Volume 10, Issue 37, October 2, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 37, October 2, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. Advancing measurement of diabetes at the population levelExternal
        Ali MK, Siegel KR, Laxy M, Gregg EW.
        Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Sep 19;18(11):108.

        PURPOSE: The measurement and estimation of diabetes in populations guides resource allocation, health priorities, and can influence practice and future research. To provide a critical reflection on current diabetes surveillance, we provide in-depth discussion about how upstream determinants, prevalence, incidence, and downstream impacts of diabetes are measured in the USA, and the challenges in obtaining valid, accurate, and precise estimates. FINDINGS: Current estimates of the burden of diabetes risk are obtained through national surveys, health systems data, registries, and administrative data. Several methodological nuances influence accurate estimates of the population-level burden of diabetes, including biases in selection and response rates, representation of population subgroups, accuracy of reporting of diabetes status, variation in biochemical testing, and definitions of diabetes used by investigators. Technological innovations and analytical approaches (e.g., data linkage to outcomes data like the National Death Index) may help address some, but not all, of these concerns, and additional methodological advances and validation are still needed. Current surveillance efforts are imperfect, but measures consistently collected and analyzed over several decades enable useful comparisons over time. In addition, we proposed that focused subsampling, use of technology, data linkages, and innovative sensitivity analyses can substantially advance population-level estimation.

      2. Exercise capacity and clinical outcomes in adults followed in the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD)External
        Badawy SM, Payne AB, Rodeghier MJ, Liem RI.
        Eur J Haematol. 2018 Oct;101(4):532-541.

        OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with exercise capacity in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and its relationship to hospitalizations and mortality. METHODS: A total of 223 participants in the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) (64% female, 70% hemoglobin SS/Sbeta(0) thalassemia, mean age 43.3 +/- 7.5 years) underwent maximal exercise testing using a treadmill protocol with a mean duration of 11.6 +/- 5.2 minutes. RESULTS: Female sex (beta = -3.34, 95% CI [-1.80, -4.88], P < 0.001), older age (beta = -0.14, 95% CI [-0.24, -0.04], P = 0.005), higher body mass index (beta = -0.23, 95% CI [-0.37, -0.10]; P = 0.001), and lower hemoglobin (beta = 0.56, 95% CI [0.08, 1.04], P = 0.02) were independently associated with lower fitness, while there was a trend with abnormal pulmonary function testing (beta = -1.42, 95% CI [-2.92, 0.07]; P = 0.06). Lower percent-predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) was independently associated with lower fitness (beta = 0.08, 95% CI [0.03, 0.13], P = 0.001). Genotype and hospitalization rates for pain and acute chest syndrome (ACS) prior to testing were not associated with exercise capacity. Baseline exercise capacity predicted neither future pain or ACS nor survival in our cohort. Adults with SCD tolerated maximal exercise testing. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective studies are needed to further evaluate the impact of regular exercise and improved fitness on clinical outcomes and mortality in SCD.

      3. Increasing awareness of uterine cancer risks and symptoms by using campaign materials from Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic CancerExternal
        Novinson D, Puckett M, Townsend J, Tortolero-Luna G, Patterson JR, Gelb CA, Stewart SL.
        J Cancer Educ. 2018 Sep 18.

        Uterine cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA. To increase knowledge among women and healthcare providers about uterine cancer, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) partnered with the Inside Knowledge: Get The Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign to present facilitated discussions about uterine cancer with women and providers. After standardized training, local NCCCP grantees developed and led community-based, tailored, facilitated discussions for public participants and providers. Pre- and post-session surveys were administered to assess knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, testing, and diagnostic options for uterine cancer. Following the facilitated sessions, significantly, more public respondents identified uterine cancer risk factors (e.g., advanced age, post-menopausal status). However, they also equally identified factors not associated with uterine cancer (e.g., smoking, HPV). Non-OB/GYN provider knowledge increased, significantly for some risks and symptoms, and their confidence with relaying uterine cancer information to patients significantly increased from 51.4 to 91.0% (P < 0.0001). Relatively low proportions of OB/GYNs (19.3%), other primary care providers (46.2%), and public participants (51.8%) knew post-session that genetic testing for Lynch syndrome can help stratify women for uterine cancer risk. Participant knowledge significantly increased for some risk factors and symptoms following Inside Knowledge educational sessions; however, some knowledge gaps remained. Overall, the Inside Knowledge materials are effective for increasing uterine cancer awareness among providers and women. Additional provider education could include specific resources related to uterine cancer genetic associations, as advancements in genetic testing for all uterine cancers are currently being made.

      4. CDC Grand Rounds: Promoting well-being and independence in older adultsExternal
        Olivari BS, Baumgart M, Lock SL, Whiting CG, Taylor CA, Iskander J, Thorpe P, McGuire LC.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep 21;67(37):1036-1039.

        Healthy aging is not merely the absence of disease or disability, but requires physical and mental health and ongoing social engagement (1). As the average U.S. life expectancy increases, recognition that public health can play a vital role in promoting healthy, successful aging even in the face of increased prevalence of chronic diseases, including types of dementia, among older adults (i.e., aged >/=65 years) has grown. Furthermore, actively engaging adults in prevention and wellness along with involving their caregivers (i.e., the family and friends of older adults who provide them with unpaid and informal support and services) can serve to prevent or delay the onset of physical disabilities and cognitive decline. Adults often are reluctant to discuss their concerns about worsening memory with their health care providers although such discussions can lead to earlier diagnosis and better care, planning, and support. As advances in public health and health care have helped increase life expectancy, public health professionals and health care providers have the opportunity to improve the quality of life for older adults and their caregivers and reduce the burdens associated with aging.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Treatment correlates of successful outcomes in pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysisExternal
        Ahmad N, Ahuja SD, Akkerman OW, Alffenaar JC, Anderson LF, Baghaei P, Bang D, Barry PM, Bastos ML, Behera D, Benedetti A, Bisson GP, Boeree MJ, Bonnet M, Brode SK, Brust JC, Cai Y, Caumes E, Cegielski JP, Centis R, Chan PC, Chan ED, Chang KC, Charles M, Cirule A, Dalcolmo MP, D’Ambrosio L, de Vries G, Dheda K, Esmail A, Flood J, Fox GJ, Frechet-Jachym M, Fregona G, Gayoso R, Gegia M, Gler MT, Gu S, Guglielmetti L, Holtz TH, Hughes J, Isaakidis P, Jarlsberg L, Kempker RR, Keshavjee S, Khan FA, Kipiani M, Koenig SP, Koh WJ, Kritski A, Kuksa L, Kvasnovsky CL, Kwak N, Lan Z, Lange C, Laniado-Laborin R, Lee M, Leimane V, Leung CC, Leung EC, Li PZ, Lowenthal P, Maciel EL, Marks SM, Mase S, Mbuagbaw L, Migliori GB, Milanov V, Miller AC, Mitnick CD, Modongo C, Mohr E, Monedero I, Nahid P, Ndjeka N, O’Donnell MR, Padayatchi N, Palmero D, Pape JW, Podewils LJ, Reynolds I, Riekstina V, Robert J, Rodriguez M, Seaworth B, Seung KJ, Schnippel K, Shim TS, Singla R, Smith SE, Sotgiu G, Sukhbaatar G, Tabarsi P, Tiberi S, Trajman A, Trieu L, Udwadia ZF, van der Werf TS, Veziris N, Viiklepp P, Vilbrun SC, Walsh K, Westenhouse J, Yew WW, Yim JJ, Zetola NM, Zignol M, Menzies D.
        Lancet. 2018 Sep 8;392(10150):821-834.

        BACKGROUND: Treatment outcomes for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis remain poor. We aimed to estimate the association of treatment success and death with the use of individual drugs, and the optimal number and duration of treatment with those drugs in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: In this individual patient data meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to identify potentially eligible observational and experimental studies published between Jan 1, 2009, and April 30, 2016. We also searched reference lists from all systematic reviews of treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis published since 2009. To be eligible, studies had to report original results, with end of treatment outcomes (treatment completion [success], failure, or relapse) in cohorts of at least 25 adults (aged >18 years). We used anonymised individual patient data from eligible studies, provided by study investigators, regarding clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. Using propensity score-matched generalised mixed effects logistic, or linear regression, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and adjusted risk differences for success or death during treatment, for specific drugs currently used to treat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, as well as the number of drugs used and treatment duration. FINDINGS: Of 12 030 patients from 25 countries in 50 studies, 7346 (61%) had treatment success, 1017 (8%) had failure or relapse, and 1729 (14%) died. Compared with failure or relapse, treatment success was positively associated with the use of linezolid (adjusted risk difference 0.15, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.18), levofloxacin (0.15, 0.13 to 0.18), carbapenems (0.14, 0.06 to 0.21), moxifloxacin (0.11, 0.08 to 0.14), bedaquiline (0.10, 0.05 to 0.14), and clofazimine (0.06, 0.01 to 0.10). There was a significant association between reduced mortality and use of linezolid (-0.20, -0.23 to -0.16), levofloxacin (-0.06, -0.09 to -0.04), moxifloxacin (-0.07, -0.10 to -0.04), or bedaquiline (-0.14, -0.19 to -0.10). Compared with regimens without any injectable drug, amikacin provided modest benefits, but kanamycin and capreomycin were associated with worse outcomes. The remaining drugs were associated with slight or no improvements in outcomes. Treatment outcomes were significantly worse for most drugs if they were used despite in-vitro resistance. The optimal number of effective drugs seemed to be five in the initial phase, and four in the continuation phase. In these adjusted analyses, heterogeneity, based on a simulated I(2) method, was high for approximately half the estimates for specific drugs, although relatively low for number of drugs and durations analyses. INTERPRETATION: Although inferences are limited by the observational nature of these data, treatment outcomes were significantly better with use of linezolid, later generation fluoroquinolones, bedaquiline, clofazimine, and carbapenems for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. These findings emphasise the need for trials to ascertain the optimal combination and duration of these drugs for treatment of this condition. FUNDING: American Thoracic Society, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Respiratory Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America.

