Volume 11, Issue 10 March 5, 2019

CDC Science Clips: Volume 11, Issue 10, March 5, 2019

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

This week, Science Clips is pleased to collaborate with CDC Vital Signs by featuring scientific articles from the latest issue on Staphylococcus aureus infections. The articles marked with an asterisk are general review articles which may be of particular interest to clinicians and public health professionals seeking background information in this area.

  1. CDC Vital Signs
    • Healthcare Associated Infections – Staphylococcus aureus Infections
      1. *Epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusExternal
        Boucher HW, Corey GR.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jun 1;46 Suppl 5:S344-9.
        The frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continues to grow in hospital-associated settings and, more recently, in community settings in the United States and globally. The increase in the incidence of infections due to S. aureus is partially a consequence of advances in patient care and also of the pathogen’s ability to adapt to a changing environment. Infection due to S. aureus imposes a high and increasing burden on health care resources. A growing concern is the emergence of MRSA infections in patients with no apparent risk factors. MRSA infection in community settings involves considerable morbidity and mortality, as does nosocomial MRSA infection. For community-associated MRSA, person-to-person transmission has been reported, and several factors have been shown to predict disease. We examine the trends in both nosocomial and community-associated MRSA infections and explore recent studies of the mechanisms that allow S. aureus to become resistant to currently available drugs.

      2. *Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic eraExternal
        Chambers HF, Deleo FR.
        Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 Sep;7(9):629-41.
        Staphylococcus aureus is notorious for its ability to become resistant to antibiotics. Infections that are caused by antibiotic-resistant strains often occur in epidemic waves that are initiated by one or a few successful clones. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) features prominently in these epidemics. Historically associated with hospitals and other health care settings, MRSA has now emerged as a widespread cause of community infections. Community or community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) can spread rapidly among healthy individuals. Outbreaks of CA-MRSA infections have been reported worldwide, and CA-MRSA strains are now epidemic in the United States. Here, we review the molecular epidemiology of the epidemic waves of penicillin- and methicillin-resistant strains of S. aureus that have occurred since 1940, with a focus on the clinical and molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA.

      3. Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections Among Persons Who Inject Drugs – Six Sites, 2005-2016External
        Jackson KA, Bohm MK, Brooks JT, Asher A, Nadle J, Bamberg WM, Petit S, Ray SM, Harrison LH, Lynfield R, Dumyati G, Schaffner W, Townes JM, See I.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jun 8;67(22):625-628.
        In the United States, age-adjusted opioid overdose death rates increased by >200% during 1999-2015, and heroin overdose death rates increased nearly 300% during 2011-2015 (1). During 2011-2013, the rate of heroin use within the past year among U.S. residents aged >/=12 years increased 62.5% overall and 114.3% among non-Hispanic whites, compared with 2002-2004 (2). Increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections related to increases in injection drug use have been recently highlighted (3,4); likewise, invasive bacterial infections, including endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and skin and soft tissue infections, have increased in areas where the opioid epidemic is expanding (5-7). To assess the effects of the opioid epidemic on invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections during 2005-2016, surveillance data from CDC’s Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed (8). Persons who inject drugs were estimated to be 16.3 times more likely to develop invasive MRSA infections than others. The proportion of invasive MRSA cases that occurred among persons who inject drugs increased from 4.1% in 2011 to 9.2% in 2016. Infection types were frequently those associated with nonsterile injection drug use. Continued increases in nonsterile injection drug use are likely to result in increases in invasive MRSA infections, underscoring the importance of public health measures to curb the opioid epidemic.

      4. A bundled approach to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in a system of community hospitalsExternal
        Perlin JB, Hickok JD, Septimus EJ, Moody JA, Englebright JD, Bracken RM.
        J Healthc Qual. 2013 May-Jun;35(3):57-68; quiz 68-9.
        Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections pose a significant challenge to U.S. healthcare facilities, but there has been limited study of initiatives to reduce infection and increase patient safety in community hospitals. To address this need, a multifaceted program for MRSA infection prevention was developed for implementation in 159 acute care facilities. This program featured five distinct tools-active MRSA surveillance of high-risk patients, enhanced barrier precautions, compulsive hand hygiene, disinfection and cleaning, and executive champions and patient empowerment-and was implemented during 1Q-2Q 2007. Postintervention (3Q 2007-2Q 2008), 10.2% of patients with high-risk for infection or complications due to MRSA had nasal colonization. Volume of disposable gown and alcohol-based hand sanitizer use increased substantially following program implementation. Self-reported rates, based on NHSN definitions, of healthcare-associated central line-associated bloodstream infections and ventilator-associated pneumonia due to MRSA decreased 39% (p < .001) and 54% (p < .001), respectively. Infection rates continued to decrease during the follow-up period (1Q-4Q 2009). This sustained improvement demonstrates that reducing healthcare-associated MRSA infections in a large number of diverse facilities is possible and that a “bundled” approach that translates science into clinical and executive performance expectations may aid in overcoming traditional barriers to implementation.

      5. BACKGROUND: The majority of research about community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection has focused on skin and soft-tissue infections. No literature has been published on the clinical features and outcomes of adult patients with CA-MRSA bacteremia in comparison with patients with community-acquired methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (CA-MSSA) bacteremia. METHODS: From 1 January 2001 through 31 December 2006, the demographic data and outcome of 215 consecutive adult patients admitted to a tertiary care center in Taiwan with S. aureus bacteremia (age, >16 years) who fulfilled the criteria for community-acquired S. aureus bacteremia were collected for analysis. RESULTS: The mean age (+/-SD) was 56.8+/-20.5 years. There were 30 patients (14%) with CA-MRSA bacteremia and 185 (86%) patients with CA-MSSA bacteremia. Cutaneous abscess (odds ratio, 5.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.66-17.94) and necrotizing pneumonia (odds ratio, 24.81; 95% confidence interval, 2.63-234.03) were the independent predictors of CA-MRSA bacteremia; endovascular infection was the only independent predictor of CA-MSSA bacteremia. After Cox regression analysis, the independent significant risk factors for 30-day mortality included increased age, shock, and thrombocytopenia (<100,000 cells/microL). After adjustment, the day 30 mortality of patients with CA-MRSA bacteremia was not significantly higher than that of patients with CA-MSSA bacteremia (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-3.39; P = .986). Most (92%) of 25 available CA-MRSA isolates were multilocus sequence typing 59. CONCLUSIONS: The number of adult patients with CA-MRSA bacteremia increased with time, and the disease was associated with more necrotizing pneumonia and cutaneous abscess but less endovascular infection than was CA-MSSA bacteremia. Patients with CA-MRSA bacteremia did not have higher mortality than did patients with CA-MSSA, even though most of the patients with CA-MRSA bacteremia did not receive empirical glycopeptide therapy.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections – Staphylococcus aureus Infections (Veterans Affairs Medical Centers)
      1. *Guidance documents
        Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) .
        Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. 2018 .

        [No abstract]

      2. *Veterans Affairs initiative to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infectionsExternal
        Jain R, Kralovic SM, Evans ME, Ambrose M, Simbartl LA, Obrosky DS, Render ML, Freyberg RW, Jernigan JA, Muder RR, Miller LJ, Roselle GA.
        N Engl J Med. 2011 Apr 14;364(15):1419-30.
        BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been an increasing concern in Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals. METHODS: A “MRSA bundle” was implemented in 2007 in acute care VA hospitals nationwide in an effort to decrease health care-associated infections with MRSA. The bundle consisted of universal nasal surveillance for MRSA, contact precautions for patients colonized or infected with MRSA, hand hygiene, and a change in the institutional culture whereby infection control would become the responsibility of everyone who had contact with patients. Each month, personnel at each facility entered into a central database aggregate data on adherence to surveillance practice, the prevalence of MRSA colonization or infection, and health care-associated transmissions of and infections with MRSA. We assessed the effect of the MRSA bundle on health care-associated MRSA infections. RESULTS: From October 2007, when the bundle was fully implemented, through June 2010, there were 1,934,598 admissions to or transfers or discharges from intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs (ICUs, 365,139; non-ICUs, 1,569,459) and 8,318,675 patient-days (ICUs, 1,312,840; and non-ICUs, 7,005,835). During this period, the percentage of patients who were screened at admission increased from 82% to 96%, and the percentage who were screened at transfer or discharge increased from 72% to 93%. The mean (+/-SD) prevalence of MRSA colonization or infection at the time of hospital admission was 13.6+/-3.7%. The rates of health care-associated MRSA infections in ICUs had not changed in the 2 years before October 2007 (P=0.50 for trend) but declined with implementation of the bundle, from 1.64 infections per 1000 patient-days in October 2007 to 0.62 per 1000 patient-days in June 2010, a decrease of 62% (P<0.001 for trend). During this same period, the rates of health care-associated MRSA infections in non-ICUs fell from 0.47 per 1000 patient-days to 0.26 per 1000 patient-days, a decrease of 45% (P<0.001 for trend). CONCLUSIONS: A program of universal surveillance, contact precautions, hand hygiene, and institutional culture change was associated with a decrease in health care-associated transmissions of and infections with MRSA in a large health care system.

      3. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in hospitals: paradoxes and prescriptionsExternal
        Lipsitch M, Bergstrom CT, Levin BR.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Feb 15;97(4):1938-43.
        A simple mathematical model of bacterial transmission within a hospital was used to study the effects of measures to control nosocomial transmission of bacteria and reduce antimicrobial resistance in nosocomial pathogens. The model predicts that: (i) Use of an antibiotic for which resistance is not yet present in a hospital will be positively associated at the individual level (odds ratio) with carriage of bacteria resistant to other antibiotics, but negatively associated at the population level (prevalence). Thus inferences from individual risk factors can yield misleading conclusions about the effect of antibiotic use on resistance to another antibiotic. (ii) Nonspecific interventions that reduce transmission of all bacteria within a hospital will disproportionately reduce the prevalence of colonization with resistant bacteria. (iii) Changes in the prevalence of resistance after a successful intervention will occur on a time scale of weeks to months, considerably faster than in community-acquired infections. Moreover, resistance can decline rapidly in a hospital even if it does not carry a fitness cost. The predictions of the model are compared with those of other models and published data. The implications for resistance control and study design are discussed, along with the limitations and assumptions of the model.

      4. Trends in incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections differ by strain type and healthcare exposure, United States, 2005-2013External
        See I, Mu Y, Albrecht V, Karlsson M, Dumyati G, Hardy DJ, Koeck M, Lynfield R, Nadle J, Ray SM, Schaffner W, Kallen AJ.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 25.
        BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggested that U.S. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain epidemiology has changed since the rise of USA300 MRSA. We describe invasive MRSA trends by strain type. METHODS: Data came from five CDC Emerging Infections Program sites conducting population-based surveillance and collecting isolates for invasive MRSA (i.e., from normally sterile body sites), 2005-2013. MRSA bloodstream infection (BSI) incidence/100,000 population was stratified by strain type and epidemiologic classification of healthcare exposures. Invasive USA100 vs USA300 case characteristics from 2013 were compared through logistic regression. RESULTS: From 2005-2013, USA100 incidence decreased most notably for hospital-onset (6.1 vs 0.9 / 100,000 persons, P<0.0001) and healthcare-associated, community-onset (10.7 vs 4.9 / 100,000 persons, P<0.0001) BSIs. USA300 incidence for hospital-onset BSIs also decreased (1.5 vs 0.6 / 100,000 persons, P<0.0001). However, USA300 incidence did not significantly change for healthcare-associated, community-onset (3.9 vs 3.3 / 100,000 persons, P=0.05) or community-associated BSIs (2.5 vs 2.4 / 100,000 persons, P=0.19). Invasive MRSA was less likely to be USA300 in patients who were older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.97 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-0.98), previously hospitalized (aOR 0.36, 95% CI 0.24-0.54), or had central lines (aOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.74) and associated with USA300 in people who inject drugs (aOR 4.58, 95% CI 1.16-17.95). CONCLUSIONS: Most of the decline in MRSA BSIs was from decreases in USA100 BSI incidence. Prevention of USA300 MRSA BSIs in the community will be needed to further reduce burden from MRSA BSIs.

