Vol 10, Issue 31, August 21, 2018


CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 31, August 21, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

    1. CDC Public Health Grand Rounds
        • Childhood Obesity
            1. BACKGROUND: Growing health disparities have a negative impact on young people’s educational achievement. Community schools that involve deep relationships with partners across multiple domains address these disparities by providing opportunities and services that promote healthy development of young people, and enable them to graduate from high school ready for college, technical school, on-the-job training, career, and citizenship. METHODS: Results from Milwaukie High School, North Clackamas, OR; Oakland Unified School District, Oakland, CA; and Cincinnati Community Learning Centers, Cincinnati, OH were based on a review of local site documents, web-based information, interviews, and e-mail communication with key local actors. RESULTS: The schools and districts with strong health partnerships reflecting community schools strategy have shown improvements in attendance, academic performance, and increased access to mental, dental, vision, and health supports for their students. CONCLUSIONS: To build deep health-education partnerships and grow community schools, a working leadership and management infrastructure must be in place that uses quality data, focuses on results, and facilitates professional development across sectors. The leadership infrastructure of community school initiatives offers a prototype on which others can build. Moreover, as leaders build cross-sector relationships, a clear definition of what scaling up means is essential for subsequent long-term systemic change.


            1. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activityExternal
              Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
              MMWR Recomm Rep. 2011 Sep 16;60(Rr-5):1-76.

              During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6–19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating through policies, practices, and supportive environments. This report describes school health guidelines for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, including coordination of school policies and practices; supportive environments; school nutrition services; physical education and physical activity programs; health education; health, mental health, and social services; family and community involvement; school employee wellness; and professional development for school staff members. These guidelines, developed in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations, are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and best practices in healthy eating and physical activity promotion in school health, public health, and education. Because every guideline might not be appropriate or feasible for every school to implement, individual schools should determine which guidelines have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources.


            1. Physical Activity, Fitness, Cognitive Function, and Academic Achievement in Children: A Systematic ReviewExternal
              Donnelly JE, Hillman CH, Castelli D, Etnier JL, Lee S, Tomporowski P, Lambourne K, Szabo-Reed AN.
              Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Jun;48(6):1197-222.
              BACKGROUND: The relationship among physical activity (PA), fitness, cognitive function, and academic achievement in children is receiving considerable attention. The utility of PA to improve cognition and academic achievement is promising but uncertain; thus, this position stand will provide clarity from the available science. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) among children age 5-13 yr, do PA and physical fitness influence cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function? 2) Among children age 5-13 yr, do PA, physical education (PE), and sports programs influence standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention? STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: This study used primary source articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. Articles that presented data on, PA, fitness, or PE/sport participation and cognition, learning, brain function/structure, academic achievement, or concentration/attention were included. DATA SOURCES: Two separate searches were performed to identify studies that focused on 1) cognition, learning, brain structure, and brain function and 2) standardized achievement test performance and concentration/attention. PubMed, ERIC, PsychInfo, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and Embase were searched (January 1990-September 2014) for studies that met inclusion criteria. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria for the first search (cognition/learning/brain), and 73 studies met inclusion criteria for the second search (academic achievement/concentration). STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Articles were grouped by study design as cross-sectional, longitudinal, acute, or intervention trials. Considerable heterogeneity existed for several important study parameters; therefore, results were synthesized and presented by study design. RESULTS: A majority of the research supports the view that physical fitness, single bouts of PA, and PA interventions benefit children’s cognitive functioning. Limited evidence was available concerning the effects of PA on learning, with only one cross-sectional study meeting the inclusion criteria. Evidence indicates that PA has a relationship to areas of the brain that support complex cognitive processes during laboratory tasks. Although favorable results have been obtained from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies related to academic achievement, the results obtained from controlled experiments evaluating the benefits of PA on academic performance are mixed, and additional, well-designed studies are needed. LIMITATIONS: Limitations in evidence meeting inclusion criteria for this review include lack of randomized controlled trials, limited studies that are adequately powered, lack of information on participant characteristics, failure to blind for outcome measures, proximity of PA to measurement outcomes, and lack of accountability for known confounders. Therefore, many studies were ranked as high risk for bias because of multiple design limitations. CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review found evidence to suggest that there are positive associations among PA, fitness, cognition, and academic achievement. However, the findings are inconsistent, and the effects of numerous elements of PA on cognition remain to be explored, such as type, amount, frequency, and timing. Many questions remain regarding how to best incorporate PA within schools, such as activity breaks versus active lessons in relation to improved academic achievement. Regardless, the literature suggests no indication that increases in PA negatively affect cognition or academic achievement and PA is important for growth and development and general health. On the basis of the evidence available, the authors concluded that PA has a positive influence on cognition as well as brain structure and function; however, more research is necessary to determine mechanisms and long-term effect as well as strategies to translate laboratory findings to the school environment. Therefore, the evidence category rating is B. The literature suggests that PA and PE have a neutral effect on academic achievement. Thus, because of the limitations in the literature and the current information available, the evidence category rating for academic achievement is C.


            1. Trends in Obesity and Severe Obesity Prevalence in US Youth and Adults by Sex and Age, 2007-2008 to 2015-2016External
              Hales CM, Fryar CD, Carroll MD, Freedman DS, Ogden CL.
              Jama. 2018 Apr 24;319(16):1723-1725.

              [No abstract]

            1. Critical connections: health and academicsExternal
              Michael SL, Merlo CL, Basch CE, Wentzel KR, Wechsler H.
              J Sch Health. 2015 Nov;85(11):740-58.
              BACKGROUND: While it is a national priority to support the health and education of students, these sectors must better align, integrate, and collaborate to achieve this priority. This article summarizes the literature on the connection between health and academic achievement using the Whole School, Whole Community, and Whole Child (WSCC) framework as a way to address health-related barriers to learning. METHODS: A literature review was conducted on the association between student health and academic achievement. RESULTS: Most of the evidence examined the association between student health behaviors and academic achievement, with physical activity having the most published studies and consistent findings. The evidence supports the need for school health services by demonstrating the association between chronic conditions and decreased achievement. Safe and positive school environments were associated with improved health behaviors and achievement. Engaging families and community members in schools also had a positive effect on students’ health and achievement. CONCLUSIONS: Schools can improve the health and learning of students by supporting opportunities to learn about and practice healthy behaviors, providing school health services, creating safe and positive school environments, and engaging families and community. This evidence supports WSCC as a potential framework for achieving national educational and health goals.


            1. Applying an Equity Lens to the Child Care SettingExternal
              Scott K, Looby AA, Hipp JS, Frost N.
              J Law Med Ethics. 2017 Mar;45(1_suppl):77-81.
              In the current landscape, child care is increasingly being seen as a place for early education, and systems are largely bundling child care in the Early Care and Education sphere through funding and quality measures. As states define school readiness and quality, they often miss critical elements, such as equitable access to quality and cultural traditions. This article provides a summary of the various definitions and structures of child care. It also discusses how the current child care policy conversation can and ought to be infused with a framework grounded in the context of institutional racism and trauma. Models and examples will explore the differences between state government regulations, and how those differ than the regulation and structure of child care in Indian Country.


            1. School-based obesity prevention programs: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsExternal
              Sobol-Goldberg S, Rabinowitz J, Gross R.
              Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Dec;21(12):2422-8.
              OBJECTIVE: Attempts have been made to reduce childhood obesity through school-based programs. Systematic reviews of studies until 2006 reported a lack of consistency about effectiveness of such programs. Presented is an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. DESIGN AND METHODS: Replication of methodology used in previous comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of school-based obesity prevention programs covering studies until 2006 to review studies thru January 2012. RESULTS: Based on 32 studies (n = 52,109), programs were mildly effective in reducing BMI relative to controls not receiving intervention. Studies of children had significant intervention effects, those of teenagers did not, though the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Meta-regression showed a significant linear hierarchy of studies with the largest effects for comprehensive programs more than 1 year long that aimed to provide information on nutrition and physical activity, change attitudes, monitor behavior, modify environment, involve parents, increase physical activity and improve diet, particularly among children. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike earlier studies, more recent studies showed convincing evidence that school-based prevention interventions are at least mildly effective in reducing BMI in children, possibly because these newer studies tended to be longer, more comprehensive and included parental support.


            1. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysisExternal
              Wang Y, Cai L, Wu Y, Wilson RF, Weston C, Fawole O, Bleich SN, Cheskin LJ, Showell NN, Lau BD, Chiu DT, Zhang A, Segal J.
              Obes Rev. 2015 Jul;16(7):547-65.
              Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE(R), Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL(R), ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception through 22 April 2013 for relevant studies, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies and natural experiments, targeting diet, physical activity or both, and conducted in children aged 2-18 in high-income countries. Two reviewers independently abstracted the data. The strength of evidence (SOE) supporting interventions was graded for each study setting (e.g. home, school). Meta-analyses were performed on studies judged sufficiently similar and appropriate to pool using random effect models. This paper reported our findings on various adiposity-related outcomes. We identified 147 articles (139 intervention studies) of which 115 studies were primarily school based, although other settings could have been involved. Most were conducted in the United States and within the past decade. SOE was high for physical activity-only interventions delivered in schools with home involvement or combined diet-physical activity interventions delivered in schools with both home and community components. SOE was moderate for school-based interventions targeting either diet or physical activity, combined interventions delivered in schools with home or community components or combined interventions delivered in the community with a school component. SOE was low for combined interventions in childcare or home settings. Evidence was insufficient for other interventions. In conclusion, at least moderately strong evidence supports the effectiveness of school-based interventions for preventing childhood obesity. More research is needed to evaluate programmes in other settings or of other design types, especially environmental, policy and consumer health informatics-oriented interventions.


            1. Strength of obesity prevention interventions in early care and education settings: A systematic reviewExternal
              Ward DS, Welker E, Choate A, Henderson KE, Lott M, Tovar A, Wilson A, Sallis JF.
              Prev Med. 2017 Feb;95 Suppl:S37-s52.
              TIME AND PLACE OF STUDY: 2010-2015; INTERNATIONAL: Given the high levels of obesity in young children, numbers of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ECE settings is critical. As the field has progressed, a number of interventions have been reviewed yet there is a need to summarize the data using more sophisticated analyses to answer questions on the effectiveness of interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity prevention interventions in center-based ECE settings published between 2010 and 2015. Our goal was to identify promising intervention characteristics associated with successful behavioral and anthropometric outcomes. A rigorous search strategy resulted in 43 interventions that met inclusion criteria. We developed a coding strategy to assess intervention strength, used a validated study quality assessment tool, and presented detailed descriptive information about interventions (e.g., target behaviors, intervention strategies, and mode of delivery). Intervention strength was positively correlated with reporting of positive anthropometric outcomes for physical activity, diet, and combined interventions, and parent engagement components increased the strength of these relationships. Study quality was modestly related to percent successful healthy eating outcomes. Relationships between intervention strength and behavioral outcomes demonstrated negative relationships for all behavioral outcomes. Specific components of intervention strength (number of intervention strategies, potential impact of strategies, frequency of use, and duration of intervention) were correlated with some of the anthropometric and parent engagement outcomes. The review provided tentative evidence that multi-component, multi-level ECE interventions with parental engagement are most likely to be effective with anthropometric outcomes.


            1. Simulation of Growth Trajectories of Childhood Obesity into AdulthoodExternal
              Ward ZJ, Long MW, Resch SC, Giles CM, Cradock AL, Gortmaker SL.
              N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 30;377(22):2145-2153.
              BACKGROUND: Although the current obesity epidemic has been well documented in children and adults, less is known about long-term risks of adult obesity for a given child at his or her present age and weight. We developed a simulation model to estimate the risk of adult obesity at the age of 35 years for the current population of children in the United States. METHODS: We pooled height and weight data from five nationally representative longitudinal studies totaling 176,720 observations from 41,567 children and adults. We simulated growth trajectories across the life course and adjusted for secular trends. We created 1000 virtual populations of 1 million children through the age of 19 years that were representative of the 2016 population of the United States and projected their trajectories in height and weight up to the age of 35 years. Severe obesity was defined as a body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 35 or higher in adults and 120% or more of the 95th percentile in children. RESULTS: Given the current level of childhood obesity, the models predicted that a majority of today’s children (57.3%; 95% uncertainly interval [UI], 55.2 to 60.0) will be obese at the age of 35 years, and roughly half of the projected prevalence will occur during childhood. Our simulations indicated that the relative risk of adult obesity increased with age and BMI, from 1.17 (95% UI, 1.09 to 1.29) for overweight 2-year-olds to 3.10 (95% UI, 2.43 to 3.65) for 19-year-olds with severe obesity. For children with severe obesity, the chance they will no longer be obese at the age of 35 years fell from 21.0% (95% UI, 7.3 to 47.3) at the age of 2 years to 6.1% (95% UI, 2.1 to 9.9) at the age of 19 years. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our simulation models, childhood obesity and overweight will continue to be a major health problem in the United States. Early development of obesity predicted obesity in adulthood, especially for children who were severely obese. (Funded by the JPB Foundation and others.).


            1. Modeling the Cost Effectiveness of Child Care Policy Changes in the U.SExternal
              Wright DR, Kenney EL, Giles CM, Long MW, Ward ZJ, Resch SC, Moodie ML, Carter RC, Wang YC, Sacks G, Swinburn BA, Gortmaker SL, Cradock AL.
              Am J Prev Med. 2015 Jul;49(1):135-47.
              INTRODUCTION: Child care facilities influence diet and physical activity, making them ideal obesity prevention settings. The purpose of this study is to quantify the health and economic impacts of a multi-component regulatory obesity policy intervention in licensed U.S. child care facilities. METHODS: Two-year costs and BMI changes resulting from changes in beverage, physical activity, and screen time regulations affecting a cohort of up to 6.5 million preschool-aged children attending child care facilities were estimated in 2014 using published data. A Markov cohort model simulated the intervention’s impact on changes in the U.S. population from 2015 to 2025, including short-term BMI effects and 10-year healthcare expenditures. Future outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses simulated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) around outcomes. RESULTS: Regulatory changes would lead children to watch less TV, get more minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity, and consume fewer sugar-sweetened beverages. Within the 6.5 million eligible population, national implementation could reach 3.69 million children, cost $4.82 million in the first year, and result in 0.0186 fewer BMI units (95% UI=0.00592 kg/m(2), 0.0434 kg/m(2)) per eligible child at a cost of $57.80 per BMI unit avoided. Over 10 years, these effects would result in net healthcare cost savings of $51.6 (95% UI=$14.2, $134) million. The intervention is 94.7% likely to be cost saving by 2025. CONCLUSIONS: Changing child care regulations could have a small but meaningful impact on short-term BMI at low cost. If effects are maintained for 10 years, obesity-related healthcare cost savings are likely.



    1. CDC Authored Publications
      The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
      Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
        • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
            1. Periodontitis in US Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014External
              Eke PI, Thornton-Evans GO, Wei L, Borgnakke WS, Dye BA, Genco RJ.
              J Am Dent Assoc. 2018 Jul;149(7):576-588.e6.
              BACKGROUND: This report presents weighted average estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the adult US population during the 6 years 2009-2014 and highlights key findings of a national periodontitis surveillance project. METHODS: Estimates were derived for dentate adults 30 years or older from the civilian noninstitutionalized population whose periodontitis status was assessed by means of a full-mouth periodontal examination at 6 sites per tooth on all non-third molar teeth. Results are reported according to a standard format by applying the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American Academy of Periodontology periodontitis case definitions for surveillance, as well as various thresholds of clinical attachment loss and periodontal probing depth. RESULTS: An estimated 42% of dentate US adults 30 years or older had periodontitis, with 7.8% having severe periodontitis. Overall, 3.3% of all periodontally probed sites (9.1% of all teeth) had periodontal probing depth of 4 millimeters or greater, and 19.0% of sites (37.1% of teeth) had clinical attachment loss of 3 mm or greater. Severe periodontitis was most prevalent among adults 65 years or older, Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic blacks, and smokers. CONCLUSIONS: This nationally representative study shows that periodontitis is a highly prevalent oral disease among US adults. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dental practitioners should be aware of the high prevalence of periodontitis in US adults and may provide preventive care and counselling for periodontitis. General dentists who encounter patients with periodontitis may refer these patients to see a periodontist for specialty care.


            1. Because conducting population-based oral health screening is resource intensive, oral health data at small-area levels (e.g., county-level) are not commonly available. We applied the multilevel logistic regression and poststratification method to estimate county-level prevalence of untreated dental caries among children aged 6-9years in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2010 linked with various area-level data at census tract, county and state levels. We validated model-based national estimates against direct estimates from NHANES. We also compared model-based estimates with direct estimates from select State Oral Health Surveys (SOHS) at state and county levels. The model with individual-level covariates only and the model with individual-, census tract- and county-level covariates explained 7.2% and 96.3% respectively of overall county-level variation in untreated caries. Model-based county-level prevalence estimates ranged from 4.9% to 65.2% with median of 22.1%. The model-based national estimate (19.9%) matched the NHANES direct estimate (19.8%). We found significantly positive correlations between model-based estimates for 8-year-olds and direct estimates from the third-grade State Oral Health Surveys (SOHS) at state level for 34 states (Pearson coefficient: 0.54, P=0.001) and SOHS estimates at county level for 53 New York counties (Pearson coefficient: 0.38, P=0.006). This methodology could be a useful tool to characterize county-level disparities in untreated dental caries among children aged 6-9years and complement oral health surveillance to inform public health programs especially when local-level data are not available although the lack of external validation due to data unavailability should be acknowledged.


            1. Assessment of the sustainability capacity of a coordinated approach to chronic disease preventionExternal
              Moreland-Russell S, Combs T, Polk L, Dexter S.
              J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Jul/Aug;24(4):E17-e24.
              OBJECTIVE: This article outlines some factors that influenced the sustainability capacity of a coordinated approach to chronic disease prevention in state and territory health departments. DESIGN: This study involved a cross-sectional design and mixed-methods approach. Quantitative data were collected using the Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT), a 40-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses 8 domains of sustainability capacity (environmental support, funding stability, partnerships, organizational capacity, program evaluation, program adaptation, communications, and strategic planning). Qualitative data were collected via phone interviews. PARTICIPANTS: The PSAT was administered to staff and stakeholders from public health departments in 50 US states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, who were involved in the implementation of coordinated chronic disease programs. Phone interviews were conducted with program coordinators in each state. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Sustainability score patterns and state-level categorical results, as well as strengths and opportunities for improvement across the 8 program sustainability domains, were explored. RESULTS: On average, programs reported the strongest sustainability capacity in the domains of program adaptation, environmental support, and organizational capacity, while funding stability, strategic planning, and communications yielded lowest scores, indicating weakest capacity. Scores varied the most by state in environmental support and strategic planning. CONCLUSION: The PSAT results highlight the process through which states approached the sustainability of coordinated chronic disease initiatives. This process included an initial focus on program evaluation and partnerships with transfer of priority to long-term strategic planning, communications, and funding stability to further establish coordinated chronic disease efforts. Qualitative interviews provided further context to PSAT results, indicating that leadership, communications, partnerships, funding stability, and policy change were perceived as keys to success of the transition. Integrating these findings into future efforts may help those in transition establish greater sustainability capacity. The PSAT results and interviews provide insight into the capacity for sustainability for programs transitioning from traditional siloed programs to coordinated chronic disease programs.