      2. RSV strains and disease severityExternal
        Anderson LJ, Peret TC, Piedra PA.
        J Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 11.

        [No abstract]

      3. Testing Makes Us Stronger: Evaluating the correlation between exposure and intermediate outcomes targeted by the campaign’s messagesExternal
        Badal HJ, Boudewyns V, Uhrig JD, August EM, Ruddle P, Stryker JE.
        Patient Educ Couns. 2018 Sep 2.

        OBJECTIVES: To examine whether self-reported exposure to Testing Makes Us Stronger (TMUS), an HIV testing health communication campaign for black gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (BMSM), was associated with key intermediate outcomes targeted by the campaign’s messages. METHODS: Data from sexually active, HIV-negative or unknown status BMSM aged 18-44 (N = 590) were collected through an anonymous Web-based survey that measured sociodemographics, campaign exposure, attitudinal beliefs, normative beliefs, self-efficacy, and HIV testing intentions, among other variables. The association between exposure to TMUS and intermediate outcomes was evaluated using propensity-score weight adjusted correlations. RESULTS: Exposure to TMUS was high (43%) among the priority audience. Exposure to the campaign was correlated with 8 of 11 intermediate outcomes measured, including key attitudinal beliefs about the accessibility of the test and benefits to the individual, injunctive norms, self-efficacy, and HIV testing intention. CONCLUSION: Adhering to principles of effective campaign design, such as using theory as a conceptual foundation for message design, can increase a campaign’s chances for successfully meeting its goals and objectives. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Findings from this study can be used to inform message design for other communication efforts to promote HIV testing among BMSM.

      4. Progress toward UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets: A respondent-driven survey among female sex workers in Kampala, UgandaExternal
        Doshi RH, Sande E, Ogwal M, Kiyingi H, McIntyre A, Kusiima J, Musinguzi G, Serwadda D, Hladik W.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(9):e0201352.

        BACKGROUND: We investigated progress towards UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets among female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda, who bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. METHODS: Between April and December 2012, 1,487 female sex workers, defined as women, 15-49 years, residing in greater Kampala, and selling sex for money in the last 6 months, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Venous blood was collected for HIV and viral load testing [viral load suppression (VLS) defined as <1,000 copies/mL]. We collected data using audio computer-assisted self-interviews and calculated weighted population-level estimates. RESULTS: The median age was 27 years (interquartile range: 23 to 32). HIV seroprevalence was 31.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29.0, 33.7%). Among all female sex workers who tested HIV-positive in the survey (population-level targets), 45.5% (95% CI: 40.1, 51.0) had knowledge of their serostatus (population-level target: 90%), 37.8% (95% CI: 32.2, 42.8) self-reported to be on ART (population-level target: 81%), and 35.2% (95% CI: 20.7, 30.4) were virally suppressed (population-level target: 73%). CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence among Kampala female sex workers is high, whereas serostatus knowledge and VLS are far below UNAIDS targets. Kampala female sex workers are in need of intensified and targeted HIV prevention and control efforts.

      5. Forecasting the global demand for HIV monitoring and diagnostic tests: A 2016-2021 analysisExternal
        Habiyambere V, Dongmo Nguimfack B, Vojnov L, Ford N, Stover J, Hasek L, Maggiore P, Low-Beer D, Perez Gonzalez M, Edgil D, Williams J, Kuritsky J, Hargreaves S, NeSmith T.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(9):e0201341.

        INTRODUCTION: Despite considerable progress, just over half of the 37 million people eligible to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) have accessed treatment and millions of HIV-positive people still do not know their status. With demand for ART continuing to grow, meeting the ambitious 90-90-90 HIV treatment targets will depend on improved access to high-quality diagnostics to both diagnose infection and monitor treatment adherence in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Robust projections of future demand for CD4, viral load (VL), HIV early-infant-diagnosis (EID) tests and HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are needed as scale-up continues. METHODS: We estimate the current coverage for HIV diagnostics and project future demand to 2021 using a consolidated forecast using data on past coverage and current demand from a number of sources, from 130 predominantly LMIC countries. RESULTS: We forecast that the overall number of CD4 tests is expected to decline between now and 2021 as more countries adopt test-and-treat and shift to VL testing for patient monitoring. Our consolidated forecast projects a gradual decline in demand for CD4 tests to 16.6 million by 2021. We anticipate that demand for VL tests will increase to 28.5 million by 2021, reflecting the increasing number of people who will receive ART and the adoption of VL testing for patient monitoring. We expect that the demand for EID tests will grow more rapidly than in past years, driven by the implementation of testing at birth in programmes globally, in line with WHO guideline recommendations, doubling to 2.1 million tests by 2021. Demand for rapid diagnostic tests is also likely to increase, reaching 509 million tests by 2021. DISCUSSION: In order to achieve the ambitious 90-90-90 targets, it will be essential to maintain and improve access to CD4, VL, EID tests and RDTs. These projections provide insight into the global demand we can expect to see for these HIV monitoring and diagnostic tests, both in relation to historical trends, and the 90-90-90 targets. Our projections will better enable producers to ensure adequate supply, and to support procurement organisations in planning future funding and purchase plans to meet the anticipated demand. The findings highlight the ongoing need for governments and international funding bodies to prioritise improving capacity and access to HIV diagnostic and monitoring technologies in line with demand.

      6. A multisectoral emergency response approach to a cholera outbreak in Zambia: October 2017-February 2018External
        Kapata N, Sinyange N, Mazaba ML, Musonda K, Hamoonga R, Kapina M, Zyambo K, Malambo W, Yard E, Riggs M, Narra R, Murphy J, Brunkard J, Azman AS, Monze N, Malama K, Mulwanda J, Mukonka VM.
        J Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 11.

        [No abstract]

      7. Age-associated trends in diagnosis and prevalence of infection with HIV among men who have sex with men – United States, 2008-2016External
        Mitsch A, Singh S, Li J, Balaji A, Linley L, Selik R.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep 21;67(37):1025-1031.

        In 2016, two thirds of diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact (1). The risk for sexual acquisition and transmission of HIV changes through the lifespan (2); to better guide prevention efforts for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM*), CDC analyzed National HIV Surveillance System(dagger) (NHSS) data for MSM aged >/=13 years by age group (13-29, 30-49, and >/=50 years) in 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC). During 2008-2016, the annual number of diagnoses of HIV infection increased 3% per year among MSM aged 13-29 years, decreased 4% per year among those aged 30-49 years and was stable for MSM aged >/=50 years. The number of HIV diagnoses among MSM aged 13-29 years was four times that of MSM aged >/=50 years. During 2008-2015, the number of MSM aged >/=50 years living with diagnosed HIV infection (prevalence of HIV infection) increased an average of 11% per year and at year-end 2015 was three times that of MSM aged 13-29 years. Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection persisted, particularly among younger black/African American MSM who accounted for 49% of all diagnoses among MSM aged 13-29 years during 2008-2016. To avert the most infections and improve health outcomes (3), sexually active MSM at risk for HIV infection should be tested at least once a year, and, if positive, linked to and retained in HIV medical care to achieve viral suppression (4). Those testing negative should be provided HIV prevention services, including preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) (5).

      8. Multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni outbreak linked to puppy exposure – United States, 2016-2018External
        Montgomery MP, Robertson S, Koski L, Salehi E, Stevenson LM, Silver R, Sundararaman P, Singh A, Joseph LA, Weisner MB, Brandt E, Prarat M, Bokanyi R, Chen JC, Folster JP, Bennett CT, Francois Watkins LK, Aubert RD, Chu A, Jackson J, Blanton J, Ginn A, Ramadugu K, Stanek D, DeMent J, Cui J, Zhang Y, Basler C, Friedman CR, Geissler AL, Crowe SJ, Dowell N, Dixon S, Whitlock L, Williams I, Jhung MA, Nichols MC, de Fijter S, Laughlin ME.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep 21;67(37):1032-1035.

        Campylobacter causes an estimated 1.3 million diarrheal illnesses in the United States annually (1). In August 2017, the Florida Department of Health notified CDC of six Campylobacter jejuni infections linked to company A, a national pet store chain based in Ohio. CDC examined whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data and identified six isolates from company A puppies in Florida that were highly related to an isolate from a company A customer in Ohio. This information prompted a multistate investigation by local and state health and agriculture departments and CDC to identify the outbreak source and prevent additional illness. Health officials from six states visited pet stores to collect puppy fecal samples, antibiotic records, and traceback information. Nationally, 118 persons, including 29 pet store employees, in 18 states were identified with illness onset during January 5, 2016-February 4, 2018. In total, six pet store companies were linked to the outbreak. Outbreak isolates were resistant by antibiotic susceptibility testing to all antibiotics commonly used to treat Campylobacter infections, including macrolides and quinolones. Store record reviews revealed that among 149 investigated puppies, 142 (95%) received one or more courses of antibiotics, raising concern that antibiotic use might have led to development of resistance. Public health authorities issued infection prevention recommendations to affected pet stores and recommendations for testing puppies to veterinarians. This outbreak demonstrates that puppies can be a source of multidrug-resistant Campylobacter infections in humans, warranting a closer look at antimicrobial use in the commercial dog industry.

