Volume 10, Issue 9, March 13, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 9, March 13, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Communicable Diseases
      • Tuberculosis mortality in the United States: Epidemiology and prevention opportunitiesExternal
        Beavers SF, Pascopella L, Davidow AL, Mangan JM, Hirsch-Moverman YR, Golub JE, Blumberg HM, Webb RM, Royce RA, Buskin SE, Leonard MK, Weinfurter PC, Belknap RW, Hughes SE, Warkentin JV, Welbel SF, Miller TL, Kundipati SR, Lauzardo M, Barry PM, Katz DJ, Garrett DO, Graviss EA, Flood JM.
        Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Feb 28.

        RATIONALE: More information on risk factors for death from tuberculosis in the United States could help reduce the tuberculosis mortality rate, which has remained steady for over a decade. Objective(s) To identify risk factors for tuberculosis-related death in adults. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 1,304 adults with tuberculosis who died before treatment completion and 1,039 frequency-matched controls who completed tuberculosis treatment in 2005-2006 in thirteen states reporting 65% of U.S. tuberculosis cases. We used in-depth record abstractions and a standard algorithm to classify deaths in persons with tuberculosis as tuberculosis-related or not. We then compared these classifications to causes of death as coded in death certificates. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for predictors of tuberculosis-related death among adults compared with those who completed tuberculosis treatment. RESULTS: Of 1,304 adult deaths, 942 (72%) were tuberculosis-related, 272 (21%) were not, and 90 (7%) couldn’t be classified. Of 847 tuberculosis-related deaths with death certificates available, 378 (45%) did not list tuberculosis as a cause of death. Adjusting for known risks, we identified new risks for tuberculosis-related death during treatment: absence of pyrazinamide in the initial regimen (aOR=3.4, 95% CI=1.9-6.0); immunosuppressive medications (aOR=2.5, 95% CI=1.1-5.6); incomplete TB diagnostic evaluation (aOR=2.2, 95% CI=1.5-3.3), and an alternative non-TB diagnosis prior to TB diagnosis (aOR=1.6, 95% CI=1.2-2.2). Conclusions Most persons who died with tuberculosis had a tuberculosis-related death. Intensive record review revealed tuberculosis as a cause of death more often than did death certificate diagnoses. New tools, such as a TB mortality risk score based on our study findings, may identify TB patients for in-hospital interventions to prevent death.

      • The eyes have it: influenza virus infection beyond the respiratory tractExternal
        Belser JA, Lash RR, Garg S, Tumpey TM, Maines TR.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 21.

        Avian and human influenza A viruses alike have shown a capacity to use the eye as a portal of entry and cause ocular disease in human beings. However, whereas influenza viruses generally represent a respiratory pathogen and only occasionally cause ocular complications, the H7 virus subtype stands alone in possessing an ocular tropism. Clarifying what confers such non-respiratory tropism to a respiratory virus will permit a greater ability to identify, treat, and prevent zoonotic human infection following ocular exposure to influenza viruses; especially those within the H7 subtype, which continue to cause avian epidemics on many continents.

      • Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis among women in sub-Saharan Africa: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 18 HIV prevention studiesExternal
        Torrone EA, Morrison CS, Chen PL, Kwok C, Francis SC, Hayes RJ, Looker KJ, McCormack S, McGrath N, van de Wijgert J, Watson-Jones D, Low N, Gottlieb SL.
        PLoS Med. 2018 Feb;15(2):e1002511.

        BACKGROUND: Estimates of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence are essential for efforts to prevent and control STIs. Few large STI prevalence studies exist, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our primary objective was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, syphilis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and bacterial vaginosis (BV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa by age, region, and population type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed individual-level data from 18 HIV prevention studies (cohort studies and randomized controlled trials; conducted during 1993-2011), representing >37,000 women, that tested participants for >/=1 selected STIs or BV at baseline. We used a 2-stage meta-analysis to combine data. After calculating the proportion of participants with each infection and standard error by study, we used a random-effects model to obtain a summary mean prevalence of each infection and 95% confidence interval (CI) across ages, regions, and population types. Despite substantial study heterogeneity for some STIs/populations, several patterns emerged. Across the three primary region/population groups (South Africa community-based, Southern/Eastern Africa community-based, and Eastern Africa higher-risk), prevalence was higher among 15-24-year-old than 25-49-year-old women for all STIs except HSV-2. In general, higher-risk populations had greater prevalence of gonorrhea and syphilis than clinic/community-based populations. For chlamydia, prevalence among 15-24-year-olds was 10.3% (95% CI: 7.4%, 14.1%; I2 = 75.7%) among women specifically recruited from higher-risk settings for HIV in Eastern Africa and was 15.1% (95% CI: 12.7%, 17.8%; I2 = 82.3%) in South African clinic/community-based populations. Among clinic/community-based populations, prevalence was generally greater in South Africa than in Southern/Eastern Africa for most STIs; for gonorrhea, prevalence among 15-24-year-olds was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.3%, 6.4%; I2 = 82.8%) in South Africa and was 1.7% (95% CI: 1.2%, 2.6%; I2 = 55.2%) in Southern/Eastern Africa. Across the three primary region/population groups, HSV-2 and BV prevalence was high among 25-49-year-olds (ranging from 70% to 83% and 33% to 44%, respectively). The main study limitation is that the data are not from random samples of the target populations. CONCLUSIONS: Combining data from 18 HIV prevention studies, our findings highlight important features of STI/BV epidemiology among sub-Saharan African women. This methodology can be used where routine STI surveillance is limited and offers a new approach to obtaining critical information on STI and BV prevalence in LMICs.

    • Environmental Health
      • Electronic health record case studies to advance environmental public health trackingExternal
        Namulanda G, Qualters J, Vaidyanathan A, Roberts E, Richardson M, Fraser A, McVeigh KH, Patterson S.
        J Biomed Inform. 2018 Feb 21.

        Data from traditional public health surveillance systems can have some limitations, e.g., timeliness, geographic level, and amount of data accessible. Electronic health records (EHRs) could present an opportunity to supplement current sources of routinely collected surveillance data. The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) sought to explore the use of EHRs for advancing environmental public health surveillance practices. The Tracking Program funded four state/local health departments to obtain and pilot the use of EHR data to address several issues including the challenges and technical requirements for accessing EHR data, and the core data elements required to integrate EHR data within their departments’ Tracking programs. The results of these pilot projects highlighted the potential of EHR data for public health surveillance of rare diseases that may lack comprehensive registries, and surveillance of prevalent health conditions or risk factors for health outcomes at a finer geographic level. EHRs therefore, may have potential to supplement traditional sources of public health surveillance data.

      • Maternal plasma per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in early pregnancy and maternal and neonatal thyroid function in a prospective birth cohort: Project Viva (USA)External
        Preston EV, Webster TF, Oken E, Claus Henn B, McClean MD, Rifas-Shiman SL, Pearce EN, Braverman LE, Calafat AM, Ye X, Sagiv SK.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Feb 27;126(2):027013.

        BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to some per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may disrupt maternal and neonatal thyroid function, which is critical for normal growth and neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: We examined associations of PFAS exposure during early pregnancy with maternal and neonatal thyroid hormone levels. METHODS: We studied 732 mothers and 480 neonates in Project Viva, a longitudinal prebirth cohort in Boston, Massachusetts. We quantified six PFASs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and maternal thyroid hormones [thyroxine (T4), Free T4 Index (FT4I), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)] in plasma samples collected at a median 9.6 wk gestation and neonatal T4 levels from postpartum heel sticks. We estimated associations of PFAS concentrations with thyroid hormone levels using covariate-adjusted linear regression models and explored effect measure modification by maternal thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) status and infant sex. RESULTS: PFAS concentrations were not associated with maternal T4, but PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (MeFOSAA) were inversely associated with maternal FT4I [e.g., -1.87% (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.40, -0.31) per interquartile (IQR) increase in PFOA]. PFAS concentrations [PFOA, PFOS, and perfluorononanoate (PFNA)] were inversely associated with TSH levels in TPOAb-positive women only. Prenatal PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS concentrations were inversely associated with T4 levels in male [e.g., PFHxS, quartile 4 vs.1: -2.51mug/dL (95% CI: -3.99, -1.04 )], but not female neonates [0.40mug/dL (95% CI: -0.98, 1.79)]. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, prenatal exposure to some PFASs during early pregnancy was inversely associated with maternal FT4I and neonatal T4 in male infants. These results support the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to PFASs influences thyroid function in both mothers and infants. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2534.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Evaluation of vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 outbreak response options: A randomized controlled trial, Karachi, PakistanExternal
        Saleem AF, Yousafzai MT, Mach O, Khan A, Quadri F, Weldon WC, Oberste MS, Zaidi SS, Alam MM, Sutter RW, Zaidi AK.
        Vaccine. 2018 Feb 21.

        BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of circulating vaccine derived polioviruses type 2 (cVDPV2) remain a risk to poliovirus eradication in an era without live poliovirus vaccine containing type 2 in routine immunization. We evaluated existing outbreak response strategies recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for control of cVDPV2 outbreaks. METHODS: Seronegative children for poliovirus type 2 (PV2) at 22weeks of life were assigned to one of four study groups and received respectively (1) one dose of trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV); (2) monovalent OPV 2 (mOPV2); (3) tOPV together with a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); or (4) mOPV2 with monovalent high-potency IPV type 2. Stool and blood samples were collected and assessed for presence of PV2 (stool) and anti-polio antibodies (sera). RESULTS: We analyzed data from 265 children seronegative for PV2. Seroconversion to PV2 was achieved in 48, 76, 98 and 100% in Groups 1-4 respectively. mOPV2 was more immunogenic than tOPV alone (p<0.001); and OPV in combination with IPV was more immunogenic than OPV alone (p<0.001). There were 33%, 67%, 20% and 43% PV2 excretors in Groups 1-4 respectively. mOPV2 resulted in more prevalent shedding of PV2 than when tOPV was used (p<0.001); and tOPV together with IPV resulted in lower excretion of PV2 than tOPV alone (p=0.046). CONCLUSION: mOPV2 was a more potent vaccine than tOPV. Adding IPV to OPV improved immunological response; adding IPV also seemed to have shortened the duration of PV2 shedding. mIPV2 did not provide measurable improvement of immune response when compared to conventional IPV. WHO recommendation to use mOPV2 as a vaccine of first choice in cVDPV2 outbreak response was supported by our findings. Clinical Trial registry number: NCT02189811.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      • A multiplexed RT-LAMP assay for detection of group M HIV-1 in plasma or whole bloodExternal
        Curtis KA, Morrison D, Rudolph DL, Shankar A, Bloomfield LS, Switzer WM, Owen SM.
        J Virol Methods. 2018 Feb 20.

        Isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), exhibit characteristics that are suitable for the development of a rapid, low-cost NAT that can be used at the POC. For demonstration of utility for global use, studies are needed to validate the performance of RT-LAMP for the detection of divergent subtypes. In this study, we designed and evaluated multiplexed HIV-1 integrase RT-LAMP primers to detect subtypes within group M, along with an RNase P positive internal processing and amplification control. Using a panel of 26 viral isolates representing the major circulating subtypes, we demonstrated detection of all isolates of subtypes A1, C, D, F1, F2, G, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, and two unique recombinant forms (URFs). A whole blood panel created with one representative isolate of each subtype was successfully amplified with the group M HIV-1 integrase and RNase P internal control primers. The group M HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay was further evaluated on 61 plasma specimens obtained from persons from Cameroon and Uganda. The sequence-conserved group M HIV-1 RT-LAMP primers, coupled to a low-cost amplification device, may improve diagnosis of acute infection at the POC and provide timely confirmation of HIV status.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      • Association of hand and arm disinfection with asthma control in US nursesExternal
        Dumas O, Varraso R, Boggs KM, Descatha A, Henneberger PK, Quinot C, Speizer FE, Zock JP, Le Moual N, Camargo CA.
        Occup Environ Med. 2018 Feb 23.

        OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between occupational exposure to disinfectants/antiseptics used for hand hygiene and asthma control in nurses. METHODS: In 2014, we invited female nurses with asthma drawn from the Nurses’ Health Study II to complete two supplemental questionnaires on their occupation and asthma (cross-sectional study, response rate: 80%). Among 4055 nurses (mean age: 59 years) with physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the past year, we examined asthma control, as defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT). Nurses were asked about the daily frequency of hand hygiene tasks: ‘wash/scrub hands with disinfectants/hand sanitizers’ (hand hygiene) and ‘wash/scrub arms with disinfecting products’ (surrogate of surgical hand/arm antisepsis). Analyses were adjusted for age, race, ethnicity, smoking status and body mass index. RESULTS: Nurses with partly controlled asthma (ACT: 20-24, 50%) and poorly controlled asthma (ACT </=19, 18%) were compared with nurses with controlled asthma (ACT=25, 32%). In separate models, both hand and arm hygiene were associated with poorly controlled asthma. After mutual adjustment, only arm hygiene was associated with poorly controlled asthma: OR (95% CI) for <1 time/day, 1.38 (1.06 to 1.80); >/=1 time/day, 1.96 (1.52 to 2.51), versus never. We observed a consistent dose-response relationship between frequency of arm hygiene tasks (never to >10 times/day) and poor asthma control. Associations persisted after further adjustment for surfaces/instruments disinfection tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of hand/arm hygiene tasks in nurses was associated with poor asthma control. The results suggest an adverse effect of products used for surgical hand/arm antisepsis. This potential new occupational risk factor for asthma warrants further study.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      • PURPOSE: We quantified the effects of Florida’s prescription drug monitoring program and pill mill law on high-risk patients. METHODS: We used QuintilesIMS LRx Lifelink data to identify patients receiving prescription opioids in Florida (intervention state, N: 1.13 million) and Georgia (control state, N: 0.54 million). The preintervention, intervention, and postintervention periods were July 2010 to June 2011, July 2011 to September 2011, and October 2011 to September 2012. We identified 3 types of high-risk patients: (1) concomitant users: patients with concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids; (2) chronic users: long-term, high-dose, opioid users; and (3) opioid shoppers: patients receiving opioids from multiple sources. We compared changes in opioid prescriptions between Florida and Georgia before and after policy implementation among high-risk/low-risk patients. Our monthly measures included (1) average morphine milligram equivalent per transaction, (2) total opioid volume across all prescriptions, (3) average days supplied per transaction, and (4) total number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. RESULTS: Among opioid-receiving individuals in Florida, 6.62% were concomitant users, 1.96% were chronic users, and 0.46% were opioid shoppers. Following policy implementation, Florida’s high-risk patients experienced relative reductions in morphine milligram equivalent (opioid shoppers: -1.08 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.62 to -0.54), total opioid volume (chronic users: -4.58 kg/month, CI -5.41 to -3.76), and number of dispensed opioid prescriptions (concomitant users: -640 prescriptions/month, CI -950 to -340). Low-risk patients generally did not experience statistically significantly relative reductions. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with Georgia, Florida’s prescription drug monitoring program and pill mill law were associated with large relative reductions in prescription opioid utilization among high-risk patients.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      • Association and birth prevalence of microcephaly attributable to Zika virus infection among infants in Paraiba, Brazil, in 2015-16: a case-control studyExternal
        Krow-Lucal ER, de Andrade MR, Cananea JN, Moore CA, Leite PL, Biggerstaff BJ, Cabral CM, Itoh M, Percio J, Wada MY, Powers AM, Barbosa A, Abath RB, Staples JE, Coelho GE.
        Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018 ;2(3).

        Background: In 2015, the number of infants born with microcephaly increased in Paraiba, Brazil, after a suspected Zika virus outbreak. We did a retrospective case-control investigation to assess the association of microcephaly and Zika virus. Methods: We enrolled cases reported to the national database for microcephaly and born between Aug 1, 2015, and Feb 1, 2016, on the basis of their birth head circumference and total body length. We identified controls from the national birth registry and matched them to cases by location, aiming to enrol a minimum of two controls per case. Mothers of both cases and controls were asked about demographics, exposures, and illnesses and infants were measured at a follow-up visit 1-7 months after birth. We took blood samples from mothers and infants and classified those containing Zika virus IgM and neutralising antibodies as evidence of recent infection. We calculated prevalence of microcephaly and odds ratios (ORs) using a conditional logistic regression model with maximum penalised conditional likelihood, and combined these ORs with exposure probability estimates to determine the attributable risk. Findings: We enrolled 164 of 706 infants with complete information reported with microcephaly at birth, of whom we classified 91 (55%) as having microcephaly on the basis of their birth measurements, 36 (22%) as small, 21 (13%) as disproportionate, and 16 (10%) as not having microcephaly. 43 (26%) of the 164 infants had microcephaly at follow-up for an estimated prevalence of 5.9 per 1000 livebirths. We enrolled 114 control infants matched to the 43 infants classified as having microcephaly at follow-up. Infants with microcephaly at follow-up were more likely than control infants to be younger (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7), have recent Zika virus infection (21.9, 7.0-109.3), or a mother with Zika-like symptoms in the first trimester (6.2, 2.8-15.4). Once Zika virus infection and infant age were controlled for, we found no significant association between microcephaly and maternal demographics, medications, toxins, or other infections. Based on the presence of Zika virus antibodies in infants, we concluded that 35-87% of microcephaly occurring during the time of our investigation in northeast Brazil was attributable to Zika virus. We estimate 2-5 infants per 1000 livebirths in Paraiba had microcephaly attributable to Zika virus. Interpretation: Time of exposure to Zika virus and evidence of infection in the infants were the only risk factors associated with microcephaly. This investigation has improved understanding of the outbreak of microcephaly in northeast Brazil and highlights the need to obtain multiple measurements after birth to establish if an infant has microcephaly and the need for further research to optimise testing criteria for congenital Zika virus infection. Funding: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Urban-rural county and state differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – United States, 2015External
        Croft JB, Wheaton AG, Liu Y, Xu F, Lu H, Matthews KA, Cunningham TJ, Wang Y, Holt JB.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Feb 23;67(7):205-211.

        Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for the majority of deaths from chronic lower respiratory diseases, the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2015 and the fourth leading cause in 2016. Major risk factors include tobacco exposure, occupational and environmental exposures, respiratory infections, and genetics.(dagger) State variations in COPD outcomes (1) suggest that it might be more common in states with large rural areas. To assess urban-rural variations in COPD prevalence, hospitalizations, and mortality; obtain county-level estimates; and update state-level variations in COPD measures, CDC analyzed 2015 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Medicare hospital records, and death certificate data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS). Overall, 15.5 million adults aged >/=18 years (5.9% age-adjusted prevalence) reported ever receiving a diagnosis of COPD; there were approximately 335,000 Medicare hospitalizations (11.5 per 1,000 Medicare enrollees aged >/=65 years) and 150,350 deaths in which COPD was listed as the underlying cause for persons of all ages (40.3 per 100,000 population). COPD prevalence, Medicare hospitalizations, and deaths were significantly higher among persons living in rural areas than among those living in micropolitan or metropolitan areas. Among seven states in the highest quartile for all three measures, Arkansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, and West Virginia were also in the upper quartile (>/=18%) for rural residents. Overcoming barriers to prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and management of COPD with primary care provider education, Internet access, physical activity and self-management programs, and improved access to pulmonary rehabilitation and oxygen therapy are needed to improve quality of life and reduce COPD mortality.

      2. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and antihypertensive medication use among adults aged >/=18 years – United States, 2011-2015External
        Fang J, Gillespie C, Ayala C, Loustalot F.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Feb 23;67(7):219-224.

        Hypertension, which affects nearly one third of adults in the United States, is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke (1), and only approximately half of those with hypertension have their hypertension under control (2). The prevalence of hypertension is highest among non-Hispanic blacks, whereas the prevalence of antihypertensive medication use is lowest among Hispanics (1). Geographic variations have also been identified: a recent report indicated that the Southern region of the United States had the highest prevalence of hypertension as well as the highest prevalence of medication use (3). Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), this study found minimal change in state-level prevalence of hypertension awareness and treatment among U.S. adults during the first half of the current decade. From 2011 to 2015, the age-standardized prevalence of self-reported hypertension decreased slightly, from 30.1% to 29.8% (p = 0.031); among those with hypertension, the age-standardized prevalence of medication use also decreased slightly, from 63.0% to 61.8% (p<0.001). Persistent differences were observed by age, sex, race/ethnicity, level of education, and state of residence. Increasing hypertension awareness, as well as increasing hypertension control through lifestyle changes and consistent antihypertensive medication use, requires diverse clinical and public health intervention.

      3. Impact of sustained virological response on risk of type 2 diabetes among hepatitis C patients in the USExternal
        Li J, Zhang T, Gordon SC, Rupp LB, Trudeau S, Holmberg SD, Moorman AC, Spradling PR, Teshale EH, Boscarino JA, Schmidt MA, Daida YG, Lu M.
        J Viral Hepat. 2018 Feb 25.