            1. BACKGROUND: National administrative healthcare data may be used as a case-finding method for prevalence studies of chronic disease in the United States, but the completeness of ascertainment likely varies depending on the disease under study. METHODS: We used 3 case-finding sources (Medicare, Medicaid, and Veterans Administration data) to estimate the prevalence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the United States for 2002-2004, and applied the capture-recapture methodology to estimate the degree of under-ascertainment when relying solely on these sources for case identification. RESULTS: Case-finding completeness was 76% overall and did not vary by race, but was lower for males (77%) than for females (88%), and lower for patients under age 65 (66%) than patients over age 65 (79%). The uncorrected ALS prevalence ratio was 2.8/100,000 in 2002, 3.3/100,000 in 2003, and 3.7/100,000 in 2004. After correcting for under-ascertainment, the annual prevalence increased by approximately 1 per 100,000 to 3.7/100,000 in 2002 (95% CI 3.66-3.80), 4.4/100,000 in 2003 (95% CI 4.34-4.50), and 4.8/100,000 in 2004 (95% CI 4.76-4.91). CONCLUSIONS: Federal healthcare claims databases ascertained are a very efficient method for identifying the majority of ALS-prevalent cases in the National ALS Registry, and may be enhanced by having patients self-register through the registry web portal.


            1. Epilepsy is common in older adults because known risk factors-such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, cerebrovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and neoplasms-increase with age. This study uses the most recent data from the 2010, 2013, and 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to provide updated national estimates of epilepsy prevalence among US adults aged 55years or older to help guide public health action. We used the following validated surveillance case definition for active epilepsy: adults with self-reported doctor-diagnosed epilepsy or seizure disorder who reported either currently taking medications to treat their epilepsy or seizure disorder or at least one seizure during the past 12months. We estimated the prevalence of active epilepsy to be 1.4% (about 529,000) among US adults aged 55-64, 0.9% (225,000) for those aged 65-74, and 1.0% (178,000) for those aged >/=75years. The prevalence of a history of epilepsy and active epilepsy among adults aged 55-64years was significantly higher than the prevalence in older age groups. Collectively, close to 1 million adults aged 55years or older reported active epilepsy. Epilepsy stakeholders should ensure that older adults with epilepsy have access to age-appropriate clinical preventive services, chronic disease self-management support, specialty care for epilepsy and other comorbidities, and appropriate community services to promote quality of life.


            1. CDC activities to enhance training in cancer prevention and control in field epidemiology training programs in low- and middle-income countriesExternal
              Senkomago V, Joseph R, Sierra M, Van Dyne E, Endeshaw M, Duran D, Sugerman DE, Saraiya M.
              J Glob Oncol. 2018 Jul(4):1-9.
              Cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In 2012, there were > 14 million new cancer cases and > 8 million cancer deaths, with 70% of these deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Part of the success of cancer prevention and control efforts requires the development and strengthening of the public health workforce, particularly in LMICs where the cancer burden is the greatest. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) supports workforce capacity development globally through Field Epidemiology Training Programs (FETPs) established in ministries of health in > 70 countries. To enhance training in cancer prevention and control in FETPs, the CDC has developed an open-access curriculum in applied cancer epidemiology and supports FETP trainees who conduct cancer-related planned projects. The curriculum contains modules on cancer registration, screening, and comprehensive cancer control that are particularly relevant to current cancer control efforts in many LMICs. Pilot testing of the curriculum showed an increase in trainees’ cancer knowledge and covered content trainees found to be relevant to their field epidemiology training and projects and future work in cancer prevention and control. Since 2013, the CDC has supported 13 trainees with cancer-related projects; two have published articles, two have presented their results at international conferences, and others are writing manuscripts on their project outcomes. Through the development of an open-access applied cancer epidemiology curriculum and by supporting cancer-related projects for FETP trainees, the CDC provided technical assistance for LMICs to build capacity for cancer prevention and control efforts.


            1. BACKGROUND: Negative employment consequences of arthritis are known but not fully understood. Examining transitions in and out of work can provide valuable information. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of arthritis with employment during the Great Recession and predictors of employment transitions. METHODS: Data were for 3,277 adults ages 30?62 years with and without arthritis from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey followed in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2008-2009. Employment (working vs. not working) was ascertained at baseline and five follow-ups. We estimated Kaplan Meier survival curves with 95% confidence intervals (CI) separately for time to stopping work (working at baseline) and starting work (not working at baseline) using Cox proportional hazards regression models with hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: Arthritis was significantly associated with greater risk of stopping work (HR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3?2.2; adjusted HR= 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1?2.0) and significantly associated with 40% lower chance of starting work (HR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4?0.8), which reversed on adjustment (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0?2.2). Employment predictors were mixed by outcome. CONCLUSIONS: During the Great Recession, adults with arthritis stopped work at higher rates and started work at lower rates than those without arthritis.


            1. Sleep duration and excess heart age among US adultsExternal
              Yang Q, Durmer JL, Wheaton AG, Jackson SL, Zhang Z.
              Sleep Health. 2018 .
              Objectives: Insufficient sleep negatively impacts the cardiovascular system. No study has examined the association between sleep duration and heart age (person’s predicted vascular age based on cardiovascular disease [CVD] risk profile). This study examines association between sleep duration and excess heart age (EHA; difference between heart age and chronological age) among US adults. Design and participants: Cross-sectional 2007-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for respondents aged 30-74 years without CVD or stroke (n = 12,775). Measurements: Self-reported sleep duration was classified into 5 categories (</=5, 6, 7, 8, and >/=9 hours). We used sex-specific Framingham heart age algorithm to calculate heart age and multivariable linear regression to examine association between sleep duration and EHA. Results: A total of 13.4% (95% confidence interval 12.5-14.3), 24.2% (23.1-25.2), 31.0% (29.8-32.3), 25.9% (25.0-26.9), and 5.5% (5.0-6.1) reported sleeping ?5, 6, 7, 8, and >/=9 hours, respectively. We observed a nonlinear relationship between sleep duration and EHA using 7 hours as reference: EHA (adjusted for sociodemographics, body mass index, physical activity, Healthy Eating Index-2010, sleep disorder, and depression status) was 5.1 (4.8-5.8), 4.5 (3.9-5.1), 3.7 (3.3-4.0), 4.5 (4.1-5.0), and 4.1 (3.3-4.9) years for sleep durations of ?5, 6, 7, 8 and ?9 hours, respectively (P =.015 for quadratic trend). EHA was significantly higher among participants with lower education, lower income, and obesity. Conclusion: Mean adjusted EHA was lowest among adults who reported sleeping 7 hours per night and increased as adults reported sleeping fewer or more hours. Discussing sleep duration in the context of EHA may be helpful for patients and clinicians.


        • Communicable Diseases
            1. Enhanced surveillance for coccidioidomycosis, 14 US states, 2016External
              Benedict K, Ireland M, Weinberg MP, Gruninger RJ, Weigand J, Chen L, Perez-Lockett K, Bledsoe C, Denny L, Cibulskas K, Gibbons-Burgener S, Kocharian A, DeBess E, Miller TK, Lepp A, Cronquist L, Warren K, Serrano JA, Loveland C, Turabelidze G, McCotter O, Jackson BR.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Jul;24(8):1444-1452.
              Although coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California has been well-characterized, much remains unknown about its epidemiology in states where it is not highly endemic. We conducted enhanced surveillance in 14 such states in 2016 by identifying cases according to the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists case definition and interviewing patients about their demographic characteristics, clinical features, and exposures. Among 186 patients, median time from seeking healthcare to diagnosis was 38 days (range 1-1,654 days); 70% had another condition diagnosed before coccidioidomycosis testing occurred (of whom 83% were prescribed antibacterial medications); 43% were hospitalized; and 29% had culture-positive coccidioidomycosis. Most (83%) patients from nonendemic states had traveled to a coccidioidomycosis-endemic area. Coccidioidomycosis can cause severe disease in residents of non-highly endemic states, a finding consistent with previous studies in Arizona, and less severe cases likely go undiagnosed or unreported. Improved coccidioidomycosis awareness in non-highly endemic areas is needed.


            1. Progress and remaining gaps in estimating the global disease burden of influenzaExternal
              Bresee J, Fitzner J, Campbell H, Cohen C, Cozza V, Jara J, Krishnan A, Lee V.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Jul;24(7):1173-1177.
              Influenza has long been a global public health priority because of the threat of another global pandemic. Although data are available for the annual burden of seasonal influenza in many developed countries, fewer disease burden data are available for low-income and tropical countries. In recent years, however, the surveillance systems created as part of national pandemic preparedness efforts have produced substantial data on the epidemiology and impact of influenza in countries where data were sparse. These data are leading to greater interest in seasonal influenza, including implementation of vaccination programs. However, a lack of quality data on severe influenza, nonrespiratory outcomes, and high-risk groups, as well as a need for better mathematical models and economic evaluations, are some of the major gaps that remain. These gaps are the focus of multilateral research and surveillance efforts that will strengthen global efforts in influenza control in the future.


            1. Surveillance among men who have sex with men in the United States: A comparison of web-based and venue-based samplesExternal
              Chen YT, Bowles K, An Q, DiNenno E, Finlayson T, Hoots B, Paz-Bailey G, Wejnert C.
              AIDS Behav. 2018 Jul;22(7):2104-2112.
              Although men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through web-based and venue-based sampling methods have been compared, no large web-based and venue-based samples using similar survey instruments have been examined in the U.S. This study describes the differences in sociodemographic characteristics and risk behaviors between the 2012 Web-based HIV Behavioral Survey (n = 3221) and 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (n = 9256). Compared with participants in the venue-based sample, participants in the web-based sample were older, less likely to be black or Hispanic, more likely to have higher socioeconomic status, and more likely to have anal sex without a condom with their last male sex partner. Web-based participants were less likely to have multiple male sex partners, ever injected drugs, been tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and received free condoms than venue-based participants. The method for sampling MSM into a behavioral survey should consider the sub-population of MSM to be reached.


            1. Bisexual and bidirectional: Assessing the potential for HIV bridging in MozambiqueExternal
              Cummings B, Horth R, McFarland W, Lane T, Young PW, Nala R, Rutherford G, Raymond HF.
              AIDS Behav. 2018 Jul;22(7):2189-2198.
              African men who have sex with men (MSM) frequently, and often concurrently, have female partners, raising concerns about HIV sexual bridging. We explored potential HIV transmission in Mozambique from and to female partners of MSM focusing on preferred anal sex role and circumcision status. Data collected in a respondent-driven sampling study of MSM in 2011 in Maputo and Beira. Men who had oral or anal sex with other men 12 months prior completed a questionnaire and consented for HIV testing. Statistical analysis explored demographic/risk characteristics and associations among circumcision status, anal sex with men, sexual positions during anal sex with men and vaginal or anal sex with women. We identified 326 MSM in Maputo and 237 in Beira with both male and female partners 3 months before the study. Of these, 20.8% in Maputo and 36.0% in Beira had any receptive anal sex with men 12 months prior, including 895 unprotected sexual acts with males in Maputo and 692 in Beira. Uncircumcised and exclusively insertive males, 27.7% of the sample in Maputo and 33.6% in Beira, had the most unprotected sex with females: 1159 total acts in Maputo and 600 in Beira. Sexual bridging between MSM and women likely varies geographically and is probably bi-directional, occurring within a generalized epidemic where HIV prevalence is higher among reproductive-age women than MSM. Prevention strategies emphasizing correct and consistent condom use for all partners and circumcision for bisexual men should be considered.


            1. Capsule-negative emm types are an increasing cause of pediatric group A streptococcal infections at a large pediatric hospital in TexasExternal
              Flores AR, Chase McNeil J, Shah B, Van Beneden C, Shelburne SA.
              J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 Aug 1.
              Background: Bacterial infections caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) are common in childhood. Few study reports have provided data on pediatric-specific trends in the epidemiology and bacterial strain characteristics of GAS infections. Methods: We prospectively collected GAS isolates from the clinical microbiology laboratory at Texas Children’s Hospital between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2017. Patient characteristics and GAS disease categories were determined through chart review. GAS isolates were obtained from patients in either the inpatient or outpatient setting, and cases were defined as pharyngeal disease, skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI), or invasive disease on the basis of predefined criteria. All isolates were emm typed to determine trends over time. Results: We identified 930 cases over the 4-year period, including 432 (46.4%) pharyngeal, 235 (25.3%) SSTI, and 263 (28.3%) invasive disease types. The most frequently encountered emm types were emm1 (21.4%), emm12 (15.7%), emm89 (14.6%), emm4 (9.2%), and emm3 (8.2%). We observed significant changes over the 4-year period in the relative frequency of infections caused by emm1 (-17.7%; P = .046), emm4 (8.7%; P = .023), or emm6 (-7.9%; P = .024). Using bioinformatic analyses and targeted gene sequencing, we also discovered that all GAS emm28 and emm87 types harbored mutations that rendered them incapable of producing capsule. The relative frequency of GAS disease cases caused by capsule-negative GAS emm types (emm4, emm22, emm28, emm87, and emm89) increased over the 4-year period (32.2%-44.4%), although the difference was statistically significant for only nonpharyngeal disease types (27.1%-43.9%; P = .038). Conclusions: Our data suggest an evolving epidemiology of GAS in the Houston pediatric population characterized by an increase in the frequency of capsule-negative emm types.


            1. Scaling-up HCV prevention and treatment interventions in rural United States – model projections for tackling an increasing epidemicExternal
              Fraser H, Zibbell J, Hoerger T, Hariri S, Vellozzi C, Martin NK, Kral AH, Hickman M, Ward JW, Vickerman P.
              Addiction. 2018 Jan;113(1):173-182.
              BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Effective strategies are needed to address dramatic increases in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in rural settings of the United States. We determined the required scale-up of HCV treatment with or without scale-up of HCV prevention interventions to achieve a 90% reduction in HCV chronic prevalence or incidence by 2025 and 2030 in a rural US setting. DESIGN: An ordinary differential equation model of HCV transmission calibrated to HCV epidemiological data obtained primarily from an HIV outbreak investigation in Indiana. SETTING: Scott County, Indiana (population 24 181), USA, a rural setting with negligible baseline interventions, increasing HCV epidemic since 2010, and 55.3% chronic HCV prevalence among PWID in 2015. PARTICIPANTS: PWID. MEASUREMENTS: Required annual HCV treatments per 1000 PWID (and initial annual percentage of infections treated) to achieve a 90% reduction in HCV chronic prevalence or incidence by 2025/30, either with or without scaling-up syringe service programmes (SSPs) and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) to 50% coverage. Sensitivity analyses considered whether this impact could be achieved without re-treatment of re-infections, and whether greater intervention scale-up was required due to the increasing epidemic in this setting. FINDINGS: To achieve a 90% reduction in incidence and prevalence by 2030, without MAT and SSP scale-up, 159 per 1000 PWID (initially 24.9% of infected PWID) need to be HCV-treated annually. However, with MAT and SSP scaled-up, treatment rates are halved (89 per 1000 annually or 14.5%). To reach the same target by 2025 with MAT and SSP scaled-up, 121 per 1000 PWID (19.9%) need treatment annually. These treatment requirements are threefold higher than if the epidemic was stable, and the impact targets are unattainable without retreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Combined scale-up of hepatitis C virus treatment and prevention interventions is needed to decrease the increasing burden of hepatitis C virus incidence and prevalence in rural Indiana, USA, by 90% by 2025/30.


            1. Accuracy of HIV risk perceptions among episodic substance-using men who have sex with menExternal
              Hall GC, Koenig LJ, Gray SC, Herbst JH, Matheson T, Coffin P, Raiford J.
              AIDS Behav. 2018 Jun;22(6):1932-1943.
              Using the HIV Incident Risk Index for men who have sex with men-an objective and validated measure of risk for HIV acquisition, and self-perceptions of belief and worry about acquiring HIV, we identified individuals who underestimated substantial risk for HIV. Data from a racially/ethnically diverse cohort of 324 HIV-negative episodic substance-using men who have sex with men (SUMSM) enrolled in a behavioral risk reduction intervention (2010-2012) were analyzed. Two hundred and fourteen (66%) SUMSM at substantial risk for HIV were identified, of whom 147 (69%, or 45% of the total sample) underestimated their risk. In multivariable regression analyses, compared to others in the cohort, SUMSM who underestimated their substantial risk were more likely to report: a recent sexually transmitted infection diagnosis, experiencing greater social isolation, and exchanging sex for drugs, money, or other goods. An objective risk screener can be valuable to providers in identifying and discussing with SUMSM factors associated with substantial HIV risk, particularly those who may not recognize their risk.


            1. Variability in condom use trends by sexual risk behaviors: Findings from the 2003-2015 National Youth Risk Behavior SurveysExternal
              Harper CR, Steiner RJ, Lowry R, Hufstetler S, Dittus PJ.
              Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Jun;45(6):400-405.
              OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine variability in condom use trends by sexual risk behavior among US high school students. METHODS: Data were from the 2003-2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted biennially among a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9 to 12. We used logistic regression to examine variability in trends of condom use during last sexual intercourse among female and male students by 4 sexual risk behaviors: drank alcohol or used drugs before last sexual intercourse, first sexual intercourse before age 13 years, 4 or more sex partners during their life, and 2 or more sex partners during the past 3 months. RESULTS: Between 2003 and 2015, significant declines in self-reported condom use were observed among black female (63.6% in 2003 to 46.7% in 2015) and white male students (69.0% in 2003 to 58.1% in 2015). Among female students, declines in self-reported condom use were significant only among those who drank or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, had 4 or more sex partners during their life, or had 2 or more sex partners during the past 3 months. There was a significant interaction between trends in condom use and first sexual intercourse before age 13 years, suggesting more pronounced declines among female students who initiated first sexual intercourse before age 13 years compared with their female peers. Trends did not vary by sexual risk behavior for male students. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that declines in self-reported condom use have occurred among female students at greater risk for acquiring a sexually transmitted disease.


            1. Mapping of the US domestic influenza virologic surveillance landscapeExternal
              Jester B, Schwerzmann J, Mustaquim D, Aden T, Brammer L, Humes R, Shult P, Shahangian S, Gubareva L, Xu X, Miller J, Jernigan D.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Jul;24(7).
              Influenza virologic surveillance is critical each season for tracking influenza circulation, following trends in antiviral drug resistance, detecting novel influenza infections in humans, and selecting viruses for use in annual seasonal vaccine production. We developed a framework and process map for characterizing the landscape of US influenza virologic surveillance into 5 tiers of influenza testing: outpatient settings (tier 1), inpatient settings and commercial laboratories (tier 2), state public health laboratories (tier 3), National Influenza Reference Center laboratories (tier 4), and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention laboratories (tier 5). During the 2015-16 season, the numbers of influenza tests directly contributing to virologic surveillance were 804,000 in tiers 1 and 2; 78,000 in tier 3; 2,800 in tier 4; and 3,400 in tier 5. With the release of the 2017 US Pandemic Influenza Plan, the proposed framework will support public health officials in modeling, surveillance, and pandemic planning and response.


            1. Prevention and control of youth camp-associated acute gastroenteritis outbreaksExternal
              Kambhampati AK, Marsh ZA, Hlavsa MC, Roberts VA, Vieira AR, Yoder JS, Hall AJ.
              J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 Aug 2.
              Background: Approximately 14 million children attend more than 14000 US camps every year. Shared accommodations and activities can facilitate acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks. Methods: We analyzed data from the National Outbreak Reporting System on US youth camp-associated AGE outbreaks that occurred between 2009 and 2016. We also conducted a systematic literature search of youth camp-associated AGE outbreaks that have occurred around the world and a gray literature search for existing recommendations on outbreak prevention and control at camps worldwide. Results: Thirty-nine US jurisdictions reported a total of 229 youth camp-associated AGE outbreaks to the National Outbreak Reporting System. Of the 226 outbreaks included in our analyses, 120 (53%) were reported to have resulted from person-to-person transmission, 42 (19%) from an unknown transmission mode, 38 (17%) from foodborne transmission, 19 (8%) from waterborne transmission, 5 (2%) from animal contact, and 2 (<1%) from environmental contamination. Among 170 (75%) outbreaks with a single suspected or confirmed etiology, norovirus (107 [63%] outbreaks), Salmonella spp (16 [9%]), and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (12 [7%]) were implicated most frequently. We identified 43 additional youth camp-associated AGE outbreaks in the literature that occurred in various countries between 1938 and 2014. Control measures identified through the literature search included camp closure, separation of ill campers, environmental disinfection, and education on food preparation and hand hygiene. Conclusions: Youth camp-associated AGE outbreaks are caused by numerous pathogens every year. These outbreaks are facilitated by factors that include improper food preparation, inadequate cleaning and disinfection, shared accommodations, and contact with animals. Health education focused on proper hygiene and preventing disease transmission could help control or prevent these outbreaks.