      9. Identifying clusters of recent and rapid HIV transmission through analysis of molecular surveillance dataExternal
        Oster AM, France AM, Panneer N, Banez Ocfemia MC, Campbell E, Dasgupta S, Switzer WM, Wertheim JO, Hernandez AL.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Sep 7.

        BACKGROUND: Detecting recent and rapid spread of HIV can help prioritize prevention and early treatment for those at highest risk of transmission. HIV genetic sequence data can identify transmission clusters, but previous approaches have not distinguished clusters of recent, rapid transmission. We assessed an analytic approach to identify such clusters in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed 156,553 partial HIV-1 polymerase sequences reported to the National HIV Surveillance System and inferred transmission clusters using two genetic distance thresholds (0.5% and 1.5%) and two time periods for diagnoses (all years and 2013-2015, i.e., recent diagnoses). For rapidly growing clusters (with >/=5 diagnoses during 2015), molecular clock phylogenetic analysis estimated the time to most recent common ancestor for all divergence events within the cluster. Cluster transmission rates were estimated using these phylogenies. RESULTS: A distance threshold of 1.5% identified 103 rapidly growing clusters using all diagnoses and 73 using recent diagnoses; at 0.5%, 15 clusters were identified using all diagnoses and 13 using recent diagnoses. Molecular clock analysis estimated that the 13 clusters identified at 0.5% using recent diagnoses had been diversifying for a median of 4.7 years, compared with 6.5-13.2 years using other approaches. The 13 clusters at 0.5% had a transmission rate of 33/100 person-years, compared with previous national estimates of 4/100 person-years. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach identified clusters with transmission rates 8 times those of previous national estimates. This method can identify groups involved in rapid transmission and help programs effectively direct and prioritize limited public health resources.

      10. In a Perspective on the research article from Jacobson and colleagues, Amitabh Suthar and colleagues from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention discuss the importance of and considerations for developing real-time and large-scale reporting systems for tracking and controlling antimicrobial resistance.

      11. Replacement of neuraminidase inhibitor susceptible influenza A(H1N1) with resistant phenotype in 2008 and circulation of susceptible influenza A and B viruses during 2009-2013, South AfricaExternal
        Treurnicht FK, Buys A, Tempia S, Seleka M, Cohen AL, Walaza S, Glass AJ, Rossouw I, McAnerney J, Blumberg L, Cohen C, Venter M.
        Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2018 Sep 14.

        BACKGROUND: Data on the susceptibility of influenza viruses from South Africa to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) is scarce, and no extensive analysis was done. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine oseltamivir and zanamivir susceptibility of influenza A and B virus neuraminidases (NAs), 2007-2013, South Africa. PATIENTS/METHODS: We enrolled participants through national influenza-like illness surveillance, 2007-2013. Influenza diagnosis was by virus isolation and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Drug susceptibility was determined by chemilluminescence-based NA-STAR/NA-XTD assay. Sanger sequencing was used to determine molecular markers of NAI resistance. RESULTS: Forty percent (6,341/15,985) of participants were positive for influenza viruses using virus isolation (2007-2009) and qPCR (2009-2013) methods. 1,236/6,341 (19.5%) virus isolates were generated of which 307/1,236 (25%) were tested for drug susceptibility. During 2007-2008 the median 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of oseltamivir for seasonal influenza A(H1N1) increased from of 0.08 nM (range 0.01-3.60) in 2007 to 73 nM (range 1.56-305 nM) in 2008. Influenza A isolates from 2009-2013 were susceptible to oseltamivir [A(H3N2) median IC50 = 0.05 nM (range 0.01-0.08); A(H1N1)pdm09= 0.11 nM (range 0.01-0.78)] and zanamivir [A(H3N2) median IC50 = 0.56 nM (range 0.47-0.66); A(H1N1)pdm09= 0.35 nM (range 0.27-0.533)]. Influenza B viruses were susceptible to both NAIs. NAI resistance-associated substitutions H275Y, E119V, and R150K (N1 numbering) were not detected in influenza A viruses that circulated in 2009-2013. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm replacement of NAI susceptible by resistant phenotype influenza A(H1N1) in 2008. Influenza A and B viruses (2009-2013) remained susceptible to NAIs; therefore these drugs are useful for treating influenza-infected patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. In Puerto Rico, the first records of the transmission of Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses were confirmed in May 2014 and December 2015, respectively. Transmission of CHIKV peaked in September 2014, whereas that of ZIKV peaked in August 2016. The emergence of these mosquito-transmitted arboviruses in the context of a lack of human population immunity allowed observations of whether the outbreaks were associated with Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) densities and weather. Mosquito density was monitored weekly in four communities using sentinel autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO traps) during 2016 in order to provide data to be compared with the findings of a previous study carried out during the 2014 CHIKV epidemic. Findings in two communities protected against Ae. aegypti using mass AGO trapping (three traps per house in most houses) were compared with those in two nearby communities without vector control. Mosquito pools were collected to detect viral RNA of ZIKV, CHIKV and dengue virus. In areas without vector control, mosquito densities and rates of ZIKV detection in 2016 were significantly higher, similarly to those observed for CHIKV in 2014. The density of Ae. aegypti in treated sites was less than two females/trap/week, which is similar to the putative adult female threshold for CHIKV transmission. No significant differences in mosquito density or infection rates with ZIKV and CHIKV at the same sites between years were observed. Although 2016 was significantly wetter, mosquito densities were similar.

      2. Heartland virus epidemiology, vector association, and disease potentialExternal
        Brault AC, Savage HM, Duggal NK, Eisen RJ, Staples JE.
        Viruses. 2018 Sep 14;10(9).

        First identified in two Missouri farmers exhibiting low white-blood-cell and platelet counts in 2009, Heartland virus (HRTV) is genetically closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a tick-borne phlebovirus producing similar symptoms in China, Korea, and Japan. Field isolations of HRTV from several life stages of unfed, host-seeking Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick, implicated it as a putative vector capable of transstadial transmission. Laboratory vector competence assessments confirmed transstadial transmission of HRTV, demonstrated vertical infection, and showed co-feeding infection between A. americanum. A vertical infection rate of 33% from adult females to larvae in the laboratory was observed, while only one of 386 pools of molted nymphs (1930) reared from co-feeding larvae was positive for HRTV (maximum-likelihood estimate of infection rate = 0.52/1000). Over 35 human HRTV cases, all within the distribution range of A. americanum, have been documented. Serological testing of wildlife in areas near the index human cases, as well as in widely separated regions of the eastern United States where A. americanum occur, indicated many potential hosts such as raccoons and white-tailed deer. Attempts, however, to experimentally infect mice, rabbits, hamsters, chickens, raccoons, goats, and deer failed to produce detectable viremia. Immune-compromised mice and hamsters are the only susceptible models. Vertical infection augmented by co-feeding transmission could play a role in maintaining the virus in nature. A more complete assessment of the natural transmission cycle of HRTV coupled with serosurveys and enhanced HRTV disease surveillance are needed to better understand transmission dynamics and human health risks.

    • Health Economics
      1. Liability or labeling? Regulating product risks with costly consumer attentionExternal
        Arbatskaya M, Aslam MV.
        J Econ Behav Organ. 2018 ;154:238-252.

        This paper examines the liability and labeling approaches to regulating product safety. Stronger product liability increases producer care, which then has a negative “lulling effect” on consumer attention to warning labels. By contrast, more visible warning labels increase such consumer care, which then has a positive “vigilance effect” on producer care. Information campaigns educating consumers about product risks generate a similar vigilance effect. This happens because consumers view producer care and consumer care levels as strategic substitutes, while the firm views them as strategic complements. We argue that when a public policy is chosen, the endogeneity of consumer attention to warnings is not to be overlooked.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Nursing home adoption of the National Healthcare Safety Network Long-term Care Facility ComponentExternal
        Dick AW, Bell JM, Stone ND, Chastain AM, Sorbero M, Stone PW.
        Am J Infect Control. 2018 Sep 15.

        BACKGROUND: Health care-associated infections pose a significant problem in nursing homes (NHs). The Long-term Care Facility Component of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) was launched in 2012, and since then, enrollment of NHs into NHSN has been deemed a national priority. Our goal was to understand the characteristics of NHs reporting to the NHSN compared to other NHs across the country. METHODS: To meet this goal, we quantified the characteristics of NHs by NHSN enrollment status and reporting consistency using the Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting (CASPER) data linked to NHSN enrollment and reporting data. RESULTS: Of the 16,081 NHs in our sample, 262 (or 1.6% of NHs) had enrolled in NHSN by the end of 2015; these early adopting facilities were more likely to be for-profit and had a higher percentage of Medicare residents. By the end of 2016, enrollment expanded by more than 5-fold to 1,956 facilities (or 12.2% of NHs). In our analysis, the characteristics of those later adopting NHs were more similar to NHs nationally than the early adopters. Specifically, bed size and hospital-based facilities were related to both early and late adoption of NHSN. CONCLUSIONS: The types of NHs that have enrolled in NHSN have changed substantially since the program began. The increased enrollment was likely due to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS)-funded “C. difficile Infection (CDI) Reporting and Reduction Project” that incentivized Quality Innovation Network-Quality Improvement Organizations (QIN-QIOs) to support NH enrollment and participation in NHSN. Further understanding of a facility’s ability to enroll in and maintain reporting to NHSN, and how this relates to infection prevention staffing and infrastructure in NHs and infection rates among NH residents, is needed.

