories of adverse childhood exposures showed a graded relationship to the presence of adult diseases including ischemic heart disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, skeletal fractures, and liver disease. The seven categories of adverse childhood experiences were strongly interrelated and persons with multiple categories of childhood exposure were likely to have multiple health risk factors later in life. Conclusions: We found a strong graded relationship between the breadth of exposure to abuse or household dysfunction during childhood and multiple risk factors for several of the leading causes of death in adults.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      • Vitamin D status in the United States, 2011-2014external icon
        Herrick KA, Storandt RJ, Afful J, Pfeiffer CM, Schleicher RL, Gahche JJ, Potischman N.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 May 10.
        BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is important for bone health; in 2014 it was the fifth most commonly ordered laboratory test among Medicare Part B payments. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe vitamin D status in the US population in 2011-2014 and trends from 2003 to 2014. METHODS: We used serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from NHANES 2011-2014 (n = 16,180), and estimated the prevalence at risk of deficiency (<30 nmol/L) or prevalence at risk of inadequacy (30-49 nmol/L) by age, sex, race and Hispanic origin, and dietary intake of vitamin D. We also present trends between 2003 and 2014. RESULTS: In 2011-2014, the percentage aged >/=1 y at risk of vitamin D deficiency or inadequacy was 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1%, 6.2%) and 18.3% (95% CI: 16.2%, 20.6%). The prevalence of at risk of deficiency was lowest among children aged 1-5 y (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 1.1%), peaked among adults aged 20-39 y (7.6%; 95% CI: 6.0%, 9.6%), and fell to 2.9% (95% CI: 2.0%, 4.0%) among adults aged >/=60 y; the prevalence of at risk of inadequacy was similar. The prevalence of at risk of deficiency was higher among non-Hispanic black (17.5%; 95% CI: 15.2%, 20.0%) than among non-Hispanic Asian (7.6%; 95% CI: 5.9%, 9.9%), non-Hispanic white (2.1%; 95% CI: 1.5%, 2.7%), and Hispanic (5.9%; 95% CI: 4.4%, 7.8%) persons; the prevalence of at risk of inadequacy was similar. Persons with higher vitamin D dietary intake or who used supplements had lower prevalences of at risk of deficiency or inadequacy. From 2003 to 2014 there was no change in the risk of vitamin D deficiency; the risk of inadequacy declined from 21.0% (95% CI: 17.9%, 24.5%) to 17.7% (95% CI: 16.0%, 19.7%). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of at risk of vitamin D deficiency in the United States remained stable from 2003 to 2014; at risk of inadequacy declined. Differences in vitamin D status by race and Hispanic origin warrant additional investigation.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      • A biomonitoring assessment of secondhand exposures to electronic cigarette emissionsexternal icon
        Johnson JM, Naeher LP, Yu X, Sosnoff C, Wang L, Rathbun SL, De Jesus VR, Xia B, Holder C, Muilenburg JL, Wang JS.
        Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2019 May 10.
        BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) conventions regularly bring together thousands of users around the world. In these environments, secondhand exposures to high concentrations of e-cigarette emissions are prevalent. Some biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure may be used to characterize secondhand e-cigarette exposures in such an environment. METHODS: Participants who did not use any tobacco product attended four separate e-cigarette events for approximately six hours. Urine and saliva samples were collected from participants prior to the event, immediately after the event, 4-h after the event, and the next morning (first void). Urine samples from 34 participants were analyzed for cotinine, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-N-acetylcysteine (3-HPMA), S-carboxyethyl-N-acetylcysteine (CEMA), select tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), and 8-isoprostane. Saliva samples were analyzed for cotinine and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine. RESULTS: Data from 28 of 34 participants were used in the data analysis. Creatinine-adjusted urinary cotinine concentrations increased up to 13-fold and peaked 4-h after completed exposure (range of adjusted geometric means [AGMs]=0.352-2.31mug/g creatinine). Salivary cotinine concentrations were also the highest 4-h after completed exposure (range of AGMs=0.0373-0.167ng/mL). Salivary cotinine and creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary cotinine, trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, CEMA, and 3-HPMA varied significantly across sampling times. Urinary and salivary cotinine, urinary trans-3′-hydroxycotinine, and urinary 3-HPMA concentrations also varied significantly across events. CONCLUSION: Secondhand e-cigarette exposures lasting six hours resulted in significant changes in exposure biomarker concentrations of both nicotine and acrolein but did not change exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Additional research is needed to understand the relationship between biomarker concentrations and environmental concentrations of toxicants in e-cigarette emissions.

      • Suspected heroin overdoses in US emergency departments, 2017-2018external icon
        Vivolo-Kantor AM, Hoots B, David F, Gladden RM.
        Am J Public Health. 2019 May 16:e1-e3.
        OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in suspected heroin overdose emergency department (ED) visits. Methods. We analyzed quarterly and yearly changes in heroin overdoses during 2017-2018 by using data from 23 states and jurisdictions (including the District of Columbia) funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Enhanced State Opioid Overdose Surveillance program. The analyses included the Pearson chi(2) test to detect significant changes. Results. Both sexes, all age groups, and some states exhibited increases from quarter 1 (Q1) 2017 to Q2 2017 and significant decreases in both quarters from Q3 2017 to Q1 2018 in heroin overdose ED visits. Overall, there was a significant yearly decline of 21.5% in heroin overdose ED visits. Three states had significant yearly increases (Illinois, Indiana, and Utah), and 9 states (Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, West Virginia, and Wisconsin) and the District of Columbia had significant decreases. Conclusions. We identified decreases in heroin overdose ED visits from 2017 through 2018, but these declines were not consistent among states. Even with the possibility of a stabilization or slowing of this epidemic, it is important that the field of public health and its partners implement strategies to prevent overdoses and target emerging hot spots. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 16, 2019: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2019.305053).

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Dietary omega polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and patient-reported outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus: The Michigan Lupus Epidemiology & Surveillance (MILES) Programexternal icon
        Charoenwoodhipong P, Harlow SD, Marder W, Hassett AL, McCune WJ, Gordon C, Helmick CG, Barbour KE, Wang L, Mancuso P, Somers EC, Zick SM.
        Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2019 May 10.
        OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between dietary intake of omega-3 (n-3; generally anti-inflammatory) and omega-6 (n-6; generally pro-inflammatory) fatty acids and patient-reported outcomes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: This study was based on the population-based Michigan Lupus Epidemiology & Surveillance (MILES) Cohort. Estimates of n-3 and n-6 intake were derived from Diet History Questionnaire II items (DHQ II; past year with portion size version). Patient-reported outcomes included self-reported lupus activity (Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire/SLAQ). Multivariable regression, adjusted for age, sex, race, and body mass index, was used to assess associations between absolute intake of n-3 and n-6, as well as the n-6:n-3 ratio, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Among 456 SLE cases, 425 (93.2%) were female, 207 (45.4%) were black, and mean age was 52.9+/-12.3 years. Controlling for potential confounders, the average SLAQ score was significantly higher by 0.3 points [(95% CI 0.1, 0.6); p=0.013] with each unit increase of the n-6:n-3 ratio. Both lupus activity and PROMIS-Sleep Disturbance scores were lower with each 1g/1000 Kcal increase of n-3 fatty acids [SLAQ regression coefficient beta=-0.8 (95% CI -1.6, 0.0), p=0.055; PROMIS-Sleep beta=-1.1 (95% CI -2.0, -0.2), p=0.017]. Higher n-3 intakes were non-significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms and comorbid fibromyalgia, and higher quality of life, whereas results for the n6:n3 ratio trended in the opposite direction. CONCLUSION: This population-based study suggests that higher dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, and lower n-6:n-3 ratios, are favorably associated with patient-reported outcomes in SLE, particularly self-reported lupus activity and sleep quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      2. Understanding geographic variations of indoor radon potential for comprehensive cancer control planningexternal icon
        Gallaway MS, Berens AS, Puckett MC, Foster S.
        Cancer Causes Control. 2019 May 9.
        PURPOSE: Lung cancer is the leading cause of U.S. cancer deaths and radon is the second leading risk factor for lung cancer. By better understanding geologic variations of radon production in states, comprehensive cancer control efforts could be improved. The study purpose was to assess states with the greatest potential for elevated radon and the likelihood of radon-related actions in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardee cancer plans. METHODS: Two state-level variables were derived to approximate potential for elevated radon using the Environmental Protection Agency county map and the 2015 U.S. Census. The association between radon potential and inclusion of radon activity within cancer plans was evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of cancer plans recognized an association between radon and cancer risk, and included measurable radon activities. Most states with high radon potential included radon activity in cancer plans. Both measures of radon potential were significantly associated with NCCCP cancer plans including radon activity. CONCLUSIONS: Geospatial analyses help to prioritize radon-related lung cancer activities. In areas with high potential for radon exposure, increasing knowledge about potential for radon exposure may result in increased radon testing, mitigation, or other radon reducing strategies, and ultimately reduction of lung cancer deaths.

      3. [No abstract]

      4. The uses and expenses of antihypertensive medications among hypertensive adultsexternal icon
        Park C, Wang G, Ng BP, Fang J, Durthaler JM, Ayala C.
        Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019 May 8.
        BACKGROUND: The literature lacks information about the use and cost of prescribed antihypertensive medications, especially by the type and class of medication prescribed. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the uses and expenses of antihypertensive medications among hypertensive adults in the United States. METHODS: Using the 2014-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, adult men and nonpregnant women aged 18 or older who had a diagnosis code of hypertension and used any prescribed antihypertensive medication were included in the study (n=10,971). Adults with hypertension who were using a single antihypertensive medication were defined as single medication users, and those using two or more medications were defined as multiple medication users. Medications were classified into angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), thiazide-type diuretics (TDs), beta-blockers (BBs), and others. The average annual total antihypertensive medication expenses and the expenditures of each medication class were estimated by using generalized linear models with a log link and gamma distribution and were adjusted to 2015 US dollars. RESULTS: Among 10,971 hypertensive adults, 4759 (44.1%) were single medication users, and 6212 (55.9%) were multiple medication users. The average annual total cost for antihypertensive medications was $336 per person (95% confidence interval [CI]=$319-$353); $199 (95% CI=$177-$221) for single medication users and $436 (95% CI=$413-$459) for multiple medication users. The average annual costs for each medication class were estimated at $438 (95% CI=$384-$492) for ARBs and $49 for TDs (95% CI=$44-$55). CONCLUSIONS: Users of multiple medications incurred more than twice the expense than single medication users. When comparing classes of medications, the cost for ARBs was the highest, whereas the cost for TDs was the lowest. This information can be used in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of antihypertension therapies.