            1. HIV prevalence and related risk factors in men who have sex with men in Bamako, Mali: Findings from a bio-behavioral survey using respondent-driven samplingExternal
              Lahuerta M, Patnaik P, Ballo T, Telly N, Knox J, Traore B, Doumbia S, Hakim A.
              AIDS Behav. 2018 Jul;22(7):2079-2088.
              Using respondent driven sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bamako, Mali. Eligibility criteria included age >/=18 years and having had sex with another man in the last 6 months. We enrolled 552 MSM, 99.6% were tested for HIV. MSM in Bamako were young (69.6% </=24 years) and educated (63.7% >/=secondary). HIV prevalence among MSM in Bamako was 13.7; 90.1% of HIV-infected men were unaware of their HIV status. Almost one-third had never been tested for HIV. Factors associated with higher odds of HIV included younger age, being receptive with last partner, condom breaking during anal sex in last 6 months, talking to peer educator about HIV, and having sexually transmitted infection symptoms in past year. The results suggest the need for enhanced HIV prevention and treatment services targeted at MSM in Bamako, with emphasis on repeated HIV testing.


            1. Preventing global human papillomavirus-associated lower genital diseaseExternal
              Lawson HW, Saraiya M.
              J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2018 Aug 6.

              [No abstract]

            1. Impact of sustained virologic response on risk of type 2 diabetes among hepatitis C patients in the United StatesExternal
              Li J, Zhang T, Gordon SC, Rupp LB, Trudeau S, Holmberg SD, Moorman AC, Spradling PR, Teshale EH, Boscarino JA, Schmidt MA, Daida YG, Lu M.
              J Viral Hepat. 2018 Feb 25.
              Data regarding the impact of hepatitis C (HCV) therapy on incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus are limited. We used the data from the longitudinal Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study-drawn from four large US health systems-to investigate how response to HCV treatment impacts the risk of subsequent diabetes. Among HCV patients without a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus or hepatitis B, we investigated the incidence of type 2 diabetes from 12 weeks post-HCV treatment through December 2015. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment status (sustained virologic response [SVR] or treatment failure) and baseline risk factors on the development of diabetes, considering any possible risk factor-by-SVR interactions, and death as a competing risk. Among 5127 patients with an average follow-up of 3.7 years, diabetes incidence was significantly lower among patients who achieved SVR (231/3748; 6.2%) than among patients with treatment failure (299/1379; 21.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.65-0.96). Risk of diabetes was higher among African American and Asian American patients than White patients (aHR = 1.82 and 1.75, respectively; P < .05), and among Hispanic patients than non-Hispanics (aHR = 1.86). Patients with BMI >/= 30 and 25-30 (demonstrated higher risk of diabetes aHR = 3.62 and 1.72, respectively; P < .05) than those with BMI < 25; patients with cirrhosis at baseline had higher risk than those without cirrhosis (aHR = 1.47). Among a large US cohort of patients treated for HCV, patients who achieved SVR demonstrated a substantially lower risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus than patients with treatment failure.


            1. Non-disclosure to male partners and incomplete PMTCT regimens associated with higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission: a national survey in KenyaExternal
              McGrath CJ, Singa B, Langat A, Kinuthia J, Ronen K, Omolo D, Odongo BE, Wafula R, Muange P, Katana A, Ng’anga L, John-Stewart GC.
              AIDS Care. 2018 Jun;30(6):765-773.
              Health worker experience and community support may be higher in high HIV prevalence regions than low prevalence regions, leading to improved prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs. We evaluated 6-week and 9-month infant HIV transmission risk (TR) in a high prevalence region and nationally. Population-proportionate-to-size sampling was used to select 141 clinics in Kenya, and mobile teams surveyed mother-infant pairs attending 6-week and 9-month immunizations. HIV DNA testing was performed on HIV-exposed infants. Among 2521 mother-infant pairs surveyed nationally, 2423 (94.7%) reported HIV testing in pregnancy or prior diagnosis, of whom 200 (7.4%) were HIV-infected and 188 infants underwent HIV testing. TR was 8.8% (4.0%-18.3%) in 6-week and 8.9% (3.2%-22.2%) in 9-month cohorts including mothers with HIV diagnosed postpartum, of which 53% of infant infections were due to previously undiagnosed mothers. Of 276 HIV-exposed infants in the Nyanza survey, TR was 1.4% (0.4%-5.3%) at 6-week and 5.1% (2.5%-9.9%) at 9-months. Overall TR was lower in Nyanza, high HIV region, than nationally (3.3% vs. 7.2%, P = 0.02). HIV non-disclosure to male partners and incomplete ARVs were associated with TR in both surveys [aOR = 12.8 (3.0-54.3); aOR = 5.6 (1.2-27.4); aOR = 4.5 (1.0-20.0), aOR = 2.5, (0.8-8.4), respectively]. TR was lower in a high HIV prevalence region which had better ARV completion and partner HIV disclosure, possibly due to programmatic efficiencies or community/peer/partner support. Most 9-month infections were among infants of mothers without prior HIV diagnosis. Strategies to detect incident or undiagnosed maternal infections will be important to achieve PMTCT.


            1. Rural men who have sex with men (MSM) are heavily affected by HIV, and many lack culturally competent HIV prevention resources. Rural MSM may find sexual partners on the internet, which may also be a way to deliver prevention services to them. To understand the differences between rural and urban MSM with respect to HIV risk factors and behaviors and the utilization of online HIV prevention services, we used data from the 2012 Web-Based HIV Behavioral Survey (WHBS). Using WHBS data collected between June and August 2012, we compared the characteristics of MSM with positive or unknown HIV infection status who had sex with a male in the past 12 months, from rural vs urban areas using Chi square tests and median tests. We used logistic regression and calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare self-reported HIV risk behaviors, HIV/STI testing behaviors, use of prevention services, and perceived discrimination. Of the 8166 MSM included in our analysis, 3583 (44%) were from rural areas, and 4583 (56%) were from urban areas. Compared to urban MSM, rural MSM were less likely to ever test for HIV (aPR = 0.94, CI 0.92-0.95), to be tested for HIV in the last year (aPR = 0.83, CI 0.79-0.87), or to receive free condoms (aPR = 0.83, CI 0.79-0.86) or individual prevention counseling in the past year (aPR = 0.86, CI 0.78-0.95). Rural MSM were less likely to have been tested in the last year for syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia (aPR = 0.70, CI 0.62-0.78; aPR = 0.72, CI 0.64-0.81; aPR = 0.75, CI 0.67-0.85, respectively). Rural MSM also reported perceiving less tolerance of gays and bisexuals within their community (aPR = 0.80, CI 0.77-0.84). HIV prevalence is lower among MSM in rural areas compared to MSM in urban areas, but rural MSM report that they are more likely to face intolerance and are less likely to use basic HIV prevention services compared to urban MSM. Therefore, this hard-to-reach population could benefit from prevention services offered through the internet.


            1. Fatal nongroupable Neisseria meningitidis disease in vaccinated patient receiving eculizumabExternal
              Nolfi-Donegan D, Konar M, Vianzon V, MacNeil J, Cooper J, Lurie P, Sedivy J, Wang X, Granoff DM, McNamara L.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8).
              Patients receiving eculizumab have an increased risk for meningococcal disease, but most reported cases are attributable to encapsulated meningococcal strains. We describe a case in which a nongroupable meningococcal strain, which rarely causes disease in healthy persons, caused fatal disease in an eculizumab recipient despite meningococcal vaccination.


            1. Hepatitis C virus infection in children: How do we prevent it and how do we treat it?External
              Nwaohiri A, Schillie S, Bulterys M, Kourtis AP.
              Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 Aug 9.
              INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is an important contributor to the worldwide burden of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Mother-to-child transmission of HCV ranges from 6-11% in different populations globally, but accurate estimates on the burden of pediatric HCV infection are limited because screening approaches are not consistent. Areas covered: The advent of new direct-acting antiviral agents that achieve very high rates of sustained virologic response, (representing virologic cure) with short (i.e., 8 to 12 weeks) regimens has revolutionized the field of HCV treatment and led to the development of global elimination goals for HCV transmission and mortality. However, information on their safety during pregnancy and efficacy in preventing mother-to-child transmission is lacking. Currently, there are no approved treatment regimens with these antiviral agents for children younger than 12 years of age. Expert Commentary: If these agents are shown to be safe during pregnancy and effective in preventing transmission to the infant, screening of pregnant women and antenatal treatment of those infected, could pave the way for eliminating pediatric HCV infection- particularly as these drugs become less costly and more accessible. Treatment of infected children when indicated, along with universal safe health care practices, can further pediatric HCV elimination.


            1. High prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among women screened for a contraceptive intravaginal ring study, Kisumu, Kenya, 2014External
              Oliver VO, Otieno G, Gvetadze R, Desai MA, Makanga M, Akelo V, Gust DA, Nyagol B, McLellan-Lemal E.
              Int J STD AIDS. 2018 Aug 2:956462418782810.
              We assessed prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), gonorrhoea (GC), syphilis (SYP), Chlamydia (CT) and HIV among Kenyan women aged 18-34 years who were screened for a contraceptive intravaginal ring study. Women provided demographic, behavioural and medical information, and underwent medical evaluation, including a pelvic exam. We computed crude and adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using log-binomial regression. Of 463 women screened, 457 provided laboratory specimens and were included in the analysis. The median age was 25 years, interquartile range (21-28), and 68.5% had completed primary or lower education. Overall, 72.2% tested positive for any STI or BV. Point prevalence was 55.6, 38.5, 3.9, 2.0, 4.6, and 14.7% for HSV-2, BV, GC, SYP, CT, and HIV, respectively. Co-infection with HSV-2, BV, and HIV occurred in 28 (6.1%) participants. Having >/=1 STI/BV was associated with younger age at first sex (</=13 versus 17-19 years, aPR=1.27, 95% CI 1.07-1.51), history of exchange sex (aPR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.07-3.92), sexual intercourse in the past seven days (aPR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.36), and older age (30-34 versus 18-24 years, aPR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.06-1.48). STI/BV diagnosis was less likely for women reporting one lifetime sexual partner compared to women with >/=4 lifetime sexual partners (aPR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.54-0.92). Combination prevention approaches (biomedical, behavioural, social, and structural) tailored to women with diverse risk profiles may help mitigate STI/BV prevalence in this setting.


            1. Assessing the theory of gender and power: HIV risk among heterosexual minority dyadsExternal
              Rinehart DJ, Al-Tayyib AA, Sionean C, Whitesell NR, Dreisbach S, Bull S.
              AIDS Behav. 2018 Jun;22(6):1944-1954.
              This study drew on the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) as a framework to assess power inequalities within heterosexual dyads and their effects on women. Structural equation modeling was used to better understand the relationship between structural and interpersonal power and HIV sexual risk within African American and Latina women’s heterosexual dyads. The main outcome variable was women’s sexual HIV risk in the dyad and was created using women’s reports of condomless sex with their main male partners and partners’ reports of their HIV risk behaviors. Theoretical associations developed a priori yielded a well-fitting model that explained almost a quarter of the variance in women’s sexual HIV risk in main partner dyads. Women’s and partner structural power were indirectly associated with women’s sexual HIV risk through substance use and interpersonal power. Interpersonal power was directly associated with risk. In addition, this study found that not identifying as heterosexual was directly and indirectly associated with women’s heterosexual sex risk. This study provides further support for the utility of the TGP and the relevance of gender-related power dynamics for HIV prevention among heterosexually-active women.


            1. Public health consequences of a 2013 measles outbreak in New York CityExternal
              Rosen JB, Arciuolo RJ, Khawja AM, Fu J, Giancotti FR, Zucker JR.
              JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Jul 30.
              Importance: Internationally imported cases of measles into the United States can lead to outbreaks requiring extensive and rapid control measures. Importation of measles from an unvaccinated adolescent in 2013 led to what has been the largest outbreak of measles in New York City, New York, since 1992. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and public health burden in terms of resources and cost of the 2013 measles outbreak in New York City. Design, Setting, and Participants: This epidemiologic assessment and cost analysis conducted between August 15, 2013, and August 5, 2014, examined all outbreak-associated cases of measles among persons residing in New York City in 2013. Exposures: Measles virus. Main Outcomes and Measures: Numbers of measles cases and contacts. Total personnel time and total direct cost to the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH), calculated as the sum of inputs (supplies and materials, equipment, and logistics) and personnel time (salary and fringe benefits). Results: Between March 13, 2013, and June 9, 2013, 58 persons in New York City with a median age of 3 years (range, 0-32 years) were identified as having measles. Among these individuals, 45 (78%) were at least 12 months old and were unvaccinated owing to parental refusal or intentional delay. Only 28 individuals (48%) visited a medical health care professional who suspected measles and reported the case to the DOHMH at the initial clinical suspicion. Many case patients were not immediately placed into airborne isolation, resulting in exposures in 11 health care facilities. In total, 3351 exposed contacts were identified. Total direct costs to the New York City DOHMH were $394448, and a total of 10054 hours were consumed responding to and controlling the outbreak. Conclusions and Relevance: Vaccine refusals and delays appeared to have propagated a large outbreak following importation of measles into the United States. Prompt recognition of measles along with rapid implementation of airborne isolation of individuals suspected of measles infection in health care facilities and timely reporting to public health agencies may avoid large numbers of exposures. The response and containment of measles outbreaks are resource intensive.


            1. We examined factors that may be associated with whether Black men who have sex with men a) disclose their sexual orientation to healthcare providers, and b) discuss their sexual health with healthcare providers to inform interventions to improve HIV prevention efforts and reduce HIV incidence rates among Black men who have sex with men. During 2011-2012, we conducted semi-structured individual in-depth interviews with Black men who have sex with men in New York City. Interviews were audio recorded. We examined transcribed responses for main themes using a qualitative exploratory approach followed by computer-assisted thematic analyses. Twenty-nine men participated. The median age was 25.3 years; 41% (n = 12) earned an annual income of < US$10,000; 72% (n = 21) had a college degree; 86% (n = 25) reported being single; 69% (n = 20) self-identified as gay or homosexual. We identified three main themes affecting whether the men discussed their sexual orientation and sexual health with healthcare providers: 1) comfort discussing sexual health needs; 2) health literacy; and 3) trust. Identifying strategies for improved comfort, health literacy and trust between Black men who have sex with men and healthcare providers may be an important strategy for increasing sexual health patient-provider communications, increasing opportunities for HIV prevention including testing and reducing HIV-related health disparities.


            1. Prototheca zopfii colitis in inherited CARD9 deficiencyExternal
              Sari S, Dalgic B, Muehlenbachs A, DeLeon-Carnes M, Goldsmith CS, Ekinci O, Jain D, Keating MK, Vilarinho S.
              J Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 2;218(3):485-489.
              Human protothecosis is a rare microalgae infection, and its dissemination typically occurs in immunocompromised individuals, but no specific immune defect has been reported. Here, we describe an 8-year-old daughter of a consanguineous union with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea for 3 months who was found to have pancolitis with numerous microalgae identified as Prototheca zopfii. In the absence of a known immunodeficiency, exome sequencing was performed, which uncovered a novel recessive frameshift mutation in CARD9 (p.V261fs). This report highlights that CARD9 deficiency should be investigated in patients with unexplained systemic/visceral protothecosis and suggests a new mechanistic insight into anti-Prototheca immunity.


            1. Water, sanitation, and hygiene characteristics among HIV-positive households participating in the Global Enterics Multicenter Study in rural Western Kenya, 2008-2012External
              Schilling KA, Awuor AO, Rajasingham A, Moke F, Omore R, Amollo M, Farag TH, Nasrin D, Nataro JP, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Ayers T, Laserson K, Blackstock A, Rothenberg R, Stauber CE, Mintz E, Breiman RF, O’Reilly CE.
              Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Aug 6.
              Diarrheal illness, a common occurrence among people living with HIV (PLHIV), is largely preventable through access to safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities. We examined WASH characteristics among households with and without HIV-positive residents enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in rural Western Kenya. Using univariable logistic regression, we examined differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative households in regard to WASH practices. Among HIV-positive households, we explored the relationship between the length of time knowing their HIV status and GEMS enrollment. No statistically significant differences were apparent in the WASH characteristics among HIV-positive and HIV-negative households. However, we found differences in the WASH characteristics among HIV-positive households who were aware of their HIV status >/= 30 days before enrollment compared with HIV-positive households who found out their status < 30 days before enrollment or thereafter. Significantly more households aware of their HIV-positive status before enrollment reported treating their drinking water (odds ratio [OR] confidence interval [CI]: 2.34 [1.12, 4.86]) and using effective water treatment methods (OR [CI]: 9.6 [3.09, 29.86]), and had better drinking water storage practices. This suggests that within this region of Kenya, HIV programs are effective in promoting the importance of practicing positive WASH-related behaviors among PLHIV.


            1. A model for rapid, active surveillance for medically-attended acute gastroenteritis within an integrated health care delivery systemExternal
              Schmidt MA, Groom HC, Naleway AL, Biggs C, Salas SB, Shioda K, Marsh Z, Donald JL, Hall AJ.
              PLoS One. 2018 ;13(8):e0201805.
              BACKGROUND: This study presents a novel methodology for estimating all-age, population-based incidence rates of norovirus and other pathogens that contribute to acute gastroenteritis in the United States using an integrated healthcare delivery system as a surveillance platform. METHODS: All cases of medically attended acute gastroenteritis within the delivery system were identified from April 1, 2014 through September 30, 2016. A sample of these eligible patients were selected to participate in two phone-based surveys and to self-collect a stool sample for laboratory testing. To ascertain household transmission patterns, information on household members with acute gastroenteritis was gathered from participants, and symptomatic household members were contacted to participate in a survey and provide stool sample as well. RESULTS: 54% of individuals who met enrollment criteria agreed to participate, and 76% of those individuals returned a stool sample. Among household members, 85% of eligible individuals agreed to participate, and 68% of those returned a stool sample. Participant demographics were similar to those of the eligible population, although minority racial/ethnic groups were somewhat underrepresented in the final sample. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the feasibility of conducting acute infectious disease research within an integrated health care delivery system. The surveillance, sampling, recruitment, and data collection methods described here are broadly applicable to conduct baseline and epidemiological assessments, as well as for other research requiring representative samples of stool specimens.