      5. Why sensitive bacteria are resistant to hospital infection controlExternal
        van Kleef E, Luangasanatip N, Bonten MJ, Cooper BS.
        Wellcome Open Res. 2017 ;2:16.
        BACKGROUND: Large reductions in the incidence of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile have been observed in response to multifaceted hospital-based interventions. Reductions in antibiotic-sensitive strains have been smaller or non-existent. It has been argued that since infection control measures, such as hand hygiene, should affect resistant and sensitive strains equally, observed changes must have largely resulted from other factors, including changes in antibiotic use. We used a mathematical model to test the validity of this reasoning. METHODS: We developed a mechanistic model of resistant and sensitive strains in a hospital and its catchment area. We assumed the resistant strain had a competitive advantage in the hospital and the sensitive strain an advantage in the community. We simulated a hospital hand hygiene intervention that directly affected resistant and sensitive strains equally. The annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) associated with the intervention was calculated for hospital- and community-acquired infections of both strains. RESULTS: For the resistant strain, there were large reductions in hospital-acquired infections (0.1 </= IRR </= 0.6) and smaller reductions in community-acquired infections (0.2 </= IRR </= 0.9). These reductions increased in line with increasing importance of nosocomial transmission of the strain. For the sensitive strain, reductions in hospital acquisitions were much smaller (0.6 </= IRR </= 0.9), while community acquisitions could increase or decrease (0.9 </= IRR </= 1.2). The greater the importance of the community environment for the transmission of the sensitive strain, the smaller the reductions. CONCLUSIONS: Counter-intuitively, infection control interventions, including hand hygiene, can have strikingly discordant effects on resistant and sensitive strains even though they target them equally. This follows from differences in their adaptation to hospital- and community-based transmission. Observed lack of effectiveness of control measures for sensitive strains does not provide evidence that infection control interventions have been ineffective in reducing resistant strains.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study: confirmation between eye screening and comprehensive eye examination diagnosesExternal
        Hark LA, Myers JS, Ines A, Jiang A, Rahmatnejad K, Zhan T, Leiby BE, Hegarty S, Fudemberg SJ, Mantravadi AV, Waisbourd M, Henderer JD, Burns C, Divers M, Molineaux J, Pizzi LT, Murchison AP, Saaddine J, Pasquale LR, Haller JA, Katz LJ.
        Br J Ophthalmol. 2019 Feb 15.
        AIMS: To evaluate agreement between ocular findings of a telemedicine eye screening (visit 1) with diagnoses of a comprehensive eye examination (visit 2). METHODS: A primary care practice (PCP)-based telemedicine screening programme incorporating fundus photography, intraocular pressure (IOP) and clinical information was conducted. Eligible individuals were African American, Hispanic/Latino or Asian over the age of 40; Caucasian individuals over age 65; and adults of any ethnicity over age 40 with a family history of glaucoma or diabetes. Participants with abnormal images or elevated IOP were invited back for a complete eye examination. Both visit 1 and visit 2 were conducted at participants’ local PCP. Ocular findings at visit 1 and eye examination diagnoses at visit 2 are presented, including a cost analysis. RESULTS: Of 906 participants who attended visit 1, 536 were invited to visit 2 due to ocular findings or unreadable images. Among the 347 (64.9%) who attended visit 2, 280 (80.7%) were diagnosed with at least one ocular condition. Participants were predominately women (59.9%) and African American (65.6%), with a mean age (+/-SD) of 60.6+/-11.0 years. A high diagnostic confirmation rate (86.0%) was found between visit 1 and visit 2 for any ocular finding. Of 183 with suspicious nerves at visit 1, 143 (78.1%) were diagnosed as glaucoma or glaucoma suspects at visit 2. CONCLUSIONS: This screening model may be adapted and scaled nationally and internationally. Referral to an ophthalmologist is warranted if abnormal or unreadable fundus images are detected or IOP is >21 mm Hg. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02390245.

      2. A spatially adaptive floating catchment is a circular area that expands outward from a provider location until the estimated demand for services in the nearest population locations exceeds the observed number of health care services performed at the provider location. This new way of creating floating catchments was developed to address the change of spatial support problem (COSP) by upscaling the availability of the service observed at a provider location to the county-level so that its geographic association with utilization could be measured using the same spatial support. Medicare Fee-for-Service claims data were used to identify beneficiaries aged >/=65 years who received outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in the Southeastern United States in 2014 (n=8798), the number of PR treatments these beneficiaries received (n=132,508), and the PR providers they chose (n=426). The positive correlation between PR availability and utilization was relatively low, but statistically significant (r=0.619, p<0.001) indicating that most people use the nearest available PR services, but some travel long distances. SAFCs can be created using data from health care systems that collect claim-level utilization data that identifies the locations of providers chosen by beneficiaries of a specific health care procedure.

      3. Prevalence of inherited blood disorders and associations with malaria and anemia in Malawian childrenExternal
        McGann PT, Williams AM, Ellis G, McElhinney KE, Romano L, Woodall J, Howard TA, Tegha G, Krysiak R, Lark RM, Ander EL, Mapango C, Ataga KI, Gopal S, Key NS, Ware RE, Suchdev PS.
        Blood Adv. 2018 Nov 13;2(21):3035-3044.
        In sub-Saharan Africa, inherited causes of anemia are common, but data are limited regarding the geographical prevalence and coinheritance of these conditions and their overall contributions to childhood anemia. To address these questions in Malawi, we performed a secondary analysis of the 2015-2016 Malawi Micronutrient Survey, a nationally and regionally representative survey that estimated the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies and evaluated both inherited and noninherited determinants of anemia. Children age 6 to 59 months were sampled from 105 clusters within the 2015-2016 Malawi Demographic Health Survey. Hemoglobin, ferritin, retinol binding protein, malaria, and inflammatory biomarkers were measured from venous blood. Molecular studies were performed using dried blood spots to determine the presence of sickle cell disease or trait, alpha-thalassemia trait, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Of 1279 eligible children, 1071 were included in the final analysis. Anemia, iron deficiency, and malaria were common, affecting 30.9%, 21.5%, and 27.8% of the participating children, respectively. alpha-Thalassemia trait was common (>40% of children demonstrating deletion of 1 [33.1%] or 2 [10.0%] alpha-globin genes) and associated with higher prevalence of anemia (P < .001). Approximately 20% of males had G6PD deficiency, which was associated with a 1.0 g/dL protection in hemoglobin decline during malaria infection (P = .02). These data document that inherited blood disorders are common and likely play an important role in the prevalence of anemia and malaria in Malawian children.

      4. Skin cancer prevention behaviors among agricultural and construction workers in the United States, 2015External
        Ragan KR, Buchanan Lunsford N, Thomas CC, Tai EW, Sussell A, Holman DM.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Feb 7;16:E15.
        INTRODUCTION: Nearly 5 million people are treated for skin cancer each year in the United States. Agricultural and construction workers (ACWs) may be at increased risk for skin cancer because of high levels of ultraviolet radiation exposure from the sun. This is the first study that uses nationally representative data to assess sun-protection behaviors among ACWs. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement to examine the prevalence of sun-protection behaviors among ACWs. We calculated national, weighted, self-reported prevalence estimates. We used chi(2) tests to assess differences between ACWs by industry and occupation. RESULTS: Most of the 2,298 agricultural and construction workers studied were male (by industry, 72.4% in agriculture and 89.3% in construction; by occupation, 66.1% in agriculture and 95.6% in construction) and non-Hispanic white. About one-third had at least 1 sunburn in the past year. The prevalence of sunscreen use and shade seeking was low and did not significantly differ among groups, ranging from 15.1% to 21.4% for sunscreen use and 24.5% to 29.1% for shade seeking. The prevalence of wearing protective clothing was significantly higher among agricultural workers than among construction workers by industry (70.9% vs 50.7%) and occupation (70.5% vs 53.0%). CONCLUSION: Our findings could be used to improve occupational health approaches to reducing skin cancer risk among ACWs and to inform education and prevention initiatives addressing skin cancer. Sun-safety initiatives may include modifying work sites to increase shade and adding sun safety to workplace policies and training. Employers can help reduce occupational health inequities and protect workers by creating workplaces that facilitate sun protection.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Outbreak of respiratory illness associated with human adenovirus type 7 among persons attending Officer Candidates School, Quantico, Virginia, 2017External
        Bautista-Gogel J, Madsen CM, Lu X, Sakthivel SK, Froh I, Kamau E, Gerber SI, Watson JT, Cooper SS, Schneider E.
        J Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 6.
        A respiratory outbreak associated with adenovirus-7 (HAdV-7) occurred among unvaccinated officer candidates attending initial military training. Respiratory infections associated with HAdV-7 can be severe resulting in significant morbidity. Genomic sequencing revealed HAdV-7d, a genome type recently remerging in the US as a significant respiratory pathogen, following reports from Southeast Asia. Twenty-nine outbreak cases were identified; this likely represents an underestimate. Although the HAdV-4 and -7 vaccine is currently given to US military enlisted recruit trainees, it is not routinely given to officer candidates. Administration of the HAdV-4 and -7 vaccine may benefit this cohort.

      2. Evaluation of the impact of shigellosis exclusion policies in childcare settings upon detection of a shigellosis outbreakExternal
        Carias C, Undurraga EA, Hurd J, Kahn EB, Meltzer MI, Bowen A.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 19;19(1):172.
        BACKGROUND: In the event of a shigellosis outbreak in a childcare setting, exclusion policies are typically applied to afflicted children to limit shigellosis transmission. However, there is scarce evidence of their impact. METHODS: We evaluated five exclusion policies: Children return to childcare after: i) two consecutive laboratory tests (either PCR or culture) do not detect Shigella, ii) a single negative laboratory test (PCR or culture) does not detect Shigella, iii) seven days after beginning antimicrobial treatment, iv) after being symptom-free for 24 h, or v) 14 days after symptom onset. We also included four treatments to assess the policy options: i) immediate, effective treatment; ii) effective treatment after laboratory diagnosis; iii) no treatment; iv) ineffective treatment. Relying on published data, we calculated the likelihood that a child reentering childcare would be infectious, and the number of childcare-days lost per policy. RESULTS: Requiring two consecutive negative PCR tests yielded a probability of onward transmission of < 1%, with up to 17 childcare-days lost for children receiving effective treatment, and 53 days lost for those receiving ineffective treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Of the policies analyzed, requiring negative PCR testing before returning to childcare was the most effective to reduce the risk of shigellosis transmission, with one PCR test being the most effective for the least childcare-days lost.

      3. Characteristics of persons who inject drugs with recent HIV infection in the United States: National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 2012External
        Chapin-Bardales J, Masciotra S, Smith A, Hoots BE, Martin A, Switzer WM, Luo W, Owen SM, Paz-Bailey G.
        AIDS Behav. 2019 Feb 18.
        We evaluated characteristics associated with recent HIV infection among persons who inject drugs (PWID) from 19 U.S. cities who participated in 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. Recent infection was defined as having a reactive HIV test, a Bio-Rad Avidity index cutoff </= 30%, no reported HIV diagnosis >/= 12 months before interview, and no evidence of viral suppression. Of 8667 PWID, 50 (0.6%) were recently HIV infected. Having a greater number of sex partners (>/= 2 partners vs. 0) [prevalence ratio (PR) 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-17.8], injecting heroin and other drugs (PR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-6.6) or exclusively non-heroin drugs (PR 5.9, 95% CI 1.7-20.7) compared to injecting only heroin, and having male-male sex in the past year (PR 7.1, 95% CI 3.0-16.6) were associated with recent infection. Promoting not only safe injection practices but also safe sex practices will be key to preventing new HIV infections.