      2. Outpatient antibiotic prescribing for older adults in the United States: 2011 to 2014External
        Kabbani S, Palms D, Bartoces M, Stone N, Hicks LA.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2018 Sep 17.

        OBJECTIVES: To characterize antibiotics prescribed to older adults to guide efforts to improve antibiotic use. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis. SETTING: Ambulatory. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 65 and older in the United States. MEASUREMENTS: Information on outpatient antibiotic prescriptions dispensed for older adults from 2011 to 2014 was extracted from the IQVIA Xponent database. A chi-square trend analysis was conducted to assess annual changes in antibiotic prescribing rates. A descriptive analysis of prescribing rates by antibiotic, age group, sex, state, Census region, and provider specialty was conducted. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2014, outpatient antibiotic prescribing rates remained stable in older U.S. adults (P = .89). In 2014, older adults were dispensed 51.6 million prescriptions (1,115 prescriptions/1,000 persons). Persons aged 75 and older had a higher prescribing rate (1,157 prescriptions/1,000 persons) than those aged 65 to 74 (1,084 prescriptions/1,000 persons). Prescribing rates were highest in the South 1228 prescriptions/1,000 persons) and lowest in the West (854 prescriptions/1,000 persons). The most commonly prescribed class was quinolones, followed by penicillins and macrolides. Azithromycin was the most commonly prescribed drug, followed by amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin. Internists and family physicians prescribed 43% of antibiotic courses. CONCLUSION: On average, in 2014, U.S. adults aged 65 and older received enough outpatient antibiotic courses for every older adult to receive at least 1. Quinolones and azithromycin are potential targets for assessing the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in this population. Interventions to improve use targeting internists and family physicians in the South Census region might have the potential to have the greatest effect.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Immunogenicity and safety of MF59-adjuvanted and full-dose unadjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines among vaccine-naive children in a randomized clinical trial in rural SenegalExternal
        Diallo A, Victor JC, Feser J, Ortiz JR, Kanesa-Thasan N, Ndiaye M, Diarra B, Cheikh S, Diene D, Ndiaye T, Ndiaye A, Lafond KE, Widdowson MA, Neuzil KM.
        Vaccine. 2018 Sep 14.

        INTRODUCTION: Effective, programmatically suitable influenza vaccines are needed for low-resource countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This phase II, placebo-controlled, randomized safety and immunogenicity trial (NCT01819155) was conducted in Senegal using the 2012-2013 Northern Hemisphere trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) formulation. Participants were allocated in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive TIV (full-dose for all age groups), adjuvanted TIV (aTIV), or placebo. Participants were stratified into age groups: 6-11, 12-35, and 36-71months. All participants were vaccine-naive and received two doses of study vaccine 4weeks apart. The two independent primary objectives were to estimate the immunogenicity of TIV and of aTIV as the proportion of children with a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titer of >/=1:40 to each vaccine strain at 28days post-dose two. Safety was evaluated by solicited local and systemic reactions, unsolicited adverse events, and serious adverse events. RESULTS: 296 children received TIV, aTIV, or placebo, and 235 were included in the final analysis. After two doses, children aged 6-11, 12-35, and 36-71months receiving TIV had HI titers >/=1:40 against A/H1N1 (73.1%, 94.1%, and 97.0%), A/H3N2 (96.2%, 100.0%, and 100.0%), and B (80.8%, 97.1%, and 97.0%), respectively. After two doses, 100% children aged 6-11, 12-35, and 36-71months receiving aTIV had >/=1:40 titers against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B. After a single dose, the aTIV response was comparable to or greater than the TIV response for all vaccine strains. TIV and aTIV reactogenicity were similar, except for mild elevation in temperature (37.5-38.4 degrees C) which occurred more frequently in aTIV than TIV after each vaccine dose. TIV and aTIV had similarly increased pain/tenderness at the injection site compared to placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Both aTIV and full-dose TIV were well-tolerated and immunogenic in children aged 6-71months. These vaccines may play a role in programmatically suitable strategies to prevent influenza in low-resource settings.

      2. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant and nonpregnant womenExternal
        Fortner KB, Swamy GK, Broder KR, Jimenez-Truque N, Zhu Y, Moro PL, Liang J, Walter EB, Heine RP, Moody MA, Yoder S, Edwards KM.
        Vaccine. 2018 Sep 12.

        OBJECTIVE: Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertusiss (Tdap) vaccine is recommended during each pregnancy, regardless of prior receipt. Data on reactogenicity and immunogenicity, particularly after repeated Tdap, are limited. We compared local injection-site and systemic reactions and serologic response following Tdap in (1) pregnant and nonpregnant women and (2) pregnant women by self-reported prior Tdap receipt. STUDY DESIGN: Pregnant women (gestational age 20-34weeks) and nonpregnant women receiving Tdap were enrolled in this observational study. Injection-site and systemic reactions were assessed for one week post-vaccination. Pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae, tetanus and diphtheria specific IgG antibody titers were determined by standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline and 28days post-vaccination. Reactogenicity and serologic responses were compared by pregnancy status, and within pregnant women by self-reported prior Tdap receipt. RESULTS: 374 pregnant and 225 nonpregnant women were vaccinated. Severe local or systemic reactions or “any” fever were uncommon (</=3% for both groups). Moderate/severe injection-site pain was significantly higher in pregnant (17.9%) versus nonpregnant (11.1%) women, but did not prompt a healthcare visit. Proportions of other moderate/severe or any severe reactions were not significantly higher in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. Moderate/severe (including pain) and severe reactions were not significantly higher in pregnant women receiving repeat versus first-time Tdap. Antibody titers increased from baseline to post-vaccination for all vaccine antigens in pregnant and nonpregnant women; post-vaccination titers against pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were significantly higher in nonpregnant versus pregnant women (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Tdap was well-tolerated in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Pregnant women were more likely to report moderate/severe pain at the Tdap injection-site compared with nonpregnant women, but did not necessitate medical visits. Prior Tdap receipt did not increase occurrence of moderate/severe local or systemic reactions in pregnant women. Serologic responses to all vaccine antigens were robust. Clinical Trial Registration@ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT02209623. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02209623.

      3. Early declines in vaccine type pneumococcal carriage in children less than 5 years old after introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in MozambiqueExternal
        Sigauque B, Moiane B, Massora S, Pimenta F, Verani JR, Mucavele H, Chauque A, Quinto L, Dos Santos RT, Carvalho MD, Whitney CG, Lessa FC.
        Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 Oct;37(10):1054-1060.

        BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal carriage is a precursor of invasive pneumococcal disease. Mozambique introduced 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in April 2013, using a 3-dose schedule without a booster. We evaluated PCV10 impact on pneumococcal carriage and colonization density by HIV status. METHODS: We conducted 2 cross-sectional surveys (pre and post PCV10 introduction) among children 6 weeks to 59 months old. Participants included HIV-infected children presenting for routine care at outpatient clinics and a random sample of HIV-uninfected children from the community. We collected demographic data, vaccination history and nasopharyngeal swabs. Swabs were cultured and isolates serotyped by Quellung. We selected serotypes 11A, 19A and 19F for bacterial density analyses. We compared vaccine-type (VT) carriage prevalence from the pre-PCV10 with the post-PCV10 period by HIV status. FINDINGS: Prevalence of VT carriage declined from 35.9% (110/306) pre already defined in the background. It should be pre-PCV (PCV) to 20.7% (36/174 fully vaccinated) post PCV (P < 0.001) in HIV-uninfected and from 34.8% (144/414) to 19.7% (27/137 fully vaccinated) (P = 0.002) in HIV-infected children. Colonization prevalence for the 3 serotypes (3, 6A, 19A) included in the 13-valent PCV but not in PCV10 increased from 12.4% (38/306) to 20.7% (36/174 fully vaccinated) (P = 0.009) among HIV- uninfected children, mainly driven by 19A; no significant increase was observed in HIV-infected children. VT carriage among unvaccinated children decreased by 30% (P = 0.005) in HIV-infected children, with no significant declines observed in HIV-uninfected children. CONCLUSION: Declines in VT carriage were observed in both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children after PCV10 introduction with an early signal of herd effect especially in HIV-infected children. Ongoing monitoring of increases in 19A carriage and disease is necessary.

      4. Safety of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 2009-2017External
        Suragh TA, Lewis P, Arana J, Mba-Jonas A, Li R, Stewart B, Shimabukuro TT, Cano M.
        Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Sep 19.

        BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines prevent infection with oncogenic virus types. We analyzed reports to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) of adverse events (AE) following bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV). METHODS: We conducted descriptive analysis of 2vHPV reports, reviewed individual reports, calculated crude AE reporting rates, and conducted empirical Bayesian data mining. RESULTS: Of 241 2vHPV reports, 158 were in females, 64 in males (2vHPV is approved for females only), and 19 with unknown sex; 95.8% were classified as non-serious. Dizziness, headache, nausea and injection site reactions were the most common symptoms. Crude AE reporting rates were 33.3 reports per 100,000 doses distributed overall, and 1.4 per 100,000 for serious reports. Empirical Bayesian data mining identified disproportional reporting for three types of medical errors; assessment indicated findings were likely driven by inadvertent 2vHPV use in males. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify any new or unexpected safety concerns in our review of 2vHPV reports to VAERS.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Busy streets theory: The effects of community-engaged greening on violenceExternal
        Heinze JE, Krusky-Morey A, Vagi KJ, Reischl TM, Franzen S, Pruett NK, Cunningham RM, Zimmerman MA.
        Am J Community Psychol. 2018 Sep;62(1-2):101-109.

