Volume 10, Issue 28, July 31, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 28, July 31, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

This week Science Clips is pleased to feature articles about an important issue with which the National Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR) has been involved. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are man-made compounds that have unique characteristics which allow them to repel oil and water. Since the 1950s, PFAS have been used in food packaging, nonstick cookware, stain and water resistant treatments, cleaning products, paints and sealants, fire-fighting foams, and some cosmetics. Because of the persistence of PFAS in the environment and the human body, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects related to exposure. This compilation of recently published peer-reviewed articles illustrates current knowledge on the health effects of PFAS exposure.

One of the featured articles is led by CDC author Xiaoyun (Sherry) Ye. Although she recently passed away, her dedication and outstanding contributions to environmental health and biomonitoring will be greatly missed.

  1. Key Scientific Articles in Featured Topic Areas
    Subject matter experts decide what topic to feature, and articles are selected from the last 3 to 6 months of published literature. Key topic coincides monthly with other CDC products (e.g. Vital Signs).
    • PFAS – Animal model and toxicology studies
      1. Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid function in pregnant women and children: A systematic review of epidemiologic studiesExternal
        Ballesteros V, Costa O, Iniguez C, Fletcher T, Ballester F, Lopez-Espinosa MJ.
        Environ Int. 2017 Feb;99:15-28.

        INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormones (THs) are especially important for brain maturation and development during the fetal period and childhood. Several epidemiological studies have assessed the possible association between exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and thyroid outcomes during the early stages of life. We aimed to review this evidence. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review in compliance with the PRISMA Statement (search conducted in PubMed and Embase, as well as in the citations of the selected articles). We chose studies if they dealt with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), or thyroid dysfunctions, and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) measured in the blood of pregnant women and/or children up to 19years old. RESULTS: We included in this review three cross-sectional, one case-control, and six cohort studies (publication: 2011-2015), focusing on prenatal life (n=7), childhood (n=2) or both periods (n=1). We observed a high degree of heterogeneity across studies in terms of sampling time (different gestational weeks, at birth, or childhood), outcomes, adjustment for potential confounders, and statistical approach. We found some evidence of a positive association between PFHxS and PFOS exposure and TSH levels measured in maternal blood, and PFNA and TSH levels measured in the blood of boys aged >/=11years. CONCLUSION: Although there is a small number of studies with comparable data, we found some consistency of a positive association between maternal or teenage male exposure to some PFAS and TSH levels based on the current literature. However, further studies are required to confirm these possible relationships.

      2. Because of the important environmental presence and the potential human toxicity of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), in recent years the social and scientific interest in these compounds has notably increased. Special attention has been paid to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most extensively investigated PFASs. Although human exposure to PFASs may occur through different pathways, dietary intake seems to be the main route of exposure to these compounds. In 2012, we published a wide revision on the state of the science regarding the concentrations of PFASs in foodstuffs, the human dietary exposure to these compounds, and their health risks. In the present review, we have updated the information recently (2011-2016) published in the scientific literature. As in our previous review, we have also observed considerable differences in the PFASs detected-and their concentrations-in the food items analyzed in samples from a number of regions and countries. However, fish and other seafood seem to be the food group in which more PFASs are detected and where the concentrations of these compounds are higher. On the basis of the recommendations of the EFSA on the maximum dietary intakes of PFOS and PFOA, human health risks would not be of concern for nonoccupationally exposed populations, at least in the very limited countries for which recent data are available.

      3. Immunotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA) on female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1/N mice when administered by oral gavage for 28 daysExternal
        Frawley RP, Smith M, Cesta MF, Hayes-Bouknight S, Blystone C, Kissling GE, Harris S, Germolec D.
        J Immunotoxicol. 2018 Dec;15(1):41-52.

        Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are chemically and thermally stable, hydrophobic, lipophobic compounds used in stain repellants and water and oil surfactants, and associated with immunosuppression and peroxisome proliferator activity. Perfluoro-n-decanoic acid (PFDA, (CF3(CF2)8COOH), a fluorinated straight chain fatty acid compound, is reported to induce thymic atrophy and reversible bone marrow hypocellularity in rodent models. The objective of this study was to assess potential immunotoxicity of PFDA, due to its structural similarity to other immunosuppressive PFASs. Female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0-2.0 mg PFDA/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 d. Female B6C3F1/N mice were exposed once/week to 0-5.0 mg PFDA/kg by gavage for 4 weeks. Animals were evaluated for effects on immune cell populations in spleen and bone marrow, and innate, humoral-, and cell-mediated immunity. Mice were also evaluated for resistance to Influenza virus. Treatment-related hepatocyte necrosis and hepatomegaly were observed in rats treated with 0.5 mg PFDA/kg/d. In mice, hepatomegaly (26-89%) was observed following exposure to >/=0.625 mg PFDA/kg/week, while splenic atrophy (20%) was observed at 5.0 mg PFDA/kg/week. At 5.0 mg PFDA/kg/week, total spleen cells, and Ig + and NK + cells were decreased (17.6-27%). At >/= 1.25 mg PFDA/kg/week the numbers of splenic CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and Mac3(+) cells were decreased (10.5-39%). No changes were observed in leukocyte subpopulations in PFDA-exposed rats. Phagocytosis by fixed-tissue macrophages was decreased in liver (specific activity, 24-39%) at >/=0.25 mg PFDA/kg/d in rats. PFDA-induced effects on humoral- and cell-mediated immunity, host resistance, and bone marrow progenitor cells were limited. These data suggest that exposure to PFDA may induce adverse effects in rat liver in a manner consistent with the PFAS class, and may also alter the balance of immune cell populations in lymphoid tissues in mice.

      4. A short review on human exposure to and tissue distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)External
        Jian JM, Chen D, Han FJ, Guo Y, Zeng L, Lu X, Wang F.
        Sci Total Environ. 2018 Sep 15;636:1058-1069.

        PFASs are widely distributed in natural and living environment and can enter human bodies via different routes. Many studies have reported that PFASs may be associated with human diseases, such as urine acid and thyroid diseases. In this study, we reviewed PFAS levels in human bodies reported in past seven years, including blood, urine, milk, and tissues (hair and nails). Most studies focused on human blood. Blood type, spatiality, human age, and gender were found to have a strong relationship with PFAS levels in blood samples. The PFAS distribution in urine samples was reported to be associated with the chain length of PFASs and human gender. Urinary excretion was found to be an important pathway of PFAS elimination. PFAS levels in human milk might be affected by various factors, such as mothers’ age, dietary habit, parity of mothers and the interval of interpregnancy. Data in hair and nails remain very limited, but these matrices offer a non-invasive approach to evaluate human exposure to PFASs.