        Data regarding the impact of hepatitis C (HCV) therapy on incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus are limited. We used data from the longitudinal Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study-drawn from four large US health systems-to investigate how response to HCV treatment impacts risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among HCV patients without a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus or hepatitis B, we investigated incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus from 12 weeks post-HCV treatment through December 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment status (sustained virological response [SVR] or treatment failure) and baseline risk factors on development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, considering any possible risk factor-by-SVR interactions and death as a competing risk. Among 5,127 patients with an average follow-up of 3.7 years, type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence was significantly lower among patients who achieved SVR (231/3748; 6.2%) than among patients with treatment failure (299/1379; 21.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]= 0.79; 95%CI 0.65-0.96). Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher among African American and Asian American patients than white patients (aHR=1.82 and 1.75, respectively; p<0.05), and among Hispanic patients than non-Hispanics (aHR=1.86). Patients with BMI >/=30 and 25-30 (aHR=3.62 and 1.72, respectively; p<0.05) demonstrated higher risk than those with BMI <25; patients with cirrhosis at baseline had higher risk than those without cirrhosis (aHR=1.47). Among a large US cohort of patients treated for HCV, patients who achieved SVR demonstrated a substantially lower risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus than patients with treatment failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      4. Trends in eye injuries and associated medical costs among children in the United States, 2002-2014External
        Luo H, Shrestha S, Zhang X, Saaddine J, Zeng X, Reeder T.
        Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2018 Feb 23:1-8.

        PURPOSE: To describe the trends in eye injuries and associated medical costs among children in the United States. METHODS: Data were from the 2002-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Eye injuries in children aged <18 years were identified by the International Classification of Diseases-9 (ICD-9) codes. The trends of cumulative incidence of eye injury, total costs, and average costs were estimated from 2002-2014 MEPS data. All costs were adjusted to 2014 US dollars. Analyses accounted for the complex stratified multistage survey design of the MEPS. We used MarketScan data (2010-2013) to validate outpatient cost estimates. RESULTS: The 3-year average cumulative incidence of eye injuries declined from 0.56% in 2002-2004 to 0.31% in 2012-2014 (Trend p < 0.001). The average annual total costs decreased from $193 million during 2002-2004 to $66 million during 2012-2014 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The MEPS data showed that among children aged <18 years, the incidence of eye injuries and associated financial burden substantially declined during 2002-2014, highlighting the progress in preventing children eye injuries. Continuing efforts are needed to further reduce the burden in this population.

      5. Community counts: Evolution of a national surveillance system for bleeding disordersExternal
        Manco-Johnson MJ, Byams VR, Recht M, Dudley B, Dupervil B, Aschman DJ, Oakley M, Kapica S, Voutsis M, Humes S, Kulkarni R, Grant AM.
        Am J Hematol. 2018 Feb 23.

        [No abstract]

      6. Prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis – United States, 2014External
        Mehta P, Kaye W, Raymond J, Wu R, Larson T, Punjani R, Heller D, Cohen J, Peters T, Muravov O, Horton K.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Feb 23;67(7):216-218.

        Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive and fatal neuromuscular disease; the majority of ALS patients die within 2-5 years of receiving a diagnosis (1). Familial ALS, a hereditary form of the disease, accounts for 5%-10% of cases, whereas the remaining sporadic cases have no clearly defined etiology (1). ALS affects persons of all races and ethnicities; however, whites, males, non-Hispanics, persons aged >60 years, and those with a family history of ALS are more likely to develop the disease (1-3). No cure for ALS has yet been identified, and the lack of proven and effective therapeutic interventions is an ongoing challenge. Current treatments available do not cure ALS but have been shown to slow disease progression. Until recently, only one drug (riluzole) was approved to treat ALS; however, in 2017, the Food and Drug Administration approved a second drug, edaravone (4).

      7. National Association of Medical Examiners position paper: Recommendations for the investigation and certification of deaths in people with epilepsyExternal
        Middleton O, Atherton D, Bundock E, Donner E, Friedman D, Hesdorffer D, Jarrell H, McCrillis A, Mena OJ, Morey M, Thurman D, Tian N, Tomson T, Tseng Z, White S, Wright C, Devinsky O.
        Epilepsia. 2018 Mar 1.

        Sudden unexpected death of an individual with epilepsy can pose a challenge to death investigators, as most deaths are unwitnessed, and the individual is commonly found dead in bed. Anatomic findings (eg, tongue/lip bite) are commonly absent and of varying specificity, thereby limiting the evidence to implicate epilepsy as a cause of or contributor to death. Thus it is likely that death certificates significantly underrepresent the true number of deaths in which epilepsy was a factor. To address this, members of the National Association of Medical Examiners, North American SUDEP Registry, Epilepsy Foundation SUDEP Institute, American Epilepsy Society, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention constituted an expert panel to generate evidence-based recommendations for the practice of death investigation and autopsy, toxicological analysis, interpretation of autopsy and toxicology findings, and death certification to improve the precision of death certificate data available for public health surveillance of epilepsy-related deaths. The recommendations provided in this paper are intended to assist medical examiners, coroners, and death investigators when a sudden unexpected death in a person with epilepsy is encountered.

      8. CDC Grand Rounds: Promoting hearing health across the lifespanExternal
        Murphy WJ, Eichwald J, Meinke DK, Chadha S, Iskander J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):243-246.

        Globally, one in three adults has some level of measurable hearing loss, and 1.1 billion young persons are at risk for hearing loss attributable to noise exposure. Although noisy occupations such as construction, mining, and manufacturing are primary causes of hearing loss in adults, nonoccupational noise also can damage hearing. Loud noises can cause permanent hearing loss through metabolic exhaustion or mechanical destruction of the sensory cells within the cochlea. Some of the sounds of daily life, including those made by lawn mowers, recreational vehicles, power tools, and music, might play a role in the decline in hearing health. Hearing loss as a disability largely depends on a person’s communication needs and how hearing loss affects the ability to function in a job. The loss of critical middle and high frequencies can significantly impair communication in hearing-critical jobs (e.g., law enforcement and air traffic control).

      9. Do schools that screen for body mass index have recommended safeguards in place?External
        Sliwa SA, Brener ND, Lundeen EA, Lee SM.
        J Sch Nurs. 2018 Jan 1:1059840518758376.

        The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that schools adopt 10 safeguards before launching a body mass index (BMI) screening program; however, little is known about schools’ safeguard adoption. Authors identified questions from the 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study that aligned with 4 of the 10 safeguards to estimate safeguard prevalence among schools that screened students for BMI (40.7%, N = 223). Among these schools, 3.1% had all four safeguards and 56.5% had none or one. The most prevalent safeguard was having reliable and accurate equipment (54.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [46.1, 62.1]). Providing staff with appropriate expertise and training was the least prevalent; respondents in 26.4% (95% CI [17.1, 35.6]) of schools received recent training on weight status assessment, weight management, and eating disorder identification. School-based BMI screening is common, but adopting multiple recommended safeguards is not. Absent these safeguards, BMI screening programs may fall short of intended outcomes and potentially incur unintended consequences.

      10. Self-reported receipt of advice and action taken to reduce dietary sodium among adults with and without hypertension – nine states and Puerto Rico, 2015External
        Va P, Luncheon C, Thompson-Paul AM, Fang J, Merritt R, Cogswell ME.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Feb 23;67(7):225-229.

        Hypertension is a major cardiovascular disease risk factor (1,2). Advice given by health professionals can result in lower sodium intake and lower blood pressure (3).The 2017 Hypertension Guideline released by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association emphasizes nonpharmacologic approaches, including sodium reduction, as important components of hypertension prevention and treatment (4). Data from 50,576 participants in the sodium module of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in nine states and Puerto Rico were analyzed to determine the prevalence of reported sodium reduction advice and action among participants with and without self-reported hypertension. Among participants with self-reported hypertension, adjusted prevalence of receiving sodium reduction advice from a health professional was 41.9%, compared with 12.8% among participants without hypertension. Among those with hypertension, adjusted prevalence of reported action to reduce sodium intake was 80.9% among participants who received advice and 55.7% among those who did not receive advice. Among participants without hypertension, adjusted prevalence of taking action to reduce sodium intake was 72.7% among those who received advice and 46.9% among those who did not receive advice. The provision of advice on sodium reduction by health professionals is associated with respondent action to watch or reduce sodium intake. Fewer than half of patients with hypertension received this advice from their health professionals, a circumstance that represents a substantial missed opportunity to promote hypertension prevention and treatment.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Trends in adult chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence, incidence and urethral discharge case reporting in Mongolia from 1995 to 2016 – estimates using the Spectrum-STI modelExternal
        Badrakh J, Zayasaikhan S, Jagdagsuren D, Enkhbat E, Jadambaa N, Munkhbaatar S, Taylor M, Rowley J, Mahiane G, Korenromp E.
        Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2017 Oct-Dec;8(4):20-29.

        Objective: To estimate Mongolia’s prevalence and incidence trends of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in women and men 15-49 years old to inform control of STIs and HIV, a national health sector priority. Methods: We applied the Spectrum-STI estimation model, fitting data from two national population surveys (2001 and 2008) and from routine gonorrhoea screening of pregnant women in antenatal care (1997 to 2016) adjusted for diagnostic test performance, male/female differences and missing high-risk populations. Prevalence and incidence estimates were then used to assess completeness of national case reporting. Results: Gonorrhoea prevalence was estimated at 3.3% (95% confidence interval, 1.6-3.9%) in women and 2.9% (1.6-4.1%) in men in 2016; chlamydia prevalence levels were 19.5% (17.3-21.9%) and 15.6% (10.0-21.2%), respectively. Corresponding new incident cases in women and men in 2016 totalled 60 334 (36 147 to 121 933) and 76 893 (35 639 to 254 913) for gonorrhoea and 131 306 (84 232 to 254 316) and 148 162 (71 885 to 462 588) for chlamydia. Gonorrhoea and chlamydia prevalence declined by an estimated 33% and 11%, respectively from 2001 to 2016.Comparing numbers of symptomatic and treated cases estimated by Spectrum with gonorrhoea case reports suggests that 15% of symptomatic treated gonorrhoea cases were reported in 2016; only a minority of chlamydia episodes were reported as male urethral discharge cases. Discussion: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia prevalence are estimated to have declined in Mongolia during the early 2000s, possibly associated with syndromic management in primary care facilities and improving treatment coverage since 2001 and scale up of HIV/STI prevention interventions since 2003. However, prevalence remains high with most gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases not treated or recorded in the public health system.