      5. 10-year trends in noncommunicable disease mortality in the Caribbean regionexternal icon
        Razzaghi H, Martin DN, Quesnel-Crooks S, Hong Y, Gregg E, Andall-Brereton G, Gawryszweski V, Saraiya M.
        Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2019 ;43:e37.
        Objective: Between 2006 and 2016, 70% of all deaths worldwide were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs kill nearly 40 million people a year globally, with almost three-quarters of NCD deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess mortality rates and trends due to deaths from NCDs in the Caribbean region. Methods: The study examines age-standardized mortality rates and 10-year trends due to death from cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes in two territories of the United States of America (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and in 20 other English- or Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries or territories, for the most recent, available 10 years of data ranging from 1999 to 2014. For the analysis, the SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software packages were used. Results: These four NCDs accounted for 39% to 67% of all deaths in these 22 countries and territories, and more than half of the deaths in 17 of them. Heart disease accounted for higher percentages of deaths in most of the Caribbean countries and territories (13%-25%), followed by cancer (8%-25%), diabetes (4%-21%), and cerebrovascular disease (1%-13%). Age-standardized mortality rates due to cancer and heart disease were higher for males than for females, but there were no significant mortality trends in the region for any of the NCDs. Conclusions: The reasons for the high mortality of NCDs in these Caribbean countries and territories remain a critical public health issue that warrants further investigation.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Norovirus outbreaks on college and university campusesexternal icon
        Bhatta MR, Marsh Z, Newman KL, Rebolledo PA, Huey M, Hall AJ, Leon JS.
        J Am Coll Health. 2019 May 14:1-10.
        OBJECTIVE: To describe norovirus outbreaks at colleges and universities. PARTICIPANTS: None. Conducted September 2016 to March 2018. METHODS: College and university norovirus outbreaks reported to the US National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS, 2009-2016) or published and indexed by EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science (1985-2017) were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-seven norovirus outbreaks were reported to NORS and 23 were identified in the systematic literature review. Outbreaks occurred more frequently during the beginning of the school year (September-February). NORS outbreaks were more often spread by person-to-person transmission (61%) and, in published outbreaks, by food (57%). The reported exposures of published outbreaks were campus dining (n = 8) and ill food service workers (n = 7). Higher attack rates were associated with smaller on-campus population size, social networks or residences, and specific food exposures. Common control measures were communal area disinfection and health/hygiene education. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations summarized to prevent and control norovirus outbreaks at colleges or universities.

      2. Notes from the Field: Community outbreak of measles – Clark County, Washington, 2018-2019external icon
        Carlson A, Riethman M, Gastanaduy P, Lee A, Leung J, Holshue M, DeBolt C, Melnick A.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 May 17;68(19):446-447.

        [No abstract]

      3. Men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) connect lower prevalence populations of women to higher prevalence populations of men who have sex with men only. We hypothesize that HIV testing and treatment among MSMW have increased in recent years, and this increase can help explain the declining rates of new HIV diagnoses among African American women. We analyzed data from 2008, 2011, and 2014 of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. African American men who have sex with men (MSM) were surveyed from 19 United States cities using venue-based sampling and tested for HIV infection. We used generalized estimating equations, using year of survey as an independent variable, adjusting for age, to determine differences for selected outcomes regarding healthcare and risk behaviors over time. Among the 1299 African American MSMW interviewed, significant increases were observed in the percent of men who had an HIV test in the previous 12 months (2008: 54%, 2011: 69%, and 2014: 68%, p-value < 0.001). Among HIV-positive men, the percentage of men who were aware of their infection at the time of the interview increased significantly over time (26, 35, and 48%, p-value = 0.002). Among those men, the percentage who reported currently being on antiretroviral therapy also increased significantly over time (46, 69, and 72%, p-value = 0.050). The percentage of men reporting high-risk sexual risk behaviors increased or remained stable. Our findings support the hypothesis that HIV testing and treatment has increased among African American MSM from 2008 to 2014. Additional research is needed to fully explore the population-level impact it has on HIV transmission among women.

      4. Proportion of incident human immunodeficiency virus cases among men who have sex with men attributable to gonorrhea and chlamydia: A modeling analysisexternal icon
        Jones J, Weiss K, Mermin J, Dietz P, Rosenberg ES, Gift TL, Chesson H, Sullivan PS, Lyles C, Bernstein KT, Jenness SM.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2019 Jun;46(6):357-363.
        BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission. We estimated the proportion of HIV incidence among men who have sex with men attributable to infection with the 2 most common bacterial STIs, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). METHODS: We used a stochastic, agent-based model of a sexual network of MSM with cocirculating HIV, NG, and CT infections. Relative risk (RR) multipliers, specific to anatomic site of infection, modified the risk of HIV transmission and acquisition based on STI status. We estimated the effect of NG and CT on HIV incidence overall and on HIV acquisition and HIV transmission separately. Each scenario was simulated for 10 years. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was determined for each combination of RRs by comparing the incidence in the final year of a scenario to a scenario in which the RRs associated with NG and CT were set to 1.0. RESULTS: Overall, 10.2% (interquartile range [IQR], 7.9-12.4) of HIV infections were attributable to NG/CT infection. Then in sensitivity analyses, the PAF for HIV transmission ranged from 3.1% (IQR, 0.5-5.2) to 20.4% (IQR, 17.8-22.5) and the PAF for HIV acquisition ranged from 2.0% (IQR, -0.7 to 4.3) to 13.8% (IQR, 11.7-16.0). CONCLUSIONS: Despite challenges in estimating the causal impact of NG/CT on HIV risk, modeling is an alternative approach to quantifying plausible ranges of effects given uncertainty in the biological cofactors. Our estimates represent idealized public health interventions in which STI could be maximally prevented, setting targets for real-world STI interventions that seek to reduce HIV incidence.

      5. Brief report: HIV shedding in the female genital tract of women on ART and progestin contraception: Extended follow-up results of a randomized clinical trialexternal icon
        Kourtis AP, Wiener J, Hurst S, Nelson JA, Cottrell ML, Corbett A, Chinula L, Msika A, Haddad LB, Tang JH.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019 Jun 1;81(2):163-165.
        BACKGROUND: Progestin contraception has been linked to higher risk of female to male sexual HIV transmission. SETTING: A clinical trial among HIV-infected women in Lilongwe, Malawi, randomized to initiation of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate injectable or levonorgestrel implant, and followed for up to 33 months, with the outcome of HIV shedding in the genital tract. METHODS: We compared the frequency and magnitude of HIV genital shedding before and after initiation of contraception and between study arms among women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Genital HIV RNA was measured in TearFlo Strips using the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay. RESULTS: Among 68 HIV-infected Malawian women on ART, randomization to depot medroxyprogesterone acetate compared with the levonorgestrel implant was not associated with genital shedding and neither progestin contraceptive was associated with increased HIV genital shedding, for up to 33 months after contraceptive initiation. Having detectable plasma HIV [adjusted risk ratio (RR) 10.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.18 to 34.7] and detectable genital shedding before contraceptive initiation (adjusted RR 3.53; 95% CI: 1.31 to 9.47) were associated with a higher risk of detectable genital shedding after contraceptive initiation. Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations were associated with a lower risk of detectable genital shedding (adjusted RR 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.99, per increase of 1000 ng/mL). CONCLUSION: Among HIV-infected women receiving ART, our results provide evidence that progestin contraception does not impact women’s risk of transmission of HIV to partners. Our finding that detectable genital shedding before contraceptive initiation independently predicts shedding suggests that there may be other individual-level biological or behavioral factors that increase the risk for shedding.

      6. BACKGROUND: In an attempt to increase high school students’ sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing rates, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Adolescent and School Health partnered with ICF and Chicago Public Schools to adapt and implement the “GYT: Get Yourself Tested” health marketing campaign for a high school. METHODS: Clinic record data and student retrospective self-report surveys (n = 193) tested for differences between the GYT intervention school and a comparison school on a number of outcomes, including human immunodeficiency virus and STD testing. RESULTS: Clinic record data showed that testing increased significantly more for the intervention than the comparison school during the GYT implementation period (B, 2.9; SE, 1.1, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the odds of being tested at the referral clinic were more than 4 times (odds ratio, 4.4) as high for students in the campaign school than for those in the comparison school (95% confidence interval, 2.3-8.2). Survey data did not show increased self-reported testing but, more students in the GYT school (92.7%) were aware of where to receive free, low-cost, or affordable human immunodeficiency virus and STD testing than students in the comparison school (76.0%; P < 0.01). Among sexually experienced students (n = 142), significantly more from the campaign school reported that they intended to test for STDs in the next 3 months (48.4% strongly agree and 33.2% agree) compared with those at the comparison school (27.4% strongly agree and 32.9% agree; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot suggests that a student-led GYT campaign in high schools may successfully increase STD testing of students. Although some of the findings from this pilot evaluation are promising, they are limited, and broader implementation and evaluation is needed. Future evaluation efforts can include more rigorous study designs, multiple schools or districts, longer campaign and evaluation across an entire school or calendar year, or in combination with other school-based testing strategies like a mass school-based screening event.

      7. Pneumococcal pneumonia prevalence among adults with severe acute respiratory illness in Thailand – comparison of Bayesian latent class modeling and conventional analysisexternal icon
        Lu Y, Joseph L, Belisle P, Sawatwong P, Jatapai A, Whistler T, Thamthitiwat S, Paveenkittiporn W, Khemla S, Van Beneden CA, Baggett HC, Gregory CJ.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 15;19(1):423.
        BACKGROUND: Determining the etiology of pneumonia is essential to guide public health interventions. Diagnostic test results, including from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of upper respiratory tract specimens, have been used to estimate prevalence of pneumococcal pneumonia. However limitations in test sensitivity and specificity and the specimen types available make establishing a definitive diagnosis challenging. Prevalence estimates for pneumococcal pneumonia could be biased in the absence of a true gold standard reference test for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: We conducted a case control study to identify etiologies of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) from April 2014 through August 2015 in Thailand. We estimated the prevalence of pneumococcal pneumonia among adults hospitalized for CAP using Bayesian latent class models (BLCMs) incorporating results of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing of upper respiratory tract specimens and a urine antigen test (UAT) from cases and controls. We compared the prevalence estimate to conventional analyses using only UAT as a reference test. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of pneumococcal pneumonia was 8% (95% CI: 5-11%) by conventional analyses. By BLCM, we estimated the prevalence to be 10% (95% CrI: 7-16%) using binary qPCR and UAT results, and 11% (95% CrI: 7-17%) using binary UAT results and qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) values. CONCLUSIONS: BLCM suggests a > 25% higher prevalence of pneumococcal pneumonia than estimated by a conventional approach assuming UAT as a gold standard reference test. Higher quantities of pneumococcal DNA in the upper respiratory tract were associated with pneumococcal pneumonia in adults but the addition of a second specific pneumococcal test was required to accurately estimate disease status and prevalence. By incorporating the inherent uncertainty of diagnostic tests, BLCM can obtain more reliable estimates of disease status and improve understanding of underlying etiology.

      8. Trends in the prevalence of anogenital warts among patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics – Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Network, United States, 2010-2016external icon
        Mann LM, Llata E, Flagg EW, Hong J, Asbel L, Carlos-Henderson J, Kerani RP, Kohn R, Pathela P, Schumacher C, Torrone EA.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 16;219(9):1389-1397.
        BACKGROUND: Approximately 90% of genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. In the United States, HPV vaccination has been recommended for girls and women aged </=26 years, and since 2011, for boys and men aged </=21 years and for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) aged </=26 years. METHODS: Data were obtained from 27 clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network. Trends in the annual prevalence of anogenital warts (AGW) from 2010-2016 were described by sex and by the sex of sex partners. RESULTS: During 2010-2016, significant declines in the prevalence of AGW were observed in women aged <40 years, men who have sex with women only (MSW) aged <40 years, and MSM of all age categories. An inflection in trend in 2012 was noted for MSW aged 20-24 or 25-29 years and for MSM aged 20-24 years. CONCLUSIONS: The observed declines in the prevalence of AGW suggest that HPV morbidity is declining among populations attending STD clinics, including MSW, MSM, and women. Declines in younger age groups are consistent with what would be expected following the implementation of HPV vaccination. However, declines were also observed in older age groups and are not likely to be the result of vaccination.