      4. Ending the HIV epidemic: A plan for the United StatesExternal
        Fauci AS, Redfield RR, Sigounas G, Weahkee MD, Giroir BP.
        Jama. 2019 Feb 7.

        [No abstract]

      5. Epidemiology of invasive group B streptococcal infections among nonpregnant adults in the United States, 2008-2016External
        Francois Watkins LK, McGee L, Schrag SJ, Beall B, Jain JH, Pondo T, Farley MM, Harrison LH, Zansky SM, Baumbach J, Lynfield R, Snippes Vagnone P, Miller LA, Schaffner W, Thomas AR, Watt JP, Petit S, Langley GE.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Feb 18.
        Importance: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease. Previous studies have shown a substantial and increasing burden of GBS infections among nonpregnant adults, particularly older adults and those with underlying medical conditions. Objective: To update trends of invasive GBS disease among US adults using population-based surveillance data. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based surveillance study, a case was defined as isolation of GBS from a sterile site between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2016. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from medical records. Rates were calculated using US Census data. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and serotyping were performed on a subset of isolates. Case patients were residents of 1 of 10 catchment areas of the Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) network, representing approximately 11.5% of the US adult population. Patients were included in the study if they were nonpregnant, were 18 years or older, were residents of an ABCs catchment site, and had a positive GBS culture from a normally sterile body site. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trends in GBS cases overall and by demographic characteristics (sex, age, and race), underlying clinical conditions of patients, and isolate characteristics are described. Results: The ABCs network detected 21250 patients with invasive GBS among nonpregnant adults from 2008 through 2016. The GBS incidence in this population increased from 8.1 cases per 100000 population in 2008 to 10.9 in 2016 (P = .002 for trend). There were 3146 cases reported in 2016 (59% male; median age, 64 years; age range, 18-103 years). The GBS incidence was higher among men than women and among blacks than whites and increased with age. Projected to the US population, an estimated 27729 cases of invasive disease and 1541 deaths occurred in the United States in 2016. Ninety-five percent of cases in 2016 occurred in someone with at least 1 underlying condition, most commonly obesity (53.9%) and diabetes (53.4%). Resistance to clindamycin increased from 37.0% of isolates in 2011 to 43.2% in 2016 (P = .02). Serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V accounted for 86.4% of isolates in 2016; serotype IV increased from 4.7% in 2008 to 11.3% in 2016 (P < .001 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance: The public health burden of invasive GBS disease among nonpregnant adults is substantial and continues to increase. Chronic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, may contribute.

      6. Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV) among women with trichomoniasis and associations with demographics, clinical outcomes, and metronidazole resistanceExternal
        Graves KJ, Ghosh AP, Schmidt N, Augostini P, Secor WE, Schwebke JR, Martin DH, Kissinger PJ, Muzny CA.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 15.
        BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV) is a non-segmented, 4.5-5.5 kbp, double-stranded RNA virus infecting T. vaginalis. The objectives of this study were to examine TVV prevalence in U.S. Trichomonas vaginalis isolates and associations with patient demographics, clinical outcomes, and metronidazole resistance. METHODS: Archived T. vaginalis isolates from the enrollment visit of 355 women participating in a T. vaginalis treatment trial in Birmingham, AL were thawed and grown in culture. Total RNA was extracted using Trizol reagent. Contaminating single stranded RNA was precipitated using 4.0M LiCl and centrifugation. Samples were analyzed by gel electrophoresis to visualize a 4.5kbp band representative of TVV. In vitro testing for metronidazole resistance was also performed on 25/47 isolates from the test of cure visit. RESULTS: TVV was detected in 142/355 (40%) isolates at the enrollment visit. Women with TVV+ isolates were significantly older (p = 0.01), more likely to smoke (p = 0.04), and less likely to report a history of gonorrhea (p = 0.04). There was no association between the presence of clinical symptoms or repeat T. vaginalis infection with TVV+ isolates (p = 0.14 and p = 0.44, respectively). Of 25 Test of cure isolates tested for metronidazole resistance, 0/10 TVV+ isolates demonstrated resistance while 2/15 TVV- isolates demonstrated mild-moderate resistance (p = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: In one of the largest U.S. studies of T. vaginalis isolates tested for TVV, prevalence was 40%. However, there was no association of TVV+ isolates with clinical symptoms, repeat infections, or metronidazole resistance. These results suggest that TVV may be a commensal to T. vaginalis.

      7. Increase in reported cholera cases in Haiti following Hurricane Matthew: An interrupted time series modelExternal
        Hulland E, Subaiya S, Pierre K, Barthelemy N, Pierre JS, Dismer A, Juin S, Fitter D, Brunkard J.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Feb;100(2):368-373.
        Matthew, a category 4 hurricane, struck Haiti on October 4, 2016, causing widespread flooding and damage to buildings and crops, and resulted in many deaths. The damage caused by Matthew raised concerns of increased cholera transmission particularly in Sud and Grand’Anse departments, regions which were hit most heavily by the storm. To evaluate the change in reported cholera cases following Hurricane Matthew on reported cholera cases, we used interrupted time series regression models of daily reported cholera cases, controlling for the impact of both rainfall, following a 4-week lag, and seasonality, from 2013 through 2016. Our results indicate a significant increase in reported cholera cases after Matthew, suggesting that the storm resulted in an immediate surge in suspect cases, and a decline in reported cholera cases in the 46-day post-storm period, after controlling for rainfall and seasonality. Regression models stratified by the department indicate that the impact of the hurricane was regional, with larger surges in the two most highly storm-affected departments: Sud and Grand’Anse. These models were able to provide input to the Ministry of Health in Haiti on the national and regional impact of Hurricane Matthew and, with further development, could provide the flexibility of use in other emergency situations. This article highlights the need for continued cholera prevention and control efforts, particularly in the wake of natural disasters such as hurricanes, and the continued need for intensive cholera surveillance nationally.

      8. Geographic surveillance of community associated MRSA infections in children using electronic health record dataExternal
        Immergluck LC, Leong T, Matthews K, Malhotra K, Parker TC, Ali F, Jerris RC, Rust GS.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 18;19(1):170.
        BACKGROUND: Community- associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) cause serious infections and rates continue to rise worldwide. Use of geocoded electronic health record (EHR) data to prevent spread of disease is limited in health service research. We demonstrate how geocoded EHR and spatial analyses can be used to identify risks for CA-MRSA in children, which are tied to place-based determinants and would not be uncovered using traditional EHR data analyses. METHODS: An epidemiology study was conducted on children from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2010 who were treated for Staphylococcus aureus infections. A generalized estimated equations (GEE) model was developed and crude and adjusted odds ratios were based on S. aureus risks. We measured the risk of S. aureus as standardized incidence ratios (SIR) calculated within aggregated US 2010 Census tracts called spatially adaptive filters, and then created maps that differentiate the geographic patterns of antibiotic resistant and non-resistant forms of S. aureus. RESULTS: CA-MRSA rates increased at higher rates compared to non-resistant forms, p = 0.01. Children with no or public health insurance had higher odds of CA-MRSA infection. Black children were almost 1.5 times as likely as white children to have CA-MRSA infections (aOR 95% CI 1.44,1.75, p < 0.0001); this finding persisted at the block group level (p < 0.001) along with household crowding (p < 0.001). The youngest category of age (< 4 years) also had increased risk for CA-MRSA (aOR 1.65, 95%CI 1.48, 1.83, p < 0.0001). CA-MRSA encompasses larger areas with higher SIRs compared to non-resistant forms and were found in block groups with higher proportion of blacks (r = 0.517, p < 0.001), younger age (r = 0.137, p < 0.001), and crowding (r = 0.320, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the Atlanta MSA, the risk for CA-MRSA is associated with neighborhood-level measures of racial composition, household crowding, and age of children. Neighborhoods which have higher proportion of blacks, household crowding, and children < 4 years of age are at greatest risk. Understanding spatial relationship at a community level and how it relates to risks for antibiotic resistant infections is important to combat the growing numbers and spread of such infections like CA-MRSA.

      9. OBJECTIVE: To characterize healthcare provider diagnostic testing practices for identifying Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) and asymptomatic carriage in children. DESIGN: Electronic survey. METHODS: An 11-question survey was sent by e-mail or facsimile to all pediatric infectious diseases (PID) members of the Infectious Diseases Society of America’s Emerging Infections Network (EIN). RESULTS: Among 345 eligible respondents who had ever responded to an EIN survey, 196 (57%) responded; 162 of these (83%) were aware of their institutional policies for CDI testing and management. Also, 159 (98%) respondents knew their institution’s C. difficile testing method: 99 (62%) utilize NAAT without toxin testing and 60 (38%) utilize toxin testing, either as a single test or a multistep algorithm. Of 153 respondents, 10 (7%) reported that formed stools were tested for C. difficile at their institution, and 76 of 151 (50%) reported that their institution does not restrict C. difficile testing in infants and young children. The frequency of symptom- and age-based testing restrictions did not vary between institutions utilizing NAAT alone compared to those utilizing toxin testing for C. difficile diagnosis. Of 143 respondents, 26 (16%) permit testing of neonatal intensive care unit patients and 12 of 26 (46%) treat CDI with antibiotics in this patient population. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that there are opportunities to improve CDI diagnostic stewardship practices in children, including among hospitals using NAATs alone for CDI diagnosis in children.

      10. The Special Pathogens Research Network: Enabling research readinessExternal
        Kraft CS, Kortepeter MG, Gordon B, Sauer LM, Shenoy ES, Eiras DP, Larson L, Garland JA, Mehta AK, Barrett K, Price CS, Croyle C, West LR, Noren B, Kline S, Arguinchona C, Arguinchona H, Grein JD, Connally C, McLellan S, Risi GF, Uyeki TM, Davey RT, Schweinle JE, Schwedhelm MM, Harvey M, Hunt RC, Kratochvil CJ.
        Health Secur. 2019 Jan/Feb;17(1):35-45.
        The 2013-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that originated in West Africa underscored many of the challenges to conducting clinical research during an ongoing infectious disease epidemic, both in the most affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, as well as in the United States and Europe, where a total of 27 patients with EVD received care in biocontainment units. The Special Pathogens Research Network (SPRN) was established in the United States in November 2016 to provide an organizational structure to leverage the expertise of the 10 Regional Ebola and Other Special Pathogen Treatment Centers (RESPTCs); it was intended to develop and support infrastructure to improve readiness to conduct clinical research in the United States. The network enables the rapid activation and coordination of clinical research in the event of an epidemic and facilitates opportunities for multicenter research when the RESPTCs are actively caring for patients requiring a biocontainment unit. Here we provide an overview of opportunities identified in the clinical research infrastructure during the West Africa EVD epidemic and the SPRN activities to meet the ongoing challenges in the context of Ebola virus and other special pathogens.

      11. Mozambique’s Community Antiretroviral Therapy Support Group Program: The role of social relationships in facilitating HIV/AIDS treatment retentionExternal
        Kun KE, Couto A, Jobarteh K, Zulliger R, Pedro E, Malimane I, Auld A, Meldonian M.
        AIDS Behav. 2019 Feb 15.
        The Community Antiretroviral (ARV) Therapy Support Group (CASG) program aims to address low retention rates in Mozambique’s HIV treatment program and the absorptive capacity of the country’s health facilities. CASG provides patients with the opportunity to form groups, whose members provide peer support and collect ARV medications on a rotating basis for one another. Based on the promising results in one province, a multi-site level evaluation followed. We report on qualitative findings from this evaluation from the patient perspective on the role of social relationships (as facilitated through CASG) in conferring time, financial, educational and psychosocial benefits that contribute to improved patient retention. These findings may be helpful in informing what aspects of social relationships are critical to foster as CASG is implemented within a greater number of Mozambican health facilities, and as other countries design and implement related models of care and treatment with a support group component.