      5. Incorporation of fetal and child PFOA dosimetry in the derivation of health-based toxicity valuesExternal
        Kieskamp KK, Worley RR, McLanahan ED, Verner MA.
        Environ Int. 2018 Feb;111:260-267.

        BACKGROUND: Multiple agencies have developed health-based toxicity values for exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Although PFOA exposure occurs in utero and through breastfeeding, current health-based toxicity values have not been derived using fetal or child dosimetry. Therefore, current values may underestimate the potential risks to fetuses and nursing infants. OBJECTIVE: Using fetal and child dosimetry, we aimed to calculate PFOA maternal human equivalent doses (HEDs), corresponding to a developmental mouse study lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 1mg/kg/day). Further, we investigated the impact of breastfeeding duration and PFOA half-life on the estimated HEDs. METHODS: First, a pharmacokinetic model of pregnancy and lactation in mice was used to estimate plasma PFOA levels in pups following a maternal exposure to 1mg PFOA/kg/day for gestational days 1-17. Four plasma PFOA concentration metrics were estimated in pups: i) average prenatal; ii) average postnatal; iii) average overall (prenatal and postnatal); and iv) maximum. Then, Monte Carlo simulations were performed using a pharmacokinetic model of pregnancy and lactation in humans to generate distributions of maternal HEDs that would result in fetal/child plasma levels equivalent to those estimated in pups using the mouse model. Median (HED50) and 1st percentile (HED01) of calculated HEDs were calculated. RESULTS: Estimated PFOA maternal HED50s ranged from 3.0×10(-4) to 1.1×10(-3)mg/kg/day and HED01s ranged from 4.7×10(-5) to 2.1×10(-4)mg/kg/day. All calculated HEDs were lower than the HED based on adult dosimetry derived by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (5.3×10(-3)mg/kg/day). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that fetal/child dosimetry should be considered when deriving health-based toxicity values for potential developmental toxicants.

      6. The detection of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and drinking water from various countries raised the attention to the presence of these chemicals in environmental probes and led to several regulatory actions to limit exposure in human beings. There was particular concern about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), due to their former wide-spread use. Recently, several institutions published revisions of former regulatory or recommended maximum concentrations in drinking water and food, which are markedly lower than the former values. The present short overview describes the current regulations for PFAS and compares them with the outcome of several experimental studies in laboratory animals at low-level exposure to PFOA and PFOS. In addition, regulations for short-chain PFAS are presented which, due to lack of toxicological information, are evaluated according to the concepts of Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) or the Health-related Indication Values (HRIV).

      7. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), chemicals used to make products stain and stick resistant, have been linked to health effects in adults and adverse birth outcomes. A growing body of literature also addresses health effects in children exposed to PFAS. This review summarizes the epidemiologic evidence for relationships between prenatal and/or childhood exposure to PFAS and health outcomes in children as well as to provide a risk of bias analysis of the literature. A systematic review was performed by searching PubMed for studies on PFAS and child health outcomes. We identified 64 studies for inclusion and performed risk of bias analysis on those studies. We determined that risk of bias across studies was low to moderate. Six categories of health outcomes emerged. These were: immunity/infection/asthma, cardio-metabolic, neurodevelopmental/attention, thyroid, renal, and puberty onset. While there are a limited number of studies for any one particular health outcome, there is evidence for positive associations between PFAS and dyslipidemia, immunity (including vaccine response and asthma), renal function, and age at menarche. One finding of note is that while PFASs are mixtures of multiple compounds few studies examine them as such, therefore the role of these compounds as complex mixtures remains largely unknown.

    • PFAS – Epidemiology studies
      1. Prenatal exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) associated with respiratory tract infections but not allergy- and asthma-related health outcomes in childhoodExternal
        Impinen A, Nygaard UC, Lodrup Carlsen KC, Mowinckel P, Carlsen KH, Haug LS, Granum B.
        Environ Res. 2018 Jan;160:518-523.

        BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to perfluoralkyl substances (PFASs) has been reported to be associated with immunosuppression in early childhood, but with contradictory findings related to atopic and lung diseases. AIM: We aimed to determine if prenatal exposure to PFASs is associated with asthma or other allergic diseases or respiratory tract infections in childhood. METHODS: Nineteen PFASs were measured in cord blood available from 641 infants in the Environment and Childhood Asthma (ECA) prospective birth cohort study. The six most abundant PFASs were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA). Health outcomes were assessed at two and ten years of age, and included reported obstructive airways disease (wheeze by 10 years; asthma by 2 and 10 years; reduced lung function at birth; allergic rhinitis by 10 years), atopic dermatitis (AD) by 2 and 10 years, allergic sensitization by 10 years, and episodes of common respiratory tract infections (common cold by 2 years, lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by 10 years). The associations between exposure and health outcomes were examined using logistic and Poisson regression. RESULTS: The number of reported airways infections were significantly associated with cord blood concentrations of PFAS; common colds by two years with PFUnDA (beta = 0.11 (0.08-0.14)) and LRTIs from 0 to 10 years of age with PFOS (beta = 0.50 (0.42-0.57)), PFOA (beta = 0.28 (0.22-0.35)), PFOSA (beta = 0.10 (0.06-0.14)), PFNA (beta = 0.09 (0.03-0.14)) and PFUnDA (beta = 0.18 (0.13-0.23)) concentrations. Neither reduced lung function at birth, asthma, allergic rhinitis, AD nor allergic sensitization were significantly associated with any of the PFASs. CONCLUSION: Although prenatal exposure to PFASs was not associated with atopic or lung manifestations by 10 years of age, several PFASs were associated with an increased number of respiratory tract infections in the first 10 years of life, suggesting immunosuppressive effects of PFASs.

      2. Perfluorooctanoic acid and low birth weight: Estimates of US attributable burden and economic costs from 2003 through 2014External
        Malits J, Blustein J, Trasande L, Attina TM.
        Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Mar;221(2):269-275.

        BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In utero exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been associated with decreases in birth weight. We aimed to estimate the proportion of PFOA-attributable low birth weight (LBW) births and associated costs in the US from 2003 to 2014, a period during which there were industry-initiated and regulatory activities aimed at reducing exposure. METHODS: Serum PFOA levels among women 18-49 years were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2003-2014; birth weight distributions were obtained from the Vital Statistics Natality Birth Data. The exposure-response relationship identified in a previous meta-analysis (18.9g decrease in birth weight per 1ng/mL of PFOA) was applied to quantify PFOA-attributable LBW (reference level of 3.1ng/mL for our base case, 1 and 3.9ng/mL for sensitivity analyses). Hospitalization costs and lost economic productivity were also estimated. RESULTS: Serum PFOA levels remained approximately constant from 2003-2004 (median: 3.3ng/mL) to 2007-2008 (3.5ng/mL), and declined from 2009-2010 (2.8ng/mL) to 2013-2014 (1.6ng/mL). In 2003-2004, an estimated 12,764 LBW cases (4% of total for those years) were potentially preventable if PFOA exposure were reduced to the base case reference level (10,203 cases in 2009-2010 and 1,491 in 2013-2014). The total cost of PFOA-attributable LBW for 2003 through 2014 was estimated at $13.7 billion, with $2.97 billion in 2003-2004, $2.4 billion in 2009-2010 and $347 million in 2013-2014. CONCLUSIONS: Serum PFOA levels began to decline in women of childbearing age in 2009-2010. Declines were of a magnitude expected to meaningfully reduce the estimated incidence of PFOA-attributable LBW and associated costs.

      3. These researchers, after extending the follow-up of their Faroese birth cohort up to adolescence, have published new results that reinforce previous findings that exposure to perfluorinated compounds adversely affects the production of antibodies in response to vaccination.

      4. Cumulative exposure to environmental pollutants during early pregnancy and reduced fetal growth: the Project Viva cohortExternal
        Rokoff LB, Rifas-Shiman SL, Coull BA, Cardenas A, Calafat AM, Ye X, Gryparis A, Schwartz J, Sagiv SK, Gold DR, Oken E, Fleisch AF.
        Environ Health. 2018 Feb 20;17(1):19.

        BACKGROUND: Reduced fetal growth is associated with perinatal and later morbidity. Prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants is linked to reduced fetal growth at birth, but the impact of concomitant exposure to multiple pollutants is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine interactions between early pregnancy exposure to cigarette smoke, traffic pollution, and select perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on birth weight-for-gestational age (BW/GA). METHODS: Among 1597 Project Viva mother-infant pairs, we assessed maternal cigarette smoking by questionnaire, traffic pollution at residential address by black carbon land use regression model, and plasma concentration of select PFASs in early pregnancy. We calculated sex-specific BW/GA z-scores, an index of fetal growth, from national reference data. We fit covariate-adjusted multi-pollutant linear regression models and examined interactions between exposures, using a likelihood-ratio test to identify a best-fit model. RESULTS: Two hundred six (13%) mothers smoked during pregnancy. Mean [standard deviation (SD)] for black carbon was 0.8 (0.3) mug/m(3), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was 29.1 (16.5) ng/mL, and BW/GA z-score was 0.19 (0.96). In the best-fit model, BW/GA z-score was lower in infants of mothers exposed to greater black carbon [- 0.08 (95% CI: -0.15, – 0.01) per interquartile range (IQR)]. BW/GA z-score (95% CI) was also lower in infants of mothers who smoked [- 0.09 (- 0.23, 0.06)] or were exposed to greater PFOS [- 0.03 (- 0.07, 0.02) per IQR], although confidence intervals crossed the null. There were no interactions between exposures. In secondary analyses, instead of PFOS, we examined perfluorononanoate (PFNA) [mean (SD): 0.7 (0.4) ng/mL], a PFAS more closely linked to lower BW/GA in our cohort. The best-fit multi-pollutant model included positive two-way interactions between PFNA and both black carbon and smoking (p-interactions = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent prenatal exposures to maternal smoking, black carbon, and PFOS are additively associated with lower fetal growth, whereas PFNA may attenuate associations of smoking and black carbon with lower fetal growth. It is important to examine interactions between multiple exposures in relation to health outcomes, as effects may not always be additive and may shed light on biological pathways.

      5. PFOA and ulcerative colitisExternal
        Steenland K, Kugathasan S, Barr DB.
        Environ Res. 2018 Aug;165:317-321.

        INTRODUCTION: PFOA (perfluoroctanoic acid) is a perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS). Although use in the US has been phased out, PFOA persists indefinitely in the environment, and is present in the serum of virtually all people in industrialized countries. Approximately 6 million Americans drink water comtaminated with PFOA above EPA-recommended levels. In a previous cohort study (n=32,000), we found a strong positive exposure-response relation between PFOA serum levels and subsequent ulcerative colitis (UC) in a high-exposed population from the mid-Ohio valley, but no association with Crohn’s disease. In the present study we aimed to determine if UC cases had higher levels of PFOA than did controls or Crohn’s disease patients. METHODS: We measured PFOA and three other PFAS in the serum of 114 UC patients, 60 Crohn’s disease patients, and 75 controls, within a year of diagnosis. We conducted regression analyses to assess the association of the PFAS with diagnosis. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 17 years. The mean year of diagnosis was 2007. Mean levels of PFAS were similar to US levels. Mean log PFOA level in UC patients was 38% higher (p=0.01) than the combined group of Crohn’s disease and controls. In contrast, the three other PFASs were significantly higher in controls and Crohn’s patients than UC patients. The odds ratio for UC per one unit of log PFOA was 1.60 (95% CI 1.14-2.24), but the trend by quintiles was not monotonic (1, 0.84, 40.98, 33.36, 2.86). CONCLUSION: We found higher serum PFOA in UC cases compared to Crohn’s disease patients or controls, in contrast to other PFAS. Our research is limited by not knowing if the elevated PFOA preceded UC in this population.

      6. Plasma concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of type 2 diabetes: A prospective investigation among U.S. womenExternal
        Sun Q, Zong G, Valvi D, Nielsen F, Coull B, Grandjean P.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Mar 1;126(3):037001.

        BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are endocrine disruptors and may contribute to the etiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but this hypothesis needs to be clarified in prospective human studies. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the associations between PFAS exposures and subsequent incidence of T2D in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). In addition, we aimed to evaluate potential demographic and lifestyle determinants of plasma PFAS concentrations. METHODS: A prospective nested case-control study of T2D was conducted among participants who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in 1995-2000 [(mean+/-SD): 45.3+/-4.4 y) of age]. We identified and ascertained 793 incident T2D cases through 2011 (mean+/-SD) years of follow-up: 6.7+/-3.7 y). Each case was individually matched to a control (on age, month and fasting status at sample collection, and menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy). Plasma concentrations of five major PFASs, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorodecanoic acid were measured. Odds ratios (ORs) of T2D by PFAS tertiles were estimated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Shorter breastfeeding duration and higher intake of certain foods, such as seafood and popcorn, were significantly associated with higher plasma concentrations of PFASs among controls. After multivariate adjustment for T2D risk factors, including body mass index, family history, physical activity, and other covariates, higher plasma concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were associated with an elevated risk of T2D. Comparing extreme tertiles of PFOS or PFOA, ORs were 1.62 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.41; ptrend=0.02) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.28; ptrend=0.03), respectively. Other PFASs were not clearly associated with T2D risk. CONCLUSIONS: Background exposures to PFASs in the late 1990s were associated with higher T2D risk during the following years in a prospective case-control study of women from the NHSII. These findings support a potential diabetogenic effect of PFAS exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2619.