      9. Notes from the field: Measles outbreaks from imported cases in orthodox Jewish communities – New York and New Jersey, 2018-2019external icon
        McDonald R, Ruppert PS, Souto M, Johns DE, McKay K, Bessette N, McNulty LX, Crawford JE, Bryant P, Mosquera MC, Frontin S, Deluna-Evans T, Regenye DE, Zaremski EF, Landis VJ, Sullivan B, Rumpf BE, Doherty J, Sen K, Adler E, DiFedele L, Ostrowski S, Compton C, Rausch-Phung E, Gelman I, Montana B, Blog D, Hutton BJ, Zucker HA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 May 17;68(19):444-445.

        [No abstract]

      10. The role of point-of-care viral load monitoring in achieving the target of 90% suppression in HIV-infected patients in Nigeria: study protocol for a randomized controlled trialexternal icon
        Meloni ST, Agbaji O, Chang CA, Agaba P, Imade G, Oguche S, Mukhtar A, Mitruka K, Cox MH, Zee A, Kanki P.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 2;19(1):368.
        BACKGROUND: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 goal envisions 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy to be virally suppressed by 2020. Implied in that goal is that viral load be quantified for all patients receiving treatment, which is a challenging undertaking given the complexity and high cost of standard-of-care viral load testing methods. Recently developed point-of-care viral load testing devices offer new promise to improve access to viral load testing by bringing the test closer to the patient and also returning results faster, often same-day. While manufactures have evaluated point-of-care assays using reference panels, empiric data examining the impact of the new technology against standard-of-care monitoring in low- and middle-income settings are lacking. Our goal in this trial is to compare a point-of-care to standard-of-care viral load test on impact on various clinical outcomes as well to assess the acceptability and feasibility of using the assay in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: Using a two-arm randomized control trial design, we will enroll 794 patients from two different HIV treatment sites in Nigeria. Patients will be randomized 1:1 for point-of-care or standard-of-care viral load monitoring (397 patients per arm). Following initiation of treatment, viral load will be monitored at patients’ 6- and 12-month follow-up visits using either point-of-care or standard-of-care testing methods, based on trial assignment. The monitoring schedule will follow national treatment guidelines. The primary outcome measure in this trial is proportion of patients with viral suppression at month 12 post-initiation of treatment. The secondary outcome measures encompass acceptability, feasibility, and virologic impact variables. DISCUSSION: This clinical trial will provide information on the impact of using point-of-care versus standard-of-care viral load testing on patient clinical outcomes; the study will also supply data on the acceptability and feasibility of point-of-care viral load monitoring in a resource-limited setting. If this method of testing is acceptable and feasible, and also superior to standard of care, the results of the trial and the information gathered will inform future scaled implementation and further optimization of the clinic-laboratory network that is critical for monitoring achievement of the 90-90-90 goals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: US National Institutes of Health Clinical NCT03533868 . Date of Registration: 23 May 2018. Protocol Version: 10. Protocol Date: 30 March 2018.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. INTRODUCTION: Official counts of deaths attributed to disasters are often under-reported, thus adversely affecting public health messaging designed to prevent further mortality. During the Oklahoma (USA) May 2013 tornadoes, Oklahoma State Health Department Division of Vital Records (VR; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma USA) piloted a flagging procedure to track tornado-attributed deaths within its Electronic Death Registration System (EDRS). To determine if the EDRS was capturing all tornado-attributed deaths, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) evaluated three event fatality markers (EFM), which are used to collate information about deaths for immediate response and retrospective research efforts. METHODS: Oklahoma identified 48 tornado-attributed deaths through a retrospective review of hospital morbidity and mortality records. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; Atlanta, Georgia USA) analyzed the sensitivity, timeliness, and validity for three EFMs, which included: (1) a tornado-specific flag on the death record; (2) a tornado-related term in the death certificate; and (3) X37, the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) code in the death record for Victim of a Cataclysmic Storm, which includes tornadoes. RESULTS: The flag was the most sensitive EFM (89.6%; 43/48), followed by the tornado term (75.0%; 36/48), and the X37 code (56.2%; 27/48). The most-timely EFM was the flag, which took 2.0 median days to report (range 0-10 days), followed by the tornado term (median 3.5 days; range 1-21), and the X37 code (median &gt;10 days; range 2-122). Over one-half (52.1%; 25/48) of the tornado-attributed deaths were missing at least one EFM. Twenty-six percent (11/43) of flagged records had no tornado term, and 44.1% (19/43) had no X37 code. Eleven percent (4/36) of records with a tornado term did not have a flag. CONCLUSION: The tornado-specific flag was the most sensitive and timely EFM. Using the flag to collate death records and identify additional deaths without the tornado term and X37 code may improve immediate response and retrospective investigations. Moreover, each of the EFMs can serve as quality controls for the others to maximize capture of all disaster-attributed deaths from vital statistics records in the EDRS.Issa AN, Baker K, Pate D, Law R, Bayleyegn T, Noe RS. Evaluation of Oklahoma’s Electronic Death Registration System and event fatality markers for disaster-related mortality surveillance – Oklahoma USA, May 2013. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):125-131.

      2. Extending the reach of pediatric emergency preparedness: A virtual tabletop exercise targeting children’s needsexternal icon
        So M, Dziuban EJ, Franks JL, Cobham-Owens K, Schonfeld DJ, Gardner AH, Krug SE, Peacock G, Chung S.
        Public Health Rep. 2019 May 16:33354919849880.
        OBJECTIVES: Virtual tabletop exercises (VTTXs) simulate disaster scenarios to help participants improve their emergency-planning capacity. The objectives of our study were to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of a VTTX in improving preparedness capabilities specific to children’s needs among pediatricians and public health practitioners, (2) document follow-up actions, and (3) identify exercise strengths and weaknesses. METHODS: In February 2017, we conducted and evaluated a VTTX facilitated via videoconferencing among 26 pediatricians and public health practitioners from 4 states. Using a mixed-methods design, we assessed participants’ knowledge and confidence to fulfill targeted federal preparedness capabilities immediately before and after the exercise. We also evaluated the degree to which participants made progress on actions through surveys 1 month (n = 14) and 6 months (n = 14) after the exercise. RESULTS: Participants reported a greater ability to identify their state’s pediatric emergency preparedness strengths and weaknesses after the exercise (16 of 18) compared with before the exercise (10 of 18). We also observed increases in (1) knowledge of and confidence in performing most pediatric emergency preparedness capabilities and (2) most dimensions of interprofessional collaboration. From 1 month to 6 months after the exercise, participants (n = 14) self-reported making progress in increasing awareness for potential preparedness partners and in conducting similar pediatric exercises (from 4-7 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Participants viewed the VTTX positively and indicated increased pediatric emergency preparedness knowledge and confidence. Addressing barriers to improving local pediatric emergency preparedness-particularly long term-is an important target for future tabletop exercises.

      3. Background: Older persons are often unable to leave conflict areas; however, little is known about the mental and physical health among this population. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of and whether there was an association between psychological distress and disability among older persons affected by conflict in eastern Ukraine. Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized cross-sectional household survey of persons aged >/=60 years in government and non-government controlled areas (GCA and NGCA) of Donetsk and Luhansk regions in January-March 2016. Psychological distress and dependency (degree of disability) were measured using the Kessler K6 Psychological Distress Scale and Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living, respectively. Association between psychological distress and dependency was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Results: Final sample included 758 and 418 persons in GCA and NGCA, respectively. Prevalence of serious psychological distress was 33.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 28.0-39.7%) in GCA and 42.5% (95%CI, 36.1-49.2%) in NGCA. Overall, 32.2% (95%CI, 27.9-36.7%) of independent persons and 74.0% (95%CI, 65.2-81.2%) of moderately/severely dependent persons reported serious psychological distress (P < .0001). Being dependent, a woman, and having a chronic disease were all significantly associated with psychological distress in a logistic regression model. Conclusions: Prevalence of serious psychological distress was very high compared with rates reported from developed countries and was highly associated with disability. Health services for the disabled, including psychological as well as physical support, could help in reducing the proportion of people needing mental health services not normally identified.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Unbiased assessment of abundance of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks, canine exposure to spotted fever group rickettsia, and risk factors in Mexicali, Mexicoexternal icon
        Foley J, Tinoco-Gracia L, Rodriguez-Lomeli M, Estrada-Guzman J, Fierro M, Mattar-Lopez E, Peterson A, Pascoe E, Gonzalez Y, Hori-Oshima S, Armstrong PA, Lopez G, Jacome-Ibarra M, Paddock CD, Zazueta OE.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 May 13.
        An epidemic of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is ongoing in Mexicali, Mexico. We visited 100 neighborhoods with diagnosed human cases and 100 control neighborhoods to evaluate knowledge of the epidemic; obtain data on the spatial distribution of dogs, canine seroprevalence and active infection, tick infestations, and presence of rickettsial DNA in ticks; and evaluate risk factors for human cases, seropositivity, and tick infestation within an unbiased study design. The majority (80%) of residents had heard of RMSF, but only 48% used acaricides in the home or on dogs. Case neighborhoods and those with high canine seroprevalence tended to be on the city periphery or in the agricultural valley. No dogs were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Rickettsia rickettsii, and the overall seroprevalence was 65% (titers from 64 to 1,024). PCR prevalence in ticks was 0.70%, confirmed by DNA sequencing as R. rickettsii; neighborhood prevalence ranged from 0.7% to 6.1%. Twelve percent of dogs had high tick burdens, and all ticks were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Epidemiologically significant risk factors were ground covering for a neighborhood having a human case; dogs having poor body condition and weighing < 10 kg for canine seropositivity; dogs living at the home for the number of ticks in the environment; and being near canals, having trash on the patio, and a dog being thin for tick burdens on dogs. A One Health approach is crucial to understanding RMSF and brown dog ticks.

      2. New county records of Aedes aegypti and Aedes epactius in Coloradoexternal icon
        Ostrum EM, Mutebi JP.
        J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2019 ;35(1):47-50.
        In August and September 2017, we conducted mosquito surveillance in southeastern Colorado by using ovitraps and larval sampling. The aim was to determine if there were established populations of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the region. A single female Ae. aegypti was reared from eggs collected in La Junta, CO, but Ae. albopictus was not detected. Three other species were reared from eggs and/or larvae: Ae. epactius, Culex restuans, and Cx. pipiens. Aedes aegypti and Ae. epactius were detected for the 1st time in Otero and Baca counties, respectively, and these became new county records for Colorado. Both species were detected in very low numbers, suggesting extremely low population density or sporadic introductions into southeastern Colorado.

      3. MIReAD, a minimum information standard for reporting arthropod abundance dataexternal icon
        Rund SS, Braak K, Cator L, Copas K, Emrich SJ, Giraldo-Calderon GI, Johansson MA, Heydari N, Hobern D, Kelly SA, Lawson D, Lord C, MacCallum RM, Roche DG, Ryan SJ, Schigel D, Vandegrift K, Watts M, Zaspel JM, Pawar S.
        Sci Data. 2019 Apr 25;6(1):40.
        Arthropods play a dominant role in natural and human-modified terrestrial ecosystem dynamics. Spatially-explicit arthropod population time-series data are crucial for statistical or mathematical models of these dynamics and assessment of their veterinary, medical, agricultural, and ecological impacts. Such data have been collected world-wide for over a century, but remain scattered and largely inaccessible. In particular, with the ever-present and growing threat of arthropod pests and vectors of infectious diseases, there are numerous historical and ongoing surveillance efforts, but the data are not reported in consistent formats and typically lack sufficient metadata to make reuse and re-analysis possible. Here, we present the first-ever minimum information standard for arthropod abundance, Minimum Information for Reusable Arthropod Abundance Data (MIReAD). Developed with broad stakeholder collaboration, it balances sufficiency for reuse with the practicality of preparing the data for submission. It is designed to optimize data (re)usability from the “FAIR,” (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable) principles of public data archiving (PDA). This standard will facilitate data unification across research initiatives and communities dedicated to surveillance for detection and control of vector-borne diseases and pests.