      12. Is co-location of services with HIV care associated with improved HIV care outcomes? A systematic reviewExternal
        Mizuno Y, Higa DH, Leighton CA, Mullins M, Crepaz N.
        AIDS Care. 2019 Feb 18:1-9.
        This systematic review identifies models of service co-location, a structural intervention strategy to remove barriers to HIV care and services, and examines their associations with HIV care outcomes. A cumulative database (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE) of HIV, AIDS, and STI literature was systematically searched and manual searches were conducted to identify relevant studies. Thirty-six studies were classified into six models of co-location: HIV care co-located with multiple ancillary services, tuberculosis (TB) care, non-HIV specific primary care, drug abuse treatment, prevention of mother to child transmission programs (PMTCT), and mental health care. More evidence of a positive association was seen for linkage to care and antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake than for retention and viral suppression. Models of co-location that addressed HIV and non-HIV medical care issues (i.e., co-location with non-HIV specific primary care, PMTCT, and TB) had more positive associations, particularly for linkage to care and ART uptake, than other co-location models. While some findings are encouraging, more research with rigorous study designs is needed to strengthen the evaluation of, and evidence for, service co-location.

      13. Evaluation of an Adapted Project Connect community-based intervention among professionals serving young minority menExternal
        Perin J, Jennings JM, Arrington-Sanders R, Page KR, Loosier PS, Dittus PJ, Marcell AV.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2019 Mar;46(3):165-171.
        BACKGROUND: To address sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of young minority urban males, we developed and evaluated Project Connect Baltimore (Connect), which was adapted from a program with demonstrated effectiveness among young females. The objectives were to determine (1) the feasibility of Connect as adapted for young minority men, (2) whether the program increased SRH knowledge and resource sharing of youth-serving professionals (YSPs) working with young men, and (3) whether the program improved awareness and use of resources for young minority men in Baltimore City, an urban environment with high rates of sexually transmitted diseases. METHODS: Connect developed a clinic referral guide for male youth-friendly resources for SRH. The YSPs working with partners and organizations serving young minority men were trained to use Connect materials and pretraining, immediate, and 3-month posttraining surveys were conducted to evaluate program effects. A before-after evaluation study was conducted among young men attending five urban Connect clinics where sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus rates are high, recruiting young men in repeated cross-sectional surveys from April 2014 to September 2017. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-five YSPs were trained to use Connect materials, including a website, an article-based pocket guide, and were given information regarding SRH for young men. These professionals demonstrated increased knowledge about SRH for young men at immediate posttest (60.6% to 86.7%, P < 0.05), and reported more sharing of websites for SRH (23% to 62%, P < 0.05) from pretraining to 3-month posttraining. 169 young minority men were surveyed and reported increased awareness of Connect over 3 and a half years (4% to 11%, P = 0.015), although few young men reported using the website to visit clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Project Connect Baltimore increased knowledge of SRH needs among youth-serving professionals and sharing of SRH resources by these professionals with young men. This program also demonstrated increases in awareness of SRH resources among young minority urban men.

      14. BACKGROUND: Presumptive antibiotic treatment is common for suspected chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infections before laboratory confirmation to prevent complications, reduce loss-to-follow-up, and interrupt transmission. We assessed this practice in sexually transmitted disease (STD) and family planning clinics. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from clinics in Virginia in 2016 using administrative data merged with electronic laboratory reporting data. After stratifying by patient and clinic characteristics, we calculated how often patients with positive CT/GC tests were treated presumptively or during a follow-up visit, and how many patients with negative tests were treated presumptively. RESULTS: Of 63,889 patient visits with valid laboratory results from 131 clinics, 13% tested positive for CT or GC. Overall, presumptive treatment was given to 45.2% of persons with positive tests and 10.1% of persons with negative tests. Among the 9443 patients presumptively treated, 40.7% had positive test results. Presumptive treatment was more common in STD clinics compared with family planning clinics (22% vs. 4%) and for males with positive tests compared to females (65% vs. 24%); smaller variations were observed across age, race/ethnicity, and diagnosis categories. Twenty-six percent of patients with positive tests who were not treated presumptively had no treatment recorded within 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive treatment for CT/GC was commonly used in this clinic population. It improved treatment coverage and reduced time to treatment, though some uninfected persons were treated. The impact of presumptive treatment on partner notification and treatment requires further study.

      15. Results of a pilot study of a mail-based human papillomavirus self-testing program for underscreened women from Appalachian OhioExternal
        Reiter PL, Shoben AB, McDonough D, Ruffin MT, Steinau M, Unger ER, Paskett ED, Katz ML.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2019 Mar;46(3):185-190.
        BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-testing is an emerging cervical cancer screening strategy, yet few mail-based HPV self-testing programs have been implemented in the United States. We report the results of a pilot study of a mail-based program, the Health Outcomes through Motivation and Education Project. METHODS: In 2015 to 2016, we recruited 103 women from Appalachian Ohio who were aged 30 to 65 years and had not received a Papanicolaou (Pap) test in at least 3 years. Women were mailed an HPV self-test and randomized to receive either (a) self-test instructions developed by the device manufacturer and a standard information brochure about cervical cancer (control group) or (b) self-test instructions developed by the Health Outcomes through Motivation and Education Project and a photo story information brochure about cervical cancer (intervention group). Logistic regression compared study arms on HPV self-test return and receipt of a Pap test. RESULTS: Overall, 80 (78%) women returned their HPV self-test. Return was similar among the intervention and control groups (78% vs. 77%; odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-2.76). Among returners, 26% had an oncogenic HPV type detected in their sample. Women who returned their self-test reported high levels of satisfaction and positive experiences with the self-testing process. Few women overall received a Pap test (11%), and Pap testing was similar among the intervention and control groups (14% vs. 8%; odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-6.97). CONCLUSIONS: Mail-based HPV self-testing programs are a potentially promising strategy for reaching underscreened women in Appalachia. Efforts are needed to better understand how to optimize the success of such programs.

      16. Loss to follow-up among patients receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment, Haiti, 2011-2015External
        Schnaubelt ER, Charles M, Richard M, Fitter DL, Morose W, Cegielski JP.
        Public Health Action. 2018 Dec 21;8(4):154-161.
        Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment facilities in Haiti. Objective: To assess factors associated with loss to follow-up (LTFU) among patients receiving treatment for tuberculosis (TB) in Haiti. Design: We analyzed Haiti’s national surveillance data for patients started on anti-tuberculosis treatment from 2011 to 2015 to determine factors associated with LTFU using multivariable logistic regression and describe LTFU in terms of subnational units to target future intervention strategies. We also conducted a survival analysis to estimate hazard ratios of factors associated with time to LTFU. Results: Of 81 490 TB cases reported, 7423 (9.1%) were LTFU during anti-tuberculosis treatment, increasing from 7.1% in 2011 to 10.3% in 2015. Six high-volume facilities had significantly higher rates of LTFU (14.3-31.9%) than the rest of the country, accounting for 18.8% of all TB cases reported, but 41.7% of all LTFU patients. Male sex, previous treatment history, and human immunodeficiency virus infection were associated with higher rates of LTFU. The median time to LTFU was 94 days. Conclusion: A small number of facilities accounted for disproportionately high rates of LTFU. These results identify characteristics of facilities and individuals leading to concentrated interventions to reduce LTFU and improve treatment success.

      17. BACKGROUND: Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt’s renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-established during 2014-2017 to describe the current epidemiology and associated risk factors, and changes from surveillance conducted during 2001-2004. METHODS: Patients with suspected AVH were enrolled, completed a questionnaire, and provided blood for testing for hepatitis viruses A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D, and E (HEV) infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios and Chi(2) were used to detect differences between hepatitis types by patient characteristics and exposures. Newcombe-Wilson method was used to compare results between surveillance periods 2001-2004 and 2014-2017. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, among 9321 patients enrolled, 8362 (89.7%) had one or more markers of AVH including 7806 (93.4%) HAV, 252 (3.0%) HCV, 238 (2.8%) HBV, and 31 (0.4%) HEV infection. HAV infection occurred most commonly among children < 16 years age, while HBV infection occurred among ages 16-35 years and HCV infection in ages greater than 45 years. Healthcare-associated exposures were significantly associated with HBV and HCV infections compared to HAV infection including receiving therapeutic injections, surgery, wound suture, or urinary catheter and IV line insertions, while significant lifestyle exposures included exposure to blood outside the healthcare system, IV drug use, or incarceration. Exposures significantly associated with HAV infection were attending nursery or pre-school, contact with person attending nursery or pre-school, having meals outside the home, or contact with HAV case. Compared with AVH surveillance during 2001-2004, there was a significant increase in the proportion of HAV infections from 40.2 to 89.7% (RR = 2.3) with corresponding reductions in the proportions of HBV and HCV infections from 30.0 to 2.8% (RR = 0.1) and 29.8 to 3.0% (RR = 0.1), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare-associated exposures were significantly association with and remain the greatest risk for HBV and HCV infections in Egypt. Additional studies to evaluate factors associated with the reductions in HBV and HCV infections, and cost effectiveness of routine HAV immunization might help Egypt guide and evaluate control measures.

    • Community Health Services
      1. Practices that support and sustain health in schools: An analysis of SHPPS dataExternal
        Lee SM, Miller GF, Brener N, Michael S, Jones SE, Leroy Z, Merlo C, Robin L, Barrios L.
        J Sch Health. 2019 Feb 19.
        BACKGROUND: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model provides an organizing framework for schools to develop and implement school health policies, practices, and programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of practices that support school health for each component of the WSCC model in US schools. METHODS: Data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study 2014 were analyzed to determine the percentage of schools with practices in place that support school health for WSCC components. RESULTS: Less than 27% of schools had a school health council that addressed any specific WSCC component, but more than 50% had a coordinator for all but one component. The use of other practices that support school health varied widely across the WSCC components. For example, more than 80% of schools reported family engagement for health education and nutrition environment and services, but less than 50% reported family engagement for other components. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that many US schools are using practices that support school health and align with WSCC components, but improvement is needed. These results also highlight discrepancies in the types of practices being used.