            1. Extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease surveillance – Oregon, 2014-2016External
              Shih DC, Cassidy PM, Perkins KM, Crist MB, Cieslak PR, Leman RL.
              MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 10;67(31):854-857.
              Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), ubiquitous in soil and water, usually infect immunocompromised persons. However, even healthy persons are susceptible to infection through percutaneous inoculation. Although 77% of NTM diseases manifest as primarily pulmonary illnesses (1), NTM also infect skin, bones, joints, the lymphatic system, and soft tissue. NTM infections can have incubation periods that exceed 5 years (2), often require prolonged treatment, and can lead to sepsis and death. Extrapulmonary NTM outbreaks have been reported in association with contaminated surgical gentian violet (3), nail salon pedicures (4), and tattoos received at tattoo parlors (5), although few surveillance data have been available for estimating the public health burden of NTM.* On January 1, 2014, the Oregon Health Authority designated extrapulmonary NTM disease a reportable condition. To characterize extrapulmonary NTM infection, estimate resources required for surveillance, and assess the usefulness of surveillance in outbreak detection and investigation, 2014-2016 extrapulmonary NTM surveillance data were reviewed, and interviews with stakeholders were conducted. During 2014-2016, 134 extrapulmonary NTM cases (11 per 1 million persons per year) were reported in Oregon. The age distribution was bimodal, with highest incidence among persons aged <10 years (20 per 1 million persons per year) and persons aged 60-69 years (18 per 1 million persons per year). The most frequently reported predisposing factors (occurring within 14-70 days of symptom onset) were soil exposure (41/98; 42%), immunocompromised condition (42/124; 34%), and surgery (32/120; 27%). Overall, 43 (33%) patients were hospitalized, 18 (15%) developed sepsis, and one (0.7%) died. Surveillance detected or helped to control two outbreaks at low cost. Jurisdictions interested in implementing extrapulmonary NTM surveillance can use the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) standardized case definition (6) for extrapulmonary NTM reporting or investigative guidelines maintained by the Oregon Health Authority (7).


            1. CONTEXT: Targeted identification and treatment of people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are key components of the US tuberculosis elimination strategy. Because of recent policy changes, some LTBI treatment may shift from public health departments to the private sector. OBJECTIVES: To (1) develop methodology to estimate initiation and completion of treatment with isoniazid for LTBI using claims data, and (2) estimate treatment completion rates for isoniazid regimens from commercial insurance claims. METHODS: Medical and pharmacy claims data representing insurance-paid services rendered and prescriptions filled between January 2011 and March 2015 were analyzed. PARTICIPANTS: Four million commercially insured individuals 0 to 64 years of age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six-month and 9-month treatment completion rates for isoniazid LTBI regimens. RESULTS: There was an annual isoniazid LTBI treatment initiation rate of 12.5/100 000 insured persons. Of 1074 unique courses of treatment with isoniazid for which treatment completion could be assessed, almost half (46.3%; confidence interval, 43.3-49.3) completed 6 or more months of therapy. Of those, approximately half (48.9%; confidence interval, 44.5-53.3) completed 9 months or more. CONCLUSIONS: Claims data can be used to identify and evaluate LTBI treatment with isoniazid occurring in the commercial sector. Completion rates were in the range of those found in public health settings. These findings suggest that the commercial sector may be a valuable adjunct to more traditional venues for tuberculosis prevention. In addition, these newly developed claims-based methods offer a means to gain important insights and open new avenues to monitor, evaluate, and coordinate tuberculosis prevention.


            1. Young men who have sex with men at high risk for HIV, Bangkok MSM Cohort Study, Thailand 2006-2014External
              Thienkrua W, van Griensven F, Mock PA, Dunne EF, Raengsakulrach B, Wimonsate W, Howteerakul N, Ungsedhapand C, Chiwarakorn A, Holtz TH.
              AIDS Behav. 2018 Jul;22(7):2137-2146.
              High HIV incidence has been reported in young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in North America and Western Europe, but there are limited data from Southeast Asia suggesting MSM may be the driver of the HIV epidemic in this region. We described HIV incidence and risk factors among 494 YMSM enrolled in a cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. The HIV incidence was 7.4 per 100 person-years. In multivariable analysis, reporting use of an erectile dysfunction drug in combination with club drugs, having receptive or both insertive and receptive anal intercourse with men, having hepatitis A infection, having rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, having hepatitis B infection prior to HIV seroconversion, and reporting not always using condoms with male steady partners were significantly associated with HIV incidence in YMSM. Reduction in new HIV infections in YMSM are critical to reach targets set by Thailand and the region.


            1. [No abstract]

            1. Effects of reaching national goals on HIV incidence, by race and ethnicity, in the United StatesExternal
              Uzun Jacobson E, Hicks KA, Tucker EL, Farnham PG, Sansom SL.
              J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Jul/Aug;24(4):E1-e8.
              CONTEXT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence and prevalence in the United States are characterized by significant disparities by race/ethnicity. National HIV care goals, such as boosting to 90% the proportion of persons whose HIV is diagnosed and increasing to 80% the proportion of persons living with diagnosed HIV who are virally suppressed, will likely reduce HIV incidence, but their effects on HIV-related disparities are uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We sought to understand by race/ethnicity how current HIV care varies, the level of effort required to achieve national HIV care goals, and the effects of reaching those goals on HIV incidence and disparities. DESIGN: Using a dynamic model of HIV transmission, we identified 2016 progress along the HIV care continuum among blacks, Hispanics, and whites/others compared with national 2020 goals. We examined disparities over time. SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: Beginning in 2006, our dynamic compartmental model simulated the sexually active US population 13 to 64 years of age, which was stratified into 195 subpopulations by transmission group, sex, race/ethnicity, age, male circumcision status, and HIV risk level. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We compared HIV cumulative incidence from 2016 to 2020 when goals were reached compared with base case assumptions about progression along the HIV care continuum. RESULTS: The 2016 proportion of persons with diagnosed HIV who were on treatment and virally suppressed was 50% among blacks, 56% among Hispanics, and 61% among whites/others, compared with a national goal of 80%. When diagnosis, linkage, and viral suppression goals were reached in 2020, cumulative HIV incidence fell by 32% (uncertainty range: 18%-37%) for blacks, 25% (22%-31%) for Hispanics, and 25% (21%-28%) for whites/others. Disparity measures changed little. CONCLUSIONS: Achieving national HIV care goals will require different levels of effort by race/ethnicity but likely will result in substantial declines in cumulative HIV incidence. HIV-related disparities in incidence and prevalence may be difficult to resolve.


            1. Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis in rural Thailand from 2006-2014External
              Whistler T, Sapchookul P, McCormick DW, Sangwichian O, Jorakate P, Makprasert S, Jatapai A, Naorat S, Surin U, Koosakunwat S, Supcharassaeng S, Piralam B, Mikoleit M, Baggett HC, Rhodes J, Gregory CJ.
              PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Aug 6;12(8):e0006718.
              INTRODUCTION: Invasive salmonellosis is a common cause of bloodstream infection in Southeast Asia. Limited epidemiologic and antimicrobial resistance data are available from the region. METHODS: Blood cultures performed in all 20 hospitals in the northeastern province of Nakhon Phanom (NP) and eastern province of Sa Kaeo (SK), Thailand were captured in a bloodstream infection surveillance system. Cultures were performed as clinically indicated in hospitalized patients; patients with multiple positive cultures had only the first included. Bottles were incubated using the BacT/Alert system (bioMerieux, Thailand) and isolates were identified using standard microbiological techniques; all Salmonella isolates were classified to at least the serogroup level. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed using disk diffusion. RESULTS: Salmonella was the fifth most common pathogen identified in 147,535 cultures with 525 cases (211 in Nakhon Phanom (NP) and 314 in Sa Kaeo (SK)). The overall adjusted iNTS incidence rate in NP was 4.0 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 3.5-4.5) and in SK 6.4 cases/100,000 person-years (95% CI 5.7-7.1; p = 0.001). The most common serogroups were C (39.4%), D (35.0%) and B (9.9%). Serogroup D predominated in NP (103/211) with 59.2% of this serogroup being Salmonella serovar Enteritidis. Serogroup C predominated in SK (166/314) with 84.3% of this serogroup being Salmonella serovar Choleraesuis. Antibiotic resistance was 68.2% (343/503) for ampicillin, 1.2% (6/482) for ciprofloxacin (or 58.1% (280/482) if both intermediate and resistant phenotypes are considered), 17.0% (87/512) for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 12.2% (59/484) for third-generation cephalosporins (cefotaxime or ceftazidime). Multidrug resistance was seen in 99/516 isolates (19.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The NTS isolates causing bloodstream infections in rural Thailand are commonly resistant to ampicillin, cefotaxime, and TMP-SMX. Observed differences between NP and SK indicate that serogroup distribution and antibiotic resistance may substantially differ throughout Thailand and the region.


        • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
            1. Identification of Anopheles species in Sud Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo, using molecular toolsExternal
              Bandibabone J, Muhigwa JB, Agramonte NM, Zawadi B, Ombeni L, Corredor-Medina C, Lawrence GG, Chimanuka B, Irish SR.
              Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Aug 4.
              The mosquito fauna of the Democratic Republic of Congo remains understudied, including that of the province of Sud Kivu. To improve understanding of species presenting Sud Kivu, adult mosquitoes were collected from houses and larvae were collected from standing water at altitudes between 1627 and 1875 m above sea level. Morphological and molecular methods were used to identify the species of Anopheles collected. Six species were found, including several primary and potential secondary malaria vectors. Further work is needed to characterize mosquito populations in Sud Kivu, as well as to improve methods for identifying Anopheles in general.


            1. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticksExternal
              Jones EH, Hinckley AF, Hook SA, Meek JI, Backenson B, Kugeler KJ, Feldman KA.
              Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Feb;65(1):74-79.
              We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products.


        • Environmental Health
            1. Do water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in primary schools consistently support schoolgirls’ menstrual needs? A longitudinal study in rural western KenyaExternal
              Alexander KT, Zulaika G, Nyothach E, Oduor C, Mason L, Obor D, Eleveld A, Laserson KF, Phillips-Howard PA.
              Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Aug 7;15(8).
              Many females lack access to water, privacy and basic sanitation-felt acutely when menstruating. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions in schools, such as access to latrines, water, and soap, are essential for the comfort, equity, and dignity of menstruating girls. Our study was nested within a cluster randomized controlled pilot feasibility study where nurses provided menstrual items to schoolgirls. We observed the WASH conditions of 30 schools from June 2012(-)October 2013 to see if there were any changes in conditions, to compare differences between study arms and to examine agreement between observed and teacher-reported conditions. Data came from study staff observed, and school head teacher reported, WASH conditions. We developed scores for the condition of school facilities to report any changes in conditions and compare outcomes across study arms. Results demonstrated that soap availability for students increased significantly between baseline and follow-up while there was a significant decrease in the number of “acceptable” latrines. During the study follow-up period, individual WASH indicators supporting menstruating girls, such as locks on latrine doors or water availability in latrines did not significantly improve. Advances in WASH conditions for all students, and menstrual hygiene facilities for schoolgirls, needs further support, a defined budget, and regular monitoring of WASH facilities to maintain standards.


            1. Prenatal concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances and bone health in British girls at age 17External
              Jeddy Z, Tobias JH, Taylor EV, Northstone K, Flanders WD, Hartman TJ.
              Arch Osteoporos. 2018 Aug 3;13(1):84.
              Prenatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been associated with developmental outcomes in offspring. We found that prenatal concentrations of some PFAS may be associated with reduced bone mass and size in 17-year-old British girls, although it is not clear whether these associations are driven by body size. PURPOSE: PFAS are used to make protective coatings on common household products. Prenatal exposures have been associated with developmental outcomes in offspring. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the association between prenatal concentrations of PFAS and bone health in girls at 17 years of age and whether body composition can explain any associations. METHODS: We measured concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in maternal serum samples collected during pregnancy. We obtained bone health outcomes in the girls, such as bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone area, and area-adjusted bone mineral content from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. We used multivariable linear regression to explore associations between each PFAS and each bone health outcome with adjustment for important confounders such as girls’ age at clinic visit, maternal education, and gestational age at sample collection. We also controlled for girls’ height and lean mass to explore the role body composition had on observed associations. RESULTS: Prenatal PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA concentrations were associated with inverse effects on bone size and mass after adjusting for important confounders. Conversely, PFNA was positively associated with area-adjusted bone mineral content. However, most significant associations attenuated after additional controlling for height and lean mass. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal concentrations of some PFAS may be associated with reduced bone mass and size in adolescent girls, although it is not clear whether these associations are driven by body size.


            1. Respirable uranyl-vanadate-containing particulate matter derived from a legacy uranium mine site exhibits potentiated cardiopulmonary toxicityExternal
              Zychowski KE, Kodali V, Harmon M, Tyler CR, Sanchez B, Ordonez Suarez Y, Herbert G, Wheeler A, Avasarala S, Cerrato JM, Kunda NK, Muttil P, Shuey C, Brearley A, Ali AM, Lin Y, Shoeb M, Erdely A, Campen MJ.
              Toxicol Sci. 2018 Jul 1;164(1):101-114.
              Exposure to windblown particulate matter (PM) arising from legacy uranium (U) mine sites in the Navajo Nation may pose a human health hazard due to their potentially high metal content, including U and vanadium (V). To assess the toxic impact of PM derived from Claim 28 (a priority U mine) compared with background PM, and consider the putative role of metal species U and V. Two representative sediment samples from Navajo Nation sites (Background PM and Claim 28 PM) were obtained, characterized in terms of chemistry and morphology, and fractioned to the respirable (</= 10 mum) fraction. Mice were dosed with either PM sample, uranyl acetate, or vanadyl sulfate via aspiration (100 microg), with assessments of pulmonary and vascular toxicity 24 h later. Particulate matter samples were also examined for in vitro effects on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, phagocytosis, and inflammasome induction. Claim 28 PM10 was highly enriched with U and V and exhibited a unique nanoparticle ultrastructure compared with background PM10. Claim 28 PM10 exhibited enhanced pulmonary and vascular toxicity relative to background PM10. Both U and V exhibited complementary pulmonary inflammatory potential, with U driving a classical inflammatory cytokine profile (elevated interleukin [IL]-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and keratinocyte chemoattractant/human growth-regulated oncogene) while V preferentially induced a different cytokine pattern (elevated IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10). Claim 28 PM10 was more potent than background PM10 in terms of in vitro cytotoxicity, impairment of phagocytosis, and oxidative stress responses. Resuspended PM10 derived from U mine waste exhibit greater cardiopulmonary toxicity than background dusts. Rigorous exposure assessment is needed to gauge the regional health risks imparted by these unremediated sites.


        • Epidemiology and Surveillance
            1. Integrated serologic surveillance of population immunity and disease transmissionExternal
              Arnold BF, Scobie HM, Priest JW, Lammie PJ.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Jul;24(7):1188-1194.
              Antibodies are unique among biomarkers in their ability to identify persons with protective immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases and to measure past exposure to diverse pathogens. Most infectious disease surveillance maintains a single-disease focus, but broader testing of existing serologic surveys with multiplex antibody assays would create new opportunities for integrated surveillance. In this perspective, we highlight multiple areas for potential synergy where integrated surveillance could add more value to public health efforts than the current trend of independent disease monitoring through vertical programs. We describe innovations in laboratory and data science that should accelerate integration and identify remaining challenges with respect to specimen collection, testing, and analysis. Throughout, we illustrate how information generated through integrated surveillance platforms can create new opportunities to more quickly and precisely identify global health program gaps that range from undervaccination to emerging pathogens to multilayered health disparities that span diverse communicable diseases.


        • Health Communication and Education
            1. Marketing self-management education: Lessons on messaging and framingExternal
              Brady TJ, Ledskya R, Lafontant B, Baker TN.
              Am J Health Behav. 2018 ;42(5):3-20.
              Objectives: Self-management education (SME) refers to educational interventions that help individuals with chronic diseases maintain or improve their quality of life. To help increase SME participation, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted audience research to assess feasibility of a campaign to market SME as a chronic disease management strategy and increase future receptivity to specific SME programs. Methods: Twenty focus groups were conducted in 3 rounds across 8 cities with men and women ages 45-75 with a variety of, or multiple, chronic conditions. Data were analyzed to identify cross-cutting themes and assess differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and location. Results: Findings revealed that although people with chronic disease are not aware of SME, it is feasible to deliver motivating messages about SME, and content need not be condition- or intervention-specific. Concepts viewed most positively by focus groups incorporated positive tone, empowering language, specific references to health, relatable images, and a website for more information. Conclusions: This qualitative work suggests SME marketing strategies will be most effective by providing background information, framing messages positively, using clear relatable language, and making it easy for potential participants to find a program.


        • Health Economics
            1. Financial and health barriers and caregiving-related difficulties among rural and urban caregiversExternal
              Bouldin ED, Shaull L, Andresen EM, Edwards VJ, McGuire LC.
              J Rural Health. 2018 Jun;34(3):263-274.
              PURPOSE: To assess whether financial or health-related barriers were more common among rural caregivers and whether rural caregivers experienced more caregiving-related difficulties than their urban peers. METHODS: We used data from 7,436 respondents to the Caregiver Module in 10 states from the 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Respondents were classified as caregivers if they reported providing care to a family member or friend because of a long-term illness or disability. We classified respondents as living in a rural area if they lived outside of a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). We defined a financial barrier as having an annual household income <$25,000 or not being able see a doctor when needed in the past year because of cost. We defined a health barrier as having multiple chronic health conditions, a disability, or fair or poor self-rated health. FINDINGS: Rural caregivers more frequently had financial barriers than urban caregivers (38.1% vs 31.0%, P = .0001), but the prevalence of health barriers was similar (43.3% vs 40.6%, P = .18). After adjusting for demographic differences, financial barriers remained more common among rural caregivers. Rural caregivers were less likely than their urban peers to report that caregiving created any difficulty in both unadjusted and adjusted models (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.90; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Informal caregivers, particularly in rural areas, face financial barriers. Rural caregivers were less likely than urban caregivers to report caregiving-related difficulties. Rural caregivers’ coping strategies or skills in identifying informal supports may explain this difference, but additional research is needed to explore this hypothesis.


            1. Medical expenditures and earnings losses among US adults with arthritis in 2013External
              Murphy LB, Cisternas MG, Pasta DJ, Helmick CG, Yelin EH.
              Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2018 Jun;70(6):869-876.
              OBJECTIVE: We estimated the economic impact of arthritis using 2013 US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data. METHODS: We calculated arthritis-attributable and all-cause medical expenditures for adults age >/=18 years and arthritis-attributable earnings losses among those ages 18-64 years who had ever worked. We calculated arthritis-attributable costs using multistage regression-based methods, and conducted sensitivity analyses to estimate costs for 2 other arthritis definitions in MEPS. RESULTS: In 2013, estimated total national arthritis-attributable medical expenditures were $139.8 billion (range $135.9-$157.5 billion). Across expenditure categories, ambulatory care expenditures accounted for nearly half of arthritis-attributable expenditures. All-cause expenditures among adults with arthritis represented 50% of the $1.2 trillion national medical expenditures among all US adults in MEPS. Estimated total national arthritis-attributable earning losses were $163.7 billion (range $163.7-$170.0 billion). The percentage with arthritis who worked in the past year was 7.2 percentage points lower than those without arthritis (76.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] 75.0-78.6 and 84.0% [95% CI 82.5-85.5], respectively, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic conditions). Total arthritis-attributable medical expenditures and earnings losses were $303.5 billion (range $303.5-$326.9 billion). CONCLUSION: Total national arthritis-attributable medical care expenditures and earnings losses among adults with arthritis were $303.5 billion in 2013. High arthritis-attributable medical expenditures might be reduced by greater efforts to reduce pain and improve function. The high earnings losses were largely attributable to the substantially lower prevalence of working among those with arthritis compared to those without, signaling the need for interventions that keep people with arthritis in the workforce.


        • Healthcare Associated Infections
            1. Infection prevention and control core practices: A roadmap for nursing practiceExternal
              Carrico RM, Garrett H, Balcom D, Glowicz JB.
              Nursing. 2018 Aug;48(8):22-28.

              [No abstract]

            1. Candida auris: The recent emergence of a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogenExternal
              Forsberg K, Woodworth K, Walters M, Berkow EL, Jackson B, Chiller T, Vallabhaneni S.
              Med Mycol. 2018 Jul 31.
              Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast that causes serious invasive infections with high mortality. It was first discovered in 2009, and since then, individual cases or outbreaks have been reported from over 20 countries on five continents. Controlling C. auris is challenging for several reasons: (1) it is resistant to multiple classes of antifungals, (2) it can be misidentified as other yeasts by commonly available identification methods, and (3) because of its ability to colonize patients perhaps indefinitely and persist in the healthcare environment, it can spread between patients in healthcare settings. The transmissibility and high levels of antifungal resistance that are characteristic of C. auris set it apart from most other Candida species. A robust response that involves the laboratory, clinicians, and public health agencies is needed to identify and treat infections and prevent transmission. We review the global emergence, biology, challenges with laboratory identification, drug resistance, clinical manifestations, treatment, risk factors for infection, transmission, and control of C. auris.