        Lack of maintenance on vacant neighborhood lots is associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress for nearby residents. Overgrown grasses and dense brush provide hiding spots for criminals and space to conduct illicit activities. This study builds upon previous research by investigating greening programs that engage community members to conduct routine maintenance on vacant lots within their neighborhoods. The Clean & Green program is a community-based solution that facilitates resident-driven routine maintenance of vacant lots in a midsized, Midwestern city. We use mixed effects regression to compare assault and violent crime counts on streets where vacant lot(s) are maintained by community members (N = 216) versus streets where vacant lots were left alone (N = 446) over a 5-year timeframe (2009-2013). Street segments with vacant lots maintained through the Clean & Green program had nearly 40% fewer assaults and violent crimes than street segments with vacant, abandoned lots, which held across 4 years with a large sample and efforts to test counterfactual explanations. Community-engaged greening programs may not only provide a solution to vacant lot maintenance, but also work as a crime prevention or reduction strategy. Engaging the community to maintain vacant lots in their neighborhood reduces costs and may increase the sustainability of the program.

      2. Stakeholder views regarding a planned primary care office-based interactive multimedia suicide prevention toolExternal
        Jerant A, Duberstein P, Cipri C, Bullard B, Stone D, Paterniti D.
        Patient Educ Couns. 2018 Sep 8.

        OBJECTIVES: Nearly half of all men who die by suicide visit a primary care clinician (PCC) in the month before death, yet few disclose suicide thoughts. We solicited stakeholders’ views to guide development of a tailored multimedia program to activate middle-aged men experiencing suicide thoughts to engage with PCCs. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 44 adults self-identifying as: suicide attempt survivor; family member/loved one of person(s) who attempted or died by suicide; PCC; non-PCC office staff; health administrator; and/or prevention advocate. We coded recorded interview transcripts and identified relevant themes using grounded theory. RESULTS: Two thematic groupings emerged, informing program design: structure and delivery (including belief the program could be effective and desire for use of plain language and media over text); and informational and motivational content (including concerns about PCC preparedness; fear that disclosing suicide thoughts would necessitate hospitalization; and influence of male identity and masculinity, respectively, in care-seeking for and interpreting suicide thoughts). CONCLUSION: Stakeholder input informed the design of a primary care tailored multimedia suicide prevention tool. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: In revealing a previously unreported barrier to disclosing suicide thoughts to PCCs (fear of hospitalization), and underscoring known barriers, the findings may suggest additional suicide prevention approaches.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Restriction enzyme digestion of host DNA enhances universal detection of parasitic pathogens in blood via targeted amplicon deep sequencingExternal
        Flaherty BR, Talundzic E, Barratt J, Kines KJ, Olsen C, Lane M, Sheth M, Bradbury RS.
        Microbiome. 2018 Sep 17;6(1):164.

        BACKGROUND: Targeted amplicon deep sequencing (TADS) of the 16S rRNA gene is commonly used to explore and characterize bacterial microbiomes. Meanwhile, attempts to apply TADS to the detection and characterization of entire parasitic communities have been hampered since conserved regions of many conserved parasite genes, such as the 18S rRNA gene, are also conserved in their eukaryotic hosts. As a result, targeted amplification of 18S rRNA from clinical samples using universal primers frequently results in competitive priming and preferential amplification of host DNA. Here, we describe a novel method that employs a single pair of universal primers to capture all blood-borne parasites while reducing host 18S rRNA template and enhancing the amplification of parasite 18S rRNA for TADS. This was achieved using restriction enzymes to digest the 18S rRNA gene at cut sites present only in the host sequence prior to PCR amplification. RESULTS: This method was validated against 16 species of blood-borne helminths and protozoa. Enzyme digestion prior to PCR enrichment and Illumina amplicon deep sequencing led to a substantial reduction in human reads and a corresponding 5- to 10-fold increase in parasite reads relative to undigested samples. This method allowed for discrimination of all common parasitic agents found in human blood, even in cases of multi-parasite infection, and markedly reduced the limit of detection in digested versus undigested samples. CONCLUSIONS: The results herein provide a novel methodology for the reduction of host DNA prior to TADS and establish the validity of a next-generation sequencing-based platform for universal parasite detection.

      2. Laboratory diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)External
        Garcia HH, O’Neal SE, Noh J, Handali S.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Sep;56(9).

        Neurocysticercosis accounts for approximately 30% of all epilepsy cases in most developing countries. The immunodiagnosis of cysticercosis is complex and strongly influenced by the course of infection, the disease burden, the cyst location, and the immune response of the host. The main approach to immunodiagnosis should thus be to evaluate whether the serological results are consistent with the diagnosis suggested by imaging. Antibody detection is performed using lentil lectin-purified parasite antigens in an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot format, while antigen detection uses a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Promising new assay configurations have been developed for the detection of both antibody and antigen, including assays based on synthetic or recombinant antigens that may reduce costs and improve assay reproducibility and multiplex bead-based assays that may provide simultaneous quantitative results for several target antigens or antibodies.

      3. Performance of Chlamydia trachomatis OmcB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in serodiagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in womenExternal
        Gupta K, Brown L, Bakshi RK, Press CG, Chi X, Gorwitz RJ, Papp JR, Geisler WM.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Sep;56(9).

        Chlamydia trachomatis serological assays with improved sensitivity over commercially available assays are needed to evaluate the burden of C. trachomatis infection and the effectiveness of prevention efforts. We evaluated the performance of a C. trachomatis outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the detection of anti-C. trachomatis antibody responses in C. trachomatis-infected women. OmcB ELISA was less sensitive than our C. trachomatis elementary body (EB) ELISA, but it was highly specific. The magnitude of the antibody response was higher in African-Americans and those with prior C. trachomatis infection. Unlike EB ELISA, the IgG1 response to C. trachomatis OmcB was short-lived and was not maintained by repeat C. trachomatis infection.

      4. Pulmonary fibrosis is a poorly understood pathologic condition. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are nanomaterials with potentials for broad applications. CNTs can induce pulmonary fibrosis in animals, a cause for concern for exposed workers and consumers. Given the large number of CNTs available on the market and the seemingly infinite number of ways these particles can be modified in ways that may affect toxicity, in vitro models that can be used to quickly and effectively investigate the relative fibrogenicity of CNTs are much needed. Here we analyzed the fibrogenic potentials of six CNTs of varying physical properties and crystalline silica using two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D, respectively) in vitro models. WI38-VA13 human pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with CNTs or silica, with TGF-beta1, a known inducer of fibroblast differentiation, as positive control. The cells were examined for fibrotic matrix alterations, including myofibroblast transformation, matrix remodeling, and matrix contraction. While all tested CNTs induced myofibroblast differentiation in 2D and 3D cultures, the 3D culture allowed the examination of myofibroblast clustering, collagen deposition and rearrangement, cell division, and matrix contraction in response to fibrogenic exposures, processes critical for fibrosis in vivo. At 1 microg/ml, MWCNTs elicit higher induction of myofibroblast differentiation and matrix remodeling than SWCNTs. Among MWCNTs, those with the highest and lowest aspect ratios produced the largest effects, which were comparable to those by TGF-beta1 and higher than those by silica. Thus, the 3D collagen-based model enables the study of matrix fibrotic processes induced by CNTs and silica particles directly and effectively.

      5. Detection and distribution of Sca autotransporter protein antigens in diverse isolates of Orientia tsutsugamushiExternal
        Koralur MC, Ramaiah A, Dasch GA.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Sep 20;12(9):e0006784.

        Orientia tsutsugamushi (Ots) frequently causes severe scrub typhus infections in the Asia-Pacific region. Korean investigators have demonstrated that Ots encodes five different autotransporter domain (ATD) proteins (ScaA-ScaE). ScaA functions as an adhesin and confers protective immunity in a lethal mouse model of Ots infection. Specific antibodies are detected against ScaA and ScaC in Korean scrub typhus patients. However, there is limited data on the distribution of the Sca protein genes in diverse isolates of Ots. By BLAST analysis with the conserved beta barrel autotransporter domain (ATD) regions of the sca proteins, we discovered a sixth gene scaF among 3 of 10 new partial Ots genome sequences available at NCBI GenBank (Sido, Karp, AFSC7). We designed two to seven specific TaqMan assays to detect the ATD for each of the six sca genes. The TaqMan assays among those for each sca gene which gave the greatest sensitivity and linearity with DNA log dilutions were then used for screening DNAs from Ots isolates grown in L929 mouse cells for sca genes. The sca prevalence survey was performed for all six sca genes with 178 DNAs from isolates from 12 countries. The survey results were confirmed by conventional PCR with primers from conserved regions of the passenger domains (PD) and ATD of the sca proteins. The ATD was highly conserved between the DNAs of different genotypes compared to the sca PD but each TaqMan assay was sca specific. The percentage positivity for 56 kDa and scaA genes in the 178 DNAs using Ha primers was 59.6% and 62.4%, respectively. Our scaA conventional ATD PCR assay was positive in 98.3% but scaA was present in all 178 DNAs (100%) by ATD TaqMan. scaB, scaC, scaD, scaE and scaF were detected in 33.7%, 97.8%, 93.8%, 97.2% and 43.3% isolates by ATD TaqMan, respectively. The ATDs of Ots sca genes are thus sufficiently conserved between different genotypes for molecular assay design. Four sca genes are widely distributed among diverse Ots isolates from diverse geographical areas. scaB and scaF were detected in fewer Ots isolates and absent from some available genome sequences. Whether the utility of the ScaA, ScaC, ScaD, and ScaE antigenic passenger protein domains exceeds that of the mixed 56 kDa type surface antigens of Ots now used in combination diagnostic assays needs to be determined before they can be considered as suitable alternative serological antigens for diagnosis of scrub typhus.