      7. PURPOSE: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are environmentally persistent amphiphilic compounds. Exposure to two PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is linked to specific occupations and industries. This study examines the contribution of past occupational PFAS exposure to serum PFOS and PFOA levels among 154 older adults in New York State. METHODS: Serum PFOS and PFOA levels were compared to data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Potential occupational exposure to any PFAS was determined from work histories, reviewed by an industrial hygienist, and assessed in relation to current serum PFOS and PFOA levels using exposure probability, duration and cumulative exposure. RESULTS: We observed 25% higher serum PFOS and 80% higher PFOA levels in study participants compared to NHANES. No participants reported PFAS chemical manufacturing work, but n = 68 reported work in occupations and industries known to use PFASs. We found that participants with high cumulative workplace exposure had 34% higher serum PFOS levels compared to participants without occupational exposure, adjusted for age, sex and income. Serum PFOS levels were 26% higher for participants with longer occupational exposure durations. The probability of occupational PFAS exposure metric was not associated with serum PFOS. Serum PFOA was not associated with any measure of occupational exposure. CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure may contribute to total PFOS body burden in this study population, even among workers not directly involved in manufacturing PFASs. PFAS exposure assessments should evaluate the workplace as a potential source, even when workplace exposures are assumed to be low or moderate.

      8. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in sera from children 3 to 11 years of age participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014External
        Ye X, Kato K, Wong LY, Jia T, Kalathil A, Latremouille J, Calafat AM.
        Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Jan;221(1):9-16.

        Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been measured in U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants 12 years of age and older since 1999-2000, but PFAS data using NHANES individual samples among children younger than 12 years do not exist. To obtain the first nationally representative PFAS exposure data in U.S. children, we quantified serum concentrations of 14 PFAS including perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), in a nationally representative subsample of 639 3-11year old participants in NHANES 2013-2014. We used on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; limits of detection were 0.1ng/mL for all analytes. We calculated geometric mean concentrations, determined weighted Pearson correlations, and used linear regression to evaluate associations of sex, age (3-5 vs 6-11 years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs non-Hispanic), household income, and body mass index with concentrations of PFAS detected in more than 60% of participants. We detected PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA in all children at concentrations similar to those of NHANES 2013-2014 adolescents and adults, suggesting prevalent exposure to these PFAS or their precursors among U.S. 3-11year old children, most of whom were born after the phase out of PFOS in the United States in 2002. PFAS concentration differences by sex, race/ethnicity, and age suggest lifestyle differences that may impact exposure, and highlight the importance of identifying exposure sources and of studying the environmental fate and transport of PFAS.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. OBJECTIVE: Reductions in heart attack and stroke hospitalizations are well documented in the U.S. population with diabetes. We extended trend analyses to other cardiovascular disease (CVD) conditions, including stroke by type, and used four additional years of data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using 1998-2014 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) data, we estimated the number of discharges having acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (ICD-9 codes 410-411), cardiac dysrhythmia (427), heart failure (428), hemorrhagic stroke (430-432), or ischemic stroke (433.x1, 434, and 436) as first-listed diagnosis and diabetes (250) as secondary diagnosis. Hospitalization rates for adults aged >/=35 years were calculated using estimates from the population with and the population without diabetes from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends and calculate an average annual percentage change (AAPC) with 95% confidence limits (CLs). RESULTS: From 1998 to 2014, in the population with diabetes, age-adjusted hospitalization rates declined significantly for ACS (AAPC -4.6% per year [95% CL -5.3, -3.8]), cardiac dysrhythmia (-0.7% [-1.1, -0.2]), heart failure (-3.6% [-4.6, -2.7]), hemorrhagic stroke (-1.1% [-1.4, -0.7]), and ischemic stroke (-2.9% [-3.9, -1.8]). In the population without diabetes, rates also declined significantly for these conditions, with the exception of dysrhythmia. By 2014, rates in the population with diabetes population remained two to four times as high as those for the population without diabetes, with the largest difference in heart failure rates. CONCLUSIONS: CVD hospitalization rates declined significantly in both the population with diabetes and the population without diabetes. This may be due to several factors, including new or more aggressive treatments and reductions in CVD risk factors and CVD incidence.

      2. Trends in albuminuria and GFR among adolescents in the United States, 1988-2014External
        Saydah SH, Xie H, Imperatore G, Burrows NR, Pavkov ME.
        Am J Kidney Dis. 2018 Jul 13.

        RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) define chronic kidney disease in adults and youth. Different from adults, the burden of abnormal kidney markers among youth in the general United States population is largely unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Serial cross-sectional national surveys. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 12 to 18 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1988 to 2014. Surveys were grouped into three 6-year periods. PREDICTORS: Demographic and clinical determinants of kidney markers. OUTCOME: Prevalence and trends in persistent albuminuria, low (< 60mL/min/1.73m(2)) and reduced (< 90mL/min/1.73m(2)) eGFRs. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Outcomes defined as persistent albumin-creatinine ratio >/= 30mg/g (persistent albuminuria), eGFR < 90mL/min/1.73m(2) (reduced kidney function), and eGFR < 60mL/min/1.73m(2) (low kidney function). Multiple imputation analysis was used to estimate missing follow-up values of albuminuria. RESULTS: Prevalences of persistent albuminuria were 3.64% (95% CI, 1.82%-5.46%) in 1988-1994 and 3.29% (95% CI, 1.94%-4.63%) in 2009-2014 (adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.53-1.62; P=0.8 for trend). Prevalences of reduced eGFR were 31.46% (95% CI, 28.42%-34.67%) and 34.58% (95% CI, 32.07%-37.18%), respectively (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.46; P < 0.001 for trend). Prevalences of low eGFR were 0.32% (95% CI, 0.12%-0.84%) in 1988-1994 and 0.91% (95% CI, 0.58%-1.42%) in 2009-2014 (adjusted prevalence ratio, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.10-9.01; P = 0.09 for trend). Prevalences of albuminuria and/or low eGFR remained at 4.0% in 1988-1994 and 2009-2014 (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.64-1.77; P = 0.8 for trend). LIMITATIONS: Persistent albuminuria data were based on imputed values (for second assessment of albuminuria) in 91% of participants; lack of second eGFR assessment to confirm sustained reduction in kidney function. CONCLUSIONS: Albuminuria prevalence has not changed significantly in the US adolescent population between 1988 and 2014. Prevalences of both reduced and low eGFRs were higher in the most recent study period; however, < 1% of adolescents had low eGFRs.