        • Immunity and Immunization
            1. Effect of antibiotic-mediated microbiome modulation on rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity: A human, randomized-control proof-of-concept trialExternal
              Harris VC, Haak BW, Handley SA, Jiang B, Velasquez DE, Hykes BL, Droit L, Berbers GA, Kemper EM, van Leeuwen EM, Boele van Hensbroek M, Wiersinga WJ.
              Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Aug 8;24(2):197-207.e4.
              Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) protect against childhood gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus (RV) but have decreased effectiveness in low- and middle-income settings. This proof-of-concept, randomized-controlled, open-label trial tested if microbiome modulation can improve RVV immunogenicity. Healthy adults were randomized and administered broad-spectrum (oral vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole), narrow-spectrum (vancomycin), or no antibiotics and then vaccinated with RVV, 21 per group per protocol. Baseline anti-RV IgA was high in all subjects. Although antibiotics did not alter absolute anti-RV IgA titers, RVV immunogenicity was boosted at 7 days in the narrow-spectrum group. Further, antibiotics increased fecal shedding of RV while also rapidly altering gut bacterial beta diversity. Beta diversity associated with RVV immunogenicity boosting at day 7 and specific bacterial taxa that distinguish RVV boosters and RV shedders were identified. Despite the negative primary endpoint, this study demonstrates that microbiota modification alters the immune response to RVV and supports further exploration of microbiome manipulation to improve RVV immunogenicity.


            1. Overseas hepatitis B vaccinations among newly arrived Cubans in Texas-2010-2015External
              Lee D, Montour J, Fulton AC, Benoit SR, Nelson NP, Liu Y.
              J Immigr Minor Health. 2018 Jun;20(3):755-758.
              We assessed hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic results among newly arrived Cubans with vaccination documentation. We matched the post-arrival health assessment HBV serologic results of Cubans who arrived during 2010-2015 in Texas with their overseas hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination records in the CDC’s Electronic Disease Notification database and calculated the proportion of those immune due to HepB vaccinations. Among 2123 who had overseas HepB vaccination and serologic results, 1072 (50.5%) had three valid documented doses of HepB. Of these 1072, 441 (41.1%) were immune due to HepB vaccination, 24 (2.2%), immune due to natural infection, 599 (55.9%), susceptible to HBV, and 8 (0.7%), HBV infected. Stratified by age, 21 (87.5%) of 24 children <5 years of age showed protection, and the antibody to HepB surface antigen (anti-HBs) decreased as age increased. Our findings concurred with previous observations that anti-HBs serologic results wane over time. Many newly arrived Cubans with complete HepB vaccination records on the U.S. Department of State overseas vaccination forms might be immune despite <10 mIU/mL anti-HBs response levels.


            1. Progress in vaccine-preventable and respiratory infectious diseases – first 10 Years of the CDC National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, 2006-2015External
              Schuchat A, Anderson LJ, Rodewald LE, Cox NJ, Hajjeh R, Pallansch MA, Messonnier NE, Jernigan DB, Wharton M.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Jul;24(7):1178-1187.
              The need for closer linkages between scientific and programmatic areas focused on addressing vaccine-preventable and acute respiratory infections led to establishment of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. During its first 10 years (2006-2015), NCIRD worked with partners to improve preparedness and response to pandemic influenza and other emergent respiratory infections, provide an evidence base for addition of 7 newly recommended vaccines, and modernize vaccine distribution. Clinical tools were developed for improved conversations with parents, which helped sustain childhood immunization as a social norm. Coverage increased for vaccines to protect adolescents against pertussis, meningococcal meningitis, and human papillomavirus-associated cancers. NCIRD programs supported outbreak response for new respiratory pathogens and oversaw response of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. Other national public health institutes might also find closer linkages between epidemiology, laboratory, and immunization programs useful.


            1. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza-associated intensive care admissions and attenuating severe disease among adults in New Zealand 2012-2015External
              Thompson MG, Pierse N, Sue Huang Q, Prasad N, Duque J, Claire Newbern E, Baker MG, Turner N, McArthur C.
              Vaccine. 2018 Aug 1.
              BACKGROUND: Little is known about inactivated influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) in preventing very severe disease, including influenza-associated intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. METHODS: The Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance (SHIVERS) project enrolled adults (aged>/=18years) with acute respiratory illness (ARI) in general ward (GW) hospital settings (n=3034) and ICUs (n=101) during 2012-2015. IVE was assessed using a test-negative design comparing the odds of influenza vaccination among influenza positives vs. negatives (confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). All models were adjusted for season, weeks from season peak, and a vaccination propensity score. RESULTS: Influenza virus infection was confirmed in 28% of GW hospital and 41% of ICU patients; influenza vaccination was documented for 56% and 41%, respectively. Across seasons, IVE was 37% (95% confidence intervals [CI]=23-48%) among GW patients and 82% (95% CI=45-94%) among ICU patients. IVE point estimates were>70% against ICU influenza and consistently higher than IVE against GW influenza when stratified by season, by virus (sub)types, and for adults with or without chronic medical conditions and for both adults aged <65 and >/=65years old. Among hospitalized influenza positives, influenza vaccination was associated with a 59% reduction in the odds of ICU admission (aOR=0.41, 95% CI=0.18-0.96) and with shorter ICU lengths of stay (LOS), but not with radiograph-confirmed pneumonia or GW hospital LOS. CONCLUSION: Inactivated influenza vaccines prevented influenza-associated ICU admissions, may have higher effectiveness in ICU than GW hospital settings, and appeared to reduce the risk of severe disease among those who are infected despite vaccination.


        • Informatics
            1. Electronic medical alerts increase screening for chronic hepatitis B: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trialExternal
              Chak E, Taefi A, Li CS, Chen MS, Harris AM, MacDonald S, Bowlus CL.
              Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018 Aug 8.
              BACKGROUND: Implementation of screening recommendations for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among foreign-born persons at risk has been sub-optimal. The use of alerts and reminders in the electronic health record (EHR) has led to increased screening for other common conditions. The aim of our study was to measure the effectiveness of an EHR alert on the implementation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening of foreign-born Asian and Pacific Islander (API) patients. METHODS: We used a novel technique to identify API patients by self-identified ethnicity, surname, country of origin, and language preference, and who had no record of CHB screening with HBsAg within the EHR. Patients with Medicare and/or Medicaid insurance were excluded due to lack of coverage for routine HBsAg screening at the time of this study. At-risk API patients were randomized to alert activation in their EHR or not (control). RESULTS: A total of 2,987 patients met inclusion criteria and were randomized to the alert (n = 1,484) or control group (n = 1,503). In the alert group, 119 patients were tested for HBsAg, compared to 48 in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64 [95% CI = 1.88-3.73]; P< .001). In the alert group, 4 of 119 (3.4%) tested HBsAg-positive compared to 5 of 48 (10.4%) in the control group (P = .12). CONCLUSIONS: An EHR alert significantly increased HBsAg testing among foreign-born APIs. IMPACT: Utilization of EHR alerts has the potential to improve implementation of hepatitis B screening guidelines.


            1. Assessment of select electronic health information systems that support immunization data capture – Kenya, 2017External
              Namageyo-Funa A, Aketch M, Tabu C, MacNeil A, Bloland P.
              BMC Health Serv Res. 2018 Aug 8;18(1):621.
              BACKGROUND: Although electronic health information systems (EHIS) with immunization components exist in Kenya, questions and concerns remain about their use and alignment with the Kenya Ministry of Health’s (MOH) National Vaccine and Immunization Program (NVIP). This article reports on the findings of an assessment of select EHIS with immunization components in Kenya, specifically related to system design, development, and implementation. METHODS: We conducted a rapid assessment of select EHIS with immunization components in Kenya from January to May 2017 to understand the design, development, implementation of the EHIS including the lessons learned from their use. We also assessed how the data elements in the EHIS compared to the data elements in the Maternal and Child Health Booklet used in the existing paper based system in Kenya. RESULTS: The EHIS reviewed varied in purpose, content, and population covered. Only one system was built to focus specifically on immunization data. Substantial differences in system functionality and immunization-related data elements included in the EHIS were identified. None of the EHIS had all the data elements necessary to fully replace or operate independently from the standardized paper-based system for recording immunization data in Kenya. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings of this assessment highlighted substantial variation in the EHIS with immunization components. The findings provide insights and lessons learned for the Kenya MOH NVIP, immunization partners, vendors of EHIS, and users of EHIS to consider as Kenya transitions from paper-based to electronic immunization information systems.


        • Injury and Violence
            1. The harmful effect of child maltreatment on economic outcomes in adulthoodExternal
              Henry KL, Fulco CJ, Merrick MT.
              Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(9):1134-1141.
              OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of maltreatment during childhood on subsequent financial strain during adulthood and the extent to which this effect is mediated by adolescent depressive symptoms, adolescent substance abuse, attenuated educational achievement, and timing of first birth. METHODS: We specified a multilevel path model to examine the developmental cascade of child maltreatment. We used data from a longitudinal panel study of 496 parents participating in the Rochester Intergenerational Study, in Rochester, New York. Data were collected between 1988 and 2016. RESULTS: Child maltreatment had both a direct and indirect (via the mediators) effect on greater financial strain during adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Maltreatment has the capacity to disrupt healthy development during adolescence and early adulthood and puts the affected individual at risk for economic difficulties later in life. Maltreatment is a key social determinant for health and prosperity, and initiatives to prevent maltreatment and provide mental health and social services to victims are critical.


            1. Childhood maltreatment predicts poor economic and educational outcomes in the transition to adulthoodExternal
              Jaffee SR, Ambler A, Merrick M, Goldman-Mellor S, Odgers CL, Fisher HL, Danese A, Arseneault L.
              Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(9):1142-1147.
              OBJECTIVES: To test whether childhood maltreatment was a predictor of (1) having low educational qualifications and (2) not being in education, employment, or training among young adults in the United Kingdom today. METHODS: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative UK cohort of 2232 twins born in 1994 to 1995. Mothers reported on child maltreatment when participants were aged 5, 7, 10, and 12 years. Participants were interviewed about their vocational status at age 18 years. RESULTS: The unadjusted odds of having low educational qualifications or of not being in education, employment, or training at age 18 years were more than 2 times greater for young people with a childhood history of maltreatment versus those without. These associations were reduced after adjustments for individual and family characteristics. Youths who reported having a supportive adult in their lives had better education outcomes than did youths who had less support. CONCLUSIONS: Closer collaboration between the child welfare and education systems is warranted to improve vocational outcomes for maltreated youths.


            1. Child abuse and neglect: Breaking the intergenerational linkExternal
              Merrick MT, Guinn AS.
              Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(9):1117-1118.

              [No abstract]

            1. Intergenerational continuity in adverse childhood experiences and rural community environmentsExternal
              Schofield TJ, Donnellan MB, Merrick MT, Ports KA, Klevens J, Leeb R.
              Am J Public Health. 2018 Sep;108(9):1148-1152.
              OBJECTIVES: To understand the role of the community environment on intergenerational continuity in adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among a rural White sample. METHODS: Parents in 12 counties in rural Iowa reported retrospectively on their own ACEs in 1989. We measured their child’s ACEs retrospectively and prospectively across adolescence (n = 451 families). We measured structural and social process-related measures of community environment (i.e., community socioeconomic status, parents’ perception of community services, perceived community social cohesion, and neighborhood alcohol vendor density) on multiple occasions during the child’s adolescence. RESULTS: The 4 measures of community environment were all correlated with the child’s ACEs, but only alcohol vendor density predicted ACEs after inclusion of covariates. Intergenerational continuity in ACEs was moderated by both social cohesion (b = -0.11; SE = 0.04) and alcohol vendor density (b = -0.11; SE = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase community social cohesion and manage alcohol vendor density may assist families in breaking the cycle of maltreatment across generations.


        • Laboratory Sciences
            1. Activity of CD101, a long-acting echinocandin, against clinical isolates of Candida aurisExternal
              Berkow EL, Lockhart SR.
              Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Mar;90(3):196-197.
              CD101 is a new echinocandin with a prolonged half-life. CD101 was tested by broth microdilution against 100 isolates of the emerging yeast Candida auris. It showed activity against most isolates, including some that were resistant to other echinocandins.


            1. Background: APX001A is an antifungal agent that targets a novel pathway-glycosylphosphatidylinositol glycolipid biosynthesis. It has been shown to be effective against a variety of fungal species, including Candida spp., Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi. Objectives: To determine the activity of APX001A against the emerging fungal pathogen Candida auris. Methods: APX001A was tested by broth microdilution against 100 geographically distinct isolates of C. auris. Results: APX001A showed activity against all isolates, including some that were resistant to one or more antifungals, with MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.002 and 0.008 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that APX001A shows encouraging activity against the emerging fungal pathogen C. auris.


            1. Progestin-based contraception regimens modulate expression of putative HIV risk factors in the vaginal epithelium of pig-tailed MacaquesExternal
              Bosinger SE, Tharp GK, Patel NB, Zhao C, Payne TL, Dietz Ostergaard S, Butler K, Ellis S, Johnson RL, Kersh EN, McNicholl JM, Vishwanathan SA.
              Am J Reprod Immunol. 2018 Aug 3:e13029.
              PROBLEM: In women, the use of progestin-based contraception may increase the risk of vaginal HIV acquisition. We previously showed in macaques that there is a significantly higher simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) acquisition rate in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which presents a naturally high-progesterone state, and this may be attributable to altered expression of innate immune factors. We hypothesized that progestin-based contraception, especially depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), would, in a similar way, affect mucosal immune factors that influence HIV acquisition risk. METHOD OF STUDY: We used a pig-tailed macaque model to evaluate the effects of two progestin-based contraceptives, DMPA, and levonorgestrel (LNG)/ethinyl estradiol (EE)-based combined oral contraceptives (COCs), on innate mucosal factors. We compared the vaginal epithelial thickness data from previous studies and used cytokine profiling and microarray analysis to evaluate contraception-induced molecular changes in the vagina. RESULTS: The administration of DMPA caused a reduction in the thickness of the vaginal epithelium relative to that of the follicular or luteal phase. DMPA also induced a significant increase in vaginal levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Both DMPA- and LNG-based contraception induced a signature of gene expression similar to that of the luteal phase, only more exacerbated, including widespread downregulation of antiviral genes. CONCLUSION: The use of progestin-based contraception might engender a milieu that poses an increased risk of HIV acquisition as compared to both the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle.


            1. Human norovirus replication in human intestinal enteroids as model to evaluate virus inactivationExternal
              Costantini V, Morantz EK, Browne H, Ettayebi K, Zeng XL, Atmar RL, Estes MK, Vinje J.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8):1453-1464.
              Human noroviruses are a leading cause of epidemic and endemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide and a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Recently, human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) derived from human small intestinal tissue have been shown to support human norovirus replication. We implemented the HIE system in our laboratory and tested the effect of chlorine and alcohols on human norovirus infectivity. Successful replication was observed for 6 norovirus GII genotypes and was dependent on viral load and genotype of the inoculum. GII.4 viruses had higher replication levels than other genotypes. Regardless of concentration or exposure time, alcohols slightly reduced, but did not completely inactivate, human norovirus. In contrast, complete inactivation of the 3 GII.4 viruses occurred at concentrations as low as 50 ppm of chlorine. Taken together, our data confirm the successful replication of human noroviruses in HIEs and their utility as tools to study norovirus inactivation strategies.


            1. Comparability of lipoprotein particle number concentrations across ES-DMA, NMR, LC-MS/MS, immunonephelometry, and VAP: In Search of a candidate reference measurement procedure for apoB and non-HDL-P standardizationExternal
              Delatour V, Clouet-Foraison N, Gaie-Levrel F, Marcovina SM, Hoofnagle AN, Kuklenyik Z, Caulfield MP, Otvos JD, Krauss RM, Kulkarni KR, Contois JH, Remaley AT, Vesper HW, Cobbaert CM, Gillery P.
              Clin Chem. 2018 Aug 7.
              BACKGROUND: Despite the usefulness of standard lipid parameters for cardiovascular disease risk assessment, undiagnosed residual risk remains high. Advanced lipoprotein testing (ALT) was developed to provide physicians with more predictive diagnostic tools. ALT methods separate and/or measure lipoproteins according to different parameters such as size, density, charge, or content, and equivalence of results across methods has not been demonstrated. METHODS: Through a split-sample study, 25 clinical specimens (CSs) were assayed in 10 laboratories before and after freezing using the major ALT methods for non-HDL particles (non-HDL-P) or apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) measurements with the intent to assess their comparability in the current state of the art. RESULTS: The overall relative standard deviation (CV) of non-HDL-P and apoB-100 concentrations measured by electrospray differential mobility analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, immunonephelometry, LC-MS/MS, and vertical autoprofile in the 25 frozen CSs was 14.1%. Within-method comparability was heterogeneous, and CV among 4 different LC-MS/MS methods was 11.4% for apoB-100. No significant effect of freezing and thawing was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that ALT methods do not yet provide equivalent results for the measurement of non-HDL-P and apoB-100. The better agreement between methods harmonized to the WHO/IFCC reference material suggests that standardizing ALT methods by use of a common commutable calibrator will improve cross-platform comparability. This study provides further evidence that LC-MS/MS is the most suitable candidate reference measurement procedure to standardize apoB-100 measurement, as it would provide results with SI traceability. The absence of freezing and thawing effect suggests that frozen serum pools could be used as secondary reference materials.


            1. Validation of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis isoniazid resistance mutations not detectable by common molecular testsExternal
              Kandler JL, Mercante AD, Dalton TL, Ezewudo MN, Cowan LS, Burns SP, Metchock B, Cegielski P, Posey JE.
              Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Aug 6.
              Resistance to the first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug, isoniazid (INH), is widespread, and the mechanism of resistance is unknown in approximately 15% of INH-resistant (INH-R) strains. To improve molecular detection of INH-R TB, we used whole genome sequencing (WGS) to analyze 52 phenotypically INH-R Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical isolates that lacked the common katG S315T or inhA promoter mutations. Approximately 94% (49/52) of strains had mutations at known INH-associated loci that were likely to confer INH resistance. All such mutations would be detectable by sequencing more DNA adjacent to existing target regions. Use of WGS minimized the chances of missing infrequent INH resistance mutations outside commonly targeted hotspots. We used recombineering to generate 12 observed clinical katG mutations in the pansusceptible H37Rv reference strain and determined their impact on INH resistance. Our functional genetic experiments have confirmed the role of seven suspected INH resistance mutations and discovered five novel INH resistance mutations. All recombineered katG mutations conferred resistance to INH at a minimum inhibitory concentration of >/=0.25 mug/mL and should be added to the list of INH resistance determinants targeted by molecular diagnostic assays. We conclude that WGS is a useful tool for detecting uncommon INH resistance mutations that would otherwise be missed by current targeted molecular testing methods, and suggest that its use (or use of expanded conventional or NGS-based targeted sequencing) may provide earlier diagnosis of INH-R TB.