      2. Assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in response to an outbreak of typhoid fever in Neno District, MalawiExternal
        Bennett SD, Lowther SA, Chingoli F, Chilima B, Kabuluzi S, Ayers TL, Warne TA, Mintz E.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(2):e0193348.

        On May 2, 2009 an outbreak of typhoid fever began in rural villages along the Malawi-Mozambique border resulting in 748 illnesses and 44 deaths by September 2010. Despite numerous interventions, including distribution of WaterGuard (WG) for in-home water treatment and education on its use, cases of typhoid fever continued. To inform response activities during the ongoing Typhoid outbreak information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding typhoid fever, safe water, and hygiene were necessary to plan future outbreak interventions. In September 2010, a survey was administered to female heads in randomly selected households in 17 villages in Neno District, Malawi. Stored household drinking water was tested for free chlorine residual (FCR) levels using the N,N diethyl-p-phenylene diamine colorimetric method (HACH Company, Loveland, CO, USA). Attendance at community-wide educational meetings was reported by 56% of household respondents. Respondents reported that typhoid fever is caused by poor hygiene (77%), drinking unsafe water (49%), and consuming unsafe food (25%), and that treating drinking water can prevent it (68%). WaterGuard, a chlorination solution for drinking water treatment, was observed in 112 (56%) households, among which 34% reported treating drinking water. FCR levels were adequate (FCR >/= 0.2 mg/L) in 29 (76%) of the 38 households who reported treatment of stored water and had stored water available for testing and an observed bottle of WaterGuard in the home. Soap was observed in 154 (77%) households, among which 51% reported using soap for hand washing. Educational interventions did not reach almost one-half of target households and knowledge remains low. Despite distribution and promotion of WaterGuard and soap during the outbreak response, usage was low. Future interventions should focus on improving water, sanitation and hygiene knowledge, practices, and infrastructure. Typhoid vaccination should be considered.

      3. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication – Nigeria, January-December 2017External
        Bolu O, Nnadi C, Damisa E, Braka F, Siddique A, Archer WR, Bammeke P, Banda R, Higgins J, Edukugo A, Nganda GW, Forbi JC, Liu H, Gidado S, Soghaier M, Franka R, Waziri N, Burns CC, Vertefeuille J, Wiesen E, Adamu U.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):253-256.

        Nearly three decades after the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions have been certified polio-free (1). Nigeria is one of three countries, including Pakistan and Afghanistan, where wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. In September 2015, after >1 year without any reported WPV cases, Nigeria was removed from WHO’s list of countries with endemic WPV transmission (2); however, during August and September 2016, four type 1 WPV (WPV1) cases were reported from Borno State, a state in northeastern Nigeria experiencing a violent insurgency (3). The Nigerian government, in collaboration with partners, launched a large-scale coordinated response to the outbreak (3). This report describes progress in polio eradication activities in Nigeria during January-December 2017 and updates previous reports (3-5). No WPV cases have been reported in Nigeria since September 2016; the latest case had onset of paralysis on August 21, 2016 (3). However, polio surveillance has not been feasible in insurgent-controlled areas of Borno State. Implementation of new strategies has helped mitigate the challenges of reaching and vaccinating children living in security-compromised areas, and other strategies are planned. Despite these initiatives, however, approximately 130,000-210,000 (28%-45%) of the estimated 469,000 eligible children living in inaccessible areas in 2016 have not been vaccinated. Sustained efforts to optimize surveillance and improve immunization coverage, especially among children in inaccessible areas, are needed.

      4. Notes from the field: Increase in acute hepatitis B infections – Pasco County, Florida, 2011-2016External
        Comer M, Matthias J, Nicholson G, Asher A, Holmberg S, Wilson C.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Feb 23;67(7):230-231.

        [No abstract]

      5. Candida pneumonia with severe clinical course, recovery with antifungal therapy and unusual pathologic findings: A case reportExternal
        Dermawan JK, Ghosh S, Keating MK, Gopalakrishna KV, Mukhopadhyay S.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Jan;97(2):e9650.

        BACKGROUND: Candida is frequently isolated from the respiratory tract and usually reflects airway colonization. True Candida pneumonia is rare. Our aim is to document a case of Candida pneumonia confirmed by cultures, molecular techniques, and surgical lung biopsy, and to highlight a previously unreported pathologic manifestation of this infection. CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presented with dry cough, low-grade fever, and progressive dyspnea. He was eventually diagnosed with sarcoidosis based on bilateral lung infiltrates and granulomas in a transbronchial biopsy. His condition worsened after immunosuppression, prompting surgical lung biopsy, which revealed suppurative granulomas containing Candida albicans, confirmed by cultures and polymerase chain reaction. Despite multiple episodes of respiratory failure and a prolonged course in intensive care, he recovered fully after antifungal therapy and is currently alive with COPD-related dyspnea 3 years after his initial presentation. CONCLUSION: Candida can rarely cause clinically significant pneumonia in adults, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of suppurative granulomas in the lung.

      6. Notes from the field: HIV infection investigation in a rural area – West Virginia, 2017External
        Evans ME, Labuda SM, Hogan V, Agnew-Brune C, Armstrong J, Periasamy Karuppiah AB, Blankinship D, Buchacz K, Burton K, Cibrik S, Hoffman W, Kirk N, Lee C, McGraw D, Banez Ocfemia MC, Panneer N, Reynolds P, Rose B, Salmon M, Scott M, Thompson A, Wills D, Young SA, Gupta R, Haddy L, Weidle PJ, Mark-Carew M.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):257-258.

        [No abstract]

      7. Prenatal HIV testing and the impact of state HIV testing laws, 2004-2011External
        FitzHarris LF, Johnson CH, Nesheim SR, Oussayef NL, Taylor AW, Harrison A, Ruffo N, Burley K, House L, Koumans EH.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Feb 26.

        OBJECTIVE: To analyze prenatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing rates over time and describe the impact of state HIV testing laws on prenatal testing. METHODS: During 2004-2011, self-reported prenatal HIV testing data for women with live births in 35 states and New York City were collected. Prevalence of testing was estimated overall and by state and year. An annual percent change was calculated in states with at least six years of data to analyze testing changes over time. An attorney-coder used WestlawNext to identify states with laws direct prenatal care providers to screen all pregnant women or direct all women to be tested for HIV and document changes in laws to meet this threshold. RESULTS: The overall prenatal HIV testing rate for 2004-2011 combined was 75.7%. State-level data showed a wide range of testing rates (43.2%-92.8%) for 2004-2011 combined. In areas with six years of data, four experienced an annual drop in testing (Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado and Illinois). States that changed laws to meet the threshold generally had the highest testing rates, averaging 80%, followed by states with a pre-existing law, at approximately 70%. States with no law, or no law meeting the threshold, had an average prenatal testing rate of 65%. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal HIV testing remained stable between 2004 and 2011 but remained below universal recommendations. Testing varied widely across states, and was generally higher in areas that changed their laws to meet the threshold or had pre-existing prenatal HIV testing laws, compared to those with no or limited prenatal HIV testing language.

      8. Perceptions of HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in the United States: A qualitative analysisExternal
        Freeman AE, Sullivan P, Higa D, Sharma A, MacGowan R, Hirshfield S, Greene GJ, Gravens L, Chavez P, McNaghten AD, Johnson WD, Mustanski B.
        AIDS Educ Prev. 2018 Feb;30(1):47-62.

        HIV testing is the gateway into both prevention and treatment services. It is important to understand how men who have sex with men (MSM) perceive HIV self-tests. We conducted focus groups and individual interviews to collect feedback on two HIV self-tests, and on a dried blood spot (DBS) specimen collection kit. Perceptions and attitudes around HIV self-testing (HIVST), and willingness to distribute HIV self-tests to others were assessed. MSM reported HIVST to be complementary to facility-based testing, and liked this approach because it offers privacy and convenience, does not require counseling, and could lead to linkage to care. However, they also had concerns around the accuracy of HIV self-tests, their cost, and receiving a positive test result without immediate access to follow-up services. Despite these issues, they perceived HIVST as a positive addition to their HIV prevention toolbox.

      9. Genital inflammation undermines the effectiveness of tenofovir gel in preventing HIV acquisition in womenExternal
        McKinnon LR, Liebenberg LJ, Yende-Zuma N, Archary D, Ngcapu S, Sivro A, Nagelkerke N, Garcia Lerma JG, Kashuba AD, Masson L, Mansoor LE, Karim QA, Karim SS, Passmore JS.
        Nat Med. 2018 Feb 26.

        Several clinical trials have demonstrated that antiretroviral (ARV) drugs taken as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV infection, with the magnitude of protection ranging from -49 to 86% (refs. ). Although these divergent outcomes are thought to be due primarily to differences in product adherence, biological factors likely contribute. Despite selective recruitment of higher-risk participants for prevention trials, HIV risk is heterogeneous even within higher-risk groups. To determine whether this heterogeneity could influence patient outcomes following PrEP, we undertook a post hoc prospective analysis of results from the CAPRISA 004 trial for 1% tenofovir gel (n = 774 patients), one of the first trials to demonstrate protection against HIV infection. Concentrations of nine proinflammatory cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages at >2,000 visits, and a graduated cytokine score was used to define genital inflammation. In women without genital inflammation, tenofovir was 57% protective against HIV (95% confidence interval (CI): 7-80%) but was 3% protective (95% CI: -104-54%) if genital inflammation was present. Among women who highly adhered to the gel, tenofovir protection was 75% (95% CI: 25-92%) in women without inflammation compared to -10% (95% CI: -184-57%) in women with inflammation. Immunological predictors of HIV risk may modify the effectiveness of tools for HIV prevention; reducing genital inflammation in women may augment HIV prevention efforts.

      10. Modes of HIV transmission among adolescents and young adults aged 10-24 years in KenyaExternal
        Ng’eno BN, Kellogg TA, Kim AA, Mwangi A, Mwangi M, Wamicwe J, Rutherford GW.
        Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Jan 1:956462418758115.