      4. Using citizen science to enhance surveillance of Aedes aegypti in Arizona, 2015-17external icon
        Tarter KD, Levy CE, Yaglom HD, Adams LE, Plante L, Casal MG, Gouge DH, Rathman R, Stokka D, Weiss J, Venkat H, Walker KR.
        J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2019 ;35(1):11-18.
        Vector surveillance is an essential component of vector-borne disease prevention, but many communities lack resources to support extensive surveillance. The Great Arizona Mosquito Hunt (GAMH) was a collaborative citizen science project conducted during 2015-17 to enhance surveillance for Aedes aegypti in Arizona. Citizen science projects engage the public in scientific research in order to further scientific knowledge while improving community understanding of a specific field of science and the scientific process. Participating schools and youth organizations across the state conducted oviposition trapping for 1-4 wk during peak Ae. aegypti season in Arizona and returned the egg sheets to collaborating entomologists for identification. During the 3-year program, 120 different schools and youth organizations participated. Few participants actually collected Aedes eggs in their traps in 2015 or 2017, but about one-third of participants collected eggs during 2016, including 3 areas that were not previously reported to have Ae. aegypti. While relatively few new areas of Ae. aegypti activity were identified, GAMH was found to be a successful method of engaging citizen scientists. Future citizen science mosquito surveillance projects might be useful to further define the ecology and risk for vector-borne diseases in Arizona.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Exploring current read-across applications and needs among selected U.S. federal agenciesexternal icon
        Patlewicz G, Lizarraga L, Rua D, Allen DG, Daniel A, Fitzpatrick SC, Garcia-Reyero N, Gordon J, Hakkinen P, Howard AS, Karmaus A, Matheson J, Mumtaz M, Richarz AN, Ruiz P, Scarano L, Yamada T, Kleinstreuer N.
        Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2019 May 9.
        Read-across is a well-established data gap-filling technique applied for regulatory purposes. In US Environmental Protection Agency’s New Chemicals Program under TSCA, read-across has been used extensively for decades, however the extent of application and acceptance of read-across among U.S. federal agencies is less clear. In an effort to build read-across capacity, raise awareness of the state of the science, and work towards a harmonization of read-across approaches across U.S. agencies, a new read-across workgroup was established under the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). This is one of several ad hoc groups ICCVAM has convened to implement the ICCVAM Strategic Roadmap. In this article, we outline the charge and scope of the workgroup and summarize the current applications, tools used, and needs of the agencies represented on the workgroup for read-across. Of the agencies surveyed, the Environmental Protection Agency had the greatest experience in using read-across whereas other agencies indicated that they would benefit from gaining a perspective of the landscape of the tools and available guidance. Two practical case studies are also described to illustrate how the read-across approaches applied by two agencies vary on account of decision context.

      2. Pool chemical injuries in public and residential settings – United States, 2008-2017, and New York, 2018external icon
        Vanden Esschert KL, Haileyesus T, Tarrier AL, Donovan MA, Garofalo GT, Laco JP, Hill VR, Hlavsa MC.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 May 17;68(19):433-438.
        Pool chemicals are added to water in treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools, hot tubs/spas, and water playgrounds) primarily to protect public health. Pool chemicals inactivate pathogens (e.g., chlorine or bromine), optimize pH (e.g., muriatic acid), and increase water clarity, which helps prevent drowning by enabling detection of distressed swimmers underwater. However, pool chemicals can cause injuries if mishandled. To estimate the annual number of U.S. emergency department (ED) visits for pool chemical injuries, CDC analyzed 2008-2017 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), operated by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). During 2015-2017, pool chemical injuries led to an estimated 13,508 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9,087-17,929) U.S. ED visits; 36.4% (estimated 4,917 [95% CI = 3,022-6,811]) of patients were aged <18 years. At least 56.3% (estimated 7,601 [95% CI = 4,587-10,615]) of injuries occurred at a residence. Two thirds of the injuries occurred during the period from Memorial Day weekend through Labor Day. This report also describes a toxic chlorine gas incident that occurred at a public pool in New York in 2018. Pool chemical injuries are preventable. CDC’s Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC) is an important resource that operators of public treated recreational water venues (e.g., at hotels, apartment complexes, and waterparks) can use to prevent pool chemical injuries.

    • Health Communication and Education
      1. The influence of health education teacher characteristics on students’ health-related knowledge gainsexternal icon
        Murray CC, Sheremenko G, Rose ID, Osuji TA, Rasberry CN, Lesesne CA, Parker JT, Roberts G.
        J Sch Health. 2019 May 13.
        BACKGROUND: Studies have examined relationships between teacher characteristics and student achievement in courses such as math and science. This study is among the first to examine effects of teacher characteristics on student knowledge in a health course. METHODS: Student (N = 6143) pretest and posttest data were linked to teacher (N = 67) data. Changes in student knowledge scores from pre- to postcourse were explored using mixed-effects linear models. Teacher characteristics included professional development (PD) attendance, having a dedicated classroom, certification type, educational background, years’ experience, and athletic coaching status. RESULTS: Teacher characteristics associated with greater student knowledge gains included: being certified to teach health versus not certified (p < .001), having a dedicated classroom versus no classroom (p = .017), and for middle school teachers, having attended >/=3 PD sessions versus </=2 (p = .023). Less knowledge gain was associated with teachers that coached versus noncoaches (p = .040) and having a health degree versus no health degree (p = .049). Post hoc analyses revealed the negative effect of health degree was only significant among coaches (p = .026). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest opportunities for maximizing student knowledge gains through tailored selection of health teachers and provision of appropriate teaching support.

    • Health Economics
      1. Cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of HCV testing, treatment and linkage to care in U.S. prisonsexternal icon
        Assoumou SA, Tasillo A, Vellozzi C, Yazdi GE, Wang J, Nolen S, Hagan L, Thompson W, Randall LM, Strick L, Salomon JA, Linas BP.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 May 16.
        BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and treatment uptake in prisons remains low. We aimed to estimate clinical outcomes, cost-effectiveness (CE), and budgetary impact (BI) of HCV testing and treatment in United States (U.S.) prisons or linkage to care at release. METHODS: We used individual-based simulation modeling with healthcare and Department of Corrections (DOC) perspectives for CE and BI analyses, respectively. We simulated a U.S. prison cohort at entry using published data and Washington State DOC individual-level data. We considered permutations of testing (risk factor-based, routine at entry or at release, no testing), treatment (if liver fibrosis >/=F3, for all HCV-infected or no treatment) and linkage to care (at release or no linkage). Outcomes included quality adjusted life years (QALY); cases identified, treated and cured; cirrhosis cases avoided; incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER); DOC costs (2016 US $); and BI (healthcare cost/prison entrant) to generalize to other states. RESULTS: Compared to “no testing, no treatment and no linkage to care”, “test all, treat all, and linkage to care at release” increased the lifetime sustained virologic response by 23%, reduced cirrhosis cases by 54% at a DOC annual additional cost of $1,440/ prison entrant, and would be cost-effective. At current drug prices, targeted testing and liver fibrosis-based treatment provided worse outcomes at higher cost or worse outcomes at higher cost/QALY gained. In sensitivity analysis, fibrosis-based treatment restrictions were cost-effective at previous higher drug costs. CONCLUSIONS: Although costly, widespread testing and treatment in prisons are considered of good value at current drug prices.

      2. Degrees and dollars – Health costs associated with suboptimal ambient temperature exposureexternal icon
        Liu Y, Saha S, Hoppe BO, Convertino M.
        Sci Total Environ. 2019 Apr 29;678:702-711.
        Suboptimal ambient temperature exposure significantly affects public health. Previous studies have primarily focused on risk assessment, with few examining the health outcomes from an economic perspective. To inform environmental health policies, we estimated the economic costs of health outcomes associated with suboptimal temperature in the Minneapolis/St. Paul Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate attributable fractions/cases for mortality, emergency department visits, and emergency hospitalizations at various suboptimal temperature levels. The analyses were stratified by age group (i.e., youth (0-19 years), adult (20-64 years), and senior (65+ years)). We considered both direct medical costs and loss of productivity during economic cost assessment. Results show that youth have a large number of temperature-related emergency department visits, while seniors have large numbers of temperature-related mortality and emergency hospitalizations. Exposures to extremely low and high temperatures lead to $2.70 billion [95% empirical confidence interval (eCI): $1.91 billion, $3.48 billion] (costs are all based on 2016 USD value) economic costs annually. Moderately and extremely low and high temperature leads to $9.40 billion [eCI: $6.05 billion, $12.57 billion] economic costs. The majority of the economic costs are consistently attributed to cold (>75%), rather than heat exposures and to mortality (>95%), rather than morbidity. Our findings support prioritizing temperature-related health interventions designed to minimize the economic costs by targeting seniors and to reduce attributable cases by targeting youth.

    • Immune System Disorders
      1. Chronic immune barrier dysregulation among women with a history of violence victimizationexternal icon
        Swaims-Kohlmeier A, Haddad LB, Li ZT, Brookmeyer KA, Baker JM, Widom CS, Lamousin JC, Chi KH, Chen CY, Kersh EN, Johnson JA, Herbst-Kralovetz MM, Hogben M, Ofotokun I, Kohlmeier JE.
        JCI Insight. 2019 May 16;4(10).
        We explored the association between violence victimization and increased risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women by measuring cellular immune barrier properties from the female reproductive tract. STI-negative participants reporting repeated prior victimization occurrences through the lifetime trauma and victimization history (LTVH) instrument were more likely to exhibit alterations in barrier homeostasis and the composition of critical immune mediators irrespective of demographic parameters or presence of bacterial vaginosis. By combining cellular data with mixed-effect linear modeling, we uncovered differences in local T cells, MHCII+ antigen-presenting cells, and epithelial cells indicative of altered trafficking behavior, increased immunosuppressive function, and decreased barrier integrity at sites of STI exposure that correlate most strongly with LTVH score. These data evidence a biological link between a history of violence victimization and risk of STI acquisition through immune dysregulation in the female reproductive tract.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Patient report of herpes zoster pain: Incremental benefits of zoster vaccine liveexternal icon
        Bruxvoort KJ, Liang AS, Harpaz R, Qian L, Sy LS, LaRussa P, Schmid DS, Luo Y, Takhar H, Tseng HF.
        Vaccine. 2019 May 11.
        INTRODUCTION: Pain following herpes zoster (HZ) can persist for months and negatively impact quality of life. To evaluate the effect of zoster vaccine live (ZVL) on progression of pain following HZ, we conducted a prospective cohort study of HZ cases at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. METHODS: ZVL vaccinated and unvaccinated members aged >/=60years with laboratory-confirmed HZ from January 18, 2012 to February 26, 2015 were followed up within 5days of HZ diagnosis, and at 30, 60, and 90days after diagnosis. Pain was assessed with the Zoster Brief Pain Inventory (ZBPI) on a 0-10 scale, using cut-points of >/=3, >/=5, and >/=7, with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) defined as pain >/=3 at 90days. Log binomial regression was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with pain, comparing vaccinated versus unvaccinated HZ patients. RESULTS: We interviewed 509 vaccinated and 509 unvaccinated HZ patients. ZVL was associated with significantly lower risks of HZ-related pain at all time-points. The risk of PHN in vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, respectively, was 9.2% and 15.4% (aRR=0.594, 95% CI: 0.413, 0.854); 2.0% and 4.8% of these patients reported pain >/=7 (aRR=0.332, 95% CI: 0.153, 0.721). Irrespective of vaccination, the risk of PHN was lower in adults aged <70years versus those >/=70years and was similar or lower in females versus males. CONCLUSION: We used laboratory confirmation of HZ cases and patient survey to show that aside from preventing HZ, ZVL reduced HZ-related pain and prevented PHN among vaccine recipients who experienced HZ. Observational studies will be needed to evaluate long-term effectiveness of the new recombinant zoster vaccine and its benefits in protecting patients against PHN.