            1. Interlaboratory agreement of coccidioidomycosis enzyme immunoassay from two different manufacturersExternal
              Khan S, Saubolle MA, Oubsuntia T, Heidari A, Barbian K, Goodin K, Eguchi M, McCotter OZ, Komatsu K, Park BJ, Geiger MC, Mohamed A, Chiller T, Sunenshine RH.
              Med Mycol. 2018 Jul 31.
              Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal infection endemic to the Southwestern United States, is challenging to diagnose. The coccidioidomycosis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is the least expensive and simplest to perform to detect coccidioidomycosis antibodies in the serum. Concerns regarding falsely positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M EIA test results have led to questions about the agreement of commercially available EIA test kits among laboratories. We sought to evaluate the laboratory agreement of the EIA test at three laboratories using both IMMY and Meridian EIA test kits. Sensitivity and specificity of EIA IgM and IgG were calculated as secondary outcomes. The percent agreement of the EIA IgM and IgG test results among all three laboratories was 90% and 89% for IMMY test kits, respectively, and 67% and 80.5% for Meridian test kits, respectively. Agreement between IgM and IgG combined test results was 85.5% and 70.5%, for IMMY and Meridian, respectively. Combined IgM and IgG assays demonstrated a sensitivity of 68% (62.7%-76%) and a specificity of 99.3% (98%-100%) [IMMY] and a sensitivity of 72.4% (57.3%-87.3%) and a specificity of 91.3% (74%-100%) [Meridian]. In summary, results from the IMMY EIA test kit agreed more often across laboratories than Meridian EIA results, especially for the IgM assay. Isolated positive IgM EIA results using the Meridian test kit should be interpreted with caution and consideration of clinical information and test methodology. Further study of the sensitivity and specificity of coccidioidomycosis EIA test kits is warranted.


            1. HCV adaptation to HIV coinfectionExternal
              Lara J, Teka MA, Sims S, Xia GL, Ramachandran S, Khudyakov Y.
              Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Jul 31.
              Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is rising as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Both viruses interact in co-infected hosts, which may affect their intra-host evolution, potentially leading to differing genetic composition of viral populations in co-infected (CIP) and mono-infected (MIP) patients. Here, we investigate genetic differences between intra-host variants of the HCV hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sampled from CIP and MIP. Nucleotide (nt) sequences of intra-host HCV HVR1 variants (N=28,622) obtained from CIP (N=112) and MIP (n=176) were represented using 148 physical-chemical (PhyChem) indexes of DNA nt dimers. Significant (p<.0001) differences in the means and frequency distributions of 7 PhyChem properties were found between HVR1 variants from both groups. Linear projection analysis of 29 PhyChem features extracted from such PhyChem properties showed that the CIP and MIP HVR1 variants have a distinct distribution in the modeled 2D-space, with only ~1.3% of PhyChem profiles (N=6782), shared by all HVR1 variants, being found in both groups. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and naive Bayesian (NB) classifiers trained on the PhyChem features accurately classified HVR1 variants by the group in cross-validation experiments (AUROC>/=0.96). Similarly, both models showed a high accuracy (AUROC>/=0.95) when evaluated on a test dataset of HVR1 sequences obtained from 10 patients, data from whom were not used for model building. Both models performed at the expected lower accuracy on randomly labeled datasets in cross-validation experiments (AUROC=0.50). The random-label trained PNN showed a similar drop in accuracy on the test dataset (AUROC=0.48), indicating that the detected associations were unlikely due to random correlations. Marked differences in genetic composition of HCV HVR1 variants sampled from CIP and MIP suggest differing intra-host HCV evolution in the presence of HIV infection. PhyChem features identified here may be used for detection of HIV infection from intra-host HCV variants alone in co-infected patients, thus facilitating monitoring for HIV introduction to high-risk populations with high HCV prevalence.


            1. BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to the most widely used diisocyanate, 4,4′-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), is a cause of occupational asthma (OA). Early recognition of MDI exposure and sensitization is essential for the prevention of MDI-OA. OBJECTIVE: Identify circulating microRNAs (miRs) as novel biomarkers for early detection of MDI exposure and prevention of MDI-OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female BALB/c mice were exposed to one of three exposure regimens: dermal exposure to 1% MDI in acetone; nose-only exposure to 4580 +/- 1497 mug/m(3) MDI-aerosol for 60 minutes; or MDI dermal exposure/sensitization followed by MDI-aerosol inhalation challenge. Blood was collected and miRCURY miRs qPCR Pro fi ling Service was used to profile circulating miRs from dermally exposed mice. Candidate miRs were identified and verified from mice exposed to three MDI-exposure regimens by TaqMan(R) miR assays. RESULTS: Up/down-regulation patterns of circulating mmu-miRs-183-5p, -206-3p and -381-3p were identified and verified. Circulating mmu-miR-183-5p was upregulated whereas mmu-miRs-206-3p and -381-3p were downregulated in mice exposed via all three MDI exposure regimens. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Upregulation of circulating miR-183-5p along with downregulation of circulating miRs-206-3p and -381-3p may serve as putative biomarkers of MDI exposure and may be considered as potential candidates for validation in exposed human worker populations.


            1. Broadly reactive human monoclonal antibodies elicited following pandemic H1N1 influenza virus exposure protect mice against highly pathogenic H5N1 challengeExternal
              Nachbagauer R, Shore D, Yang H, Johnson SK, Gabbard JD, Tompkins SM, Wrammert J, Wilson PC, Stevens J, Ahmed R, Krammer F, Ellebedy AH.
              J Virol. 2018 Aug 15;92(16).
              Broadly cross-reactive antibodies (Abs) that recognize conserved epitopes within the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) stalk domain are of particular interest for their potential use as therapeutic and prophylactic agents against multiple influenza virus subtypes, including zoonotic virus strains. Here, we characterized four human HA stalk-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for their binding breadth and affinity, in vitro neutralization capacity, and in vivo protective potential against an highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. The monoclonal antibodies were isolated from individuals shortly following infection with (70-1F02 and 1009-3B05) or vaccination against (05-2G02 and 09-3A01) A(H1N1)pdm09. Three of the MAbs bound HAs from multiple strains of group 1 viruses, and one MAb, 05-2G02, bound to both group 1 and group 2 influenza A virus HAs. All four antibodies prophylactically protected mice against a lethal challenge with the highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/04 (H5N1) strain. Two MAbs, 70-1F02 and 09-3A01, were further tested for their therapeutic efficacy against the same strain and showed good efficacy in this setting as well. One MAb, 70-1F02, cocrystallized with H5 HA and showed heavy-chain-only interactions similar to those seen with the previously described CR6261 anti-stalk antibody. Finally, we show that antibodies that compete with these MAbs are prevalent in serum from an individual recently infected with the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. The antibodies described here can be developed into broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics that could be used to combat infections by zoonotic or emerging pandemic influenza viruses.IMPORTANCE The rise in zoonotic infections of humans by emerging influenza viruses is a worldwide public health concern. The majority of recent zoonotic human influenza cases were caused by H7N9 and H5Nx viruses and were associated with high morbidity and mortality. In addition, seasonal influenza viruses are estimated to cause up to 650,000 deaths annually worldwide. Currently available antiviral treatment options include only neuraminidase inhibitors, but some influenza viruses are naturally resistant to these drugs, and others quickly develop resistance-conferring mutations. Alternative therapeutics are urgently needed. Broadly protective antibodies that target the conserved “stalk” domain of the hemagglutinin represent potential potent antiviral prophylactic and therapeutic agents that can assist pandemic preparedness. Here, we describe four human monoclonal antibodies that target conserved regions of influenza HA and characterize their binding spectrum as well as their protective capacity in prophylactic and therapeutic settings against a lethal challenge with a zoonotic influenza virus.


            1. Many modern datasets are sampled with error from complex high-dimensional surfaces. Methods such as tensor product splines or Gaussian processes are effective and well suited for characterizing a surface in two or three dimensions, but they may suffer from difficulties when representing higher dimensional surfaces. Motivated by high throughput toxicity testing where observed dose-response curves are cross sections of a surface defined by a chemical’s structural properties, a model is developed to characterize this surface to predict untested chemicals’ dose-responses. This manuscript proposes a novel approach that models the multidimensional surface as a sum of learned basis functions formed as the tensor product of lower dimensional functions, which are themselves representable by a basis expansion learned from the data. The model is described and a Gibbs sampling algorithm is proposed. The approach is investigated in a simulation study and through data taken from the US EPA’s ToxCast high throughput toxicity testing platform.


            1. Diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections has traditionally relied on serological assays. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of C. psittaci, C. pneumoniae and an internal control. Results of this assay demonstrated 100% concordance compared to results of previously tested human clinical specimens.


        • Maternal and Child Health
            1. Application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health system to symptoms of the Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophiesExternal
              Conway KM, Ciafaloni E, Matthews D, Westfield C, James K, Paramsothy P, Romitti PA.
              Disabil Rehabil. 2018 Jul;40(15):1773-1780.
              PURPOSE: Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, collectively referred to as dystrophinopathies, are X-linked recessive diseases that affect dystrophin production resulting in compromised muscle function across multiple systems. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a systematic classification scheme from which body functions affected by a dystrophinopathy can be identified and used to examine functional health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The infrastructure of the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network was used to identify commonly affected body functions and link selected functions to clinical surveillance data collected through medical record abstraction. RESULTS: Seventy-one (24 second-, 41 third- and 7 fourth-level) body function categories were selected via clinician review and consensus. Of these, 15 of 24 retained second-level categories were linked to data elements from the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network surveillance database. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support continued development of a core set of body functions from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health system that are representative of disease progression in dystrophinopathies and the incorporation of these functions in standardized evaluations of functional health and implementation of individualized rehabilitation care plans. Implications for Rehabilitation Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, collectively referred to as dystrophinopathies, are X-linked recessive disorders that affect the production of dystrophin resulting in compromised muscle function across multiple systems. The severity and progressive nature of dystrophinopathies can have considerable impact on a patient’s participation in activities across multiple life domains. Our findings support continued development of an International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health core set for childhood-onset dystrophinopathies. A standardized dystrophinopathy International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health documentation form can be used as a screening tool by rehabilitation professionals and for patient goal setting when developing rehabilitation plans. Patient reports of perceived functional health should be incorporated into the rehabilitation plan and therapeutic progress monitored by a standardized form.


            1. Changes in mothers’ intended duration of breastfeeding from the prenatal to neonatal periodsExternal
              Nelson JM, Li R, Perrine CG, Scanlon KS.
              Birth. 2018 Jun;45(2):178-183.
              BACKGROUND: Although previous studies suggest that the intentions of mothers to breastfeed during pregnancy strongly predict actual breastfeeding practice, no studies have examined the changes in the intentions of mothers to breastfeed from the prenatal to neonatal periods. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in intended breastfeeding duration from the prenatal to neonatal periods, their association with actual duration, and predictors for shortened duration. METHODS: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II was a longitudinal study of mothers in the United States. Changes to intended breastfeeding duration were calculated as the difference from prenatal to neonatal reports (months); we compared this change to actual breastfeeding duration. By using multivariable logistic regression, we identified maternal characteristics associated with a shortened breastfeeding intention. RESULTS: Of 1780 women, 43.7% had no change to intended breastfeeding duration, 35.0% had a shorter intended duration, and 21.3% had a longer intended duration. Mothers with shortened intended duration also had shorter actual duration (P < .001). Women of Hispanic ethnicity, with a prepregnancy body mass index of >/=30 kg/m(2) , who were primiparous and who smoked prenatally had increased odds of shortening their breastfeeding intention from prenatal to neonatal reports. A maternal age of >/=35 years was associated with decreased odds of shortened breastfeeding intention. CONCLUSION: Approximately one in three women shorten their intended breastfeeding duration during the early postpartum period, which negatively affects the actual duration of their breastfeeding. Women may need additional support during the early postpartum period to meet their prenatal breastfeeding intentions.


            1. Trends and characteristics of fetal and neonatal mortality due to congenital anomalies, Colombia 1999-2008External
              Roncancio CP, Misnaza SP, Pena IC, Prieto FE, Cannon MJ, Valencia D.
              J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 Jul;31(13):1748-1755.
              OBJECTIVE: To describe fetal and neonatal mortality due to congenital anomalies in Colombia. METHODS: We analyzed all fetal and neonatal deaths due to a congenital anomaly registered with the Colombian vital statistics system during 1999-2008. RESULTS: The registry included 213,293 fetal deaths and 7,216,727 live births. Of the live births, 77,738 (1.08%) resulted in neonatal deaths. Congenital anomalies were responsible for 7321 fetal deaths (3.4% of all fetal deaths) and 15,040 neonatal deaths (19.3% of all neonatal deaths). The fetal mortality rate due to congenital anomalies was 9.9 per 10,000 live births and fetal deaths; the neonatal mortality rate due to congenital anomalies was 20.8 per 10,000 live births. Mortality rates due to congenital anomalies remained relatively stable during the study period. The most frequent fatal congenital anomalies were congenital heart defects (32.0%), central nervous system anomalies (15.8%), and chromosomal anomalies (8.0%). Risk factors for fetal and neonatal death included: male or undetermined sex, living in villages or rural areas, mother’s age >35 years, low and very low birthweight, and <28 weeks gestation at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital anomalies are an important cause of fetal and neonatal deaths in Colombia, but many of the anomalies may be preventable or treatable.


        • Nutritional Sciences
            1. Total sugar-sweetened beverage intake among US adults was lower when measured using a 1-question versus 4-question screenerExternal
              Lundeen EA, Park S, Dooyema C, Blanck HM.
              Am J Health Promot. 2018 Jul;32(6):1431-1437.
              PURPOSE: To compare the performance of a 1-question survey screener measuring total sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake to a screener measuring SSB types separately using 4 questions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Web-based 2014 SummerStyles survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4167 US adults (>/=18 years). MEASURES: Frequency of SSB intake measured using a 1-question screener was compared to frequency using a 4-question screener (regular soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, sweetened coffee/tea). SSB intake (number of time/day) was categorized as 0, >0 to <1, and >/=1 time/day; difference in mean intake was calculated between 4 questions versus 1. ANALYSIS: Paired t tests were used, and agreement was evaluated using weighted kappa and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). RESULTS: Mean SSB intake was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.65-1.79) times/day using 4 questions and 0.6 (95% CI: 0.56-0.62) times/day using 1 question ( P < .001). Intake frequency based on 4 questions versus 1 was 16.0% versus 38.5% for 0 time/day, 15.6% versus 42.5% for >0 to <1 time/day, and 68.4% versus 18.9% for >/=1 time/day. There was fair agreement for the 3 SSB intake categories (kappa: .27) and poor absolute agreement between the 2 continuous measures (Lin’s CCC: 0.31). CONCLUSION: Daily SSB intake was significantly lower using a 1-question screener versus a 4-question screener. Researchers should assess SSB types separately or consider that daily SSB intake is likely underestimated with 1 question.


            1. Impact of knowledge of health conditions on sugar-sweetened beverage intake varies among US adultsExternal
              Park S, Lundeen EA, Pan L, Blanck HM.
              Am J Health Promot. 2018 Jul;32(6):1402-1408.
              PURPOSE: This study examined associations between knowledge of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB)-related health conditions and SSB intake among US adults. DESIGN: Quantitative, cross-sectional study. SUBJECT: The 2014 SummerStyles survey data for 4163 US adults (>/=18 years) were used. MEASURES: The outcome measure was frequency of SSB intake (regular soda, fruit drinks, sports or energy drinks, sweetened coffee/tea drinks). Exposure measures were knowledge of 6 SSB-related health conditions: weight gain, diabetes, cavities, high cholesterol, heart disease, and hypertension. ANALYSIS: Six logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for consuming SSBs >/=2 times/d according to knowledge of SSB-related health conditions. RESULTS: Overall, 37.8% of adults reported consuming SSBs >/=2 times/d. Although most adults identified that weight gain (80.2%), diabetes (73.6%), and cavities (71.8%) are related to drinking SSBs, fewer adults identified high cholesterol (24.1%), heart disease (31.5%), and hypertension (33.0%) as being related to drinking SSBs. Crude analyses indicated that lower SSB intake was significantly associated with knowledge of the associations between SSBs and weight gain, diabetes, cavities, and heart disease. However, after adjustment for covariates, only lack of knowledge of the association between heart disease and SSBs was significantly associated with consuming SSBs >/=2 times/d (OR = 1.29) than non-SSB consumers. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that knowledge of SSB-related health conditions, in general, was not associated with high SSB intake suggests that knowledge on SSB-related health conditions alone may not be sufficient for adult behavior change.


        • Occupational Safety and Health
            1. Assessment of environmental and surgical mask contamination at a student health center – 2012-2013 influenza seasonExternal
              Ahrenholz SH, Brueck SE, Rule AM, Noti JD, Noorbakhs B, Blachere FM, de Perio MA, Lindsley WG, Shaffer RE, Fisher EM.
              J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Aug 6:1-30.
              Increased understanding of influenza transmission is critical for pandemic planning and selecting appropriate controls for healthcare personnel safety and health. The goals of this pilot study were to assess environmental contamination in different areas and at two time periods in the influenza season and to determine the feasibility of using surgical mask contamination to evaluate potential exposure to influenza virus. Bioaerosol samples were collected over 12 days (two 6-day sessions) at 12 locations within a student health center using portable two-stage bioaerosol samplers operating 8 hours each day. Surface samples were collected each morning and afternoon from common high-contact non-porous hard surfaces from rooms and locations where bioaerosol samplers were located. Surgical masks worn by participants while in contact with patients with influenza-like illness were collected. A questionnaire administered to each of the 12 participants at the end of each workday and another at the end of each workweek assessed influenza-like illness symptoms, estimated the number of influenza-like illness patient contacts, hand hygiene, and surgical mask usage. All samples were analyzed using qPCR. Over the 12 days of the study, three of the 127 (2.4%) bioaerosol samples, two of 483 (0.41%) surface samples, and zero of 54 surgical masks were positive for influenza virus. For the duration of contact that occurred with an influenza patient on any of the 12 days, nurse practitioners and physicians reported contacts with influenza-like illness patients > 60 minutes, medical assistants reported 15-44 minutes, and administrative staff reported < 30 minutes. Given the limited number of bioaerosol and surface samples positive for influenza virus in the bioaerosol and surface samples, the absence of influenza virus on the surgical masks provides inconclusive evidence for the potential to use surgical masks to assess exposure to influenza viruses. Further studies are needed to determine feasibility of this approach in assessing healthcare personnel exposures. Information learned in this study can inform future field studies on influenza transmission.


            1. Predicting sagittal plane lifting postures from image bounding box dimensionsExternal
              Greene RL, Hu YH, Difranco N, Wang X, Lu ML, Bao S, Lin JH, Radwin RG.
              Hum Factors. 2018 Aug 9:18720818791367.
              OBJECTIVE: A method for automatically classifying lifting postures from simple features in video recordings was developed and tested. We explored if an “elastic” rectangular bounding box, drawn tightly around the subject, can be used for classifying standing, stooping, and squatting at the lift origin and destination. BACKGROUND: Current marker-less video tracking methods depend on a priori skeletal human models, which are prone to error from poor illumination, obstructions, and difficulty placing cameras in the field. Robust computer vision algorithms based on spatiotemporal features were previously applied for evaluating repetitive motion tasks, exertion frequency, and duty cycle. METHODS: Mannequin poses were systematically generated using the Michigan 3DSSPP software for a wide range of hand locations and lifting postures. The stature-normalized height and width of a bounding box were measured in the sagittal plane and when rotated horizontally by 30 degrees . After randomly ordering the data, a classification and regression tree algorithm was trained to classify the lifting postures. RESULTS: The resulting tree had four levels and four splits, misclassifying 0.36% training-set cases. The algorithm was tested using 30 video clips of industrial lifting tasks, misclassifying 3.33% test-set cases. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 100.0% and 100.0% for squatting, 90.0% and 100.0% for stooping, and 100.0% and 95.0% for standing. CONCLUSIONS: The tree classification algorithm is capable of classifying lifting postures based only on dimensions of bounding boxes. APPLICATIONS: It is anticipated that this practical algorithm can be implemented on handheld devices such as a smartphone, making it readily accessible to practitioners.