      3. INTRODUCTION: Healthy People 2020 includes a goal of increasing use of preventive dental care among children from low-income families. The services used to define preventive care are evidence-based services (i.e., dental sealants and professionally applied topical fluoride) and professional dental cleaning, which lacks evidence of effectiveness in preventing caries. This study examined how increasing preventive dental care use and reducing disparities by race/ethnicity among children from low-income families varied by the services included in case definitions of preventive dental care use. METHODS: Three case definitions of past-year preventive dental care use were considered: (1) the Healthy People 2020 definition; (2) receipt of an evidence-based caries prevention service; and (3) dental cleaning only. Using pooled data from the 2001-2002 and 2013-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for each definition, this study conducted in 2017 used multivariate logistic regression to estimate changes in preventive dental care use among children from low-income families by race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Use increased for all racial/ethnic groups for all definitions. Use of preventive dental care (Healthy People 2020 definition), however, was at least two times higher than evidence-based preventive dental use for all racial/ethnic groups in both survey periods. After controlling for insurance status and parental education, the disparity between non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white children in use of preventive dental care that was present in 2001-2002 was not detected in 2013-2014 whereas the disparity for evidence-based preventive dental care use persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Case definitions of preventive dental care that include non-evidence-based services may overstate receipt of effective preventive dental care and reductions in certain racial/ethnic disparities.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Viral gastroenteritisExternal
        Banyai K, Estes MK, Martella V, Parashar UD.
        The Lancet. 2018 .

        Enteric viruses, particularly rotaviruses and noroviruses, are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Rotaviruses primarily affect young children, accounting for almost 40% of hospital admissions for diarrhoea and 200 000 deaths worldwide, with the majority of deaths occurring in developing countries. Two vaccines against rotavirus were licensed in 2006 and have been implemented in 95 countries as of April, 2018. Data from eight high-income and middle-income countries showed a 49-89% decline in rotavirus-associated hospital admissions and a 17-55% decline in all-cause gastroenteritis-associated hospital admissions among children younger than 5 years, within 2 years of vaccine introduction. Noroviruses affect people of all ages, and are a leading cause of foodborne disease and outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. Prevention of norovirus infection relies on frequent hand hygiene, limiting contact with people who are infected with the virus, and disinfection of contaminated environmental surfaces. Norovirus vaccine candidates are in clinical trials; whether vaccines will provide durable protection against the range of genetically and antigenically diverse norovirus strains remains unknown. Treatment of viral gastroenteritis is based primarily on replacement of fluid and electrolytes.

      2. Increasing partner HIV testing and linkage to care in TB settings: findings from an implementation study in Pwani, TanzaniaExternal
        Courtenay-Quirk C, Pals S, Howard AA, Ujamaa D, Henjewele C, Munuo G, Urasa P, Nyamkara M.
        AIDS Care. 2018 Jul 18:1-5.

        Couples HIV testing for tuberculosis (TB) patients and their partners may be an effective means to identify HIV-positive persons and strengthen linkage to HIV care. We evaluated an intervention to increase HIV testing and linkage to care (LTC) of newly diagnosed persons and re-linkage for TB/HIV patients in Pwani, Tanzania. In 2014, 12 TB settings within two regional clusters participated; each cluster included >/=1 referral hospital, health center, and directly observed therapy center. Three months after introducing tools to record HIV service delivery, TB clinic staff and peer education volunteers in Cluster 1 received training on HIV partner testing and linkage/re-linkage, and staff in the second cluster received training 3 months thereafter. Twelve months after tools were introduced, clinic records were abstracted to assess changes in couples HIV testing, LTC, and re-linkage. Staff interviews assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the service delivery model. HIV prevalence was high among TB patients during the study period (44.9%; 508/1132), as well as among others who received HIV testing (19.8%; 253/1288). Compared to pre-implementation, couples HIV testing increased in both clusters from 1.8% to 35.2%. Documented LTC increased (from 5.7% to 50.0%) following the introduction of the tools. Additional increases in LTC (from 57.9% to 79.3%) and re-linkage (from 32.9% to 53.7%) followed Cluster 1 training, but no additional increases after Cluster 2 training. Staff perceived little burden associated with service delivery. This study demonstrated a feasible, low-burden approach to expand couples HIV testing and linkage of HIV-positive persons to care. TB settings in sub-Saharan Africa serve populations at disproportionate risk for HIV infection and should be considered key venues to expand access to effective HIV prevention strategies for both patients and their partners. HIV services in TB settings should include HIV testing, condom distribution, and linkage to appropriate additional services.

      3. Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Chromobacterium violaceum: Report of a rare human pathogen causing disease in an immunodeficient childExternal
        Frawley AA, Powell L, McQuiston JR, Gulvik CA, Begue RE.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jul;99(1):164-167.

        Chromobacterium violaceum is a rare, potentially serious pathogen. Most clinicians have no experience with its clinical appearance or treatment. We describe a case of a child presenting with necrotizing pneumonia caused by C. violaceum. We describe case complexities, including the need for a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment.

      4. Effectiveness of an “Exclusive Intervention Strategy” to increase medical male circumcision uptake among men aged 25-49 years in South AfricaExternal
        Grund JM, Chetty-Makkan CM, Ginindza S, Munyai R, Kisbey-Green H, Maraisane M, Charalambous S.
        BMC Public Health. 2018 Jul 13;18(1):868.