        Understanding how HIV is acquired can inform interventions to prevent infection. We constructed a risk profile of 10-24 year olds participating in the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey and classified them as perinatally infected if their biological mother was infected with HIV or had died, or if their father was infected with HIV or had died (for those lacking mother’s data). The remaining were classified as sexually infected if they had sex, and the remaining as parenterally infected if they had a blood transfusion. Overall, 84 (1.6%) of the 5298 10-24 year olds tested HIV positive; 9 (11%) were aged 10-14 and 75 (89%) 15-24 years. Five (56%) 10-14 year olds met criteria for perinatal infection; 4 (44%) did not meet perinatal, sexual or parenteral transmission criteria and parental HIV status was not established. Of the 75 HIV-infected, 15 to 24 year olds, 5 (7%) met perinatal transmission, 63 (84%) sexual and 2 (3%) parenteral criteria; 5 (7%) were unclassified. Perinatal transmission likely accounted for 56% and sexual transmission for 84% of infections among 10-14 year olds and 15-24 year olds, respectively. Although our definitions may have introduced some uncertainty, and with the number of infected participants being small, our findings suggest that mixed modes of HIV transmission exist among adolescents and young people.

      11. HIV diagnoses among persons aged 13-29 years – United States, 2010-2014External
        Ocfemia MC, Dunville R, Zhang T, Barrios LC, Oster AM.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Feb 23;67(7):212-215.

        In 2014, persons aged 13-29 years represented 23% of the U.S. population, yet accounted for 40% of diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection during the same year (1). During 2010-2014, the rates of diagnosis of HIV infection decreased among persons aged 15-19 years, were stable among persons aged 20-24 years, and increased among persons aged 25-29 years (1). However, these 5-year age groups encompass multiple developmental stages and potentially mask trends associated with the rapid psychosocial changes during adolescence through young adulthood. To better understand HIV infection among adolescents aged 13-17 years and young adults aged 18-29 years in the United States and identify ideal ages to target primary HIV prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS)* using narrow age groups. During 2010-2014, rates of diagnosis of HIV infection per 100,000 population varied substantially among persons aged 13-15 years (0.7), 16-17 years (4.5), 18-19 years (16.5), and 20-21 years (28.6), and were higher, but less variable, among persons aged 22-23 years (34.0), 24-25 years (33.8), 26-27 years (31.3), and 28-29 years (28.7). In light of the remarkable increase in rates between ages 16-17, 18-19, and 20-21 years, and a recent study revealing that infection precedes diagnosis for young persons by an average of 2.7 years (2), these findings demonstrate the importance of targeting primary prevention efforts to persons aged <18 years and continuing through the period of elevated risk in their mid-twenties.

      12. Locating people diagnosed with HIV for public health action: Utility of HIV case surveillance and other data sourcesExternal
        Padilla M, Mattson CL, Scheer S, Udeagu CN, Buskin SE, Hughes AJ, Jaenicke T, Wohl AR, Prejean J, Wei SC.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Jan 1:33354918754541.

        INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case surveillance and other health care databases are increasingly being used for public health action, which has the potential to optimize the health outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH). However, often PLWH cannot be located based on the contact information available in these data sources. We assessed the accuracy of contact information for PLWH in HIV case surveillance and additional data sources and whether time since diagnosis was associated with accurate contact information in HIV case surveillance and successful contact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Case Surveillance-Based Sampling (CSBS) project was a pilot HIV surveillance system that selected a random population-based sample of people diagnosed with HIV from HIV case surveillance registries in 5 state and metropolitan areas. From November 2012 through June 2014, CSBS staff members attempted to locate and interview 1800 sampled people and used 22 data sources to search for contact information. RESULTS: Among 1063 contacted PLWH, HIV case surveillance data provided accurate telephone number, address, or HIV care facility information for 239 (22%), 412 (39%), and 827 (78%) sampled people, respectively. CSBS staff members used additional data sources, such as support services and commercial people-search databases, to locate and contact PLWH with insufficient contact information in HIV case surveillance. PLWH diagnosed <1 year ago were more likely to have accurate contact information in HIV case surveillance than were PLWH diagnosed >/=1 year ago ( P = .002), and the benefit from using additional data sources was greater for PLWH with more longstanding HIV infection ( P < .001). PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: When HIV case surveillance cannot provide accurate contact information, health departments can prioritize searching additional data sources, especially for people with more longstanding HIV infection.

      13. Comparison of outpatient medically attended and community-level influenza-like illness – New York City, 2013-2015External
        Russell KE, Fowlkes A, Stockwell MS, Vargas CY, Saiman L, Larson EL, LaRussa P, Di Lonardo S, Popowich M, St George K, Steffens A, Reed C.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Jan 19.

        BACKGROUND: Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States is primarily conducted through medical settings despite a significant burden of non-medically attended ILI. OBJECTIVES: To assess consistency between surveillance for respiratory viruses in outpatient and community settings using ILI surveillance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project (IISP) and the Mobile Surveillance for Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) and Influenza-Like Illness in the Community (MoSAIC) Study. METHODS: The Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project conducts ILI surveillance in 3 primary care clinics in New York City, and MoSAIC conducts community-based ILI/ARI surveillance through text messaging among a cohort of New York City residents. Both systems obtain respiratory specimens from participants with ILI/ARI and test for multiple pathogens. We conducted a retrospective review of ILI cases in IISP and MoSAIC from January 2013 to May 2015 with descriptive analyses of clinical and laboratory data. RESULTS: Five-hundred twelve MoSAIC and 669 IISP participants met an ILI criteria (fever with cough or sore throat) and were included. Forty percent of MoSAIC participants sought care; the majority primary care. Pathogens were detected in 63% of MoSAIC and 70% of IISP cases. The relative distribution of influenza and other respiratory viruses detected was similar; however, there were statistically significant differences in the frequency that were not explained by care seeking. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient and community-based surveillance in the one found similar timing and relative distribution of respiratory viruses, but community surveillance in a single neighborhood may not fully capture the variations in ILI etiology that occur more broadly.

      14. Infection prevention and control training and capacity building during the Ebola epidemic in GuineaExternal
        Soeters HM, Koivogui L, de Beer L, Johnson CY, Diaby D, Ouedraogo A, Toure F, Bangoura FO, Chang MA, Chea N, Dotson EM, Finlay A, Fitter D, Hamel MJ, Hazim C, Larzelere M, Park BJ, Rowe AK, Thompson-Paul AM, Twyman A, Barry M, Ntaw G, Diallo AO.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(2):e0193291.

        BACKGROUND: During the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, a key epidemiological feature was disease transmission within healthcare facilities, indicating a need for infection prevention and control (IPC) training and support. METHODS: IPC training was provided to frontline healthcare workers (HCW) in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units, as well as to IPC trainers and IPC supervisors placed in healthcare facilities. Trainings included both didactic and hands-on components, and were assessed using pre-tests, post-tests and practical evaluations. We calculated median percent increase in knowledge. RESULTS: From October-December 2014, 20 IPC courses trained 1,625 Guineans: 1,521 HCW, 55 IPC trainers, and 49 IPC supervisors. Median test scores increased 40% (interquartile range [IQR]: 19-86%) among HCW, 15% (IQR: 8-33%) among IPC trainers, and 21% (IQR: 15-30%) among IPC supervisors (all P<0.0001) to post-test scores of 83%, 93%, and 93%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: IPC training resulted in clear improvements in knowledge and was feasible in a public health emergency setting. This method of IPC training addressed a high demand among HCW. Valuable lessons were learned to facilitate expansion of IPC training to other prefectures; this model may be considered when responding to other large outbreaks.

      15. Finding hidden HIV clusters to support geographic-oriented HIV interventions in KenyaExternal
        Waruru A, Achia TN, Tobias JL, Ng’ang’a J, Mwangi M, Wamicwe J, Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Oluoch T, Muthama E, Tylleskar T.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Feb 16.

        BACKGROUND: In a spatially well-known and dispersed HIV epidemic, identifying geographic clusters with significantly higher HIV-prevalence is important for focusing interventions for people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: We used Kulldorff spatial-scan Poisson model to identify clusters with high numbers of HIV-infected persons 15-64 years old. We classified PLHIV as belonging to either higher or lower prevalence (HP/LP) clusters, then assessed distributions of socio-demographic and bio-behavioral HIV risk factors and associations with clustering. RESULTS: About half of survey locations, 112/238 (47%) had high rates of HIV (HP clusters), with 1.1-4.6 times greater PLHIV adults observed than expected. Richer persons compared to respondents in lowest wealth index had higher odds of belonging to a HP cluster, adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.61(95% CI: 1.13-2.3), aOR 1.66(95% CI: 1.09-2.53), aOR 3.2(95% CI: 1.82-5.65), aOR 2.28(95% CI: 1.09-4.78) in second, middle, fourth and highest quintiles respectively. Respondents who perceived themselves to have greater HIV risk or were already HIV-infected had higher odds of belonging to a HP cluster, aOR 1.96(95% CI: 1.13-3.4) and aOR 5.51(95% CI: 2.42-12.55) respectively; compared to perceived low risk. Men who had ever been clients of FSW had higher odds of belonging to a HP cluster than those who had never been, aOR 1.47(95% CI: 1.04-2.08); and uncircumcised men vs circumcised, aOR 3.2, (95% CI: 1.74-5.8). CONCLUSION: HIV infection in Kenya exhibits localized geographic clustering associated with socio-demographic and behavioral factors, suggesting disproportionate exposure to higher HIV-risk. Identification of these clusters reveals the right places for targeting priority-tailored HIV interventions.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy of K-Othrine((R)) PolyZone on three surfaces against laboratory reared Anopheles gambiae in semi-field conditionsExternal
        Dunford JC, Estep AS, Waits CM, Richardson AG, Hoel DF, Horn K, Walker TW, Blersch JS, Kerce JD, Wirtz RA.
        Malar J. 2018 Feb 23;17(1):94.

        BACKGROUND: In this semi-field study, a new polymer-enhanced deltamethrin formulation, K-Othrine((R)) PolyZone, was compared to a standard deltamethrin product for residual activity against a susceptible strain of laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae using standard WHO cone bioassays. METHODS: Residual insecticide efficacy was recorded after exposure to metal, cement and wood panels maintained in experimental huts in sub-tropical environmental conditions in north central Florida, USA, and panels stored in a climate controlled chamber located at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Georgia, USA. CONCLUSIONS: K-Othrine((R)) PolyZone demonstrated 100% control on metal and cement panels 1 year post application and > 80% control on wood panels up to 6 mo. The new formulation should be considered for use in indoor residual spray programmes requiring long-term control of malaria vectors.

      2. Morphometric analysis of adult Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae) from various locations within its geographical rangeExternal
        Moraru GM, Portugal JS, Bednarova A, McInnis SJ, Paddock CD, Becker T, Smith TC, Svobodova Z, Goddard J.
        J Med Entomol. 2018 Feb 27.