            1. Unmanned aerial vehicles in construction and worker safetyExternal
              Howard J, Murashov V, Branche CM.
              Am J Ind Med. 2018 Jan;61(1):3-10.
              Applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for military, recreational, public, and commercial uses have expanded significantly in recent years. In the construction industry, UAVs are used primarily for monitoring of construction workflow and job site logistics, inspecting construction sites to assess structural integrity, and for maintenance assessments. As is the case with other emerging technologies, occupational safety assessments of UAVs lag behind technological advancements. UAVs may create new workplace hazards that need to be evaluated and managed to ensure their safe operation around human workers. At the same time, UAVs can perform dangerous tasks, thereby improving workplace safety. This paper describes the four major uses of UAVs, including their use in construction, the potential risks of their use to workers, approaches for risk mitigation, and the important role that safety and health professionals can play in ensuring safe approaches to the their use in the workplace.


            1. BACKGROUND: Commercial fishing is a global industry that has been frequently classified as high-risk. The use of detailed surveillance data is critical in identifying hazards. METHODS: The purpose of this study was to provide updated statistics for the entire US fishing industry during 2010-2014, generate fleet-specific fatality rates using a revised calculation of full-time equivalent estimates, and examine changes in the patterns of fatalities and in risk over a 15-year period (2000-2014). RESULTS: During 2010-2014, 188 commercial fishing fatalities occurred in the United States. Vessel disasters and falls overboard remain leading contributors to commercial fishing deaths. The Atlantic scallop fleet stands out for achieving substantial declines in the risk of fatalities over the 15-year study period. However, fatality rates ranged from 21 to 147 deaths per 100 000 FTEs, many times higher than the rate for all US workers. CONCLUSIONS: Although the number of fatalities among commercial fishermen in the United States has generally declined since 2000, commercial fishing continues to have one of the highest occupational fatality rates in the United States. The sustainable seafood movement could assist in improving the health and safety of fishing industry workers if worker well-being was integrated into the definition of sustainable seafood.


            1. BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed US workers within the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (AFFH) sector. METHODS: Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (17 299 within AFFH) from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Prevalence, and the adjusted risk for hearing loss as compared with the reference industry (Couriers and Messengers), were estimated. RESULTS: The overall AFFH sector prevalence was 15% compared to 19% for all industries combined, but many of the AFFH sub-sectors exceeded the overall prevalence. Forestry sub-sector prevalences were highest with Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products at 36% and Timber Tract Operations at 22%. The Aquaculture sub-sector had the highest adjusted risk of all AFFH sub-sectors (PR = 1.70; CI = 1.42-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: High risk industries within the AFFH sector need continued hearing conservation efforts. Barriers to hearing loss prevention and early detection of hearing loss need to be recognized and addressed.


            1. The relationships between hand coupling force and vibration biodynamic responses of the hand-arm systemExternal
              Pan D, Xu XS, Welcome DE, McDowell TW, Warren C, Wu J, Dong RG.
              Ergonomics. 2018 Jun;61(6):818-830.
              This study conducted two series of experiments to investigate the relationships between hand coupling force and biodynamic responses of the hand-arm system. In the first experiment, the vibration transmissibility on the system was measured as a continuous function of grip force while the hand was subjected to discrete sinusoidal excitations. In the second experiment, the biodynamic responses of the system subjected to a broadband random vibration were measured under five levels of grip forces and a combination of grip and push forces. This study found that the transmissibility at each given frequency increased with the increase in the grip force before reaching a maximum level. The transmissibility then tended to plateau or decrease when the grip force was further increased. This threshold force increased with an increase in the vibration frequency. These relationships remained the same for both types of vibrations. The implications of the experimental results are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Shocks and vibrations transmitted to the hand-arm system may cause injuries and disorders of the system. How to take hand coupling force into account in the risk assessment of vibration exposure remains an important issue for further studies. This study is designed and conducted to help resolve this issue.


            1. Safety climate has been associated with patient and health care worker safety and outcomes. However, few studies have examined how perceptions of workplace safety differ by worker, work schedule, and workplace characteristics. Data from 10 168 participants in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers were analyzed. Multivariable regression analyses examined associations among worker and workplace characteristics and items measuring 5 areas of workplace safety perception. Safety climate perception scores were higher (more positive) for dentists and for health care workers who were salaried, were self-employed, worked day shifts and shifts 11 hours, and spent <76% of their time in patient care. A wide range of health care worker, work schedule, and workplace characteristics should be considered in analyses designed to evaluate safety climate and identify potential interventions to improve downstream safety outcomes.


            1. Work-related injuries in the Alaska logging industry, 1991-2014External
              Springer YP, Lucas DL, Castrodale LJ, McLaughlin JB.
              Am J Ind Med. 2018 Jan;61(1):32-41.
              BACKGROUND: Although loggers in Alaska are at high risk for occupational injury, no comprehensive review of such injuries has been performed since the mid-1990s. We investigated work-related injuries in the Alaska logging industry during 1991-2014. METHODS: Using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry and the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System, we described fatal and nonfatal injuries by factors including worker sex and age, timing and geographic location of injuries, and four injury characteristics. Annual injury rates and associated 5-year simple moving averages were calculated. RESULTS: We identified an increase in the 5-year simple moving averages of fatal injury rates beginning around 2005. While injury characteristics were largely consistent between the first 14 and most recent 10 years of the investigation, the size of logging companies declined significantly between these periods. CONCLUSIONS: Factors associated with declines in the size of Alaska logging companies might have contributed to the observed increase in fatal injury rates.


        • Parasitic Diseases
            1. Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm in Myanmar refugees, Thailand, 2012-2015External
              O’Connell EM, Mitchell T, Papaiakovou M, Pilotte N, Lee D, Weinberg M, Sakulrak P, Tongsukh D, Oduro-Boateng G, Harrison S, Williams SA, Stauffer WM, Nutman TB.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8).
              During 2012-2015, US-bound refugees living in Myanmar-Thailand border camps (n = 1,839) were surveyed for hookworm infection and treatment response by using quantitative PCR. Samples were collected at 3 time points: after each of 2 treatments with albendazole and after resettlement in the United States. Baseline prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm was 25.4%, Ancylostoma duodenale 0%, and Ancylostoma ceylanicum (a zoonosis) 5.4%. Compared with N. americanus prevalence, A. ceylanicum hookworm prevalence peaked in younger age groups, and blood eosinophil concentrations during A. ceylanicum infection were higher than those for N. americanus infection. Female sex was associated with a lower risk for either hookworm infection. Cure rates after 1 dose of albendazole were greater for A. ceylanicum (93.3%) than N. americanus (65.9%) hookworm (p<0.001). Lower N. americanus hookworm cure rates were unrelated to beta-tubulin single-nucleotide polymorphisms at codons 200 or 167. A. ceylanicum hookworm infection might be more common in humans than previously recognized.


            1. Occasionally, abnormal forms of parasitic helminth eggs are detected during routine diagnostics. This finding can prove problematic in diagnosis because morphologic analysis based on tightly defined measurements is the primary method used to identify the infecting species and molecular confirmation of species is not always feasible. We describe instances of malformed nematode eggs (primarily from members of the superfamily Ascaridoidea) from human clinical practice and experimental trials on animals. On the basis of our observations and historical literature, we propose that unusual development and morphology of nematode and trematode eggs are associated with early infection. Further observational studies and experimentation are needed to identify additional factors that might cause abnormalities in egg morphology and production. Abnormal egg morphology can be observed early in the course of infection and can confound accurate diagnosis of intestinal helminthiases.


        • Public Health Leadership and Management
            1. Achieving public health standards and increasing accreditation readiness: Findings from the National Public Health Improvement InitiativeExternal
              Rider N, Frazier CM, McKasson S, Corso L, McKeever J.
              J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Jul/Aug;24(4):392-399.
              OBJECTIVES: During 2010-2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the National Public Health Improvement Initiative (NPHII) to assist 73 public health agencies in conducting activities to increase accreditation readiness, improve efficiency and effectiveness through quality improvement, and increase performance management capacity. A summative evaluation of NPHII was conducted to examine whether awardees met the initiative’s objectives, including increasing readiness for accreditation. DESIGN: A nonexperimental, utilization-focused evaluation with a multistrand, sequential mixed-methods approach was conducted to monitor awardee accomplishments and activities. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, as well as subanalyses of data by awardee characteristics. Thematic analysis using deductive a priori codes was used for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: Ninety percent of awardees reported completing at least 1 accreditation prerequisite during NPHII, and more than half reported completing all 3 prerequisites by the end of the program. Three-fourths of awardees that completed a self-assessment reported closing gaps for at least 1 Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) standard. Within 3 years of the launch of PHAB accreditation, 7 NPHII awardees were accredited; another 38 had formally applied for accreditation. CONCLUSIONS: Through NPHII, awardees increased collaborative efforts around accreditation readiness, accelerated timelines for preparing for accreditation, and prioritized the completion of required accreditation activities.


        • Reproductive Health
            1. The etiology of vaginal discharge syndrome in Zimbabwe: Results from the Zimbabwe STI Etiology StudyExternal
              Chirenje ZM, Dhibi N, Handsfield HH, Gonese E, Tippett Barr B, Gwanzura L, Latif AS, Maseko DV, Kularatne RS, Tshimanga M, Kilmarx PH, Machiha A, Mugurungi O, Rietmeijer CA.
              Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Jun;45(6):422-428.
              INTRODUCTION: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is a common gynecological condition managed syndromically in most developing countries. In Zimbabwe, women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge are treated with empirical regimens that commonly cover both sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and reproductive tract infections, typically including a combination of an intramuscular injection of kanamycin, and oral doxycycline and metronidazole regimens. This study was conducted to determine the current etiology of symptomatic vaginal discharge and assess adequacy of current syndromic management guidelines. METHODS: We enrolled 200 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge presenting at 6 STI clinics in Zimbabwe. Microscopy was used to detect bacterial vaginosis and yeast infection. Nucleic acid amplifications tests were used to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. In addition, serologic testing was performed to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. RESULTS: Of the 200 women, 146 (73%) had an etiology detected, including bacterial vaginosis (24.7%); N. gonorrhoeae (24.0%); yeast infection (20.7%); T. vaginalis (19.0%); C. trachomatis (14.0%) and M. genitalium (7.0%). Among women with STIs (N = 90), 62 (68.9%) had a single infection, 18 (20.0%) had a dual infection, and 10 (11.1%) had 3 infections.Of 158 women who consented to HIV testing, 64 (40.5%) were HIV infected.The syndromic management regimen covered 115 (57.5%) of the women in the sample who had gonorrhea, chlamydia, M. genitalium, or bacterial vaginosis, whereas 85 (42.5%) of women were treated without such diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge, bacterial vaginosis was the most common etiology, and gonorrhea was the most frequently detected STI. The current syndromic management algorithm is suboptimal for coverage of women presenting with symptomatic vaginal discharge; addition of point of care testing could compliment the effectiveness of the syndromic approach.


            1. Drug interactions between rifamycin antibiotics and hormonal contraception: a systematic reviewExternal
              Simmons KB, Haddad LB, Nanda K, Curtis KM.
              Bjog. 2018 Jun;125(7):804-811.
              BACKGROUND: Rifamycin antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of tuberculosis, but may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraception (HC). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether interactions between rifamycins and HC result in decreased effectiveness or increased toxicity of either therapy. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and clinicaltrials.gov through May 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials, cohort, and case-control studies addressing pregnancy rates, pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetic (PK) outcomes when HC and rifamycins were administered together versus apart. Of 7291 original records identified, 11 met inclusion criteria after independent review by two authors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently abstracted study details and assessed study quality using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. Findings are reported descriptively. MAIN RESULTS: Studies only addressed combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and none reported pregnancy rates. Quality ranged from good to poor. Rifampin increased the frequency of ovulation in two of four studies, and reduced estrogen and/or progestin exposure in five studies. Rifabutin led to smaller PK changes than rifampin in two studies. In one study each, rifaximin and rifalazil did not alter hormone PK. CONCLUSIONS: No studies evaluated pregnancy risk or non-oral HCs. PK and ovulation outcomes support a clinically concerning drug interaction between COCs and rifampin, and to a lesser extent rifabutin. Data are limited for other rifamycins. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Rifampin and rifabutin reduce systemic exposure of oral contraceptives, but no studies have evaluated pregnancy risk.


        • Substance Use and Abuse
            1. Naloxone administration frequency during emergency medical service events – United States, 2012-2016External
              Cash RE, Kinsman J, Crowe RP, Rivard MK, Faul M, Panchal AR.
              MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 10;67(31):850-853.
              As the opioid epidemic in the United States has continued since the early 2000s (1,2), most descriptions have focused on misuse and deaths. Increased cooperation with state and local partners has enabled more rapid and comprehensive surveillance of nonfatal opioid overdoses (3).* Naloxone administrations obtained from emergency medical services (EMS) patient care records have served as a useful proxy for overdose surveillance in individual communities and might be a previously unused data source to describe the opioid epidemic, including fatal and nonfatal events, on a national level (4-6). Using data from the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS),(dagger) the trend in rate of EMS naloxone administration events from 2012 to 2016 was compared with opioid overdose mortality rates from National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death mortality files. During 2012-2016, the rate of EMS naloxone administration events increased 75.1%, from 573.6 to 1004.4 administrations per 100,000 EMS events, mirroring the 79.7% increase in opioid overdose mortality from 7.4 deaths per 100,000 persons to 13.3. A bimodal age distribution of patients receiving naloxone from EMS parallels a similar age distribution of deaths, with persons aged 25-34 years and 45-54 years most affected. However, an accurate estimate of the complete injury burden of the opioid epidemic requires assessing nonfatal overdoses in addition to deaths. Evaluating and monitoring nonfatal overdose events via the novel approach of using EMS data might assist in the development of timely interventions to address the evolving opioid crisis.


            1. Despite significant declines in the use of cigarettes, a significant proportion of adults smoke. This study explores the association between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by age. The 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey was administered to adults in 50 states and District of Columbia (n = 437,195). Physically unhealthy days (PUDs) and mentally unhealthy days (MUDs)) were regressed on age strata (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, >/= 65 years) and smoking status (never, former, someday, and everyday) using negative binomial regression models with adjustment for sociodemographic covariates. For each age group, everyday smoking highly predicted PUDs and MUDs. Predicted PUDs increased with age; predicted MUDs decreased with age. Among adults aged 45-54 and 55-64 years, 3-day difference in PUDs was observed between never smokers and everyday smokers. Among young adults (18-24 years), a 4.3-day difference in MUDs was observed between everyday and never smokers. The discrepancies were nonlinear with age. The observed relationship between smoking and HRQoL provides novel information about the need to consider age when designing community-based interventions. Additional research can provide needed depth to understanding the relationship between smoking and HRQoL in specific age groups.


            1. Opioid use disorder documented at delivery hospitalization – United States, 1999-2014External
              Haight SC, Ko JY, Tong VT, Bohm MK, Callaghan WM.
              MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 10;67(31):845-849.
              Opioid use by pregnant women represents a significant public health concern given the association of opioid exposure and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including preterm labor, stillbirth, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and maternal mortality (1,2). State-level actions are critical to curbing the opioid epidemic through programs and policies to reduce use of prescription opioids and illegal opioids including heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl, both of which contribute to the epidemic (3). Hospital discharge data from the 1999-2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) were analyzed to describe U.S. national and state-specific trends in opioid use disorder documented at delivery hospitalization. Nationally, the prevalence of opioid use disorder more than quadrupled during 1999-2014 (from 1.5 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations to 6.5; p<0.05). Increasing trends over time were observed in all 28 states with available data (p<0.05). In 2014, prevalence ranged from 0.7 in the District of Columbia (DC) to 48.6 in Vermont. Continued national, state, and provider efforts to prevent, monitor, and treat opioid use disorder among reproductive-aged and pregnant women are needed. Efforts might include improved access to data in Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs, increased substance abuse screening, use of medication-assisted therapy, and substance abuse treatment referrals.


            1. Attitudes toward smokeless tobacco use at all public sports venues among U.S. adults, 2016External
              Odani S, O’Flaherty K, Veatch N, Tynan MA, Agaku IT.
              Prev Med. 2018 Jun;111:397-401.
              Policies prohibiting smokeless tobacco (SLT) use at sports venues have been enacted in California and nine U.S. cities. We measured opposition toward SLT use at all public sports venues and its correlates among U.S. adults. Data were from the 2016 SummerStyles, a web-based survey of U.S. adults aged >/=18years (n=4203). Weighted estimates of opposition (“strongly” or “somewhat”) SLT use were computed overall and by selected characteristics. Multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of opposition toward SLT use overall and among current tobacco product users. Overall, 81.8% of U.S. adults opposed SLT use at all public sports venues. Opposition varied by tobacco product use status: 85.9%, 86.9% and 60.4% among never, former, and current tobacco product users, respectively. Among all adults, the likelihood of opposition was higher among females than males (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio [APR]=1.05; 95%CI=1.01-1.08) and increased with every 10-year increase in age (APR=1.01; 95%CI=1.00-1.02). Likelihood was lower among persons with a high school diploma (APR=0.92; 95%CI=0.88-0.96) than those with college degree or higher; persons widowed/divorced/separated (APR=0.92; 95%CI=0.87-0.97) than those married; and current tobacco product users (APR=0.70; 95%CI=0.65-0.76) than never users. Among current tobacco product users, likelihood was lower among persons living in the Midwest (APR=0.81; 95%CI=0.66-0.98) and South (APR=0.78; 95%CI=0.65-0.94) than the Northeast. Most U.S. adults, including three-fifths of current tobacco product users, oppose SLT use at all public sports venues. Complete tobacco-free policies for sports venues that prohibit all forms of tobacco product use can help reduce the social acceptability of SLT use.


            1. National and state-specific unit sales and prices for electronic cigarettes, United States, 2012-2016External
              Wang TW, Coats EM, Gammon DG, Loomis BR, Kuiper NM, Rogers T, King BA.
              Prev Chronic Dis. 2018 Aug 2;15:E99.
              INTRODUCTION: Few studies have explored patterns of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) sales and prices by product type over time. We used US retail scanner data to assess national and state-specific trends in e-cigarette unit sales and prices for 4 product types sold from 2012 through 2016. METHODS: Using retail scanner data from the 48 contiguous states and Washington, DC, for convenience stores; supermarkets; mass merchandisers; drug, dollar, and club stores; and military commissaries, we assessed data on monthly unit sales and inflation-adjusted prices by 4 products (rechargeables, disposables, prefilled cartridges, and e-liquids) sold during the 5-year study period. We evaluated national and state trends by using Joinpoint regression (P < .05). RESULTS: From 2012 through 2016, average national monthly unit sales significantly increased for all products, while average monthly prices of rechargeables, disposables, and prefilled cartridges significantly decreased. In 2016, prefilled cartridges had the highest average sales (766 units per 100,000 people) and the lowest average price ($14.36 per unit). By state, average monthly sales significantly increased for at least 1 of 4 e-cigarette products in all 48 states and Washington, DC. However, during the same period, average monthly prices significantly decreased in 39 states for rechargeables, in 31 states for disposables, in 20 states for prefilled cartridges, and in 8 states for e-liquids. CONCLUSION: Overall, US e-cigarette unit sales generally increased as product prices decreased. These findings demonstrate the rapidly evolving landscape of US e-cigarette retail marketplace. Ongoing surveillance of e-cigarette unit sales and price is critical for informing and evaluating evidence-based tobacco control strategies.