      2. Early signals of vaccine driven perturbation seen in pneumococcal carriage population genomic dataexternal icon
        Chaguza C, Heinsbroek E, Gladstone RA, Tafatatha T, Alaerts M, Peno C, Cornick JE, Musicha P, Bar-Zeev N, Kamng’ona A, Kadioglu A, McGee L, Hanage WP, Breiman RF, Heyderman RS, French N, Everett DB, Bentley SD.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 May 16.
        BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have reduced pneumococcal diseases globally. Pneumococcal genomic surveys elucidate PCV effects on population structure but are rarely conducted in low-income settings despite the high disease burden. METHODS: We undertook whole genome sequencing of 660 pneumococcal isolates collected through surveys from healthy carriers two years from PCV14 introduction and one-year post-rollout in northern Malawi. We investigated changes in population structure, within-lineage serotype dynamics, serotype diversity, and frequency of antibiotic resistance (ABR) and accessory genes. RESULTS: In the under-fives, frequency and diversity of vaccine serotypes (VT) decreased significantly post-PCV but no significant changes occurred in over-fives. Clearance of VT serotypes was consistent across different genetic backgrounds (lineages). There was an increase of non-vaccine serotypes (NVT) namely 7C, 15B/C, 23A in under-fives but 28F increased in both age groups. While carriage rates have been recently shown to remain stable post-PCV due replacement serotypes, there was no change in diversity of NVTs. Additionally, frequency of intermediate-penicillin-resistant lineages decreased post-PCV. While frequency of ABR genes remained stable, other accessory genes especially those associated with MGEs and bacteriocins showed changes in frequency post-PCV. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate evidence of significant population restructuring post-PCV driven by decreasing frequency of vaccine serotypes and increasing frequency of few NVTs mainly in under-fives. Continued surveillance with WGS remains crucial to fully understand dynamics of the residual VTs and replacement NVT serotypes post-PCV.

      3. Oral bait handout as a method to access roaming dogs for rabies vaccination in Goa, India: A proof of principle studyexternal icon
        Gibson AD, Yale G, Vos A, Corfmat J, Airikkala-Otter I, King A, Wallace RM, Gamble L, Handel IG, Mellanby RJ, Bronsvoort BM, Mazeri S.
        Vaccine: X. 2019 11 April;1 (100015).
        Rabies has profound public health, social and economic impacts on developing countries, with an estimated 59,000 annual human rabies deaths globally. Mass dog vaccination is effective at eliminating the disease but remains challenging to achieve in India due to the high proportion of roaming dogs that cannot be readily handled for parenteral vaccination. Two methods for the vaccination of dogs that could not be handled for injection were compared in Goa, India; the oral bait handout (OBH) method, where teams of two travelled by scooter offering dogs an empty oral bait construct, and the catch-vaccinate-release (CVR) method, where teams of seven travel by supply vehicle and use nets to catch dogs for parenteral vaccination. Both groups parenterally vaccinated any dogs that could be held for vaccination. The OBH method was more efficient on human resources, accessing 35 dogs per person per day, compared to 9 dogs per person per day through CVR. OBH accessed 80% of sighted dogs, compared to 63% by CVR teams, with OBH accessing a significantly higher proportion of inaccessible dogs in all land types. All staff reported that they believed OBH would be more successful in accessing dogs for vaccination. Fixed operational team cost of CVR was four times higher than OBH, at 127 USD per day, compared to 34 USD per day. Mean per dog vaccination cost of CVR was 2.53 USD, whilst OBH was 2.29 USD. Extrapolation to a two week India national campaign estimated that 1.1 million staff would be required using CVR, but 293,000 staff would be needed for OBH. OBH was operationally feasible, economical and effective at accessing the free roaming dog population. This study provides evidence for the continued expansion of research into the use of OBH as a supplementary activity to parenteral mass dog vaccination activities in India.

      4. Environmental distribution of certain modified live-virus vaccines with a high safety profile presents a low-risk, high-reward to control zoonotic diseasesexternal icon
        Head JR, Vos A, Blanton J, Muller T, Chipman R, Pieracci EG, Cleaton J, Wallace R.
        Sci Rep. 2019 May 1;9(1):6783.
        Oral vaccines aid immunization of hard to reach animal populations but often contain live-attenuated viruses that pose risks of reversion to virulence or residual pathogenicity. Human risk assessment is crucial prior to vaccine field distribution but there is currently no standardized approach. We mapped exposure pathways by which distribution of oral vaccines may result in inoculation into people and applied a Markov chain to estimate the number of severe adverse events. We simulated three oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns: (1) first generation ORV (SAD-B19) in foxes, (2) SAD-B19 in dogs, and (3) third generation ORV (SPBN GASGAS) in dogs. The risk of SAD-B19-associated human deaths was predicted to be low (0.18 per 10 million baits, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.36) when distributed to foxes, but, consistent with international concern, 19 times greater (3.35 per 10 million baits, 95% CI: 2.83, 3.98) when distributed to dogs. We simulated no deaths from SPBN GAS-GAS. Human deaths during dog campaigns were particularly sensitive to dog bite rate, and during wildlife campaigns to animal consumption rate and human contact rate with unconsumed baits. This model highlights the safety of third generation rabies vaccines and serves as a platform for standardized approaches to inform risk assessments.

      5. INTRODUCTION: South Africa introduced seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009 and PCV13 in 2011. We aimed to compare the estimated impact of PCV on pneumococcal meningitis (PM) to impact of PCV on total invasive pneumococcal disease (tIPD) based on risk reduction after PCV introduction. METHODS: We conducted national, laboratory-based surveillance for tIPD during 2005-2016. We estimated and compared rates of PCV13 and non-PCV13 serotype disease among tIPD and PM in individuals aged <5years and >/=5years, and compared these rates between the 2005-2008 pre-PCV introduction period and two time points after PCV introduction, 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: We enrolled 45,853 tIPD cases; 17,251 (38%) were PM. By 2016, IPD caused by all serotypes decreased 55% (95%CI -57% to -53%) for tIPD, and 54% for PM (95%CI -58% to -51%), 0.7% difference between estimates (p=0.7). No significant differences were observed between PCV7-serotype disease reduction in tIPD and PM in both age groups or the additional 6 serotypes included in PCV13 in <5year olds in 2012 and 2016. In 2012 there was a significant difference between increases in non-PCV13 serotype disease in those >/=5years for tIPD and PM (32% greater increase in PM, p<0.001), but this difference was absent by 2016. There was a significant difference between the estimated decrease in additional PCV13 type disease in 2016 between tIPD and PM for those aged >/=5years (28% greater reduction in PM, p=0.008). CONCLUSION: PM showed similar reductions to tIPD seven years after PCV introduction in vaccine serotype disease in those <5years, and increases in non-vaccine serotype disease in all ages.

      6. Immunizing pregnant women is a promising strategy to reduce infectious disease-related morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their infants. Important pre-requisites for the successful introduction of new vaccines for immunization in pregnancy include political commitment and adequate financial resources: trained, committed and sufficient numbers of healthcare workers to deliver the vaccines; close integration of immunization programs with antenatal care and Maternal and Child Health services; adequate access to antenatal care by pregnant women in the country (especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC)); and a high proportion of births occurring in health facilities (to ensure maternal and neonatal follow-up can be done). The framework needed to advance a vaccine program from product licensure to successful country-level implementation includes establishing and organizing evidence for anticipated vaccine program impact, developing supportive policies, and translating policies into local action. International and national coordination efforts, proactive planning from conception to implementation of the programs (including country-level policy making, planning, and implementation, regulatory guidance, pharmacovigilance) and country-specific and cultural factors must be taken into account during the vaccines introduction.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2019external icon
        Amarasinghe GK, Ayllon MA, Bao Y, Basler CF, Bavari S, Blasdell KR, Briese T, Brown PA, Bukreyev A, Balkema-Buschmann A, Buchholz UJ, Chabi-Jesus C, Chandran K, Chiapponi C, Crozier I, de Swart RL, Dietzgen RG, Dolnik O, Drexler JF, Durrwald R, Dundon WG, Duprex WP, Dye JM, Easton AJ, Fooks AR, Formenty PB, Fouchier RA, Freitas-Astua J, Griffiths A, Hewson R, Horie M, Hyndman TH, Jiang D, Kitajima EW, Kobinger GP, Kondo H, Kurath G, Kuzmin IV, Lamb RA, Lavazza A, Lee B, Lelli D, Leroy EM, Li J, Maes P, Marzano SL, Moreno A, Muhlberger E, Netesov SV, Nowotny N, Nylund A, Okland AL, Palacios G, Palyi B, Paweska JT, Payne SL, Prosperi A, Ramos-Gonzalez PL, Rima BK, Rota P, Rubbenstroth D, Shi M, Simmonds P, Smither SJ, Sozzi E, Spann K, Stenglein MD, Stone DM, Takada A, Tesh RB, Tomonaga K, Tordo N, Towner JS, van den Hoogen B, Vasilakis N, Wahl V, Walker PJ, Wang LF, Whitfield AE, Williams JV, Zerbini FM, Zhang T, Zhang YZ, Kuhn JH.
        Arch Virol. 2019 May 14.
        In February 2019, following the annual taxon ratification vote, the order Mononegavirales was amended by the addition of four new subfamilies and 12 new genera and the creation of 28 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

      2. The ER chaperone PfGRP170 is essential for asexual development and is linked to stress response in malaria parasitesexternal icon
        Kudyba HM, Cobb DW, Fierro MA, Florentin A, Ljolje D, Singh B, Lucchi NW, Muralidharan V.
        Cell Microbiol. 2019 May 14:e13042.
        The vast majority of malaria mortality is attributed to one parasite species: Plasmodium falciparum. Asexual replication of the parasite within the red blood cell is responsible for the pathology of the disease. In Plasmodium, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central hub for protein folding and trafficking as well as stress response pathways. In this study, we tested the role of an uncharacterized ER protein, PfGRP170, in regulating these key functions by generating conditional mutants. Our data show that PfGRP170 localizes to the ER and is essential for asexual growth, specifically required for proper development of schizonts. PfGRP170 is essential for surviving heat shock, suggesting a critical role in cellular stress response. The data demonstrate that PfGRP170 interacts with the Plasmodium orthologue of the ER chaperone, BiP. Finally, we found that loss of PfGRP170 function leads to the activation of the Plasmodium eIF2alpha kinase, PK4, suggesting a specific role for this protein in this parasite stress response pathway.

      3. Antifungal susceptibility testing: The times they are a-changingexternal icon
        Lockhart SR, Berkow EL.
        Clin Microbiol Newsl. 2019 15 May;41(10):85-90.
        Antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) has never been performed as commonly or in as many laboratories as antibacterial susceptibility testing, but strategies may soon change. The pharmaceutical industry is in an unprecedented era of antifungal development, which may alter the utility of, and demand for, AFST. Here, we illustrate an argument for increased AFST capacity, discuss new antifungals that are likely to appear on the market soon, describe the phenomenon of trailing growth that can lead to false interpretation of susceptibility results for Candida spp., and illuminate problems and solutions commonly encountered when performing AFST.