    • Disaster Control and Emergency Services
      1. Emergence of a novel infectious disease, such as pandemic influenza, is the one global crisis most likely to affect the greatest number of people worldwide. Because of the potentially severe and contagious nature of influenza, a rapid multifaceted pandemic response, which includes nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and effective strategies for communication with the public are essential for a timely response and mitigating the spread of disease. A web-based questionnaire was administered via email in July 2015 to 62 Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) directors across jurisdictions that receive funding through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention PHEP cooperative agreement. This report focuses on two modules: Public Information and Communication and Community Mitigation. Consistent and targeted communication are critical for the acceptability and success of NPIs. All 62 jurisdictions have developed or are in the process of developing a communications plan. Community-level NPIs such as home isolation, school closures, and respiratory etiquette play a critical role in mitigating the spread of disease. Effective, ongoing communication with the public is essential to ensuring wide spread compliance of NPI’s, especially among non-English-speaking populations. Planning should also include reaching vulnerable populations and identifying the correct legal authorities for closing schools and canceling mass gatherings.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Entomological investigation of Aedes aegypti in neighborhoods with confirmed human arbovirus infection in Puerto RicoExternal
        Felix GE, Barrera R, Vazquez J, Ryff KR, Munoz-Jordan JL, Matias KY, Hemme RR.
        J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2018 ;34(3):233-236.
        The exotic arboviruses chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) recently caused large outbreaks and continue to circulate in Puerto Rico, prompting entomological investigations at 9 locations with confirmed CHIKV- or ZIKV-infected human cases. Adult mosquitoes were collected using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention autocidal gravid ovitraps over a 14-day period at each site. Mean female Aedes aegypti captured per trap-week ranged from 13.47 per trap-week to 1.27 per trap-week. Arbovirus-positive pools were detected at 7 of the 9 sampling sites. We investigated vertical transmission by collecting Ae. aegypti eggs in a single location where ZIKV was found in adult mosquitoes. We discuss the relationship between vector density and infection rates and its implications for determining mosquito density thresholds of novel invasive arboviruses such as CHIKV and ZIKV.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Permethrin exposure from wearing fabric-treated military uniforms in high heat conditions under varying wear-time scenariosExternal
        Proctor SP, Maule AL, Heaton KJ, Cadarette BS, Guerriere KI, Haven CC, Taylor KM, Scarpaci MM, Ospina M, Calafat AM.
        J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 6.
        This study examined the effect of high-temperature conditions and uniform wear time durations (expeditionary, 33 h continuous wear; garrison, 3 days, 8 h/day wear) on permethrin exposure, assessed by urinary permethrin biomarkers, from wearing post-tailored, factory-treated military uniforms. Four group study sessions took place over separate 11-day periods, involving 33 male Soldiers. Group 1 (n = 10) and Group 2 (n = 8) participants wore a study-issued permethrin-treated Army uniform under high heat environment (35 degrees C, 40% relative humidity (rh)) and expeditionary and garrison wear-time conditions, respectively. For comparison, Group 3 (n = 7) and Group 4 (n = 8) participants wore study-issued permethrin-treated uniforms in cooler ambient conditions under operational and garrison wear-time conditions, respectively. Urinary biomarkers of permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and the sum of cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) were significantly higher under high temperature compared to ambient conditions, regardless of wear-time situations (Group 1 vs. Group 3; Group 2 vs. Group 4; p < 0.001, for both). Under high-temperature conditions, expeditionary (continuous) compared to garrison wear-time resulted in significantly (p < 0.001) higher urinary biomarker concentrations (Group 1 vs. Group 2). Differences related to wear-time under the ambient conditions (Group 3 vs. Group 4) were not statistically significant. Findings suggest that wearing permethrin-treated clothing in heat conditions results in higher internal dose of permethrin above that observed under ambient conditions.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Ten years of Genome MedicineExternal
        Auffray C, Griffin JL, Khoury MJ, Lupski JR, Schwab M.
        Genome Med. 2019 Feb 15;11(1):7.

        [No abstract]

    • Health Disparities
      1. Risk behaviors are known to adversely affect health outcomes, but the relationship between youth risk behaviors and oral health remains unclear. The objective of this study is to examine the likelihood of dental visiting among Hawai’i public high school students by demographic factors and number of adverse risk behaviors. Aggregated 2013 and 2015 Hawai’i public high school Youth Risk and Behavior Survey (YRBS) data was analyzed from 10,720 students. Results showed that, overall, 77.1% of students reported a dental visit in the past 12 months. Students who were ages 15, 16, 17, and >/= 18 years old were less likely than students who were </= 14 years old to visit a dentist. Those who identified as Hispanic, Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Other Pacific Islander, and students who identified as more than one race/ethnicity were less likely to visit the dentist than their white counterparts. In addition, students having either 4 risk behaviors or >/= 5 risk behaviors were less likely to report a dental visit than those with no risk behaviors. These findings support the presence of disparities in oral health care utilization among high school students in Hawai’i and reveal a significant association between age, number of risk behaviors, and race/ethnicity with the likelihood of utilizing dental services. Oral health programs should consider screening for risk factors and multiple risk behaviors, integrating with other health programs that share similar risk behaviors, and account for cultural differences in their development, implementation, and evaluation.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Opportunities to bridge gaps between respiratory protection guidance and practice in US health careExternal
        Braun BI, Tschurtz BA, Hafiz H, Novak DA, Montero MC, Alexander CM, Fauerbach LL, Gruden M, Isakari MT, Kuhar DT, Pompeii LA, Swift MD, Radonovich LJ.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 18:1-6.
        Healthcare organizations are required to provide workers with respiratory protection (RP) to mitigate hazardous airborne inhalation exposures. This study sought to better identify gaps that exist between RP guidance and clinical practice to understand issues that would benefit from additional research or clarification.

      2. Preventability of hospital onset bacteremia and fungemia: A pilot study of a potential healthcare-associated infection outcome measureExternal
        Dantes RB, Rock C, Milstone AM, Jacob JT, Chernetsky-Tejedor S, Harris AD, Leekha S.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 18:1-4.
        Hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB), a potential measure of healthcare-associated infections, was evaluated in a pilot study among 60 patients across 3 hospitals. Two-thirds of all HOB events and half of nonskin commensal HOB events were judged as potentially preventable. Follow-up studies are needed to further develop this measure.

      3. Inappropriate ceftriaxone use in outpatient acute respiratory infection managementExternal
        King LM, Talley P, Kainer MA, Evans CD, Adre C, Hicks LA, Fleming-Dutra KE.
        Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 15:1-3.

        [No abstract]

      4. Prevalence, underlying causes, and preventability of sepsis-associated mortality in US acute care hospitalsExternal
        Rhee C, Jones TM, Hamad Y, Pande A, Varon J, O’Brien C, Anderson DJ, Warren DK, Dantes RB, Epstein L, Klompas M.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Feb 1;2(2):e187571.
        Importance: Sepsis is present in many hospitalizations that culminate in death. The contribution of sepsis to these deaths, and the extent to which they are preventable, is unknown. Objective: To estimate the prevalence, underlying causes, and preventability of sepsis-associated mortality in acute care hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cohort study in which a retrospective medical record review was conducted of 568 randomly selected adults admitted to 6 US academic and community hospitals from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015, who died in the hospital or were discharged to hospice and not readmitted. Medical records were reviewed from January 1, 2017, to March 31, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinicians reviewed cases for sepsis during hospitalization using Sepsis-3 criteria, hospice-qualifying criteria on admission, immediate and underlying causes of death, and suboptimal sepsis-related care such as inappropriate or delayed antibiotics, inadequate source control, or other medical errors. The preventability of each sepsis-associated death was rated on a 6-point Likert scale. Results: The study cohort included 568 patients (289 [50.9%] men; mean [SD] age, 70.5 [16.1] years) who died in the hospital or were discharged to hospice. Sepsis was present in 300 hospitalizations (52.8%; 95% CI, 48.6%-57.0%) and was the immediate cause of death in 198 cases (34.9%; 95% CI, 30.9%-38.9%). The next most common immediate causes of death were progressive cancer (92 [16.2%]) and heart failure (39 [6.9%]). The most common underlying causes of death in patients with sepsis were solid cancer (63 of 300 [21.0%]), chronic heart disease (46 of 300 [15.3%]), hematologic cancer (31 of 300 [10.3%]), dementia (29 of 300 [9.7%]), and chronic lung disease (27 of 300 [9.0%]). Hospice-qualifying conditions were present on admission in 121 of 300 sepsis-associated deaths (40.3%; 95% CI 34.7%-46.1%), most commonly end-stage cancer. Suboptimal care, most commonly delays in antibiotics, was identified in 68 of 300 sepsis-associated deaths (22.7%). However, only 11 sepsis-associated deaths (3.7%) were judged definitely or moderately likely preventable; another 25 sepsis-associated deaths (8.3%) were considered possibly preventable. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort from 6 US hospitals, sepsis was the most common immediate cause of death. However, most underlying causes of death were related to severe chronic comorbidities and most sepsis-associated deaths were unlikely to be preventable through better hospital-based care. Further innovations in the prevention and care of underlying conditions may be necessary before a major reduction in sepsis-associated deaths can be achieved.

      5. Sepsis surveillance using adult sepsis events simplified eSOFA criteria versus sepsis-3 sequential organ failure assessment criteriaExternal
        Rhee C, Zhang Z, Kadri SS, Murphy DJ, Martin GS, Overton E, Seymour CW, Angus DC, Dantes R, Epstein L, Fram D, Schaaf R, Wang R, Klompas M.
        Crit Care Med. 2019 Mar;47(3):307-314.
        OBJECTIVES: Sepsis-3 defines organ dysfunction as an increase in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score by greater than or equal to 2 points. However, some Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score components are not routinely recorded in all hospitals’ electronic health record systems, limiting its utility for wide-scale sepsis surveillance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently released the Adult Sepsis Event surveillance definition that includes simplified organ dysfunction criteria optimized for electronic health records (eSOFA). We compared eSOFA versus Sequential Organ Failure Assessment with regard to sepsis prevalence, overlap, and outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: One hundred eleven U.S. hospitals in the Cerner HealthFacts dataset. PATIENTS: Adults hospitalized in 2013-2015. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified clinical indicators of presumed infection (blood cultures and antibiotics) concurrent with either: 1) an increase in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score by 2 or more points (Sepsis-3) or 2) 1 or more eSOFA criteria: vasopressor initiation, mechanical ventilation initiation, lactate greater than or equal to 2.0 mmol/L, doubling in creatinine, doubling in bilirubin to greater than or equal to 2.0 mg/dL, or greater than or equal to 50% decrease in platelet count to less than 100 cells/muL (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Adult Sepsis Event). We compared area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for discriminating in-hospital mortality, adjusting for baseline characteristics. Of 942,360 patients in the cohort, 57,242 (6.1%) had sepsis by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment versus 41,618 (4.4%) by eSOFA. Agreement between sepsis by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and eSOFA was good (Cronbach’s alpha 0.81). Baseline characteristics and infectious diagnoses were similar, but mortality was higher with eSOFA (17.1%) versus Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (14.4%; p < 0.001) as was discrimination for mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.774 vs 0.759; p < 0.001). Comparisons were consistent across subgroups of age, infectious diagnoses, and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The Adult Sepsis Event’s eSOFA organ dysfunction criteria identify a smaller, more severely ill sepsis cohort compared with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, but with good overlap and similar clinical characteristics. Adult Sepsis Events may facilitate wide-scale automated sepsis surveillance that tracks closely with the more complex Sepsis-3 criteria.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Reduction of hospitalizations with diarrhea among children aged 0-5 years in Nouakchott, Mauritania, following the introduction of rotavirus vaccineExternal
        Ahmed MC, Heukelbach J, Weddih A, Filali-Maltouf A, Sidatt M, Makhalla K, Dahdi S, Cheikh Ahmed AC, El-Mami MV, Tate JE, Parashar UD, Benhafid M.
        Vaccine. 2019 Mar 7;37(11):1407-1411.
        INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Mauritania in December 2014. We investigated hospitalizations with diarrhea during pre and post-vaccination periods among children aged 0-5years in Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of hospital admission registries from November 1st 2012 through October 31th 2017 at all referral hospitals in Nouakchott. We described admissions of children aged 0-5years by diagnosis, data of admission, age and sex, and compared the proportion of all childhood hospitalizations with diarrhea before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. RESULTS: In total, 6552 (19%) of all 34,329 hospitalizations in 0-5year-olds had diarrhea. Of these, 3523/16,952 (20.7%) were recorded during the pre-vaccine period, 1373/6897 (19.9%) during the transition period (November 2014-October 2015), and 1656/10,480 (15.8%) during the post-vaccination period. The proportion of all childhood hospitalizations with diarrhea during the pre-vaccine period was 22.6% among males and 18.7% among females. Approximately one third (32.3%) of hospitalizations with diarrhea occurred in children aged 6-11months. During the post-vaccination period, the proportion of hospitalizations with diarrhea declined by 24%, and the highest reduction (74%) was observed in children aged 2 to 5years (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of childhood hospitalizations with diarrhea in Nouakchott was reduced by about one fourth after introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Mauritania, indicating a major impact for public health for children in the capital city.