      6. Molecular assays for antimalarial drug resistance surveillance: A target product profileExternal
        Nsanzabana C, Ariey F, Beck HP, Ding XC, Kamau E, Krishna S, Legrand E, Lucchi N, Miotto O, Nag S, Noedl H, Roper C, Rosenthal PJ, Schallig H, Taylor SM, Volkman SK, Gonzalez IJ.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(9):e0204347.

        Antimalarial drug resistance is a major constraint for malaria control and elimination efforts. Artemisinin-based combination therapy is now the mainstay for malaria treatment. However, delayed parasite clearance following treatment with artemisinin derivatives has now spread in the Greater Mekong Sub region and may emerge or spread to other malaria endemic regions. This spread is of great concern for malaria control programmes, as no alternatives to artemisinin-based combination therapies are expected to be available in the near future. There is a need to strengthen surveillance systems for early detection and response to the antimalarial drug resistance threat. Current surveillance is mainly done through therapeutic efficacy studies; however these studies are complex and both time- and resource-intensive. For multiple common antimalarials, parasite drug resistance has been correlated with specific genetic mutations, and the molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance offer a simple and powerful tool to monitor the emergence and spread of resistant parasites. Different techniques to analyse molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance are available, each with advantages and disadvantages. However, procedures are not adequately harmonized to facilitate comparisons between sites. Here we describe the target product profiles for tests to analyse molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance, discuss how use of current techniques can be standardised, and identify the requirements for an ideal product that would allow malaria endemic countries to provide useful spatial and temporal information on the spread of resistance.

      7. Direct detection of emergent fungal pathogen Candida auris in clinical skin swabs by SYBR Green qPCR assayExternal
        Sexton DJ, Kordalewska M, Bentz ML, Welsh RM, Perlin DS, Litvintseva AP.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Sep 19.

        The recent emergence of the multidrug-resistant and pathogenic yeast Candida auris continues to cause public health concern worldwide. C. auris is alarming because it causes healthcare-associated outbreaks and can establish invasive infections with high mortality rates. Transmission between patients is facilitated by the ability of C. auris to persistently colonize multiple body sites, including the skin, and survive for weeks on surfaces in healthcare settings. Rapid identification of colonized patients is needed to implement timely infection control measures. Currently, CDC laboratories use an enrichment culture-based approach that can take up to two weeks to identify C. auris from composite swabs from the bilateral axillae and groin. A rapid SYBR Green qPCR assay that can identify C. auris in a single day was recently described. In this study, we developed the SYBR Green qPCR assay further by incorporating a DNA extraction procedure for skin swabs and by including an internal amplification control based on the distinguishable melt curve of a lambda DNA amplicon. The assay was evaluated using 103 clinical axilla/groin skin swab samples. Using the enrichment culture-based approach as a gold standard, we determined the SYBR Green C. auris qPCR has a sensitivity of 0.93 and specificity of 0.96. Overall, we found the SYBR Green C. auris qPCR assay can be successfully applied for rapid and accurate detection of C. auris in patient skin swabs, thereby increasing diagnostic options for this emerging pathogen.

      8. Three-dimensional printing with nano-enabled filaments releases polymer particles containing carbon nanotubes into airExternal
        Stefaniak AB, Bowers LN, Knepp AK, Virji MA, Birch EM, Ham JE, Wells JR, Qi C, Schwegler-Berry D, Friend S, Johnson AR, Martin SB, Qian Y, LeBouf RF, Birch Q, Hammond D.
        Indoor Air. 2018 Aug 13.

        Fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3-dimensional printing uses polymer filament to build objects. Some polymer filaments are formulated with additives, though it is unknown if they are released during printing. Three commercially available filaments that contained carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were printed with a desktop FDM 3-D printer in a chamber while monitoring total particle number concentration and size distribution. Airborne particles were collected on filters and analyzed using electron microscopy. Carbonyl compounds were identified by mass spectrometry. The elemental carbon content of the bulk CNT-containing filaments was 1.5 to 5.2 wt%. CNT-containing filaments released up to 10(10) ultrafine (d < 100 nm) particles/g printed and 10(6) to 10(8) respirable (d ~0.5 to 2 mum) particles/g printed. From microscopy, 1% of the emitted respirable polymer particles contained visible CNTs. Carbonyl emissions were observed above the limit of detection (LOD) but were below the limit of quantitation (LOQ). Modeling indicated that, for all filaments, the average proportional lung deposition of CNT-containing polymer particles was 6.5%, 5.7%, and 7.2% for the head airways, tracheobronchiolar, and pulmonary regions, respectively. If CNT-containing polymer particles are hazardous, it would be prudent to control emissions during use of these filaments.

      9. Influenza virus infection causes global RNAPII termination defectsExternal
        Zhao N, Sebastiano V, Moshkina N, Mena N, Hultquist J, Jimenez-Morales D, Ma Y, Rialdi A, Albrecht R, Fenouil R, Sanchez-Aparicio MT, Ayllon J, Ravisankar S, Haddad B, Ho JS, Low D, Jin J, Yurchenko V, Prinjha RK, Tarakhovsky A, Squatrito M, Pinto D, Allette K, Byun M, Smith ML, Sebra R, Guccione E, Tumpey T, Krogan N, Greenbaum B, van Bakel H, Garcia-Sastre A, Marazzi I.
        Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2018 Sep;25(9):885-893.

        Viral infection perturbs host cells and can be used to uncover regulatory mechanisms controlling cellular responses and susceptibility to infections. Using cell biological, biochemical, and genetic tools, we reveal that influenza A virus (IAV) infection induces global transcriptional defects at the 3′ ends of active host genes and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) run-through into extragenic regions. Deregulated RNAPII leads to expression of aberrant RNAs (3′ extensions and host-gene fusions) that ultimately cause global transcriptional downregulation of physiological transcripts, an effect influencing antiviral response and virulence. This phenomenon occurs with multiple strains of IAV, is dependent on influenza NS1 protein, and can be modulated by SUMOylation of an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) of NS1 expressed by the 1918 pandemic IAV strain. Our data identify a strategy used by IAV to suppress host gene expression and indicate that polymorphisms in IDRs of viral proteins can affect the outcome of an infection.

      10. Cetp inhibition improves HDL function but leads to fatty liver and insulin resistance in CETP-expressing transgenic mice on a high-fat dietExternal
        Zhu L, Luu T, Emfinger CH, Parks BA, Shi J, Trefts E, Zeng F, Kuklenyik Z, Harris RC, Wasserman DH, Fazio S, Stafford JM.
        Diabetes. 2018 Sep 13.

        In clinical trials inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) raises HDL cholesterol levels but doesn’t robustly improve cardiovascular outcomes. About 2/3 of trial participants were obese. Lower plasma CETP activity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in human studies, and protective aspects of CETP have been observed in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with regard to metabolic outcomes. To define if CETP inhibition has different effects depending on the presence of obesity, we performed short-term anacetrapib treatment in chow- and HFD-fed CETP-transgenic mice. Anacetrapib raised HDL cholesterol and improved aspects of HDL functionality including reverse cholesterol transport and HDL’s anti-oxidative capacity in HFD-fed mice better than in chow-fed mice. Anacetrapib worsened the anti-inflammatory capacity of HDL in HFD-fed mice. The HDL proteome was markedly different with anacetrapib treatment in HFD-fed vs. chow-fed mice. Despite benefits on HDL, anacetrapib led to liver triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. Overall, our results support a physiologic importance of CETP in protecting from fatty liver, and demonstrate a context-selectivity of CETP inhibition that might be important in obese subjects.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Status of population-based birth defects surveillance programs before and after the Zika public health response in the United StatesExternal
        Anderka M, Mai CT, Judson EM, Langlois PH, Lupo PJ, Hauser K, Salemi JL, Correia J, Canfield MA, Kirby RS.
        Birth Defects Res. 2018 Sep 19.

        BACKGROUND: The 2016 Zika public health response in the United States highlighted the need for birth defect surveillance (BDS) programs to collect population-based data on birth defects potentially related to Zika as rapidly as possible through enhanced case ascertainment and reporting. The National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) assessed BDS program activities in the United States before and after the Zika response. METHODS: The NBDPN surveyed 54 BDS programs regarding activities before and after the Zika response, lessons learned, and programmatic needs. Follow-up emails were sent and phone calls were held for programs with incomplete or no response to the online survey. Survey data were cleaned and tallied, and responses to open-ended questions were placed into best-fit categories. RESULTS: A 100% response rate was achieved. Of the 54 programs surveyed, 42 reported participation in the Zika public health response that included BDS activities. Programs faced challenges in expanding their surveillance effort given the response requirements but reported mitigating factors such as establishing and enhancing partnerships and program experience with surveillance and clinical activities. Beyond funding, reported program needs included training, surveillance tools/resources, and availability of clinical experts. CONCLUSIONS: Existing BDS programs with experience implementing active case-finding and case verification were able to adapt their surveillance efforts rapidly to collect and report data necessary for the Zika response. Program sustainability for BDS remains challenging; thus, continued support, training, and resource development are important to ensure that the infrastructure built during the Zika response is available for the next public health response.