      4. Evolution and genetic diversity of the k13 gene associated with artemisinin delayed parasite clearance in Plasmodium falciparumexternal icon
        Pacheco MA, Kadakia ER, Chaudhary Z, Perkins DJ, Kelley J, Ravishankar S, Cranfield M, Talundzic E, Udhayakumar V, Escalante AA.
        Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 May 13.
        Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum k13 gene (Pfk13) are linked to delayed parasite clearance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in Southeast Asia. To explore the evolutionary rate and constraints acting on this gene, k13 orthologs from species sharing a recent common ancestor with P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were analyzed. These comparative studies were followed by genetic polymorphism analyses within P. falciparum using 982 complete Pfk13 sequences from public databases and new data obtained by next-generation sequencing from African and Haitian isolates. Although k13 orthologs evolve at heterogeneous rates, the gene was conserved across the genus with only synonymous substitutions at residues where mutations linked to the delayed parasite clearance phenotype have been reported. This suggests that those residues were under constraint from undergoing non-synonymous changes during the genus evolution. No fixed non-synonymous differences were found between Pfk13 and its orthologs in closely related species found in African Apes. This indicates that all non-synonymous substitutions currently found in Pfk13 are younger than the divergence between P. falciparum and its closely related species. At the population level, no mutations linked to delayed parasite clearance were found in our samples from Africa and Haiti. However, there is a high number of single Pfk13 mutations segregating in P. falciparum populations, and two predominant alleles are distributed worldwide. This pattern is discussed in terms of how changes in the efficacy of natural selection, affected by population expansion, may have allowed for the emergence of mutations tolerant to ACTs.

      5. A quantitative method to detect human exposure to sulfur and nitrogen mustards via protein adductsexternal icon
        Pantazides BG, Quinones-Gonzalez J, Rivera Nazario DM, Crow BS, Perez JW, Blake TA, Johnson RC.
        J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2019 May 5;1121:9-17.
        Sulfur and nitrogen mustards are internationally banned vesicants listed as Schedule 1 chemical agents in the Chemical Weapons Convention. These compounds are highly reactive electrophiles that form stable adducts to a variety of available amino acid residues on proteins upon exposure. We present a quantitative exposure assay that simultaneously measures agent specific protein adducts to cysteine for sulfur mustard (HD) and three nitrogen mustards (HN1, HN2, and HN3). Proteinase K was added to a serum or plasma sample to digest protein adducts and form the target analyte, the blister agent bound to the tripeptide cysteine-proline-phenylalanine (CPF). The mustard adducted-tripeptide was purified by solid phase extraction and analyzed using isotope dilution LC-MS/MS. Product ion structures were identified using high-resolution product ion scan data for HD-CPF, HN1-CPF, HN2-CPF, and HN3-CPF. Thorough matrix comparison, analyte recovery, ruggedness, and stability studies were incorporated during method validation to produce a robust method. The method demonstrated long term-stability, precision (RSD<15%), and intra- and inter-day accuracies>85% across the reportable range of 3.00-200ng/mL for each analyte. Compared to previously published assays, this method quantitates both sulfur and nitrogen mustard exposure biomarkers, requires only 10muL of sample volume, and can use either a liquid sample or dried sample spot.

      6. Drug resistance emergence in macaques administered cabotegravir long-acting for pre-exposure prophylaxis during acute SHIV infectionexternal icon
        Radzio-Basu J, Council O, Cong ME, Ruone S, Newton A, Wei X, Mitchell J, Ellis S, Petropoulos CJ, Huang W, Spreen W, Heneine W, Garcia-Lerma JG.
        Nat Commun. 2019 May 1;10(1):2005.
        A long-acting injectable formulation of the HIV integrase inhibitor cabotegravir (CAB-LA) is currently in clinical development for PrEP. Although the long plasma half-life of CAB-LA is an important attribute for PrEP, it also raises concerns about drug resistance emergence if someone becomes infected with HIV, or if PrEP is initiated during undiagnosed acute infection. Here we use a macaque model of SHIV infection to model risks of drug resistance to CAB-LA PrEP. Six macaques infected with SHIV received CAB-LA before seroconversion. We show integrase mutations G118R, E92G/Q, or G140R in plasma from 3/6 macaques as early as day 57, and identify G118R and E92Q in viruses from vaginal and rectal fluids. G118R and G140R confer > 800-fold resistance to CAB and cross-resistance to all licensed integrase inhibitors. Our results emphasize the need for appropriate HIV testing strategies before and possibly shortly after initiating CAB LA PrEP to exclude acute infection.

      7. Salmonella typhimurium interacts with CD209 receptors to promote host dissemination and infectionexternal icon
        Ye C, Li Q, Li X, Park CG, He Y, Zhang Y, Wu B, Xue Y, Yang K, Lv Y, Ying XL, Ding HH, Cai H, Alkraiem AA, Njiri O, Tembo J, Huang HP, Li AY, Gong J, Qin J, Cheng B, Wei X, Sun Z, Zhang SS, Zhang P, Zheng GX, Li W, Kan B, Yan M, Xiding X, Huo X, Zeng Y, Peng H, Fu Y, Klena JD, Skurnik M, Jiang LY, Chen T.
        Infect Immun. 2019 May 13.
        Salmonella typhimurium, a Gram-negative bacterium, can cause infectious diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to systemic dissemination and infection. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this bacterial dissemination have yet to be elucidated. A study indicated that using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core as a ligand, S. typhimurium was able to bind human DC-SIGN (hCD209a), a HIV receptor that promotes viral dissemination by hijacking antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In this study, we showed that S. typhimurium interacted with CD209s, leading to the invasion of APCs and potentially the dissemination to regional lymph nodes, spleen and liver in mice. Shielding of the exposed LPS core through the expression of O-antigen reduces dissemination and infection. Thus, we propose that similar to HIV, S. typhimurium may also utilize APCs via interactions with CD209s as a way to disseminate to the lymph nodes, spleen and liver to initiate host infection.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. The International Consortium for Quality Research on Dietary Sodium/Salt (TRUE) position statement on the use of 24-hour, spot, and short duration (<24 hours) timed urine collections to assess dietary sodium intakeexternal icon
        Campbell NR, He FJ, Tan M, Cappuccio FP, Neal B, Woodward M, Cogswell ME, McLean R, Arcand J, MacGregor G, Whelton P, Jula A, L’Abbe MR, Cobb LK, Lackland DT.
        J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2019 May 14.
        The International Consortium for Quality Research on Dietary Sodium/Salt (TRUE) is a coalition of intentional and national health and scientific organizations formed because of concerns low-quality research methods were creating controversy regarding dietary salt reduction. One of the main sources of controversy is believed related to errors in estimating sodium intake with urine studies. The recommendations and positions in this manuscript were generated following a series of systematic reviews and analyses by experts in hypertension, nutrition, statistics, and dietary sodium. To assess the population’s current 24-hour dietary sodium ingestion, single complete 24-hour urine samples, collected over a series of days from a representative population sample, were recommended. To accurately estimate usual dietary sodium at the individual level, at least 3 non-consecutive complete 24-hour urine collections obtained over a series of days that reflect the usual short-term variations in dietary pattern were recommended. Multiple 24-hour urine collections over several years were recommended to estimate an individual’s usual long-term sodium intake. The role of single spot or short duration timed urine collections in assessing population average sodium intake requires more research. Single or multiple spot or short duration timed urine collections are not recommended for assessing an individual’s sodium intake especially in relationship to health outcomes. The recommendations should be applied by scientific review committees, granting agencies, editors and journal reviewers, investigators, policymakers, and those developing and creating dietary sodium recommendations. Low-quality research on dietary sodium/salt should not be funded, conducted, or published.

      2. Daily supplementation with 5 mg of folic acid in Brazilian patients with hereditary spherocytosisexternal icon
        Paniz C, Lucena MR, Bertinato JF, Lourenco FR, Barros BC, Gomes GW, Figueiredo MS, Cancado RD, Blaia DA, Pfeiffer CM, Fazili Z, Green R, Carvalho VM, Guerra-Shinohara EM.
        J Investig Med. 2019 May 9.
        Patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) have increased rates of erythropoiesis and higher folate requirements. In a case-control study of patients with HS, we evaluated the associations between the use of 5 mg folic acid (FA) daily and serum concentrations of folate, unmetabolized folic acid (UMFA), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha); and mRNA expression of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), IL8, IFNG and TNFA genes. Total serum folate and folate forms were measured in 27 patients with HS (21 users [HS-U] and 6 non-users [HS-NU] of supplemental FA) and 54 healthy controls not consuming 5 mg/day supplemental FA. Each patient was matched to two controls based on age, sex and body mass index. The mononuclear leucocyte mRNA expression of relevant genes and their products were determined. Serum folate, UMFA, 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF) and tetrahydrofolate (THF) concentrations were significantly higher in HS-U compared with matched healthy controls (p<0.001, n=42). HS-NU had lower serum folate concentrations than matched healthy controls (p=0.044, n=12). HS-U and HS-NU presented similar hematological and biochemical markers profiles. No differences were found between HS-U and HS-NU for cytokine serum concentrations and mRNA expression genes. DHFR mRNA expression was higher in HS-U than in HS-NU. The use of high daily doses of FA for treatment of patients with HS may be excessive and is associated with elevated serum UMFA and elevated DHFR mRNA expression. It is not known whether long-term high-dose FA use by patients with HS might have adverse health effects.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Prevalence, recognition of work-relatedness, and effect on work of low back pain among U.S. workersexternal icon
        Luckhaupt SE, Dahlhamer JM, Gonzales GT, Lu ML, Groenewold M, Sweeney MH, Ward BW.
        Ann Intern Med. 2019 May 14.

        [No abstract]

      2. Workplace interventions to promote sleep health and an alert, healthy workforceexternal icon
        Redeker NS, Caruso CC, Hashmi SD, Mullington JM, Grandner M, Morgenthaler TI.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2019 Apr 15;15(4):649-657.
        STUDY OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to synthesize the published literature that addresses employer-initiated interventions to improve the sleep of workers and in turn improve health, productivity, absenteeism, and other outcomes that have been associated with sleep disorders or sleep deficiency. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search and a selective narrative review of publications in PubMed from 1966 to December 2017. We extracted study characteristics, including the workers’ professions, workplace settings and shift work, and workplace interventions focused on worker sleep. Because of the high degree of heterogeneity in design and outcomes, we conducted a narrative review. RESULTS: We identified 219 publications. After restriction to publications with studies of workplace interventions that evaluated the outcomes of sleep duration or quality, we focused on 47 articles. An additional 13 articles were accepted in the pearling process. Most studies employed non-randomized or controlled pretest and posttest designs and self-reported measures of sleep. The most common workplace interventions were educational programs stressing sleep hygiene or fatigue management. Other interventions included timed napping before or after work, urging increased daytime activity levels, modifying workplace environmental characteristics such as lighting, and screening, and referral for sleep disorders treatment. Overall, most reports indicated that employer efforts to encourage improved sleep hygiene and healthier habits result in improvements in sleep duration, sleep quality, and self-reported sleepiness complaints. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest employer-sponsored efforts can improve sleep and sleep-related outcomes. The existing evidence, although weak, suggests efforts by employers to encourage better sleep habits and general fitness result in self-reported improvements in sleep-related outcomes, and may be associated with reduced absenteeism and better overall quality of life. Candidate workplace strategies to promote sleep health are provided.