      2. Indirect effects of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against adult pneumococcal pneumonia in rural western KenyaExternal
        Bigogo GM, Audi A, Auko J, Aol GO, Ochieng BJ, Odiembo H, Odoyo A, Widdowson MA, Onyango C, Borgdorff MW, Feikin DR, Carvalho MD, Whitney CG, Verani JR.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 16.
        BACKGROUND: Data on pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) indirect effects in low-income countries with high HIV burden are limited. We examined adult pneumococcal pneumonia incidence before and after 10-valent PCV introduction in Kenya in 2011. METHODS: From 1/1/2008 to 12/31/2016, we conducted surveillance for acute respiratory infection (ARI) among ~12,000 adults (>/=18 years) in western Kenya, where HIV prevalence ~17%. ARI cases (cough or difficulty breathing or chest pain, plus temperature >/=38.0 C or oxygen saturation <90%) presenting to a clinic underwent blood culture and pneumococcal urine antigen testing (UAT). We calculated ARI incidence and adjusted for healthcare seeking using data from household visits. The proportion of ARI cases with pneumococcus detected among those with complete testing (blood culture and UAT) was multiplied by adjusted ARI incidence to estimate pneumococcal pneumonia incidence. RESULTS: Pre-PCV (2008-2010), crude and adjusted ARI incidence were 3.14 and 5.30/100 person-years-observation (pyo), respectively. Among ARI cases, 39.0% (340/872) had both blood culture and UAT; 21.2% (72/340) had pneumococcus detected, yielding baseline pneumococcal pneumonia incidence of 1.12/100 pyo (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.3). In each post-PCV year (2012-2016), pneumococcal pneumonia incidence was significantly lower than baseline; with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 0.53 (95%CI 0.31-0.61) in 2012 and 0.13 (95%CI 0.09-0.17) in 2016. Similar declines were observed in HIV-infected (IRR 0.13, 95%CI 0.08-0.22), and HIV-uninfected (IRR 0.10, 95%CI 0.05-0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Adult pneumococcal pneumonia declined in western Kenya following 10-valent PCV introduction, likely reflecting vaccine indirect effects. Evidence of herd protection is critical for guiding PCV policy decisions in resource-constrained areas.

      3. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women in the U.S., 2012-2015External
        Ding H, Kahn KE, Black CL, O’Halloran A, Lu PJ, Williams WW.
        Am J Prev Med. 2019 Feb 15.
        INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe illness from influenza and influenza-related complications. Vaccinating pregnant women is the primary strategy to protect them and their infants from influenza. This study aims to assess influenza vaccination coverage during three influenza seasons (2012-2015) from a national probability-based sampling survey and evaluate potential factors that influence vaccination uptake among pregnant women. METHODS: Data from the 2012 through 2015 National Health Interview Surveys were analyzed in 2017. Pregnant women aged 18-49 years were included in the analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis procedure was used for vaccination coverage in each season. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with vaccination. Adjusted vaccination coverage and adjusted prevalence ratios are reported with corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: In the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015 influenza seasons, 40.4%, 45.4%, and 43.1% of pregnant women were vaccinated, respectively. Multivariable analysis indicated that factors independently associated with a lower likelihood of vaccination included having only a high school education, having three or less provider visits, and having no usual place of care (p<0.05). Less than half of women with ten or more visits were vaccinated (48.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination coverage among pregnant women from this nationally representative sample was suboptimal during recent influenza seasons. Vaccination coverage was lower among certain sociodemographic, access-to-care subgroups. Multifactorial vaccination barriers may exist. Interventions, such as assessing vaccination history at every visit and implementing reminder-recall systems, standing orders, and addressing vaccination hesitancy, are needed to increase vaccination uptake among pregnant women.

      4. Vaccination history as a confounder of studies of influenza vaccine effectivenessCdc-pdfExternal
        Foppa IM, Ferdinands JM, Chung J, Flannery B, Fry AM.
        Vaccine: X. 2019 ;1.
        Background: Vaccination history may confound estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) when two conditions are present: (1) Influenza vaccination is associated with vaccination history and (2) vaccination modifies the risk of natural infection in the following seasons, either due to persisting vaccination immunity or due to lower previous risk of natural infection. Methods: Analytic arguments are used to define conditions for confounding of VE estimates by vaccination history. Simulation studies, both with accurate and inaccurate assessment of current and previous vaccination status, are used to explore the potential magnitude of these biases when using different statistical models to address confounding by vaccination history. Results: We found a potential for substantial bias of VE estimates by vaccination history if infection- and/or vaccination-derived immunity persisted from one season to the next and if vaccination uptake in individuals was seasonally correlated. Full adjustment by vaccination history, which is usually not feasible, resulted in unbiased VE estimates. Partial adjustment, i.e. only by prior season’s vaccination status, significantly reduced confounding bias. Misclassification of vaccination status, which can also lead to substantial bias, interferes with the adjustment of VE estimates for vaccination history. Conclusions: Confounding by vaccination history may bias VE estimates, but even partial adjustment by only the prior season’s vaccination status substantially reduces confounding bias. Misclassification of vaccination status may compromise VE estimates and efforts to adjust for vaccination history.

      5. Poliovirus immunity among children under five years-old in accessible areas of Afghanistan, 2013External
        Hsu CH, Wannemuehler KA, Soofi S, Mashal M, Hussain I, Bhutta ZA, McDuffie L, Weldon W, Farag NH.
        Vaccine. 2019 Feb 16.
        BACKGROUND: Afghanistan remains among the three countries with endemic wild poliovirus transmission, and high population immunity levels are required to interrupt transmission and prevent outbreaks. Surveillance and vaccination of children in Afghanistan have been challenging due to security issues limiting accessibility in certain areas. METHODS: A serosurvey was conducted in 2013 within accessible enumeration areas (EAs) among children aged <5years using samples collected for a national micronutrient assessment survey to assess poliovirus immunity in Afghanistan. Of 21194 total EAs in Afghanistan, 107 were inaccessible and therefore were excluded from the sampling frame. RESULTS: Population immunity was high overall but varied for the poliovirus serotypes, and was lowest for type 3 (95% [95% CI: 93%, 96%]) compared to type 1 (99% [95% CI:97%, 99%]) and type 2 (98% [95% CI:96%, 99%]). The proportion of the population immune to all three types was 93% (95% CI: 91%, 95%), and the proportion seronegative for all three types was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%, 1.7%). CONCLUSION: Except for regional differences in immunity to type 3 virus, there were no other apparent differences in seroprevalence by region or by any of the demographic or nutritional characteristics assessed in this study. The study was not powered to provide provincial level seroprevalence estimates, but Paktika Province, in the South region, had the largest proportion of seronegative specimens for type 1 (4 seronegative of 17 serum specimens compared to 14 seronegative of 673 for the remainder of the areas). Among accessible children in Afghanistan, seroprevalence of antibodies to poliovirus was high, with most seroprevalence reported at 95% or greater. Despite high seroprevalence in areas assessed in this study, the continued detection of poliovirus cases in the South and East regions indicate that overall regional vaccination coverage and performance is not sufficient to stop polio transmission.

      6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination for prevention of herpes zoster and related complications: Input for national recommendationsExternal
        Prosser LA, Harpaz R, Rose AM, Gebremariam A, Guo A, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Zhou F, Dooling K.
        Ann Intern Med. 2019 Feb 19.
        Background: The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recently developed recommendations for use of a new recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV). Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV compared with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and no vaccination, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV for persons who have previously received ZVL, and the cost-effectiveness of preferential vaccination with RZV over ZVL. Design: Simulation (state-transition) model using U.S. epidemiologic, clinical, and cost data. Data Sources: Published data. Target Population: Hypothetical cohort of immunocompetent U.S. adults aged 50 years or older. Time Horizon: Lifetime. Perspective: Societal and health care sector. Intervention: Vaccination with RZV (recommended 2-dose regimen), vaccination with ZVL, and no vaccination. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results of Base-Case Analysis: For vaccination with RZV compared with no vaccination, ICERs ranged by age from $10 000 to $47 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), using a societal perspective and assuming 100% completion of the 2-dose RZV regimen. For persons aged 60 years or older, ICERs were less than $60 000 per QALY. Vaccination with ZVL was dominated by vaccination with RZV for all age groups 60 years or older. Results of Sensitivity Analysis: Results were most sensitive to changes in vaccine effectiveness, duration of protection, herpes zoster incidence, and probability of postherpetic neuralgia. Vaccination with RZV after previous administration of ZVL yielded an ICER of less than $60 000 per QALY for persons aged 60 years or older. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, RZV remained the preferred strategy in at least 95% of simulations, including those with 50% completion of the second dose. Limitation: Few data were available on risk for serious adverse events, adherence to the recommended 2-dose regimen, and probability of recurrent zoster. Conclusion: Vaccination with RZV yields cost-effectiveness ratios lower than those for many recommended adult vaccines, including ZVL. Results are robust over a wide range of plausible values. Primary Funding Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      7. Developing standardized competencies to strengthen immunization systems and workforceExternal
        Traicoff D, Pope A, Bloland P, Lal D, Bahl J, Stewart S, Ryman T, Abbruzzese M, Lee C, Ahrendts J, Shamalla L, Sandhu H.
        Vaccine. 2019 Mar 7;37(11):1428-1435.
        Despite global support for immunization as a core component of the human right to health and the maturity of immunization programs in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world, there is no comprehensive description of the standardized competencies needed for immunization programs at the national, multiple sub-national, and community levels. The lack of defined and standardized competencies means countries have few guidelines to help them address immunization workforce planning, program management, and performance monitoring. Potential consequences resulting from the lack of defined competencies include inadequate or inefficient distribution of resources to support the required functions and difficulties in adequately managing the health workforce. In 2015, an international multi-agency working group convened to define standardized competencies that national immunization programs could adapt for their own workforce planning needs. The working group used a stepwise approach to ensure that the competencies would align with immunization programs’ objectives. The first step defined the attributes of a successful immunization program. The group then defined the work functions needed to achieve those attributes. Based on the work functions, the working group defined specific competencies. This process resulted in three products: (1) Attributes of an immunization program described within eight technical domains at four levels within a health system: National, Provincial, District/Local, and Community; (2) 229 distinct functions within those eight domains at each of the four levels; and (3) 242 competencies, representing eight technical domains and two foundational domains (Management and Leadership and Vaccine Preventable Diseases and Program). Currently available as a working draft and being tested with immunization projects in several countries, the final document will be published by WHO as normative guidelines. Vertical immunization programs as well as integrated systems can customize the framework to suit their needs. Standardized competencies can support immunization program improvements and help strengthen effective health systems.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Perceptions of community norms and youths’ reactive and proactive dating and sexual violence bystander actionExternal
        Rothman EF, Edwards KM, Rizzo AJ, Kearns M, Banyard VL.
        Am J Community Psychol. 2019 Feb 19.
        There is enthusiasm for programs that promote bystander intervention to prevent dating and sexual violence (DSV). However, more information about what facilitates or inhibits bystander behavior in DSV situations is needed. The present cross-sectional survey study investigated whether youth perceptions of adults’ behavior and community norms were associated with how frequently youth took action and intervened in DSV situations or to prevent DSV. Specifically, study hypotheses were that youths’ perceptions of community-level variables, such as adults’ willingness to help victims of DSV or prevent DSV, perceptions of community collective efficacy, and perceptions of community descriptive and injunctive norms disapproving of DSV and supporting DSV prevention, would be associated with how frequently youths took reactive and proactive bystander action. Participants were 2172 students from four high schools in one New England state. ANOVA analyses found that descriptive norms were associated with all actionist behaviors, and perceptions of community cohesion were also consistently associated with them. Injunctive norms were associated, but less consistently, with actionist behaviors. Findings suggest that DSV-related social norms, and descriptive norms and community cohesion in particular, might be relevant to youth DSV bystander behavior.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. A unique insight into the MiRNA profile during genital chlamydial infectionExternal
        Benyeogor I, Simoneaux T, Wu Y, Lundy S, George Z, Ryans K, McKeithen D, Pais R, Ellerson D, Lorenz WW, Omosun T, Thompson W, Eko FO, Black CM, Blas-Machado U, Igietseme JU, He Q, Omosun Y.
        BMC Genomics. 2019 Feb 18;20(1):143.
        BACKGROUND: Genital C. trachomatis infection may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) that can lead to tubal factor infertility (TFI). Understanding the pathogenesis of chlamydial complications including the pathophysiological processes within the female host genital tract is important in preventing adverse pathology. MicroRNAs regulate several pathophysiological processes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the miRNA profile of single and repeat genital chlamydial infections will be different and that these differences will be time dependent. Thus, we analyzed and compared differentially expressed mice genital tract miRNAs after single and repeat chlamydia infections using a C. muridarum mouse model. Mice were sacrificed and their genital tract tissues were collected at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after a single and repeat chlamydia infections. Histopathology, and miRNA sequencing were performed. RESULTS: Histopathology presentation showed that the oviduct and uterus of reinfected mice were more inflamed, distended and dilated compared to mice infected once. The miRNAs expression profile was different in the reproductive tissues after a reinfection, with a greater number of miRNAs expressed after reinfection. Also, the number of miRNAs expressed each week after chlamydia infection and reinfection varied, with weeks eight and one having the highest number of differentially expressed miRNAs for chlamydia infection and reinfection respectively. Ten miRNAs; mmu-miR-378b, mmu-miR-204-5p, mmu-miR-151-5p, mmu-miR-142-3p, mmu-miR-128-3p, mmu-miR-335-3p, mmu-miR-195a-3p, mmu-miR-142-5p, mmu-miR-106a-5p and mmu-miR-92a-3p were common in both primary chlamydia infection and reinfection. Pathway analysis showed that, amongst other functions, the differentially regulated miRNAs control pathways involved in cellular and tissue development, disease conditions and toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the changes in miRNA expression over time after chlamydia infection and reinfection, as well as the pathways they regulate to determine pathological outcomes. The miRNAs networks generated in our study shows that there are differences in the focus molecules involved in significant biological functions in chlamydia infection and reinfection, implying that chlamydial pathogenesis occurs differently for each type of infection and that this could be important when determining treatments regime and disease outcome. The study underscores the crucial role of host factors in chlamydia pathogenesis.