        BACKGROUND: South Africa introduced medical male circumcision (MMC) to reduce HIV incidence. Mathematical modeling suggested that targeting MMC services to men aged 20-34 years could provide the most immediate impact on HIV incidence. However the majority of MMCs performed have been among males aged </=25 years. We evaluated an intervention package to increase MMC uptake among men aged 25-49 years. METHODS: We conducted a pre-post study to compare the proportion of men (aged 25-49 years) presenting for MMC during the formative (Phase 1) and intervention (Phase 2) phases in Ekurhuleni, Johannesburg, South Africa. The intervention included infrastructure changes that separated adults from adolescents at the MMC site, an exclusive men’s health club, adult-specific demand generation materials, and discussions with community members. RESULTS: Overall 2817 enrolled in the study with 1601 from Phase 1 and 1216 in Phase 2. A higher proportion of participants aged 25-49 years accessed MMC in Phase 2 compared to Phase 1 (59.4% vs. 54.9%; Prevalence Ratio = 1.08; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.01-1.15; p = 0.019). Participants with multiple partners in the past 12 months in Phase 2 were more likely to access MMC services compared to participants in Phase 1 (unadjusted Odds Ratio, 1.37; 95% CI:1.17-1.61; p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, multiple partners remained a risk factor in Phase 2 (adjusted OR, 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18-1.63; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The “Exclusive Intervention Strategy” was associated with a slight increase in the proportion of participants aged 25-49 years accessing MMC services, and an increase in those with HIV risk behaviors, during the intervention phase. These findings may provide important insights to overcoming barriers for accessing MMC services among men aged 25-49 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov , number NCT02352961 .

      5. Assessing variability in hospital-level mortality among U.S. Medicare beneficiaries with hospitalizations for severe sepsis and septic shockExternal
        Hatfield KM, Dantes RB, Baggs J, Sapiano MR, Fiore AE, Jernigan JA, Epstein L.
        Crit Care Med. 2018 Jul 17.

        OBJECTIVES: To assess the variability in short-term sepsis mortality by hospital among Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services beneficiaries in the United States during 2013-2014. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort design. SETTING: Hospitalizations from 3,068 acute care hospitals that participated in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services inpatient prospective payment system in 2013 and 2014. PATIENTS: Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries greater than or equal to 65 years old who had an inpatient hospitalization coded with present at admission severe sepsis or septic shock. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Individual level mortality was assessed as death at or within 7 days of hospital discharge and aggregated to calculate hospital-level mortality rates. We used a logistic hierarchal linear model to calculate mortality risk-adjusted for patient characteristics. We quantified variability among hospitals using the median odds ratio and calculated risk-standardized mortality rates for each hospital. The overall crude mortality rate was 34.7%. We found significant variability in mortality by hospital (p < 0.001). The middle 50% of hospitals had similar risk-standardized mortality rates (32.7-36.9%), whereas the decile of hospitals with the highest risk-standardized mortality rates had a median mortality rate of 40.7%, compared with a median of 29.2% for hospitals in the decile with the lowest risk-standardized mortality rates. The median odds ratio (1.29) was lower than the adjusted odds ratios for several measures of patient comorbidities and severity of illness, including present at admission organ dysfunction, no identified source of infection, and age. CONCLUSIONS: In a large study of present at admission sepsis among Medicare beneficiaries, we showed that mortality was most strongly associated with underlying comorbidities and measures of illness on arrival. However, after adjusting for patient characteristics, mortality also modestly depended on where a patient with sepsis received care, suggesting that efforts to improve sepsis outcomes in lower performing hospitals could impact sepsis survival.

      6. Risk factors and attack rates of seasonal influenza infection: results of the SHIVERS seroepidemiologic cohort studyExternal
        Huang QS, Bandaranayake D, Wood T, Newbern EC, Seeds R, Ralston J, Waite B, Bissielo A, Prasad N, Todd A, Jelley L, Gunn W, McNicholas A, Metz T, Lawrence S, Collis E, Retter A, Wong SS, Webby R, Bocacao J, Haubrock J, Mackereth G, Turner N, McArdle B, Cameron J, Reynolds G, Baker MG, Grant CC, McArthur C, Roberts S, Trenholme A, Wong C, Taylor S, Thomas P, Duque J, Gross D, Thompson MG, Widdowson MA.
        J Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 17.

        Background: Understanding the attack rate of influenza infection and the proportion who become ill by risk group is key to implementing prevention measures. While population-based studies of anti-haemagglutinin antibody responses have been described previously, studies examining both anti-haemagglutinin and anti-neuraminidase antibodies are lacking. Methods: In 2015, we conducted a sero-epidemiologic cohort study of individuals randomly selected from a population in New Zealand. We tested paired sera for haemagglutinin-inhibition (HAI) or neuraminidase-inhibition (NAI) titres for seroconversion . We followed participants weekly and performed influenza PCR for those reporting influenza-like illness (ILI). Results: Influenza infection (either HAI or NAI seroconversion) was found in 321 (35%; 95%CI:32-38%) of 911 unvaccinated participants, of which 100 (31%) seroconverted to NAI alone. Young children and Pacific peoples experienced the highest influenza infection attack rates, but overall only a quarter of all infected reported influenza-PCR-confirmed ILI and one-quarter of these sought medical attention. Seroconversion to NAI alone was higher among children aged <5 years vs. those aged >/=5 years (14% vs 4%; p<0.001) and among those with influenza B vs A(H3N2) virus infections (7% vs 0.3%; p<0.001). Conclusions: Measurement of anti-neuraminidase antibodies in addition to anti- hemagglutinin antibodies may be important in capturing the true influenza infection rates.

      7. Access to treatment for hepatitis B virus infection – worldwide, 2016External
        Hutin Y, Nasrullah M, Easterbrook P, Nguimfack BD, Burrone E, Averhoff F, Bulterys M.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jul 20;67(28):773-777.

        Worldwide, an estimated 257 million persons are living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (1). To achieve the World Health Organization (WHO) goals for elimination of HBV infection worldwide by 2030, defined by WHO as 90% reduction in incidence and 65% reduction in mortality, access to treatment will be crucial. WHO estimated the care cascade* for HBV infection, globally and by WHO Region. The patent and licensing status of entecavir and tenofovir, two WHO-recommended medicines for HBV treatment, were examined using the Medicines Patent Pool MedsPaL(dagger) database. The international price of tenofovir was estimated using WHO’s global price reporting mechanism (GPRM), and for entecavir from a published study (2). In 2016, among the estimated 257 million persons infected with HBV worldwide, approximately 27 million (10.5%) were aware of their infection, an estimated 4.5 million (16.7%) of whom were on treatment. In 2017, all low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) could legally procure generic entecavir, and all but two LMICs could legally procure generic tenofovir. The median price of WHO-prequalified generic tenofovir on the international market fell from $208 per year in 2004 to $32 per year in 2016. In 2015, the lowest reported price of entecavir was $427 per year of treatment (2). Increased availability of generic antivirals effective in treating chronic HBV infection has likely improved access to treatment. Taking advantage of reductions in price of antivirals active against HBV infection could further increase access to treatment. Regular analysis of the hepatitis B treatment care cascade can assist in monitoring progress toward HBV elimination goals.