        Dermacentor parumapertus Neumann (Acari: Ixodidae), a tick primarily associated with rabbits which occurs over much of the western United States, has a fairly large north-to-south distribution, being found from central Idaho southward into northern Mexico. This mostly obscure tick species has recently been the focus of attention due to the discovery of a unique strain of Rickettsia parkeri associated with it which appears closely related to a Rickettsia sp. found in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. Historically, a morphological variety of this species was reported in the literature based on significant variation in ornamentation of the tick throughout its range. This study examines several key morphological characters to determine if there are indeed more than one distinct population of this species throughout its range.

    • Environmental Health
      1. The long-term effects of cleaning on the lungsExternal
        Cummings KJ, Virji MA.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Feb 23.

        [No abstract]

      2. Airborne contaminants during controlled residential firesExternal
        Fent KW, Evans DE, Babik K, Striley C, Bertke S, Kerber S, Smith D, Horn GP.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Mar 1:1-34.

        In this study, we characterize the area and personal air concentrations of combustion byproducts produced during controlled residential fires with furnishings common in 21(st) century single family structures. Area air measurements were collected from the structure during active fire and overhaul (post suppression) and on the fireground where personnel were operating without any respiratory protection. Personal air measurements were collected from firefighters assigned to fire attack, victim search, overhaul, outside ventilation, and command/pump operator positions. Two different fire attack tactics were conducted for the fires (6 interior and 6 transitional) and exposures were compared between the tactics. For each of the 12 fires, firefighters were paired up to conduct each job assignment, except for overhaul that was conducted by four firefighters. Sampled compounds included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs e.g., benzene), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and particulate (area air sampling only). Median personal air concentrations for the attack and search firefighters were generally well above applicable short-term occupational exposure limits, with the exception of HCN measured from search firefighters. Area air concentrations of all measured compounds decreased after suppression. Personal air concentrations of total PAHs and benzene measured from some overhaul firefighters exceeded exposure limits. Median personal air concentrations of HCN (16,300 ppb) exceeded the exposure limit for outside vent firefighters, with maximum levels (72,900 ppb) higher than the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) level. Median air concentrations on the fireground (including particle count) were above background levels and highest when collected downwind of the structure and when ground-level smoke was the heaviest. No statistically significant differences in personal air concentrations were found between the two attack tactics. The results underscore the importance of wearing self-contained breathing apparatus when conducting overhaul or outside ventilation activities. Firefighters should also try to establish command upwind of the structure fire, and if this cannot be done, respiratory protection should be considered.

      3. Preconception and prenatal urinary concentrations of phenols and birth size of singleton infants born to mothers and fathers from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) studyExternal
        Messerlian C, Mustieles V, Minguez-Alarcon L, Ford JB, Calafat AM, Souter I, Williams PL, Hauser R.
        Environ Int. 2018 Feb 22;114:60-68.

        BACKGROUND: Although pregnancy concentrations of some phenols have been associated with infant size at birth, there is limited data on the effect of preconception exposure. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine paternal and maternal preconception and maternal prenatal urinary phenol concentrations in relation to birth weight and head circumference. METHODS: We evaluated 346 singletons born to 346 mothers and 184 fathers (184 couples) from a prospective preconception cohort of subfertile couples from the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study in Boston, USA. We used multiple urine samples collected before the index pregnancy in both men and women to estimate mean preconception urinary benzophenone-3, triclosan, butylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, or ethylparaben concentrations. We also estimated mean maternal prenatal urinary phenol concentrations by averaging trimester-specific urine samples. Birth weight and head circumference were abstracted from delivery records. We estimated the association of natural log-phenol concentrations with birth outcomes using multivariable linear regression models, adjusting for known confounders. RESULTS: In adjusted models, each log-unit increase in paternal preconception benzophenone-3 concentration was associated with a 137g increase in birth weight (95% CI: 60, 214). Additional adjustment for prenatal benzophenone-3 concentration strengthened this association. None of the maternal preconception phenol concentrations were associated with birth weight. However, maternal prenatal triclosan concentrations were associated with a 38g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: -76, 0). Few associations were observed between phenols and head circumference except for a decrease of 0.27cm (95% CI: -54, 0) in relation to maternal preconception methylparaben concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Although our findings should be interpreted in light of inherent study limitations, these results suggest potential evidence of associations between some paternal or maternal phenol concentrations and birth size.

    • Food Safety
      1. Discussing symptoms with sick food service employeesCdc-pdf
        Charles J, Radke T.
        Journal of Environmental Health. 2017 ;80(5):24-26.

        This special report examines two federal laws, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), and considers the role each law plays in discussions about employees’ symptoms or illnesses. It is possible that existing state laws might restrict restaurant manager actions on this issue. Industry food safety professionals, however, specifically mentioned federal laws, so this special report will focus on federal regulations.

      2. Trichinellosis outbreak linked to consumption of privately raised raw boar meat – California, 2017External
        Heaton D, Huang S, Shiau R, Casillas S, Straily A, Kong LK, Ng V, Petru V.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):247-249.

        On January 15, 2017, a hospital physician notified the Alameda County Public Health Department (ACPHD) in California of a patient with a suspected diagnosis of trichinellosis, a roundworm disease transmitted by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat containing Trichinella spp. larvae (1). A family member of the initial patient reported that at least three other friends and family members had been evaluated at area hospitals for fever, myalgia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. The patients had attended a celebration on December 28, 2016, at which several pork dishes were served, including larb, a traditional Laotian raw pork dish, leading the hospital physician to suspect a diagnosis of trichinellosis. Although the event hosts did not know the exact number of attendees, ACPHD identified 29 persons who attended the event and seven persons who did not attend the event, but consumed pork taken home from the event by attendees. The event hosts reported that the meat had come from a domesticated wild boar raised and slaughtered on their private family farm in northern California. ACPHD conducted a case investigation that included identification of additional cases, testing of leftover raw meat, and a retrospective cohort study to identify risk factors for infection.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Evidence based medicine and big genomic dataExternal
        Ioannidis JP, Khoury MJ.
        Hum Mol Genet. 2018 Feb 20.

        Genomic and other related big data (Big Genomic Data, BGD for short) are ushering a new era of precision medicine. This overview discusses whether principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) hold true for BGD and how they should be operationalized in the current era. Major EBM principles include the systematic identification, description and analysis of the validity and utility of BGD, the combination of individual clinical expertise with individual patient needs and preferences, and the focus on obtaining experimental evidence, whenever possible. BGD emphasize information of single patients with an overemphasis on N-of-1 trials to personalize treatment. However, large-scale comparative population data remain indispensable for meaningful translation of BGD personalized information. The impact of BGD on population health depends on its ability to affect large segments of the population. While several frameworks have been proposed to facilitate and standardize decision-making for use of genomic tests, there are new caveats that arise from BGD that extend beyond the limitations that were applicable for more simple genetic tests. Non-evidence-based use of BGD may be harmful and result in major waste of health care resources. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will continue to be the strongest arbitrator for the clinical utility of genomic technologies, including BGD. Research on BGD needs to focus not only on finding robust predictive associations (clinical validity), but more importantly on evaluating the balance of health benefits and potential harms (clinical utility), as well as implementation challenges. Appropriate features of such useful research on BGD are discussed.

      2. Association of chronic fatigue syndrome with premature telomere attritionExternal
        Rajeevan MS, Murray J, Oakley L, Lin JS, Unger ER.
        J Transl Med. 2018 Feb 27;16(1):44.

        BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a severely debilitating condition of unknown etiology. The symptoms and risk factors of ME/CFS share features of accelerated aging implicated in several diseases. Using telomere length as a marker, this study was performed to test the hypothesis that ME/CFS is associated with accelerated aging. METHODS: Participant (n = 639) data came from the follow-up time point of the Georgia CFS surveillance study. Using the 1994 CFS Research Case Definition with questionnaire-based subscale thresholds for fatigue, function, and symptoms, participants were classified into four illness groups: CFS if all criteria were met (n = 64), CFS-X if CFS with exclusionary conditions (n = 77), ISF (insufficient symptoms/fatigue) if only some criteria were met regardless of exclusionary conditions (n = 302), and NF (non-fatigued) if no criteria and no exclusionary conditions (n = 196). Relative telomere length (T/S ratio) was measured using DNA from whole blood and real-time PCR. General linear models were used to estimate the association of illness groups or T/S ratio with demographics, biological measures and covariates with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The mean T/S ratio differed significantly by illness group (p = 0.0017); the T/S ratios in CFS (0.90 +/- 0.03) and ISF (0.94 +/- 0.02) were each significantly lower than in NF (1.06 +/- 0.04). Differences in T/S ratio by illness groups remained significant after adjustment for covariates of age, sex, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, post-exertional malaise and education attainment. Telomere length was shorter by 635, 254 and 424 base pairs in CFS, CFS-X and ISF, respectively, compared to NF. This shorter telomere length translates to roughly 10.1-20.5, 4.0-8.2 and 6.6-13.7 years of additional aging in CFS, CFS-X and ISF compared to NF respectively. Further, stratified analyses based on age and sex demonstrated that the association of ME/CFS with short telomeres is largely moderated by female subjects < 45 years old. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a significant association of ME/CFS with premature telomere attrition that is largely moderated by female subjects < 45 years old. Our results indicate that ME/CFS could be included in the list of conditions associated with accelerated aging. Further work is needed to evaluate the functional significance of accelerated aging in ME/CFS.

    • Health Economics
      1. CDC’s 6|18 Initiative: A cross-sector approach to translating evidence into practiceExternal
        Seeff LC, McGinnis T, Heishman H.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Feb 22.

        CONTEXT: As the US health care system continues to undergo dynamic change, the increased alignment between health care quality and payment has provided new opportunities for public health and health care sectors to work together. PROGRAM: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 6|18 Initiative accelerates cross-sector collaboration between public health and health care purchasers, payers, and providers and highlights 6 high-burden conditions and 18 associated interventions with evidence of cost reduction/neutrality and improved health outcomes. This evidence can inform payment, utilization, and quality of prevention and control interventions. IMPLEMENTATION: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention focused initially on public payer health insurance interventions for asthma control, unintended pregnancy prevention, and tobacco cessation. Nine state Medicaid and public health agency teams-in Colorado, Georgia, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Rhode Island, and South Carolina-participated in the initiative because they had previously prioritized the health condition(s) and specific intervention(s) and had secured state-level leadership support for state agency collaboration. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Center for Health Care Strategies, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and other partners supported state implementation and dissemination of early lessons learned. EVALUATION: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted exploratory interviews to guide improvement of the 6|18 Initiative and to understand facilitators, barriers, and complementary roles played by each sector. Monthly technical assistance calls conducted with state teams documented collaborative activities between state Medicaid agencies and health departments and state processes to increase coverage and utilization. DISCUSSION: The 6|18 Initiative is strengthening partnerships between state health departments and Medicaid agencies and contributing to state progress in helping improve Medicaid coverage and utilization of effective prevention and control interventions. This initiative highlights early successes for others interested in strengthening collaboration between state agencies and between public and private sectors to improve payment, utilization, and quality of evidence-based interventions.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. The National Healthcare Safety Network Long-term Care Facility Component early reporting experience: January 2013-December 2015External
        Palms DL, Mungai E, Eure T, Anttila A, Thompson ND, Dudeck MA, Edwards JR, Bell JM, Stone ND.
        Am J Infect Control. 2018 Feb 22.