      2. Detection of Bacillus anthracis in animal tissues using InBios Active Anthrax Detect Rapid Test lateral flow immunoassayExternal
        Kolton CB, Marston CK, Stoddard RA, Cossaboom C, Salzer JS, Kozel TR, Gates-Hollingsworth MA, Cleveland CA, Thompson AT, Dalton MF, Yabsley MJ, Hoffmaster AR.
        Lett Appl Microbiol. 2019 Feb 18.
        The Active Anthrax Detect (AAD) Rapid Test lateral flow immunoassay is a point-of-care assay that was under investigational use for detecting Bacillus anthracis capsular polypeptide (polyglutamic acid) in human blood, serum, and plasma. Small sample volumes, rapid results, and no refrigeration required allow for easy use in either the field or laboratory. Although the test was developed for use in suspect cases of human inhalation anthrax, its features also make it a potentially powerful tool for testing suspect animal cases. We tested animal tissue samples that were confirmed or ruled out for B. anthracis. The AAD Rapid Tests were also deployed in the field, testing animal carcasses during an anthrax outbreak in hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius) and Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Namibia. Evaluation of all samples showed a specificity of 82% and sensitivity of 98%. However, when the assay was used on specimens from only fresh carcasses (dead for less than 24 hours), the specificity increased to 96%. The AAD Rapid Test is a rapid and simple screening assay, but confirmatory testing needs to be done, especially when the age of the sample (days animal has been deceased) is unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      3. Strengthening laboratory surveillance of viral pathogens: Experiences and lessons learned building next-generation sequencing capacity in GhanaExternal
        Marine RL, Ntim NA, Castro CJ, Attiku KO, Pratt D, Duker E, Agbosu E, Ng TF, Gatei W, Obodai E, Odoom JK, Walker CL, Rota PA, Oberste MS, Ampofo WK, Balajee SA.
        Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 15.
        OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the feasibility of applying next-generation sequencing (NGS) in medium-resource reference laboratories in Africa to enhance global disease surveillance. METHODS: A training program was developed to support implementation of NGS at Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), University of Ghana. The program was divided into two training stages, first at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA, followed by on-site training at NMIMR for a larger cohort of scientists. RESULTS: Self-assessment scores for topics covered during the NGS training program were higher post-training relative to pre-training. During the NGS Training II session at NMIMR, six enterovirus isolates from acute flaccid paralysis cases in Ghana were successfully sequenced by trainees, including two echovirus 6, two echovirus 11 and one echovirus 13. Another genome was an uncommon type (EV-B84), which has not been reported in Africa since its initial discovery from a Cote d’Ivoire specimen in 2003. CONCLUSIONS: The success at NMIMR provides an example of how to approach transferring of NGS methods to international laboratories. There is great opportunity for collaboration between institutes that have genomics expertise to ensure effectiveness and long-term success of global NGS capacity building programs.

      4. A significant hurdle in conducting effective health and safety hazard analysis and risk assessment for the nanotechnology workforce is the lack of a rapid method for the direct visualization and analysis of filter media used to sample nanomaterials from work environments that represent potential worker exposure. Current best-known methods include transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for elemental identification. TEM-EDS is considerably time-, cost-, and resource-intensive, which may prevent timely health and safety recommendations and corrective actions. A rapid screening method is currently being explored using enhanced darkfield microscopy with hyperspectral imaging (EDFM-HSI). For this approach to be effective, rapid, and easy, sample preparation that is amenable to the analytical technique is needed. Here, we compare the sample preparation steps for mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter media specified in NIOSH Method 7400-Asbestos and Other Fibers by Phase Contrast Microscopy (PCM)-against a new method, which involves saturation of the filter media with acetone. NIOSH Method 7400 was chosen as a starting point since it is an established technique for preparing transparent MCE filters for optical microscopy. Limitations in this method led to the development and comparison of a new method. The new method was faster, easier, and rendered filters more transparent, resulting in improved visualization and analysis of nanomaterials via EDFM-HSI. This new method is suitable for a rapid screening protocol due to its speed, ease of use, and the improvement in image acquisition and analysis.

      5. Carboxylic acids accelerate acidic environment-mediated nanoceria dissolutionExternal
        Yokel RA, Hancock ML, Grulke EA, Unrine JM, Dozier AK, Graham UM.
        Nanotoxicology. 2019 Feb 7:1-21.
        Ligands that accelerate nanoceria dissolution may greatly affect its fate and effects. This project assessed the carboxylic acid contribution to nanoceria dissolution in aqueous, acidic environments. Nanoceria has commercial and potential therapeutic and energy storage applications. It biotransforms in vivo. Citric acid stabilizes nanoceria during synthesis and in aqueous dispersions. In this study, citrate-stabilized nanoceria dispersions ( approximately 4 nm average primary particle size) were loaded into dialysis cassettes whose membranes passed cerium salts but not nanoceria particles. The cassettes were immersed in iso-osmotic baths containing carboxylic acids at pH 4.5 and 37 degrees C, or other select agents. Cerium atom material balances were conducted for the cassette and bath by sampling of each chamber and cerium quantitation by ICP-MS. Samples were collected from the cassette for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation of nanoceria size. In carboxylic acid solutions, nanoceria dissolution increased bath cerium concentration to >96% of the cerium introduced as nanoceria into the cassette and decreased nanoceria primary particle size in the cassette. In solutions of citric, malic, and lactic acids and the ammonium ion approximately 15 nm, ceria agglomerates persisted. In solutions of other carboxylic acids, some select nanoceria agglomerates grew to approximately 1 micron. In carboxylic acid solutions, dissolution half-lives were 800-4000 h; in water and horseradish peroxidase they were >/=55,000 h. Extending these findings to in vivo and environmental systems, one expects acidic environments containing carboxylic acids to degrade nanoceria by dissolution; two examples would be phagolysosomes and in the plant rhizosphere.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. A novel approach to dysmorphology to enhance the phenotypic classification of autism spectrum disorder in the study to explore early developmentExternal
        Shapira SK, Tian LH, Aylsworth AS, Elias ER, Hoover-Fong JE, Meeks NJ, Souders MC, Tsai AC, Zackai EH, Alexander AA, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Schieve LA.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 2019 Feb 19.
        The presence of multiple dysmorphic features in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might identify distinct ASD phenotypes and serve as potential markers for understanding causes and prognoses. To evaluate dysmorphology in ASD, children aged 3-6 years with ASD and non-ASD population controls (POP) from the Study to Explore Early Development were evaluated using a novel, systematic dysmorphology review approach. Separate analyses were conducted for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic children. In each racial/ethnic group, ~ 17% of ASD cases were Dysmorphic compared with ~ 5% of POP controls. The ASD-POP differential was not explained by known genetic disorders or birth defects. In future epidemiologic studies, subgrouping ASD cases as Dysmorphic vs. Non-dysmorphic might help delineate risk factors for ASD.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Hexavalent chromium exposure and nasal tissue effects at a commercial aircraft refinishing facilityExternal
        Ceballos D, West C, Methner M, Gong W.
        J Occup Environ Med. 2019 Feb;61(2):e69-e73.

        [No abstract]

      2. INTRODUCTION: This study examined the association of spirometry-defined airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD defined as self-reported doctor diagnosed chronic bronchitis or emphysema, with occupational exposure among ever-employed US adults. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 to 2011-2012, a nationally representative study of the non-institutionalized civilian US population. Reported current and/or longest held job were used to create prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (PORs) (adjusted for age, gender, race, and smoking status) for airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD by occupational exposure, determined using both NHANES participants’ self-reported exposures and eight categories of COPD job exposure matrix (JEM) assigned exposures. RESULTS: Significant PORs for airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD respectively were observed with self-reported exposure for >/=20 years to mineral dust (POR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.85; POR = 1.69; 95% CI 1.17-2.43) and exhaust fumes (POR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.27-2.15; POR = 2.22; 95% CI 1.37-3.58). Airflow obstruction or self-reported COPD were also associated with COPD-JEM assigned high exposure to mineral dust, combined dust, diesel exhaust, vapor-gas, sensitizers, and overall exposure. CONCLUSION: Airflow obstruction and self-reported COPD are associated with both self-reported and JEM-assigned exposures.