      3. Auditory system dysfunction in Brazilian gasoline station workersexternal icon
        Roggia SM, de Franca AG, Morata TC, Krieg E, Earl BR.
        Int J Audiol. 2019 Apr 24:1-13.
        OBJECTIVE: To examine the auditory system of Brazilian gasoline station workers using an extensive audiological test battery. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. The audiological evaluation included a questionnaire, pure-tone audiometry, acoustic immittance tests, transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), auditory brainstem response (ABR) and P300 auditory-evoked potentials. STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 77 Brazilian gasoline station workers were evaluated, and their results were compared with those of 36 participants who were not exposed to chemicals or noise at work. The gasoline station employees worked in 18 different gas stations, and the noise area measurements from all gas stations revealed time-weighted averages below 85 dBA. RESULTS: Of the 77 gasoline station workers evaluated, 67.5% had audiometric results within the normal range, but 59.7% reported difficulties in communication in noisy places. Gasoline station workers showed significantly poorer results than non-exposed control participants in one or more conditions of each of the audiological tests used, except P300. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the gasoline station workers have both peripheral and central auditory dysfunctions that could be partly explained by their exposure to gasoline.

      4. Particle and vapor emissions from vat polymerization desktop-scale 3-dimensional printersexternal icon
        Stefaniak AB, Bowers LN, Knepp AK, Luxton TP, Peloquin DM, Baumann EJ, Ham JE, Wells JR, Johnson AR, LeBouf RF, Su FC, Martin SB, Virji MA.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2019 May 16:1-13.
        Little is known about emissions and exposure potential from vat polymerization additive manufacturing, a process that uses light-activated polymerization of a resin to build an object. Five vat polymerization printers (three stereolithography (SLA) and two digital light processing (DLP) were evaluated individually in a 12.85 m(3) chamber. Aerosols (number, size) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were measured using real-time monitors. Carbonyl vapors and particulate matter were collected for offline analysis using impingers and filters, respectively. During printing, particle emission yields (#/g printed) ranged from 1.3 +/- 0.3 to 2.8 +/- 2.6 x 10(8) (SLA printers) and from 3.3 +/- 1.5 to 9.2 +/- 3.0 x 10(8) (DLP printers). Yields for number of particles with sizes 5.6 to 560 nm (#/g printed) were 0.8 +/- 0.1 to 2.1 +/- 0.9 x 10(10) and from 1.1 +/- 0.3 to 4.0 +/- 1.2 x 10(10) for SLA and DLP printers, respectively. TVOC yield values (microg/g printed) ranged from 161 +/- 47 to 322 +/- 229 (SLA printers) and from 1281 +/- 313 to 1931 +/- 234 (DLP printers). Geometric mean mobility particle sizes were 41.1-45.1 nm for SLA printers and 15.3-28.8 nm for DLP printers. Mean particle and TVOC yields were statistically significantly higher and mean particle sizes were significantly smaller for DLP printers compared with SLA printers (p < 0.05). Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of individual particles qualitatively identified potential occupational carcinogens (chromium, nickel) as well as reactive metals implicated in generation of reactive oxygen species (iron, zinc). Lung deposition modeling indicates that about 15-37% of emitted particles would deposit in the pulmonary region (alveoli). Benzaldehyde (1.0-2.3 ppb) and acetone (0.7-18.0 ppb) were quantified in emissions from four of the printers and 4-oxopentanal (0.07 ppb) was detectable in the emissions from one printer. Vat polymerization printers emitted nanoscale particles that contained potential carcinogens, sensitizers, and reactive metals as well as carbonyl compound vapors. Differences in emissions between SLA and DLP printers indicate that the underlying technology is an important factor when considering exposure reduction strategies such as engineering controls.

      5. The accuracy of a 2D video-based lifting monitorexternal icon
        Wang X, Hu YH, Lu ML, Radwin RG.
        Ergonomics. 2019 May 16:1-33.
        A widely used risk prediction tool, the revised NIOSH lifting equation (RNLE), provides the recommended weight limit (RWL), but is limited by analyst subjectivity, experience, and resources. This paper describes a robust, non-intrusive, straightforward approach to automatically extract spatial and temporal factors necessary for the RNLE using a single video camera in the sagittal plane. The participant’s silhouette is segmented by motion information and the novel use of a ghosting effect provides accurate detection of lifting instances, and hand and feet location prediction. Laboratory tests using 6 participants each performing 36 lifts showed that a nominal 640 pixel x480 pixel 2D video, in comparison to 3D motion capture, provided RWL estimations within 0.2 kg (SD =1.0 kg). The linear regression between the video and 3D tracking RWL was R(2)=0.96 (slope =1.0, intercept =0.2 kg). Since low definition video was used in order to synchronize with motion capture, better performance is anticipated using high definition video. Practitioner Summary: An algorithm for automatically calculating the revised NIOSH lifting equation using a single video camera was evaluated in comparison to laboratory 3D motion capture. The results indicate that this method has suitable accuracy for practical use and may be particularly useful when multiple lifts are evaluated.

      6. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the minimum operational flow for loose-fitting powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR) used in healthcare cleaning services. An innovative respiratory flow recording device was worn by nine healthcare workers to obtain the minute volume (MV, L/min), mean inhalation flow (MIF, L/min), and peak inhalation flow (PIF, L/min) while performing “isolation unit work” (cleaning and disinfecting) of a patient room within 30 min. The MV and PIF were compared with the theoretical values obtained from an empirical formula. The correlations of MV, MIF, and PIF with subjects’ age, weight, height, body surface area (ADu), and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed. The average MV, MIF, and PIF were 33, 74, and 107 L/min, with maximal airflow rates of 41, 97, and 145 L/min, respectively, which are all below the current 170 L/min minimum operational flow for NIOSH certified loose-fitting PAPRs.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Quality of malaria case management and reporting at public health facilities in six health districts in Guinea, 2018external icon
        Davlantes E, Camara A, Guilavogui T, Fofana A, Balde M, Diallo T, Bah I, Florey L, Sarr A, Butts J, Plucinski MM.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 May 6.
        Data on fever and malaria cases reported by health facilities are used for tracking incidence and quantification of malaria commodity needs in Guinea. Periodic assessments of the quality of malaria case management and routine data are a critical activity for the malaria program. In May-June 2018, survey teams visited 126 health facilities in six health districts purposefully selected to represent a spectrum (Stratum 1-high, Stratum 2-intermediate, and Stratum 3-low) of perceived quality of case management and reporting, as assessed from an a priori analysis of routine data. Surveyors performed exit interviews with 939 outpatients and compared results with registry data for interviewed patients. Availability of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) was 100% in Strata 1 and 2, compared with 82% (95% CI: 63-92%) for RDTs and 86% (68-95%) for any formulation of ACT in Stratum 3. Correct case management for suspect malaria cases was 85% in both Stratum 1 (95% CI: 78-90%) and Stratum 2 (79-89%), but only 52% (37-67%) in Stratum 3. Concordance between exit interviews and registry entries for key malaria indicators was significantly higher in Strata 1 and 2 than in Stratum 3. Both adherence to national guidelines for testing and treatment and data quality were high in Strata 1 and 2, but substandard in Stratum 3. The survey results reflected the trends seen in the routine data, suggesting that analysis of routine data can identify areas requiring more attention to improve malaria case management and reporting.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Strategies to improve physical activity surveillance among youth in the United Statesexternal icon
        Dunton GF, Berrigan D, Young DR, Pfeiffer KA, Lee SM, Slater SJ, Pate RR.
        J Pediatr. 2019 May 8.

        [No abstract]

      2. Physical activity promotion: Highlights from the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee systematic reviewexternal icon
        King AC, Whitt-Glover MC, Marquez DX, Buman MP, Napolitano MA, Jakicic J, Fulton JE, Tennant BL.
        Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019 Jun;51(6):1340-1353.
        PURPOSE: This article describes effective interventions to promote regular physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior that were identified as part of the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted of eligible systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and relevant governmental reports published between 2011 and 2016. For the physical activity promotion question, articles were first sorted by four social ecological levels of impact (i.e., individual, community, communication environment, and physical environment and policy levels) and then further sorted into more specific categories that emerged during the review process. For the sedentary behavior reduction question, the literature was sorted directly into emergent categories (i.e., youth, adult, and worksite interventions). RESULTS: Effective physical activity promotion strategies were identified at each level of impact, including those based on behavior change theories and those occurring at different settings throughout the community. Effective interventions also included those delivered in person by trained staff or peer volunteers and through different information and communication technologies, such as by phone, Web or Internet, and computer-tailored print. A range of built environment features were associated with more transit-based and recreational physical activity in children and adults. Effective sedentary reduction interventions were found for youth and in the workplace. CONCLUSIONS: A promising number of interventions with demonstrated effectiveness were identified. Future recommendations for research include investigating the most useful methods for disseminating them to real-world settings; incorporating more diverse population subgroups, including vulnerable and underrepresented subgroups; collecting cost data to inform cost-effectiveness comparisons; and testing strategies across different levels of impact to determine which combinations achieve the greatest effects on different modes of physical activity across the week.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. Recorded diagnoses of depression during delivery hospitalizations in the United States, 2000-2015external icon
        Haight SC, Byatt N, Moore Simas TA, Robbins CL, Ko JY.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2019 May 9.
        OBJECTIVE: To describe national, state-specific, and sociodemographic trends in diagnoses of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2015) and 31 publicly available State Inpatient Databases (2000-2015) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Delivery hospitalizations were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic and procedure codes for obstetric delivery. Depressive disorders were identified from ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes classified as depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (291.89, 292.84, 293.83, 296.2-296.26, 296.3-296.36, 300.4, and 311). Prevalence rates and average annual rate change were calculated nationally and across 28 states with at least 3 years of data and age, payer source, and race or ethnicity. RESULTS: The U.S. rate of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations increased from 4.1 diagnoses per 1,000 hospitalizations in 2000 to 28.7 in 2015. Rates significantly increased in 27 of the 28 states. Recent (2014-2015) rates were lowest in Hawaii and Nevada (less than 14/1,000) and highest in Vermont, Minnesota, Oregon, and Wisconsin (greater than 49/1,000). Rates in 2015 were highest among those aged 35 years or older, public insurance recipients, and non-Hispanic white women (greater than 31/1,000). The highest annual rate increases were in Vermont and Maine (3.8/1,000 or greater). Non-Hispanic white women, those 35 years of age or older, and public insurance recipients showed the highest annual rate increases during 2000-2015 (1.7/1,000 or greater). CONCLUSION: During 2000-2015, rates of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations increased nationally, in 27 states with available data, and across all sociodemographic categories.

      2. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify characteristics associated with provider attitudes on the safety of “Quick Start” initiation of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of providers in public-sector health centers and office-based physicians (n = 2056) during 2013-2014. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of considering “Quick Start” initiation of LARC for adolescents as safe was 70.9% for implants and 64.5% for intrauterine devices (IUDs). Among public-sector providers, those not trained in implant or IUD insertion had lower odds of perceiving the practice safe (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25-0.41 for implants; aOR 0.42; 95% CI, 0.32-0.55 for IUDs), whereas those practicing at health centers that did not receive Title X funding had lower odds of perceiving the practice safe for IUDs (aOR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.98). Among office-based physicians, lack of training in LARC insertion was associated with lower odds of perceiving “Quick Start” initiation to be safe for IUDs (aOR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.77). Those specializing in adolescent medicine had higher odds of reporting “Quick Start” initiation of LARC as safe (implants: aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.23-3.98; IUDs: aOR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.39-8.21) compared with obstetrician-gynecologists. CONCLUSION: Approximately two-thirds of providers considered “Quick Start” initiation of LARC for adolescents safe; however, there were differences according to provider characteristics (eg, Title X funding, training in LARC insertion, specialty). Targeted LARC insertion training and dissemination of evidence-based family planning guidance and implementation into facility and practice-level policies might increase access to “Quick Start” initiation of LARC for adolescents.