      2. BACKGROUND: There is a need to examine health care utilization of individuals with the rare conditions muscular dystrophies, spina bifida, and fragile X syndrome. These individuals have a greater need for health care services, particularly inpatient admissions. Prior studies have not yet assessed 30-day all-cause readmission rates. OBJECTIVE: To estimate 30-day hospital readmission rates among individuals with three rare conditions. HYPOTHESIS: Rare conditions patients will have a higher 30-day all-cause readmission rate than those without. METHODS: Data from three sources (2007-2014) were combined for this case-control analysis. A cohort of individuals with one of the three conditions was matched (by age in 5 year age groups, gender, and race) to a comparison group without a rare condition. Inpatient utilization and 30-day all-cause readmission rates were compared between the two groups. Logistic regression analyses compared the odds of a 30-day all-cause readmission across the two groups, controlling for key covariates. RESULTS: A larger proportion in the rare condition group had at least one inpatient visit (46.1%) vs. the comparison group (23.6%), and a higher 30-day all-cause readmission rate (Spina Bifida-46.7%, Muscular Dystrophy-39.7%, and Fragile X Syndrome-35.8%) than the comparison group (13.4%). Logistic regression results indicated that condition status contributed significantly to differences in readmission rates. CONCLUSIONS: Higher rates of inpatient utilization and 30-day all-cause readmission among individuals with rare conditions vs. those without are not surprising, given the medical complexity of these individuals, and indicates an area where unfavorable outcomes may be improved with proper care coordination and post discharge care.

      3. Trends in documented co-occurring conditions in children with autism spectrum disorder, 2002-2010External
        Rubenstein E, Schieve L, Wiggins L, Rice C, Van Naarden Braun K, Christensen D, Durkin M, Daniels J, Lee LC.
        Res Dev Disabil. 2018 Sep 15;83:168-178.

        BACKGROUND: Autism spectrumdisorder (ASD) commonly presents with co-occurring medical conditions (CoCs). Little is known about patterns in CoCs in a time of rising ASD prevalence. AIMS: To describe trends in number and type of documented CoCs in 8-year-old children with ASD. METHODS: We used Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM) data, a multi-source active surveillance system monitoring ASD prevalence among 8-year-old children across the US. Data from surveillance years 2002, 2006, 2008, and 2010 were used to describe trends in count, categories, and individual CoCs. RESULTS: Mean number of CoCs increased from 0.94 CoCs in 2002 to 1.06 CoCs in 2010 (p < 0.001). The percentage of children with ASD with any CoC increased from 44.5% to 56.4% (p < 0.001). CoCs with the greatest increases were in general developmental disability (10.4% to 14.5%), language disorder (18.9% to 23.6%), and motor developmental disability (10.5% to 15.6%). Sex modified the relationship between developmental (P = 0.02) and psychiatric (P < 0.001) CoCs and surveillance year. Race/ethnicity modified the relationship between neurological conditions (P = 0.04) and surveillance year. CONCLUSIONS: The increase in the percentage of children with ASD and CoCs may suggest the ASD phenotype has changed over time or clinicians are more likely to diagnose CoCs.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. A pediatric fruit and vegetable prescription program increases food security in low-income householdsExternal
        Ridberg RA, Bell JF, Merritt KE, Harris DM, Young HM, Tancredi DJ.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2018 Sep 14.

        OBJECTIVE: To assess change in household food security associated with participation in a pediatric fruit/vegetable prescription program. METHODS: The researchers analyzed clinic-based, fruit/vegetable prescription program data for 578 low-income families, collected in 2013-2015, and calculated changes in food security (summative score; high/low/very low; and individual US Department of Agriculture measures). RESULTS: Of participating households, 72% increased their summative score over the course of the program. In adjusted regression models, participants had higher change scores with 5 or 6 clinical visits, compared with 1 or 2 visits (beta=.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.14), and college education of the primary caretaker, compared with less than college (beta=.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.09). Select clinic sites (but neither visit nor redemption proportions) significantly contributed to change score variance. All US Department of Agriculture measures saw significant increases. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Fruit/vegetable prescription programs may help providers address patients’ food insecurity. Further research using experimental designs and implementation science could build the case to incorporate programs into practice.

      2. Global prevalence and disease burden of vitamin D deficiency: a roadmap for action in low- and middle-income countriesExternal
        Roth DE, Abrams SA, Aloia J, Bergeron G, Bourassa MW, Brown KH, Calvo MS, Cashman KD, Combs G, De-Regil LM, Jefferds ME, Jones KS, Kapner H, Martineau AR, Neufeld LM, Schleicher RL, Thacher TD, Whiting SJ.
        Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2018 Sep 18.

        Vitamin D is an essential nutrient for bone health and may influence the risks of respiratory illness, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and chronic diseases of adulthood. Because many countries have a relatively low supply of foods rich in vitamin D and inadequate exposure to natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight, an important proportion of the global population is at risk of vitamin D deficiency. There is general agreement that the minimum serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D) that protects against vitamin D deficiency-related bone disease is approximately 30 nmol/L; therefore, this threshold is suitable to define vitamin D deficiency in population surveys. However, efforts to assess the vitamin D status of populations in low- and middle-income countries have been hampered by limited availability of population-representative 25(OH)D data, particularly among population subgroups most vulnerable to the skeletal and potential extraskeletal consequences of low vitamin D status, namely exclusively breastfed infants, children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, and the elderly. In the absence of 25(OH)D data, identification of communities that would benefit from public health interventions to improve vitamin D status may require proxy indicators of the population risk of vitamin D deficiency, such as the prevalence of rickets or metrics of usual UVB exposure. If a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is identified (>20% prevalence of 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L) or the risk for vitamin D deficiency is determined to be high based on proxy indicators (e.g., prevalence of rickets >1%), food fortification and/or targeted vitamin D supplementation policies can be implemented to reduce the burden of vitamin D deficiency-related conditions in vulnerable populations.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Pesticide use, allergic rhinitis, and asthma among US farm operatorsExternal
        Patel O, Syamlal G, Henneberger PK, Alarcon WA, Mazurek JM.
        J Agromedicine. 2018 ;23(4):327-335.

        OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to examine associations between use of specific pesticides and lifetime allergic rhinitis and current asthma in US primary farm operators. METHODS: The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data from 11,210 primary farm operators were analyzed. Pesticide use on the farm was determined using an affirmative response to the question of whether the operator ever mixed, loaded, or applied pesticides on their farm in the 12 months prior to the interview. Operators who answered “yes” were further asked about the specific trade name and formulation identifiers of the product they used and personal protective equipment (PPE) used. Data were weighted to produce national estimates. Adjusted prevalence odds ratios (PORs) were calculated using logistic regression. The referent group included operators who did not use any pesticides in the 12 months prior to the interview. RESULTS: Of an estimated 2.1 million farm operators, 40.0% used pesticides, 30.8% had lifetime allergic rhinitis, and 5.1% had current asthma. Insecticide and herbicide use were significantly associated with lifetime allergic rhinitis and current asthma. The use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (POR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.9) and carbaryl (POR = 2.3; 1.4-3.7) was significantly associated with lifetime allergic rhinitis. Of operators using pesticides, 64.9% used PPE the last time they mixed, loaded, or applied pesticides. CONCLUSIONS: Pesticide use was associated with lifetime allergic rhinitis and current asthma among farm operators. Further studies are needed to clarify the dose-response relationship between pesticide use and adverse respiratory health effects.

      2. Occupational and take-home lead exposure among lead oxide manufacturing employees, North Carolina, 2016External
        Rinsky JL, Higgins S, Angelon-Gaetz K, Hogan D, Lauffer P, Davies M, Fleischauer A, Musolin K, Gibbins J, MacFarquhar J, Moore Z.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Sep 19:33354918795442.

        OBJECTIVE: In 2016, North Carolina blood lead level (BLL) surveillance activities identified elevated BLLs among 3 children exposed to take-home lead by household members employed at a lead oxide manufacturing facility. We characterized BLLs among employees and associated children and identified risk factors for occupational and take-home lead exposure. METHODS: We reviewed BLL surveillance data for 2012-2016 to identify facility employees and associated children. We considered a BLL >/=5 mug/dL elevated for adults and children and compared adult BLLs with regulatory limits and recommended health-based thresholds. We also conducted an environmental investigation and interviewed current employees about exposure controls and cleanup procedures. RESULTS: During 2012-2016, 5 children associated with facility employees had a confirmed BLL >/=5 mug/dL. Among 77 people employed during 2012-2016, median BLLs increased from 22 mug/dL (range, 4-45 mug/dL) in 2012 to 37 mug/dL (range, 16-54 mug/dL) in 2016. All employee BLLs were <60 mug/dL, the national regulatory threshold for immediate medical removal from lead exposure; however, 55 (71%) had a BLL >/=20 mug/dL, a recommended health-based threshold for removal from lead exposure. Because of inadequate controls in the facility, areas considered clean were visibly contaminated with lead dust. Employees reported bringing personal items to work and then into their cars and homes, resulting in take-home lead exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of child and adult BLL surveillance activities identified an occupational source of lead exposure among workers and associated children. Our findings support recent recommendations that implementation of updated lead standards will support better control of lead in the workplace and prevent lead from being carried home.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. After industrial sand has been mined and processed, the finished product is typically loaded into small bags of 45 kg (100 lb) or less, large bulk bags of 454 to 1,361 kg (1,000 to 3,000 lb), or vehicles such as trucks or trains for transport to end users. As the sand is being transferred and loaded, dust can be released into the work environment, potentially exposing workers to respirable crystalline silica. A number of control technologies have been developed and utilized in an effort to reduce dust liberation during loading operations. For bulk loading into trucks or trains, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) evaluated one of these technologies, the Dust Suppression Hopper (DSH), at two industrial sand processing plants. Results from these case studies show that the DSH reduced airborne respirable dust levels by 39 to 88 percent, depending upon the product size being loaded.