      8. Community-based HIV prevalence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: results of a cross-sectional household surveyExternal
        Kharsany AB, Cawood C, Khanyile D, Lewis L, Grobler A, Puren A, Govender K, George G, Beckett S, Samsunder N, Madurai S, Toledo C, Chipeta Z, Glenshaw M, Hersey S, Abdool Karim Q.
        Lancet HIV. 2018 Jul 13.

        BACKGROUND: In high HIV burden settings, maximising the coverage of prevention strategies is crucial to achieving epidemic control. However, little is known about the reach and effect of these strategies in some communities. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional community survey in the adjacent Greater Edendale and Vulindlela areas in the uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, we randomly selected enumeration areas, households, and individuals. One household member (aged 15-49 years) selected at random was invited for survey participation. After obtaining consent, questionnaires were administered to obtain sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioural information, and exposure to HIV prevention and treatment programmes. Clinical samples were collected for laboratory measurements. Statistical analyses were done accounting for multilevel sampling and weighted to represent the population. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed factors associated with HIV infection. FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2014, and June 22, 2015, we enrolled 9812 individuals. The population-weighted HIV prevalence was 36.3% (95% CI 34.8-37.8, 3969 of 9812); 44.1% (42.3-45.9, 2955 of 6265) in women and 28.0% (25.9-30.1, 1014 of 3547) in men (p<0.0001). HIV prevalence in women aged 15-24 years was 22.3% (20.2-24.4, 567 of 2224) compared with 7.6% (6.0-9.3, 124 of 1472; p<0.0001) in men of the same age. Prevalence peaked at 66.4% (61.7-71.2, 517 of 760) in women aged 35-39 years and 59.6% (53.0-66.3, 183 of 320) in men aged 40-44 years. Consistent condom use in the last 12 months was 26.5% (24.1-28.8, 593 of 2356) in men and 22.7% (20.9-24.4, 994 of 4350) in women (p=0.0033); 35.7% (33.4-37.9, 1695 of 5447) of women’s male partners and 31.9% (29.5-34.3, 1102 of 3547) of men were medically circumcised (p<0.0001), and 45.6% (42.9-48.2, 1251 of 2955) of women and 36.7% (32.3-41.2, 341 of 1014) of men reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) use (p=0.0003). HIV viral suppression was achieved in 54.8% (52.0-57.5, 1574 of 2955) of women and 41.9% (37.1-46.7, 401 of 1014) of men (p<0.0001), and 87.2% (84.6-89.8, 1086 of 1251) of women and 83.9% (78.5-89.3, 284 of 341; p=0.3670) of men on ART. Age, incomplete secondary schooling, being single, having more than one lifetime sex partner (women), sexually transmitted infections, and not being medically circumcised were associated with HIV-positive status. INTERPRETATION: The HIV burden in specific age groups, the suboptimal differential coverage, and uptake of HIV prevention strategies justifies a location-based approach to surveillance with finer disaggregation by age and sex. Intensified and customised approaches to seek, identify, and link individuals to HIV services are crucial to achieving epidemic control in this community. FUNDING: The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

      9. Timing and predictors of initiation on antiretroviral therapy among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected persons in South AfricaExternal
        Larsen A, Cheyip M, Tesfay A, Vranken P, Fomundam H, Wutoh A, Aynalem G.
        AIDS Behav. 2018 Jul 14.

        Despite a decade of advancing HIV/AIDS treatment policy in South Africa, 20% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) eligible for antiretroviral treatment (ART) remain untreated. To inform universal test and treat (UTT) implementation in South Africa, this analysis describes the rate, timeliness and determinants of ART initiation among newly diagnosed PLHIV. This analysis used routine data from 35 purposively selected primary clinics in three high HIV-burden districts of South Africa from June 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015. Kaplan-Meier survival curves estimated the rate of ART initiation. We identified predictors of ART initiation rate and timely initiation (within 14 days of eligibility determination) using Cox proportional hazards and multivariable logistic regression models in Stata 14.1. Based on national guidelines, 6826 patients were eligible for ART initiation. Under half of men and non-pregnant women were initiated on ART within 14 days (men: 39.7.0%, 95% CI 37.7-41.9; women: 39.9%, 95% CI 38.1-41.7). Pregnant women initiated at a faster rate (within 14 days: 87.6%, 86.1-89.0). ART initiation and timeliness varied significantly by district, facility location, and age, with little to no variation by World Health Organization stage, or CD4 count. Men and non-pregnant women newly diagnosed with HIV who are eligible for ART in South Africa show suboptimal timeliness of ART initiation. If treatment initiation performance is not improved, UTT implementation will be challenging among men and non-pregnant women. UTT programming should be tailored to district and location categories to address contextual differences influencing treatment initiation.

      10. Identifying HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status, linking them to care, and reducing health disparities are important national HIV prevention goals (1). Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) accounted for 70% of HIV infection diagnoses in the United States in 2016, despite representing only 2% of the population (2,3). African American or black (black) MSM accounted for 38% of all new diagnoses of HIV infection among MSM (2). Nearly two thirds (63%) of all U.S. black MSM with diagnosed HIV infection reside in the southern United States (2), making targeted HIV prevention activities for black MSM in this region critical. Analysis of CDC-funded HIV testing data for black MSM submitted by 20 health departments in the southern United States in 2016 revealed that although black MSM received 6% of the HIV tests provided, they accounted for 36% of the new diagnoses in non-health care facilities. Among those who received new diagnoses, 67% were linked to HIV medical care within 90 days of diagnosis, which is below the 2020 national goal of linking at least 85% of persons with newly diagnosed HIV infection to care within 30 days (1). Black MSM in the southern United States are the group most affected by HIV, but only a small percentage of CDC tests in the southern United States are provided to this group. Increasing awareness of HIV status through HIV testing, especially among black MSM in the southern United States, is essential for reducing the risk for transmission and addressing disparities. HIV testing programs in the southern United States can reach more black MSM by conducting targeted risk-based testing in non-health care settings and by routine screening in agencies that also provide health care services to black MSM.

      11. HIV preexposure prophylaxis as a gateway to primary careExternal
        Marcus JL, Levine K, Grasso C, Krakower DS, Powell V, Bernstein KT, Boswell S, Mayer KH.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Jul 19:e1-e3.