      3. Trends and correlates of the sex distribution among U.S. assisted reproductive technology birthsexternal icon
        Narvaez JL, Chang J, Boulet SL, Davies MJ, Kissin DM.
        Fertil Steril. 2019 May 11.
        OBJECTIVE: To assess national trends in the sex distribution of live-born infants in the assisted reproductive technology (ART) and general population and to identify factors correlated with offspring sex. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Fertility treatment centers. PATIENTS: All live-born infants included in the National Vital Statistics System and resulting from ART cycles reported to the National ART Surveillance System during 2006-14. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Trends in the proportion of male infants in the general population and proportion of males from fresh ART cycles among all ART live-born infants and singletons after single ET. RESULT(S): There were 214,274 live-born infants resulting from fresh ART cycles; 53.5% (5,492/10,266) of infants resulting from PGD/PGS cycles were male, as compared with 50.6% (103,228/204,008) in the non-PGD/PGS group. Among non-PGD/PGS cycles, blastocyst transfer was positively associated with male infants (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.04). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was negatively associated with male infants (aRR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.93-0.95) and for singletons after single ET (aRR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), as was transfer of two embryos (aRR 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99) or three or more embryos (aRR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99) among all live births from cycles without PGD/PGS use. CONCLUSION(S): The proportion of male live-born infants among ART population did not change during 2006-14, ranging from 50.5% to 51.2%. Factors such as blastocyst transfer, intracytoplasmic sperm injection use, embryo stage, and number of embryos transferred may be associated with infant sex; further investigation is needed to understand possible underlying causes.

    • Statistics as Topic
      1. Firth adjustment for Weibull current-status survival analysisexternal icon
        Lin HM, Williamson JM, Kim HY.
        Commun Stat Theory Methods. 2019 .
        Analysis of right-censored data is problematic due to infinite maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) and potentially biased estimates, especially for small numbers of events. Analyzing current-status data is especially troublesome because of the extreme loss of precision due to large failure intervals. We extend Firth’s method for regular parametric problems to current-status modeling with the Weibull distribution. Firth advocated a bias reduction method for MLE by systematically correcting the score equation. An advantage is that it is still applicable when the MLE does not exist. We present simulation studies and two illustrative analyses involving RFM mice lung tumor data.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Identifying smoking status and smoking cessation using a data linkage between the Kentucky Cancer Registry and health claims dataexternal icon
        Gallaway MS, Huang B, Chen Q, Tucker T, McDowell J, Durbin E, Siegel D, Tai E.
        JCO Clin Cancer Inform. 2019 May(3):1-8.
        PURPOSE: Linkage of cancer registry data with complementary data sources can be an informative way to expand what is known about patients and their treatment and improve delivery of care. The purpose of this study was to explore whether patient smoking status and smoking-cessation modalities data in the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR) could be augmented by linkage with health claims data. METHODS: The KCR conducted a data linkage with health claims data from Medicare, Medicaid, state employee insurance, Humana, and Anthem. Smoking status was defined as documentation of personal history of tobacco use (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] code V15.82) or tobacco use disorder (ICD-9 305.1) before and after a cancer diagnosis. Use of smoking-cessation treatments before and after the cancer diagnosis was defined as documentation of smoking-cessation counseling (Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes 99406, 99407, G0375, and G0376) or pharmacotherapy (eg, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, varenicline). RESULTS: From 2007 to 2011, among 23,703 patients in the KCR, we discerned a valid prediagnosis smoking status for 78%. KCR data only (72%), claims data only (6%), and a combination of both data sources (22%) were used to determine valid smoking status. Approximately 4% of patients with cancer identified as smokers (n = 11,968) and were provided smoking-cessation counseling, and 3% were prescribed pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. CONCLUSION: Augmenting KCR data with medical claims data increased capture of smoking status and use of smoking-cessation modalities. Cancer registries interested in exploring smoking status to influence treatment and research activities could consider a similar approach, particularly if their registry does not capture smoking status for a majority of patients.

    • Veterinary Medicine
      1. Seroprevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in dogs entering a Minnesota humane society, Minnesota, 2016-2017external icon
        Whitten TV, Brayshaw G, Patnayak D, Alvarez J, Larson CM, Root Kustritz M, Holzbauer SM, Torrison J, Scheftel JM.
        Prev Vet Med. 2019 ;168:90-94.
        Background: Canine brucellosis, caused by the bacterium Brucella canis, is a zoonotic and largely reproductive disease of dogs. The disease is a recognized problem in canine breeding populations, and the risk to individuals assisting with birthing is well described. Prior to 2015, all cases of canine brucellosis reported to the Minnesota Board of Animal Health were in dogs used for breeding. In 2015, canine brucellosis was identified in eight Minnesota rescue dogs, all originating from specific geographic areas in South Dakota. Our objective was to measure the seroprevalence of B. canis in stray and previously owned dogs entering a large Minnesota animal rescue organization to determine if our observations represented a localized or generalized disease issue among rescue dogs. Methods: A stratified random sample of stray and previously owned dogs entering the largest Minnesota animal rescue organization between November 1, 2016 and November 7, 2017, was tested for B. canis antibodies by the 2-Mercaptoethanol Rapid Slide Agglutination Test (2ME-RSAT)(Zoetis D-TEC (R) CB kit). Sample sizes for each strata were calculated using previously published seroprevalence estimates. Blood from selected dogs was collected, serum harvested, and transported to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for testing. Positive samples in the 2ME-RSAT were shipped to Cornell University for confirmation by Agarose Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID)testing. Demographics, state and setting of origin, and health status were collected on study-dogs. Results: Of the 10,654 dogs accepted by AHS during the study period, 943 (8.9%)were selected for testing. Most study dogs arrived from Oklahoma (28%), Alabama (18%), and Minnesota (12%). The median age of study dogs was 1.5 years; 303 (32%) were intact males and 294 (31%) were intact females. Most study dogs were strays (n = 716, 76%). Of the total, 22 (3.1%)stray and eight (3.5%)owner-surrendered dogs were presumptively positive by RSAT; one (0.11%)of the stray dogs was positive by 2ME-RSAT and confirmed by AGID. The positive dog was a healthy-appearing 1 year-old neutered male beagle from Texas. Conclusions: The seroprevalence of canine brucellosis in dogs entering Minnesota for adoption from multiple states was low. Never-the-less, care must to be taken to consider all potential risks and outcomes of interstate and international dog trade, including the spread of infectious diseases such as canine brucellosis.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Francisella tularensis exposure among National Park Service employees during an epizootic: Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming, 2015external icon
        Harrist A, Cherry C, Kwit N, Bryan K, Pappert R, Petersen J, Buttke D, Wong D, Nelson C.
        Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019 May;19(5):316-322.
        Introduction: Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by the highly infectious bacterium Francisella tularensis. Persons having outdoor professions are more likely than others to be exposed to F. tularensis through increased contact with arthropods, infected animals, and contaminated aerosols. Materials and Methods: After a tularemia epizootic during July and August 2015 at Devils Tower National Monument and an associated tularemia infection in a park employee, we assessed seroprevalence of F. tularensis antibodies, risk factors for F. tularensis seropositivity, and use of protective measures among park employees. Results: Seroprevalence among participating employees was 13% (3/23). Seropositive employees reported multiple risk factors for F. tularensis exposure through both job-related and recreational activities. Activities reported by more seropositive than seronegative employees included using a power blower (67% vs. 5%, p = 0.03), collecting animal carcasses (100% vs. 30%, p = 0.047), and hunting prairie dogs recreationally (67% vs. 5%, p = 0.03). Seropositive employees reported exposure to more ticks (median 30, range 25-35) than seronegative employees (median 6, range 0-25, p = 0.001). Most employees used protective measures (e.g., insect repellent) inconsistently but increased use after receiving educational materials. Conclusions: Educating and enabling at-risk employees to use protective measures consistently, both at work and during recreational activities, can reduce exposure during epizootics.

      2. Expanded molecular testing on patients with suspected West Nile virus diseaseexternal icon
        Lindsey NP, Messenger SL, Hacker JK, Salas ML, Scott-Waldron C, Haydel D, Rider E, Simonson S, Brown CM, Patel P, Smole SC, Neitzel DF, Schiffman EK, Palm J, Strain AK, Vetter SM, Nefzger B, Fischer M, Rabe IB.
        Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2019 May 13.
        Most diagnostic testing for West Nile virus (WNV) disease is accomplished using serologic testing, which is subject to cross-reactivity, may require cumbersome confirmatory testing, and may fail to detect infection in specimens collected early in the course of illness. The objective of this project was to determine whether a combination of molecular and serologic testing would increase detection of WNV disease cases in acute serum samples. A total of 380 serum specimens collected </=7 days after onset of symptoms and submitted to four state public health laboratories for WNV diagnostic testing in 2014 and 2015 were tested. WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody and RT-PCR tests were performed on specimens collected </=3 days after symptom onset. WNV IgM antibody testing was performed on specimens collected 4-7 days after onset and RT-PCR was performed on IgM-positive specimens. A patient was considered to have laboratory evidence of WNV infection if they had detectable WNV IgM antibodies or WNV RNA in the submitted serum specimen. Of specimens collected </=3 days after symptom onset, 19/158 (12%) had laboratory evidence of WNV infection, including 16 positive for only WNV IgM antibodies, 1 positive for only WNV RNA, and 2 positive for both. Of specimens collected 4-7 days after onset, 21/222 (9%) were positive for WNV IgM antibodies; none had detectable WNV RNA. These findings suggest that routinely performing WNV RT-PCR on acute serum specimens submitted for WNV diagnostic testing is unlikely to identify a substantial number of additional cases beyond IgM antibody testing alone.

      3. Dengue in the campus community of an overseas American university: A cross-sectional studyexternal icon
        Mohammed H, Hayden MH, Lee E, Santiago LM, Krecek RC, Revan F, Hunsperger E.
        J Infect Dev Ctries. 2019 29 Mar;13(3):233-239.
        Introduction: After a large outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) serotype-3 in Saint Kitts and Nevis (SKN) in 2008, we performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in expatriate and local persons affiliated with an American veterinary school there. Methodology: This campus community comprised mostly expatriate students and faculty and Kittitian administrative staff. In 2009, a stratified random sample of students, faculty and staff was invited to complete an electronic survey to assess risk factors for DENV and provide blood for testing for anti-DENV IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgG-positive specimens were also tested by a 90% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT<inf>90</inf>) to determine immunoreactivity to DENV (1-4) serotypes and West Nile virus. Risk factors for anti-DENV IgG seropositivity were determined using simple and adjusted logistic regression. Result(s): Of the 118 participants, the overall prevalence of DENV IgG antibodies was 44.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.1-53.0%), ranging from 30.1% in students, 100.0% in staff and 57.9% in faculty (p < 0.001). Duration of residence in St. Kitts was the only variable significantly associated with seropositivity on multiple logistic regression (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.21 [1.07-1.37]). The serotype of DENV was determined in 11 persons: DENV-1 (n = 4), DENV-2 (n = 3), and DENV-3 (n = 4). Conclusion(s): Expatriate students and faculty moving to St. Kitts from non-endemic areas were at high risk of DENV infection. There is a need for increased emphasis on pre-travel mosquito-borne virus prevention education for persons moving to St. Kitts to study and work.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article's inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article's methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

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