      2. Mineworkers are routinely tasked with making critically important decisions about whether or not a hazard presents an imminent danger. Researchers from the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected formative data to investigate mine safety professional perspectives on workplace examinations, which revealed a potential gap in how mineworkers are assessing risk. During interviews, participants revealed not having a systematic methodology for mineworkers to use to determine if a hazard is considered imminent danger. In this paper, we identify and describe three distinct categories of imminent danger complexity and discuss potential steps that could lead to improved identification of imminent danger situations. Finally, we identify potential practices to incorporate into risk management efforts, including feedback, communication and specialized training, to increase awareness of imminent danger situations.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Entamoeba histolytica infection in humans, chimpanzees and baboons in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, TanzaniaExternal
        Deere JR, Parsons MB, Lonsdorf EV, Lipende I, Kamenya S, Collins DA, Travis DA, Gillespie TR.
        Parasitology. 2018 Aug 30:1-7.

        Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric parasite that infects approximately 50 million people worldwide. Although E. histolytica is a zoonotic parasite that has the potential to infect nonhuman primates, such transmission is poorly understood. Consequently, this study examined whether E. histolytica is present among humans, chimpanzees and baboons living in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem (GGE), Tanzania. The primary aims were to determine patterns of E. histolytica infection in a system with human-nonhuman primate overlap and to test associations between infection status and potential risk factors of disease. Entamoeba spp. occurred in 60.3% of human, 65.6% of chimpanzee and 88.6% of baboon samples. Entamoeba histolytica occurred in 12.1% of human, 34.1% of chimpanzee and 10.9% of baboon samples. Human E. histolytica infection was associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. This was the first study to confirm the presence of E. histolytica in the GGE. The high sample prevalence of E. histolytica in three sympatric primates suggests that zoonotic transmission is possible and stresses the need for further phylogenetic studies. Interventions targeting better sanitation and hygiene practices for humans living in the GGE can help prevent E. histolytica infection in humans, while also protecting the endangered chimpanzees and other primates in this region.

      2. An unusual cause of fever and headache in a school-aged maleExternal
        Joo SJ, Thompson AB, Philipsborn R, Emrath E, Camacho-Gonzalez AF, Chahroudi A, Miller J, Ali I, Cope J.
        Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2018 Oct;57(11):1359-1362.

        [No abstract]

      3. A Delphi consultation to assess indicators of readiness to provide quality health facility-based Lymphoedema management servicesExternal
        Walsh VL, Fox LM, Brady M, King J, Worrell CM.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Sep 18;12(9):e0006699.

        BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with partners is developing a toolkit of resources to guide lymphatic filariasis (LF) morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) implementation and evaluation. Direct health facility inspection is the preferred method for documenting the readiness of a country programme to provide quality lymphoedema management services, one of the three MMDP criteria used to demonstrate the elimination of LF as a public health problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As component of tool development, a Delphi consultation was implemented to gain consensus on six proposed domains and fourteen proposed tracer indicators to measure national programme readiness to provide quality health facility-based lymphoedema management services. A seven-point Likert-type scale was used to rank the importance of proposed domains and tracer indicators. Consensus for inclusion of the indicator was defined a priori as 70% or more of respondents ranking the proposed indicator in the top three tiers (5-7). Purposive sampling was used to select 43 representative experts including country representatives, programme implementers, and technical experts. A 55.8% response rate (n = 24) was achieved for the survey. Analysis of the responses demonstrated that consensus for inclusion had been reached for all proposed domains including trained staff (mean = 6.9, standard deviation (SD) = 0.34), case management and education materials (mean = 6.1, SD = 0.65), water infrastructure (mean = 6.3, SD = 0.81), medications and commodities (mean = 6.3, SD = 0.69), patient tracking system (mean = 6.3, SD = 0.85), and staff knowledge (mean = 6.5, SD = 0.66). SIGNIFICANCE: The Delphi consultation provided an efficient and structured method for gaining consensus among lymphatic filariasis experts around key lymphoedema management quality indicators. The results from this analysis were used to refine the indicators included within the direct inspection protocol tool to ensure its ability to assess health facility readiness to provide quality lymphoedema management services.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Active transportation (AT), or walking or bicycling for transportation, represents one way individuals can achieve recommended physical activity (PA) levels. This study describes AT prevalence and temporal trends, and examines associations between AT levels and measured CVD risk factors (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, low high-density [HDL] cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity) among U.S. adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2016 data (analyzed in 2017) were used to conduct overall trend analyses of reported AT in a typical week [none (0-9min/week); low (10-149min/week); or high (>/=150min/week)]. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between AT level and each CVD risk factor from NHANES 2011-2016 (n=13,943). Covariates included age, sex, race/Hispanic origin, education, income, smoking, survey cycle, non-transportation PA, and urbanization level. U.S. adults who engaged in high AT levels increased from 13.1% in 2007-2008 to 17.9% in 2011-2012, and then decreased to 10.6% in 2015-2016 (p for quadratic trend=0.004). Over the same period, the quadratic trend for low AT was not significant. During 2011-2016, 14.3% of adults engaged in high AT, 11.4% in low AT, and 74.4% in no AT. High AT levels were associated with decreased odds of each CVD risk factor assessed, compared to no AT. Low AT (versus no AT) was associated with decreased odds of hypertension (aOR=0.77, 95% CI 0.64, 0.91) and diabetes (aOR=0.68, 95% CI 0.54, 0.85). AT prevalence among adults has fluctuated from 2007 to 2016. Despite favorable associations between AT and CVD risk factors, most U.S. adults do not engage in any AT.

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Opioid prescribing by specialty and volume in the U.SExternal
        Guy GP, Zhang K.
        Am J Prev Med. 2018 Sep 12.

        [No abstract]

      2. BACKGROUND: Although cigarette smoking has declined among U.S. workers, smoking remains high among construction workers. This study assessed tobacco product use among U.S. construction workers. METHODS: The 2014-2016 National Health Interview Survey data for U.S. working adults were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 10.2 (6.3% of working adults) million construction workers, 35.1% used any tobacco product; 24.4% were cigarette smokers, 8.3% were cigar, cigarillo, pipe or hookah smokers, 7.8% were smokeless tobacco users, 4.4% were e-cigarette users, and 7.6% used >/=2 tobacco product users. Tobacco use varied by worker characteristics, with highest tobacco use (>35%) among those reporting </=5 years on the job, temporary work status, job insecurity, or an unsafe workplace. Construction workers had higher odds of tobacco product use than non-construction workers. CONCLUSIONS: Over one-third of U.S. construction workers use tobacco products and disparities exist across sub-groups. Workplace tobacco control strategies could reduce tobacco use among this population.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Notes from the Field: Responding to an outbreak of monkeypox using the One Health approach – Nigeria, 2017-2018External
        Eteng WE, Mandra A, Doty J, Yinka-Ogunleye A, Aruna S, Reynolds MG, McCollum AM, Davidson W, Wilkins K, Saleh M, Ipadeola O, Manneh L, Anebonam U, Abdulkareem Z, Okoli N, Agenyi J, Dan-Nwafor C, Mahmodu I, Ihekweazu C.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Sep 21;67(37):1040-1041.

        [No abstract]

      2. Seroprevalence and symptomatic attack rate of chikungunya virus infection, United States Virgin Islands, 2014-2015External
        Hennessey MJ, Ellis EM, Delorey MJ, Panella AJ, Kosoy OI, Kirking HL, Appiah GD, Qin J, Basile AJ, Feldstein LR, Biggerstaff BJ, Lanciotti RS, Fischer M, Staples JE.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Sep 17.

        When introduced into a naive population, chikungunya virus generally spreads rapidly, causing large outbreaks of fever and severe polyarthralgia. We randomly selected households in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) to estimate seroprevalence and symptomatic attack rate for chikungunya virus infection at approximately 1 year following the introduction of the virus. Eligible household members were administered a questionnaire and tested for chikungunya virus antibodies. Estimated proportions were calibrated to age and gender of the population. We enrolled 509 participants. The weighted infection rate was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26-36%). Among those with evidence of chikungunya virus infection, 72% (95% CI: 65-80%) reported symptomatic illness and 31% (95% CI: 23-38%) reported joint pain at least once per week approximately 1 year following the introduction of the virus to USVI. Comparing rates from infected and noninfected study participants, 70% (95% CI: 62-79%) of fever and polyarthralgia and 23% (95% CI: 9-37%) of continuing joint pain in patients infected with chikungunya virus were due to their infection. Overall, an estimated 43% (95% CI: 33-52%) of the febrile illness and polyarthralgia in the USVI population during the outbreak was attributable to chikungunya virus and only 12% (95% CI: 7-17%) of longer term joint pains were attributed to chikungunya virus. Although the rates of infection, symptomatic disease, and longer term joint symptoms identified in USVI are similar to other outbreaks of the disease, a lower proportion of acute fever and joint pain was found to be attributable to chikungunya virus.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019