        • Veterinary Medicine
            1. Coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates: Pathologic and clinical findingsExternal
              Koistinen K, Mullaney L, Bell T, Zaki S, Nalca A, Frick O, Livingston V, Robinson CG, Estep JS, Batey KL, Dick EJ, Owston MA.
              Vet Pathol. 2018 Aug 2:300985818787306.
              Coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates has been sporadically reported in the literature. This study describes 22 cases of coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates within an endemic region, and 79 cases of coccidioidomycosis from the veterinary literature are also reviewed. The 22 cases included baboons ( n = 10), macaques ( n = 9), and chimpanzees ( n = 3). The majority died or were euthanized following episodes of dyspnea, lethargy, or neurologic and locomotion abnormalities. The lungs were most frequently involved followed by the vertebral column and abdominal organs. Microscopic examination revealed granulomatous inflammation accompanied by fungal spherules variably undergoing endosporulation. Baboons represented a large number of cases presented here and had a unique presentation with lesions in bone or thoracic organs, but none had both intrathoracic and extrathoracic lesions. Although noted in 3 cases in the literature, cutaneous infections were not observed among the 22 contemporaneous cases. Similarly, subclinical infections were only rarely observed (2 cases). This case series and review of the literature illustrates that coccidioidomycosis in nonhuman primates reflects human disease with a varied spectrum of presentations from localized lesions to disseminated disease.


            1. Unintended consequences associated with national-level restrictions on antimicrobial use in food-producing animalsExternal
              McEwen SA, Angulo FJ, Collignon PJ, Conly JM.
              Lancet Planet Health. 2018 Jul;2(7):e279-e282.

              [No abstract]

        • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
            1. Detection of dengue virus among children with suspected malaria, Accra, GhanaExternal
              Amoako N, Duodu S, Dennis FE, Bonney JH, Asante KP, Ameh J, Mosi L, Hayashi T, Agbosu EE, Pratt D, Operario DJ, Fields B, Liu J, Houpt ER, Armah GE, Stoler J, Awandare GA.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8):1544-1547.
              We report new molecular evidence of locally acquired dengue virus infections in Ghana. We detected dengue viral RNA among children with suspected malaria by using a multipathogen real-time PCR. Subsequent sequence analysis revealed a close relationship with dengue virus serotype 2, which was implicated in a 2016 outbreak in Burkina Faso.


            1. Most Zika disease cases diagnosed in the continental US have been associated with travel to areas with risk of Zika transmission, mainly the Caribbean and Latin America. Limited information has been published about the demographic and travel characteristics of Zika case-patients in the United States, besides their age and gender. During 2016-2017 the County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, California, expanded the scope and completeness of demographic and travel information collected from Zika case-patients for public health surveillance purposes. The majority (53.8%) of travel-related Zika virus infection case-patients (n = 78) in the county were Hispanic, significantly higher (p </= 0.05) than the 33.0% of Hispanics in the county. Foreign-born residents, mainly from Mexico, were also overrepresented among cases compared to their share in the county population (33.3 vs. 23.0%; p </= 0.05). Seventeen (21.8%) patients reported a primary language other than English (14 Spanish). Most case-patients traveled for tourism (54%) or to visit friends and relatives (36%). This surveillance information helps identify higher-risk populations and implement culturally targeted interventions for Zika prevention and control.


            1. Brucellosis in dogs and public health riskExternal
              Hensel ME, Negron M, Arenas-Gamboa AM.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8):1401-1406.
              Brucella canis infects dogs and humans. In dogs, it can cause reproductive failure; in humans, it can cause fever, chills, malaise, peripheral lymphadenomegaly, and splenomegaly. B. canis infection in dogs is underrecognized. After evaluating serologic data, transmission patterns, and regulations in the context of brucellosis in dogs as an underrecognized zoonosis, we concluded that brucellosis in dogs remains endemic to many parts of the world and will probably remain a threat to human health and animal welfare unless stronger intervention measures are implemented. A first step for limiting disease spread would be implementation of mandatory testing of dogs before interstate or international movement.


            1. Phylogeny of yellow fever virus, Uganda, 2016External
              Hughes HR, Kayiwa J, Mossel EC, Lutwama J, Staples JE, Lambert AJ.
              Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8).
              In April 2016, a yellow fever outbreak was detected in Uganda. Removal of contaminating ribosomal RNA in a clinical sample improved the sensitivity of next-generation sequencing. Molecular analyses determined the Uganda yellow fever outbreak was distinct from the concurrent yellow fever outbreak in Angola, improving our understanding of yellow fever epidemiology.


            1. Differences in prevalence of symptomatic Zika virus infection, by age and sex – Puerto Rico, 2016External
              Lozier MJ, Burke RM, Lopez J, Acevedo V, Amador M, Read JS, Jara A, Waterman SH, Barrera R, Munoz-Jordan J, Rivera-Garcia B, Sharp TM.
              J Infect Dis. 2018 May 5;217(11):1678-1689.
              Background: During the outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in Puerto Rico in 2016, nonpregnant women aged 20-39 years were disproportionately identified with ZIKV disease. We used household-based cluster investigations to determine whether this disparity was associated with age- or sex-dependent differences in the rate of ZIKV infection or reported symptoms. Methods: Participation was offered to residents of households within a 100-m radius of the residences of a convenience sample of 19 laboratory-confirmed ZIKV disease cases. Participants answered a questionnaire and provided specimens for diagnostic testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Among 367 study participants, 114 (31.1%) were laboratory positive for ZIKV infection, of whom 30% reported a recent illness (defined as self-reported rash or arthralgia) attributable to ZIKV infection. Age and sex were not associated with ZIKV infection. Female sex (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40, 3.67), age <40 years (aPR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.55, 3.70), and asthma (aPR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.12, 2.37) were independently associated with symptomatic infection. Conclusions: Although neither female sex nor age were associated with an increased prevalence of ZIKV infection, both were associated with symptomatic infection. Further investigation to identify a potential mechanism of age- and sex-dependent differences in reporting symptomatic ZIKV infection is warranted.


            1. Human case of bubonic plague resulting from the bite of a wild Gunnison’s prairie dog during translocation from a plague-endemic areaExternal
              Melman SD, Ettestad PE, VinHatton ES, Ragsdale JM, Takacs N, Onischuk LM, Leonard PM, Master SS, Lucero VS, Kingry LC, Petersen JM.
              Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Feb;65(1):e254-e258.
              Plague is a zoonotic disease (transmitted mainly by fleas and maintained in nature by rodents) that causes severe acute illness in humans. We present a human plague case who became infected by the bite of a wild Gunnison’s prairie dog, and a good practical example of the One Health approach that resulted in a rapid public health response. The exposure occurred while the animal was being transported for relocation to a wildlife refuge after being trapped in a plague enzootic area. This is the first report of a human plague case resulting from the bite of a Gunnison’s prairie dog. Additionally, we present an observation of a longer incubation period for plague in captive prairie dogs, leading to a recommendation for a longer quarantine period for prairie dogs during translocation efforts.


            1. Cat scratch disease: U.S. clinicians’ experience and knowledgeExternal
              Nelson CA, Moore AR, Perea AE, Mead PS.
              Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Feb;65(1):67-73.
              Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a zoonotic infection caused primarily by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. An estimated 12,000 outpatients and 500 inpatients are diagnosed with CSD annually, yet little is known regarding clinician experience with and treatment of CSD in the United States. Questions assessing clinical burden, treatment and prevention of CSD were posed to 3,011 primary care providers (family practitioners, internists, paediatricians and nurse practitioners) during 2014-2015 as part of the annual nationwide DocStyles survey. Among the clinicians surveyed, 37.2% indicated that they had diagnosed at least one patient with CSD in the prior year. Clinicians in the Pacific and Southern regions were more likely to have diagnosed CSD, as were clinicians who saw paediatric patients, regardless of specialty. When presented with a question regarding treatment of uncomplicated CSD, only 12.5% of clinicians chose the recommended treatment option of analgesics and monitoring, while 71.4% selected antibiotics and 13.4% selected lymph node aspiration. In a scenario concerning CSD prevention in immunosuppressed patients, 80.6% of clinicians chose some form of precaution, but less than one-third chose the recommended option of counseling patients to treat their cats for fleas and avoid rough play with their cats. Results from this study indicate that a substantial proportion of U.S. clinicians have diagnosed CSD within the past year. Although published guidelines exist for treatment and prevention of CSD, these findings suggest that knowledge gaps remain. Therefore, targeted educational efforts about CSD may benefit primary care providers.


            1. Update: Interim guidance for preconception counseling and prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus for men with possible Zika virus exposure – United States, August 2018External
              Polen KD, Gilboa SM, Hills S, Oduyebo T, Kohl KS, Brooks JT, Adamski A, Simeone RM, Walker AT, Kissin DM, Petersen LR, Honein MA, Meaney-Delman D.
              MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 10;67(31):868-871.
              Zika virus infection can occur as a result of mosquitoborne or sexual transmission of the virus. Infection during pregnancy is a cause of fetal brain abnormalities and other serious birth defects (1,2). CDC has updated the interim guidance for men with possible Zika virus exposure who 1) are planning to conceive with their partner, or 2) want to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus at any time (3). CDC now recommends that men with possible Zika virus exposure who are planning to conceive with their partner wait for at least 3 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or their last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) before engaging in unprotected sex. CDC now also recommends that for couples who are not trying to conceive, men can consider using condoms or abstaining from sex for at least 3 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or their last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) to minimize their risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus. All other guidance for Zika virus remains unchanged. The definition of possible Zika virus exposure remains unchanged and includes travel to or residence in an area with risk for Zika virus transmission (https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/world-map-areas-with-zika) or sex without a condom with a partner who traveled to or lives in an area with risk for Zika virus transmission. CDC will continue to update recommendations as new information becomes available.


            1. Vital signs: Zika-associated birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities possibly associated with congenital Zika virus infection – U.S. Territories and freely associated states, 2018External
              Rice ME, Galang RR, Roth NM, Ellington SR, Moore CA, Valencia-Prado M, Ellis EM, Tufa AJ, Taulung LA, Alfred JM, Perez-Padilla J, Delgado-Lopez CA, Zaki SR, Reagan-Steiner S, Bhatnagar J, Nahabedian JF, Reynolds MR, Yeargin-Allsopp M, Viens LJ, Olson SM, Jones AM, Baez-Santiago MA, Oppong-Twene P, VanMaldeghem K, Simon EL, Moore JT, Polen KD, Hillman B, Ropeti R, Nieves-Ferrer L, Marcano-Huertas M, Masao CA, Anzures EJ, Hansen RL, Perez-Gonzalez SI, Espinet-Crespo CP, Luciano-Roman M, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Gilboa SM, Honein MA.
              MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Aug 10;67(31):858-867.
              INTRODUCTION: Zika virus infection during pregnancy causes serious birth defects and might be associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children. Early identification of and intervention for neurodevelopmental problems can improve cognitive, social, and behavioral functioning. METHODS: Pregnancies with laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection and infants resulting from these pregnancies are included in the U.S. Zika Pregnancy and Infant Registry (USZPIR) and followed through active surveillance methods. This report includes data on children aged >/=1 year born in U.S. territories and freely associated states. Receipt of reported follow-up care was assessed, and data were reviewed to identify Zika-associated birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities possibly associated with congenital Zika virus infection. RESULTS: Among 1,450 children of mothers with laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy and with reported follow-up care, 76% had developmental screening or evaluation, 60% had postnatal neuroimaging, 48% had automated auditory brainstem response-based hearing screen or evaluation, and 36% had an ophthalmologic evaluation. Among evaluated children, 6% had at least one Zika-associated birth defect identified, 9% had at least one neurodevelopmental abnormality possibly associated with congenital Zika virus infection identified, and 1% had both. CONCLUSION: One in seven evaluated children had a Zika-associated birth defect, a neurodevelopmental abnormality possibly associated with congenital Zika virus infection, or both reported to the USZPIR. Given that most children did not have evidence of all recommended evaluations, additional anomalies might not have been identified. Careful monitoring and evaluation of children born to mothers with evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy is essential for ensuring early detection of possible disabilities and early referral to intervention services.


            1. Where backyard poultry raisers seek care for sick poultry: implications for avian influenza prevention in BangladeshExternal
              Rimi NA, Sultana R, Ishtiak-Ahmed K, Haider N, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Nahar N, Luby SP.
              BMC Public Health. 2018 Aug 3;18(1):969.
              BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, backyard poultry raisers lack awareness of avian influenza and infrequently follow government recommendations for its prevention. Identifying where poultry raisers seek care for their ill poultry might help the government better plan how to disseminate avian influenza prevention and control recommendations. METHODS: In order to identify where backyard poultry raisers seek care for their ill poultry, we conducted in-depth and informal interviews: 70 with backyard poultry raisers and six with local poultry healthcare providers in two villages, and five with government veterinary professionals at the sub-district and union levels in two districts during June-August 2009. RESULTS: Most (86% [60/70]) raisers sought care for their backyard poultry locally, 14% used home remedies only and none sought care from government veterinary professionals. The local poultry care providers provided advice and medications (n = 6). Four local care providers had shops in the village market where raisers sought healthcare for their poultry and the remaining two visited rural households to provide poultry healthcare services. Five of the six local care providers did not have formal training in veterinary medicine. Local care providers either did not know about avian influenza or considered avian influenza to be a disease common among commercial but not backyard poultry. The government professionals had degrees in veterinary medicine and experience with avian influenza and its prevention. They had their offices at the sub-district or union level and lacked staffing to reach the backyard raisers at the village level. CONCLUSIONS: The local poultry care providers provided front line healthcare to backyard poultry in villages and were a potential source of information for the rural raisers. Integration of these local poultry care providers in the government’s avian influenza control programs is a potentially useful approach to increase poultry raisers’ and local poultry care providers’ awareness about avian influenza.


            1. Estimating dengue under-reporting in Puerto Rico using a multiplier modelExternal
              Shankar MB, Rodriguez-Acosta RL, Sharp TM, Tomashek KM, Margolis HS, Meltzer MI.
              PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Aug 6;12(8):e0006650.
              Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral illness that causes a variety of health outcomes, from a mild acute febrile illness to potentially fatal severe dengue. Between 2005 and 2010, the annual number of suspected dengue cases reported to the Passive Dengue Surveillance System (PDSS) in Puerto Rico ranged from 2,346 in 2006 to 22,496 in 2010. Like other passive surveillance systems, PDSS is subject to under-reporting. To estimate the degree of under-reporting in Puerto Rico, we built separate inpatient and outpatient probability-based multiplier models, using data from two different surveillance systems-PDSS and the enhanced dengue surveillance system (EDSS). We adjusted reported cases to account for sensitivity of diagnostic tests, specimens with indeterminate results, and differences between PDSS and EDSS in numbers of reported dengue cases. In addition, for outpatients, we adjusted for the fact that less than 100% of medical providers submit diagnostic specimens from suspected cases. We estimated that a multiplication factor of between 5 (for 2010 data) to 9 (for 2006 data) must be used to correct for the under-reporting of the number of laboratory-positive dengue inpatients. Multiplication factors of between 21 (for 2010 data) to 115 (for 2008 data) must be used to correct for the under-reporting of laboratory-positive dengue outpatients. We also estimated that, after correcting for underreporting, the mean annual rate, for 2005-2010, of medically attended dengue in Puerto Rico to be between 2.1 (for dengue inpatients) to 7.8 (for dengue outpatients) per 1,000 population. These estimated rates compare to the reported rates of 0.4 (dengue outpatients) to 0.1 (dengue inpatients) per 1,000 population. The multipliers, while subject to limitations, will help public health officials correct for underreporting of dengue cases, and thus better evaluate the cost-and-benefits of possible interventions.


            1. Do animal exhibitors support and follow recommendations to prevent transmission of variant influenza at agricultural fairs? A survey of animal exhibitor households after a variant influenza virus outbreak in MichiganExternal
              Stewart RJ, Rossow J, Conover JT, Lobelo EE, Eckel S, Signs K, Stobierski MG, Trock SC, Fry AM, Olsen SJ, Biggerstaff M.
              Zoonoses Public Health. 2018 Feb;65(1):195-201.
              Influenza A viruses circulate in swine and can spread rapidly among swine when housed in close proximity, such as at agricultural fairs. Youth who have close and prolonged contact with influenza-infected swine at agricultural fairs may be at increased risk of acquiring influenza virus infection from swine. Animal and human health officials have issued written measures to minimize influenza transmission at agricultural exhibitions; however, there is little information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of these measures among animal exhibitors. After an August 2016 outbreak of influenza A(H3N2) variant (“H3N2v”) virus infections (i.e., humans infected with swine influenza viruses) in Michigan, we surveyed households of animal exhibitors at eight fairs (including one with known H3N2v infections) to assess their KAP related to variant virus infections and their support for prevention measures. Among 170 households interviewed, most (90%, 151/167) perceived their risk of acquiring influenza from swine to be low or very low. Animal exhibitor households reported high levels of behaviours that put them at increased risk of variant influenza virus infections, including eating or drinking in swine barns (43%, 66/154) and hugging, kissing or snuggling with swine at agricultural fairs (31%, 48/157). Among several recommendations, including limiting the duration of swine exhibits and restricting eating and drinking in the animal barns, the only recommendation supported by a majority of households was the presence of prominent hand-washing stations with a person to monitor hand-washing behaviour (76%, 129/170). This is a unique study of KAP among animal exhibitors and highlights that animal exhibitor households engage in behaviours that could increase their risk of variant virus infections and have low support for currently recommended measures to minimize infection transmission. Further efforts are needed to understand the lack of support for recommended measures and to encourage healthy behaviours at fairs.


            1. Pathogenesis and transmission of genetically diverse swine-origin H3N2 variant influenza A viruses from multiple lineages isolated in the United States, 2011-2016External
              Sun X, Pulit-Penaloza JA, Belser JA, Pappas C, Pearce MB, Brock N, Zeng H, Creager HM, Zanders N, Jang Y, Tumpey TM, Davis CT, Maines TR.
              J Virol. 2018 Aug 15;92(16).
              While several swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant (H3N2v) viruses isolated from humans prior to 2011 have been previously characterized for their virulence and transmissibility in ferrets, the recent genetic and antigenic divergence of H3N2v viruses warrants an updated assessment of their pandemic potential. Here, four contemporary H3N2v viruses isolated during 2011 to 2016 were evaluated for their replicative ability in both in vitro and in vivo in mammalian models as well as their transmissibility among ferrets. We found that all four H3N2v viruses possessed similar or enhanced replication capacities in a human bronchial epithelium cell line (Calu-3) compared to a human seasonal influenza virus, suggestive of strong fitness in human respiratory tract cells. The majority of H3N2v viruses examined in our study were mildly virulent in mice and capable of replicating in mouse lungs with different degrees of efficiency. In ferrets, all four H3N2v viruses caused moderate morbidity and exhibited comparable titers in the upper respiratory tract, but only 2 of the 4 viruses replicated in the lower respiratory tract in this model. Furthermore, despite efficient transmission among cohoused ferrets, recently isolated H3N2v viruses displayed considerable variance in their ability to transmit by respiratory droplets. The lack of a full understanding of the molecular correlates of virulence and transmission underscores the need for close genotypic and phenotypic monitoring of H3N2v viruses and the importance of continued surveillance to improve pandemic preparedness.IMPORTANCE Swine-origin influenza viruses of the H3N2 subtype, with the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) derived from historic human seasonal influenza viruses, continue to cross species barriers and cause human infections, posing an indelible threat to public health. To help us better understand the potential risk associated with swine-origin H3N2v viruses that emerged in the United States during the 2011-2016 influenza seasons, we use both in vitro and in vivo models to characterize the abilities of these viruses to replicate, cause disease, and transmit in mammalian hosts. The efficient respiratory droplet transmission exhibited by some of the H3N2v viruses in the ferret model combined with the existing evidence of low immunity against such viruses in young children and older adults highlight their pandemic potential. Extensive surveillance and risk assessment of H3N2v viruses should continue to be an essential component of our pandemic preparedness strategy.



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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019