      3. BACKGROUND: Non-malignant respiratory disease (NMRD) cases have occurred among rubber manufacturing workers. We examined exposure to rubber manufacturing emissions as a risk factor for NMRD. METHODS: From a systematic literature review, we identified case reports and assessed cross-sectional and mortality studies for strength of evidence of positive association (strong, intermediate, non-significant positive association, none) between exposure to rubber manufacturing emissions and NMRD-related morbidity and mortality, and conducted two meta-analyses. RESULTS: We analyzed 62 articles. We identified 11 cases of NMRD. Nine (30%) of 30 cross-sectional studies and one (4%) of 26 mortality studies had strong evidence. The summary odds ratio and SMR for the cross-sectional and mortality meta-analyses were 3.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.28-6.51) and 0.90 (95%CI, 0.82-0.99), respectively. CONCLUSION: Available evidence supports rubber manufacturing emissions as a potential risk factor for NMRD-related morbidity. Further investigations with longer follow-up periods and inclusion of short-tenured workers could further define risks for NMRD and identify prevention strategies.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Community-level chlamydial serology for assessing trachoma elimination in trachoma-endemic NigerExternal
        Kim JS, Oldenburg CE, Cooley G, Amza A, Kadri B, Nassirou B, Cotter SY, Stoller NE, West SK, Bailey RL, Keenan JD, Gaynor BD, Porco TC, Lietman TM, Martin DL.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Jan;13(1):e0007127.
        BACKGROUND: Program decision-making for trachoma elimination currently relies on conjunctival clinical signs. Antibody tests may provide additional information on the epidemiology of trachoma, particularly in regions where it is disappearing or elimination targets have been met. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial of mass azithromycin distribution strategies for trachoma elimination was conducted over three years in a mesoendemic region of Niger. Dried blood spots were collected from a random sample of children aged 1-5 years in each of 24 study communities at 36 months after initiation of the intervention. A multiplex bead assay was used to test for antibodies to two Chlamydia trachomatis antigens, Pgp3 and CT694. We compared seropositivity to either antigen to clinical signs of active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation-follicular [TF] and trachomatous inflammation-intense [TI]) at the individual and cluster level, and to ocular chlamydia prevalence at the community level. RESULTS: Of 988 children with antibody data, TF prevalence was 7.8% (95% CI 6.1 to 9.5) and TI prevalence was 1.6% (95% CI 0.9 to 2.6). The overall prevalence of antibody positivity to Pgp3 was 27.2% (95% CI 24.5 to 30), and to CT694 was 23.7% (95% CI 21 to 26.2). Ocular chlamydia infection prevalence was 5.2% (95% CI 2.8 to 7.6). Seropositivity to Pgp3 and/or CT694 was significantly associated with TF at the individual and community level and with ocular chlamydia infection and TI at the community level. Older children were more likely to be seropositive than younger children. CONCLUSION: Seropositivity to Pgp3 and CT694 correlates with clinical signs and ocular chlamydia infection in a mesoendemic region of Niger. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00792922.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Smoking and smoking cessation among persons with tobacco- and non-tobacco-associated cancersExternal
        Gallaway MS, Huang B, Chen Q, Tucker TC, McDowell JK, Durbin E, Stewart SL, Tai E.
        J Community Health. 2019 Feb 14.
        PURPOSE: To examine smoking and use of smoking cessation aids among tobacco-associated cancer (TAC) or non-tobacco-associated cancer (nTAC) survivors. Understanding when and if specific types of cessation resources are used can help with planning interventions to more effectively decrease smoking among all cancer survivors, but there is a lack of research on smoking cessation modalities used among cancer survivors. METHODS: Kentucky Cancer Registry data on incident lung, colorectal, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer cases diagnosed 2007-2011, were linked with health administrative claims data (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurers) to examine the prevalence of smoking and use of smoking cessation aids 1 year prior and 1 year following the cancer diagnosis. TACs included colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancers; nTAC included breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. RESULTS: There were 10,033 TAC and 13,670 nTAC survivors. Smoking before diagnosis was significantly higher among TAC survivors (p < 0.0001). Among TAC survivors, smoking before diagnosis was significantly higher among persons who: were males (83%), aged 45-64 (83%), of unknown marital status (84%), had very low education (78%), had public insurance (89%), Medicaid (85%) or were uninsured (84%). Smoking cessation counseling and pharmacotherapy were more common among TAC than nTAC survivors (p < 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively). DISCUSSION: While smoking cessation counseling and pharmacotherapy were higher among TAC survivors, reducing smoking among all cancer survivors remains a priority, given cancer survivors are at increased risk for subsequent chronic diseases, including cancer. Tobacco cessation among all cancer survivors (not just those with TAC) can help improve prognosis, quality of life and reduce the risk of further disease. Health care providers can recommend for individual, group and telephone counseling and/or pharmacotherapy recommendations. These could also be included in survivorship care plans.

      2. Randomised controlled trial of real-time feedback and brief coaching to reduce indoor smokingExternal
        Hovell MF, Bellettiere J, Liles S, Nguyen B, Berardi V, Johnson C, Matt GE, Malone J, Boman-Davis MC, Quintana PJ, Obayashi S, Chatfield D, Robinson R, Blumberg EJ, Ongkeko WM, Klepeis NE, Hughes SC.
        Tob Control. 2019 Feb 15.
        BACKGROUND: Previous secondhand smoke (SHS) reduction interventions have provided only delayed feedback on reported smoking behaviour, such as coaching, or presenting results from child cotinine assays or air particle counters. DESIGN: This SHS reduction trial assigned families at random to brief coaching and continuous real-time feedback (intervention) or measurement-only (control) groups. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 298 families with a resident tobacco smoker and a child under age 14. INTERVENTION: We installed air particle monitors in all homes. For the intervention homes, immediate light and sound feedback was contingent on elevated indoor particle levels, and up to four coaching sessions used prompts and praise contingent on smoking outdoors. Mean intervention duration was 64 days. MEASURES: The primary outcome was ‘particle events’ (PEs) which were patterns of air particle concentrations indicative of the occurrence of particle-generating behaviours such as smoking cigarettes or burning candles. Other measures included indoor air nicotine concentrations and participant reports of particle-generating behaviour. RESULTS: PEs were significantly correlated with air nicotine levels (r=0.60) and reported indoor cigarette smoking (r=0.51). Interrupted time-series analyses showed an immediate intervention effect, with reduced PEs the day following intervention initiation. The trajectory of daily PEs over the intervention period declined significantly faster in intervention homes than in control homes. Pretest to post-test, air nicotine levels, cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use decreased more in intervention homes than in control homes. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that real-time particle feedback and coaching contingencies reduced PEs generated by cigarette smoking and other sources. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01634334; Post-results.

      3. State-specific patterns of cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and e-cigarette use among adults – United States, 2016External
        Hu SS, Homa DM, Wang T, Gomez Y, Walton K, Lu H, Neff L.
        Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Feb 7;16:E17.
        INTRODUCTION: State-level monitoring of changes in tobacco product use can help inform tobacco control policy and practice. This study examined state-specific prevalence of cigarette, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarette use among US adults. METHODS: Data came from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a state-based telephone survey of US adults aged 18 years or older (N = 477,665). Prevalence estimates for current (every day or some days) cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and e-cigarette use were calculated for all 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Because the 2016 BRFSS measured e-cigarette use for the first time, estimates of ever e-cigarette use and concurrent use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes were also calculated. We assessed subgroup differences with chi(2) tests. RESULTS: In 2016, prevalence of current cigarette smoking among US adults ranged from 8.8% (Utah) to 24.8% (West Virginia), while prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use ranged from 1.3% (DC) to 9.8% (Wyoming). For e-cigarettes, ever use ranged from 16.2% (DC) to 28.4% (Arkansas), and current use ranged from 2.4% (DC) to 6.7% (Oklahoma). Across all states, current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among current cigarette smokers than among former or never cigarette smokers. States with the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking generally had a high prevalence of current e-cigarette use. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of adult cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and e-cigarette use varies across states. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive statewide tobacco control and use prevention efforts that address the diverse tobacco products used among adults.

      4. Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders among adults with opioid use disorderExternal
        Jones CM, McCance-Katz EF.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 Feb 14;197:78-82.
        BACKGROUND: Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders among people with opioid use disorder (OUD) increase risk for morbidity and mortality. Addressing these co-occurring conditions is critical for improving treatment and health outcomes. There is limited recent research on the prevalence of co-occurring disorders, demographic characteristics associated with co-occurring disorders, and receipt of mental health and substance use treatment services among those with OUD. This limits the development of targeted and resourced policies and clinical interventions. METHODS: Using 2015-2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, prevalence of co-occurring substance use and mental disorders and receipt of mental health and substance use treatment services was estimated for adults aged 18-64 with OUD. Multivariable logistic regression assessed demographic and substance use characteristics associated with past-year mental illness (AMI) and serious mental illness (SMI) among adults with OUD as well as treatment receipt. RESULTS: Among adults with OUD, prevalence of specific co-occurring substance use disorders ranged from 26.4% (95% CI:23.6%-29.4%) for alcohol to 10.6% (95% CI:8.6%-13.0%) for methamphetamine. Prevalence of AMI was 64.3% (95% CI:60.4%-67.9%) and SMI was 26.9% (95% CI:24.2%-29.8%). Receiving both mental health and substance use treatment services in the past year was reported by 24.5% (95% CI:21.5%-29.9%) of adults with OUD and AMI and 29.6% (95% CI:23.3%-36.7%) of adults with OUD and SMI. CONCLUSIONS: Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders are common among adults with OUD. Expanding access to comprehensive service delivery models that address the substance use and mental health co-morbidities of this population is urgently needed.

      5. Workplace smoke-free policies and cessation programs among U.S. working adultsExternal
        Syamlal G, King BA, Mazurek JM.
        Am J Prev Med. 2019 Feb 14.
        INTRODUCTION: Workplace tobacco control interventions reduce smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. workers. Data on smoke-free workplace policy coverage and cessation programs by industry and occupation are limited. This study assessed smoke-free workplace policies and employer-offered cessation programs among U.S. workers, by industry and occupation. METHODS: Data from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, a random sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population, were analyzed in 2018. Self-reported smoke-free policy coverage and employer-offered cessation programs were assessed among working adults aged >/=18 years, overall and by occupation and industry. Respondents were considered to have a 100% smoke-free policy if they indicated smoking was not permitted in any indoor areas of their workplace, and to have a cessation program if their employer offered any stop-smoking program within the past year. RESULTS: Overall, 80.3% of indoor workers reported having smoke-free policies at their workplace and 27.2% had cessation programs. Smoke-free policy coverage was highest among workers in the education services (90.6%) industry and lowest among workers in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting industry (64.1%). Employer-offered cessation programs were significantly higher among workers reporting 100% smoke-free workplace policies (30.9%) than those with partial/no policies (23.3%) and were significantly higher among indoor workers (29.2%) than outdoor workers (15.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. workers, 100% smoke-free policy and cessation program coverage varies by industry and occupation. Lower smoke-free policy coverage and higher tobacco use in certain industry and occupation groups suggests opportunities for workplace tobacco control interventions to reduce tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Ebola virus infection associated with transmission from survivorsExternal
        Den Boon S, Marston BJ, Nyenswah TG, Jambai A, Barry M, Keita S, Durski K, Senesie SS, Perkins D, Shah A, Green HH, Hamblion EL, Lamunu M, Gasasira A, Mahmoud NO, Djingarey MH, Morgan O, Crozier I, Dye C.
        Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Feb;25(2):249-255.
        Ebola virus (EBOV) can persist in immunologically protected body sites in survivors of Ebola virus disease, creating the potential to initiate new chains of transmission. From the outbreak in West Africa during 2014-2016, we identified 13 possible events of viral persistence-derived transmission of EBOV (VPDTe) and applied predefined criteria to classify transmission events based on the strength of evidence for VPDTe and source and route of transmission. For 8 events, a recipient case was identified; possible source cases were identified for 5 of these 8. For 5 events, a recipient case or chain of transmission could not be confidently determined. Five events met our criteria for sexual transmission (male-to-female). One VPDTe event led to at least 4 generations of cases; transmission was limited after the other events. VPDTe has increased the importance of Ebola survivor services and sustained surveillance and response capacity in regions with previously widespread transmission.

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