        BACKGROUND: In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the Long-term Care Facility (LTCF) Component of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) designed for LTCFs to monitor Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs), urinary tract infections (UTIs), infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and infection prevention process measures. METHODS: We describe characteristics and reporting patterns of facilities enrolled in the first 3 years of the surveillance system and rate estimates for CDI, UTI, and MRSA data submitted between 2013 and 2015. RESULTS: From 2013-2015, 279 LTCFs were enrolled and eligible to report to the NHSN with variability in reporting from year to year. Crude rate estimates pooled over these 3 years from reporting facilities were 0.98 incident LTCF-onset CDI cases per 10,000 resident days, 0.59 UTI cases per 1,000 resident days, and 0.10 LTCF-onset MRSA cases per 1,000 resident days. CONCLUSIONS: These initial data demonstrate the capability of the NHSN LTCF Component as a national surveillance system for monitoring infections in LTCFs. Further investigation is needed to understand factors associated with successful enrollment and reporting. As participation increases, data from a larger group of LTCFs will be used to establish national baselines and track prevention goals.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Post-licensure safety monitoring of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2009-2015External
        Arana JE, Harrington T, Cano M, Lewis P, Mba-Jonas A, Rongxia L, Stewart B, Markowitz LE, Shimabukuro TT.
        Vaccine. 2018 Feb 21.

        BACKGROUND: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV) for use in females and males aged 9-26years, since 2006 and 2009 respectively. We characterized reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a US spontaneous reporting system, in females and males who received 4vHPV vaccination. METHODS: We searched VAERS for US reports of adverse events (AEs) following 4vHPV from January 2009 through December 2015. Signs and symptoms were coded using Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). We calculated reporting rates and conducted empirical Bayesian data mining to identify disproportional reports. Clinicians reviewed available information, including medical records, and reports of selected pre-specified conditions. FINDINGS: VAERS received 19,760 reports following 4vHPV; 60.2% in females, 17.2% in males, and in 22.6% sex was missing. Overall, 94.2% of reports were non-serious; dizziness, syncope and injection site reactions were commonly reported in both males and females. Headache, fatigue and nausea were commonly reported serious AEs. More than 60 million 4vHPV doses were distributed during the study period. Crude AE reporting rates were 327 reports per million 4vHPV doses distributed for all reports, and 19 per million for serious reports. Among 29 verified reports of death, there was no pattern of clustering of deaths by diagnosis, co-morbidities, age, or interval from vaccination to death. INTERPRETATION: No new or unexpected safety concerns or reporting patterns of 4vHPV with clinically important AEs were detected. Safety profile of 4vHPV is consistent with data from pre-licensure trials and postmarketing safety data.

      2. BACKGROUND: An overall increase has been reported in vaccination rates among adolescents during the past decade. Studies of vaccination coverage have shown disparities when comparing foreign-born and U.S.-born populations among children and adults; however, limited information is available concerning potential disparities in adolescents. METHODS: The National Immunization Survey-Teen is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of caregivers of adolescents aged 13-17years, followed by a mail survey to vaccination providers that is used to estimate vaccination coverage among the U.S. population of adolescents. Using the National Immunization Survey-Teen data, we assessed vaccination coverage during 2012-2014 among adolescents for routinely recommended vaccines for this age group (>/=1 dose tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis [Tdap] vaccine, >/=1 dose quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate [MenACWY] vaccine, >/=3 doses human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccine) and for routine childhood vaccination catch-up doses (>/=2 doses measles, mumps, and rubella [MMR] vaccine, >/=2 doses varicella vaccine, and >/=3 doses hepatitis B [HepB] vaccine). Vaccination coverage prevalence and vaccination prevalence ratios were estimated. RESULTS: Of the 58,090 respondents included, 3.3% were foreign-born adolescents. Significant differences were observed between foreign-born and U.S.-born adolescents for insurance status, income-to-poverty ratio, education, interview language, and household size. Foreign-born adolescents had significantly lower unadjusted vaccination coverage for HepB (89% vs. 93%), and higher coverage for the recommended >/=3 doses of HPV vaccine among males, compared with U.S.-born adolescents (22% vs. 14%). Adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic factors accounted for the disparity in HPV but not HepB vaccination coverage. CONCLUSIONS: We report comparable unadjusted vaccination coverage among foreign-born and U.S.-born adolescents for Tdap, MenACWY, MMR, >/=2 varicella. Although coverage was high for HepB vaccine, it was significantly lower among foreign-born adolescents, compared with U.S.-born adolescents. HPV and >/=2-dose varicella vaccination coverage were low among both groups.

      3. Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older, United States, 2018External
        Kim DK, Riley LE, Hunter P.
        Ann Intern Med. 2018 Feb 6;168(3):210-220.

        [No abstract]

      4. Recurrent intussusception among infants less than 2 years of age in VietnamExternal
        Trang NV, Burnett E, Ly LH, Anh NP, Hung PH, Linh HM, Trang NC, Canh TM, Minh VT, Tate JE, Yen C, Anh DD, Parashar UD.
        Vaccine. 2018 Feb 22.

        In some settings, rotavirus vaccines have been associated with a low-level risk of intussusception, the most common cause of bowel obstruction in infants. As Vietnam prepares to introduce rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization program, we sought to better characterize the epidemiology of recurrent intussusception. We enrolled children < 2years of age who were hospitalized for intussusception retrospectively from January 2013 through December 2014 and prospectively from January 2015 through December 2016 at 2 hospitals in Vietnam. We enrolled 2477 children. Nearly all children were successfully treated by enema with low surgery rate (1%). We found 10% of children (n=254) experienced at least once recurrence (range: 1-6) and 57% of first recurrences happened within the first 12weeks after treatment of the first episode. The median age at first intussusception was 13months for children without a recurrent episode and 10months for children with a recurrence. The symptoms of the recurrent cases were milder with less vomiting (67%), bloody stool (7%) and fever (10%) compared to the initial cases (p<0.01). We found the rate of recurrences following enema reduction of intussusception to be similar to that reported from other countries. Due to the high rate of intussusception and recurrent episodes in Vietnam, a better understanding of the cause of recurrent intussusception will be critical in assessing intussusception cases after rotavirus introduction.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Injury-related gaining momentum as external causes of deaths in Ethiopian health and demographic surveillance sites: evidence from verbal autopsy studyExternal
        Gelaye KA, Tessema F, Tariku B, Abera SF, Gebru AA, Assefa N, Zelalem D, Dedefo M, Kondal M, Kote M, Sisay MM, Mekonnen W, Terefe MW, Biks GA, Eshetu F, Abera M, Fekadu Y, Hailu GB, Tilahun E, Lakew Y.
        Glob Health Action. 2018 ;11(1):1430669.

        BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, though all kinds of mortality due to external causes are an important component of overall mortality often not counted or documented on an individual basis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of mortality from external causes using verbal autopsy (VA) method at the Ethiopian HDSS Network sites. METHODS: All deaths at Ethiopian HDSS sites were routinely registered and followed up with VA interviews. The VA forms comprised deaths up to 28 days, between four weeks and 14 years and 15 years and above. The cause of a death was ascertained based on an interview with next of families or other caregivers using a standardized questionnaire that draws information on signs, symptoms, medical history and circumstances preceding death after 45 days mourning period. Two physician assigned probable causes of death as underlying, immediate and contributing factors independently using information in VA forms based on the WHO ICD-10 and VA code system. Disagreed cases sent to third physician for independent review and diagnosis. The final cause of death considered when two of the three physicians assigned underlying cause of death; otherwise, labeled as undetermined. RESULTS: In the period from 2009 to 2013, a total of 9719 deaths were registered. Of the total deaths, 623 (6.4%) were from external causes. Of these, accidental drowning and submersion, 136 (21.8%), accidental fall, 113 (18.1%) and transport-related accidents, 112 (18.0%) were the topmost three leading external causes of deaths. About 436 (70.0%) of deaths were from the age group above 15 years old. Drowning and submersion and transport-related accidents were high in age group between 5 and 14 years old. CONCLUSION: In this study, external causes of death are significant public health problems and require attention as one of prior health agenda.

      2. SafeCare is an evidence-based behavioral parent training intervention that has been successfully implemented in multiple state child welfare systems. A statewide implementation in Oklahoma established the effectiveness of SafeCare with a diverse group of parents, which included adolescent parents under 21 years of age, a particularly at-risk group. The current study examined whether SafeCare is also effective for this subsample of 294 adolescent parents with regard to child welfare recidivism, depression and child abuse potential, and attainment of service goals. Post-treatment adolescent parent ratings of program engagement and satisfaction were also examined. Among the subsample of adolescent parents, the SafeCare intervention did not result in significantly improved outcomes in terms of preventing recidivism or reduction in risk factors associated with child abuse and neglect as compared to child welfare services as usual. Further, no significant differences in program engagement and satisfaction between SafeCare and services as usual were detected. These findings shed light on the potential differences in program effectiveness between adolescent and adult parents, and the need for future research to rigorously evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral parenting programs with adolescent parents.

      3. Suicides among American Indian/Alaska Natives – National Violent Death Reporting System, 18 states, 2003-2014External
        Leavitt RA, Ertl A, Sheats K, Petrosky E, Ivey-Stephenson A, Fowler KA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):237-242.

        Suicide disproportionately affects American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN). The suicide rate among AI/AN has been increasing since 2003 (1), and in 2015, AI/AN suicide rates in the 18 states participating in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) were 21.5 per 100,000, more than 3.5 times higher than those among racial/ethnic groups with the lowest rates.* To study completed suicides across all ages of AI/AN, NVDRS data collected from 2003 to 2014 were analyzed by comparing differences in suicide characteristics and circumstances between AI/AN and white decedents. Group differences were assessed using chi-squared tests and logistic regression. Across multiple demographics, incident characteristics, and circumstances, AI/AN decedents were significantly different from white decedents. More than one third (35.7%) of AI/AN decedents were aged 10-24 years (versus 11.1% of whites). Compared with whites, AI/AN decedents had 6.6 times the odds of living in a nonmetropolitan area, 2.1 times the odds of a positive alcohol toxicology result, and 2.4 times the odds of a suicide of a friend or family member affecting their death. Suicide prevention efforts should incorporate evidence-based, culturally relevant strategies at individual, interpersonal, and community levels (2) and need to account for the heterogeneity among AI/AN communities (3,4).

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Recommendations for clinical CYP2C19 genotyping allele selection: A Report of the Association for Molecular PathologyExternal
        Pratt VM, Del Tredici AL, Hachad H, Ji Y, Kalman LV, Scott SA, Weck KE.
        J Mol Diagn. 2018 Feb 20.

        This document was developed by the Pharmacogenetics (PGx) Working Group of the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) Clinical Practice Committee, whose aim is to recommend variants for inclusion in clinical pharmacogenetic testing panels. The goals of the AMP PGx Working Group are to define the key attributes of PGx alleles recommended for clinical testing, and to define a minimum set of variants that should be included in clinical PGx genotyping assays. These recommendations include a minimum panel of variant alleles (Tier 1) and an extended panel of variant alleles (Tier 2) that will aid clinical laboratories when designing PGx assays. The Working Group considered variant allele frequencies in different populations and ethnicities, the availability of reference materials, as well as other technical considerations for PGx testing when developing these recommendations. These CYP2C19 genotyping recommendations are the first of a series of recommendations for PGx testing. These recommendations are not to be interpreted as restrictive but to provide a helpful guide.

      2. Interventions to improve follow-up of laboratory test results pending at discharge: A systematic reviewExternal
        Whitehead NS, Williams L, Meleth S, Kennedy S, Epner P, Singh H, Wooldridge K, Dalal AK, Walz SE, Lorey T, Graber ML.
        J Hosp Med. 2018 Feb 28.

        Failure to follow up test results pending at discharge (TPAD) from hospitals or emergency departments is a major patient safety concern. The purpose of this review is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to improve follow-up of laboratory TPAD. We conducted literature searches in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE using search terms for relevant health care settings, transition of patient care, laboratory tests, communication, and pending or missed tests. We solicited unpublished studies from the clinical laboratory community and excluded articles that did not address transitions between settings, did not include an intervention, or were not related to laboratory TPAD. We also excluded letters, editorials, commentaries, abstracts, case reports, and case series. Of the 9,592 abstracts retrieved, 8 met the inclusion criteria and reported the successful communication of TPAD. A team member abstracted predetermined data elements from each study, and a senior scientist reviewed the abstraction. Two experienced reviewers independently appraised the quality of each study using published LMBP A-6 scoring criteria. We assessed the body of evidence using the A-6 methodology, and the evidence suggested that electronic tools or one-on-one education increased documentation of pending tests in discharge summaries. We also found that automated notifications improved awareness of TPAD. The interventions were supported by suggestive evidence; this type of evidence is below the level of evidence required for LMBP recommendations. We encourage additional research into the impact of these interventions on key processes and health outcomes.

      3. A novel biological role for peptidyl-arginine deiminases: Citrullination of cathelicidin LL-37 controls the immunostimulatory potential of cell-free DNAExternal
        Wong A, Bryzek D, Dobosz E, Scavenius C, Svoboda P, Rapala-Kozik M, Lesner A, Frydrych I, Enghild J, Mydel P, Pohl J, Thompson PR, Potempa J, Koziel J.
        J Immunol. 2018 Feb 23.

        LL-37, the only human cathelicidin that is released during inflammation, is a potent regulator of immune responses by facilitating delivery of oligonucleotides to intracellular TLR-9, thereby enhancing the response of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to extracellular DNA. Although important for pathogen recognition, this mechanism may facilitate development of autoimmune diseases. In this article, we show that citrullination of LL-37 by peptidyl-arginine deiminases (PADs) hindered peptide-dependent DNA uptake and sensing by pDCs. In contrast, carbamylation of the peptide (homocitrullination of Lys residues) had no effect. The efficiency of LL-37 binding to oligonucleotides and activation of pDCs was found to be inversely proportional to the number of citrullinated residues in the peptide. Similarly, preincubation of carbamylated LL-37 with PAD2 abrogated the peptide’s ability to bind DNA. Conversely, LL-37 with Arg residues substituted by homoarginine, which cannot be deiminated, elicited full activity of native LL-37 regardless of PAD2 treatment. Taken together, the data showed that citrullination abolished LL-37 ability to bind DNA and altered the immunomodulatory function of the peptide. Both activities were dependent on the proper distribution of guanidinium side chains in the native peptide sequence. Moreover, our data suggest that cathelicidin/LL-37 is citrullinated by PADs during NET formation, thus affecting the inflammatory potential of NETs. Together this may represent a novel mechanism for preventing the breakdown of immunotolerance, which is dependent on the response of APCs to self-molecules (including cell-free DNA); overactivation may facilitate development of autoimmunity.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Notes from the field: Occupational hazards associated with harvesting and processing cannabis – Washington, 2015-2016External
        Victory KR, Couch J, Lowe B, Green BJ.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):259-260.

        [No abstract]

      2. An exploration of shift work, fatigue, and gender among police officers: The BCOPS StudyExternal
        Violanti JM, Owens SL, Fekedulegn D, Ma CC, Charles LE, Andrew ME.
        Workplace Health Saf. 2018 Feb 1:2165079918754586.

        The present study examined the association between shift work and fatigue among male ( n = 230) and female ( n = 78) police officers. A 15-year work history database was used to define dominant shifts as day, afternoon, or night. A 10-item questionnaire created from the Standard Shiftwork Index (SSI) assessed fatigue. Gender-stratified analyses of variance and covariance and Poisson regression were used to compare means and prevalence of individual items across shifts. No significant differences in total fatigue scores were observed across shifts. However, the prevalence of the fatigue item “feelings of tiredness” was 89% higher among male officers working the afternoon shift compared with officers working the day shift (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.12, 3.23], p = .020), after adjustment for covariates. Women reported a lower prevalence of tiredness than men on the afternoon shift. Organizations with afternoon shift workers should consider reducing fatigue at work through education and other methods.

    • Public Health Ethics
      1. Beyond research ethics: Novel approaches of 3 major public health institutions to provide ethics input on public health practice activitiesExternal
        Klingler C, Barrett DH, Ondrusek N, Johnson BR, Saxena A, Reis AA.
        J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Feb 23.

        Public health institutions increasingly realize the importance of creating a culture in their organizations that values ethics. When developing strategies to strengthen ethics, institutions will have to take into account that while public health research projects typically undergo thorough ethics review, activities considered public health practice may not be subjected to similar oversight. This approach, based on a research-practice dichotomy, is increasingly being criticized as it does not adequately identify and manage ethically relevant risks to those affected by nonresearch activities. As a reaction, 3 major public health institutions (the World Health Organization, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Public Health Ontario) have implemented mechanisms for ethics review of public health practice activities. In this article, we describe and critically discuss the different modalities of the 3 approaches. We argue that although further evaluation is necessary to determine the effectiveness of the different approaches, public health institutions should strive to implement procedures to ensure that public health practice adheres to the highest ethical standards.

    • Reproductive Health
      1. Adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and in Botswana in particular continue to bear the brunt of the HIV epidemic. This analysis assessed gender differences among theory-based sexual and reproductive health protective and risk factors in a cross-sectional sample of 228 Batswana adolescents. Incongruence between preferred and actual sources of sexual information and several important gender differences in parent-adolescent relationships, psychosocial influences, and adolescent sexual behaviors were identified. Parents were the fourth most common source of information about sex; yet, over three-quarters of adolescents preferred to have parents teach them about sex. Boys reported more positive relationships with their parents and girls reported more positive attitudes toward transactional sex. Both boys and girls reported similarly low levels of parental monitoring, parental communication, and parental responsiveness, all of which are important protective factors. These findings suggest interventions should address these gender differences and consider offering parallel interventions for adolescents and their parents in Botswana.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. [No abstract]

      2. Variations in cigarette smoking and quit attempts by health insurance among US adults in 41 states and 2 jurisdictions, 2014External
        Naavaal S, Malarcher A, Xu X, Zhang L, Babb S.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Jan 1:33354917753120.

        OBJECTIVES: Information on the impact of health insurance on smoking and quit attempts at the state level is limited. We examined the state-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking and past-year quit attempts among adults aged 18-64 by health insurance and other individual- and state-level factors. METHODS: We used data from 41 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, the jurisdictions that administered the Health Care Access module of the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data on quit attempts included current smokers with a past-year quit attempt and former smokers who quit during the past year. RESULTS: Overall, smoking prevalence ranged from 14.6% among those with private insurance to 34.7% among Medicaid enrollees, and past-year quit-attempt prevalence ranged from 66.4% among the uninsured to 71.5% among Medicaid enrollees. By insurance group, differences in the prevalence of state-specific past-year quit attempts ranged from 15 to 26 percentage points. Regardless of insurance type, people who were non-Hispanic white and had lower education levels were less likely to attempt quitting than were Hispanic people, non-Hispanic black people, and adults with more than a high school education. CONCLUSIONS: We found disparities in smoking and quit attempts by insurance status and state. Opportunities exist to increase access to cessation treatments through comprehensive state tobacco control programs and improved cessation insurance coverage, coupled with promotion of covered cessation treatments.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Rabies vaccine hesitancy and deaths among pregnant and breastfeeding women – Vietnam, 2015-2016External
        Nguyen HT, Tran CH, Dang AD, Tran HG, Vu TD, Pham TN, Nguyen HV, Nguyen AN, Pieracci EG, Tran DN.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 2;67(8):250-252.

        Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. MoH found that, during 2015-2016, among 169 cases reported in Vietnam, two probable cases of rabies were reported in breastfeeding mothers and four in pregnant women, all of whom had been bitten by dogs. All six patients died. Three of the four pregnant women had cesarean deliveries. One of the three newborns died from complications believed to be unrelated to rabies; the fourth pregnant woman contracted rabies too early in pregnancy for the fetus to be viable. Two of the patients sought care from a medical provider or traditional healer; however, none sought PEP after being bitten. In each case, families reported the patient’s fear of risk to the fetus or breastfed child as the primary barrier to receiving PEP. These findings highlight the need for public health messaging about the safety and effectiveness of PEP in preventing rabies among all persons with exposures, including pregnant and breastfeeding women.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019