        OBJECTIVES: To determine whether HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is associated with use of non-HIV-related health care. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of potential PrEP candidates at a Boston, Massachusetts, community health clinic during 2012 to 2016, comparing the proportion of PrEP users and non-PrEP users receiving primary care. RESULTS: Of 5857 PrEP candidates, 2047 (35%) were prescribed PrEP. After adjustment for demographics and number of visits, more PrEP users received influenza vaccination (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.37), tobacco screening (PR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.09), and depression screening (PR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.11) compared with non-PrEP users. After additional adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight or obesity, more PrEP users received glucose testing (PR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.56, 1.72) but fewer received hemoglobin A1c testing (PR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.71, 0.93) compared with non-PrEP users. CONCLUSIONS: PrEP use was associated with receipt of influenza vaccination, tobacco and depression screening, and glucose but not hemoglobin A1c testing. Among PrEP users receiving routine care, the benefits of PrEP may extend to behavioral health, mental health, and prevention and treatment of other infectious and chronic diseases. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print July 19, 2018: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304561).

      12. BACKGROUND: Contact investigation is an important strategy for maintaining control of tuberculosis (TB) in the United States. However, testing and treatment outcomes specifically to foreign-born populations are poorly understood. We reviewed literature on testing and LTBI identified during contact investigations in foreign-born populations living in the US. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature using Cochrane systematic review methods. We included studies with adult and adolescent populations that were at least 50% foreign-born. Pooled proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated via inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis, and cumulative proportions were calculated as products of adjacent step proportions. RESULTS: We identified 22 studies published between 1997 and 2014 that included at least 50% foreign-born participants. From studies of predominantly (>90%) foreign-born populations, almost all identified contacts were recruited and had valid test results, and 54.8% (95% CI 45.1-62.5%) of contacts with valid test results tested positive. From studies of majority (50% to 90%) foreign-born populations, 78.4% (95% CI 78.0-78.9%) of identified contacts were recruited, 92.0% (95% CI 91.6-92.3%) of recruited contacts had valid test results, and 38.5% (95% CI 31.9%-44.2%) of persons with valid results tested positive. These proportions varied by test type in studies of predominantly foreign-born populations. For every 1000 contacts identified in predominantly foreign-born populations, we estimate that 535 (95% CI 438 to 625) will test positive, and 354 (95% CI 244 to 453) will complete LTBI treatment. For every 1000 contacts identified in majority foreign-born populations, these estimates are 276 (95% CI 230 to 318), and 134 (95% CI 44 to 264), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Contact investigation is a high yield activity for identifying and treating foreign-born persons with LTBI, but must be complemented by other tuberculosis control activities in order to achieve continued progress toward TB elimination.

      13. Infectious diseases physicians’ perspectives regarding injection drug use and related infections, United States, 2017External
        Rapoport AB, Fischer LS, Santibanez S, Beekmann SE, Polgreen PM, Rowley CF.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Jul;5(7):ofy132.

        Background: In the context of the opioid epidemic, injection drug use (IDU)-related infections are an escalating health issue for infectious diseases (ID) physicians in the United States. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods survey of the Infectious Diseases Society of America’s Emerging Infections Network between February and April 2017 to evaluate perspectives relating to care of persons who inject drugs (PWID). Topics included the frequency of and management strategies for IDU-related infection, the availability of addiction services, and the evolving role of ID physicians in substance use disorder (SUD) management. Results: More than half (53%, n = 672) of 1273 network members participated. Of these, 78% (n = 526) reported treating PWID. Infections frequently encountered included skin and soft tissue (62%, n = 324), bacteremia/fungemia (54%, n = 281), and endocarditis (50%, n = 263). In the past year, 79% (n = 416) reported that most IDU-related infections required >/=2 weeks of parenteral antibiotics; strategies frequently employed for prolonged treatment included completion of the entire course in the inpatient unit (41%, n = 218) or at another supervised facility (35%, n = 182). Only 35% (n = 184) of respondents agreed/strongly agreed that their health system offered comprehensive SUD management; 46% (n = 242) felt that ID providers should actively manage SUD. Conclusions: The majority of physicians surveyed treated PWID and reported myriad obstacles to providing care. Public health and health care systems should consider ways to support ID physicians caring for PWID, including (1) guidelines for providing complex care, including safe provision of multiweek parenteral antibiotics; (2) improved access to SUD management; and (3) strategies to assist those interested in roles in SUD management.

      14. CONTEXT: Correctional facilities provide unique opportunities to diagnose and treat persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Studies have shown that 12 weekly doses of isoniazid and rifapentine (INH-RPT) to treat LTBI resulted in high completion rates with good tolerability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate completion rates and clinical signs or reported symptoms associated with discontinuation of 12 weekly doses of INH-RPT for LTBI treatment. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: During July 2012 to February 2015, 7 Federal Bureau of Prisons facilities participated in an assessment of 12 weekly doses of INH-RPT for LTBI treatment among 463 inmates. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fisher exact test was used to assess the associations between patient sociodemographic characteristics and clinical signs or symptoms with discontinuation of treatment. RESULTS: Of 463 inmates treated with INH-RPT, 424 (92%) completed treatment. Reasons for discontinuation of treatment for 39 (8%) inmates included the following: 17 (44%) signs/symptoms, 9 (23%) transfer or release, 8 (21%) treatment refusal, and 5 (13%) provider error. A total of 229 (49.5%) inmates reported experiencing at least 1 sign or symptom during treatment; most frequently reported were fatigue (16%), nausea (13%), and abdominal pain (7%). Among these 229 inmates, signs/symptoms significantly associated with discontinuation of treatment included abdominal pain (P < .001), appetite loss (P = .02), fever/chills (P = .01), nausea (P = .03), sore muscles (P = .002), and elevation of liver transaminases 5x upper limits of normal or greater (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The LTBI completion rates were high for the INH-RPT regimen, with few inmates discontinuing because of signs or symptoms related to treatment. This regimen also has practical advantages to aid in treatment completion in the correctional setting and can be considered a viable alternative to standard LTBI regimens.

      15. Procalcitonin accurately identifies hospitalized children with low risk of bacterial community-acquired pneumoniaExternal
        Stockmann C, Ampofo K, Killpack J, Williams DJ, Edwards KM, Grijalva CG, Arnold SR, McCullers JA, Anderson EJ, Wunderink RG, Self WH, Bramley A, Jain S, Pavia AT, Blaschke AJ.
        J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 Feb 19;7(1):46-53.

        Background: Lower procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations are associated with reduced risk of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults, but data in children are limited. Methods: We analyzed serum PCT concentrations from children hospitalized with radiographically confirmed CAP enrolled in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) Study. Blood and respiratory specimens were tested using multiple pathogen detection methods for typical bacteria (eg, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus), atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae), and respiratory viruses. Multivariable regression was used to assess associations between PCT concentrations and etiology and severity. Results: Among 532 children (median age, 2.4 years; interquartile range [IQR], 1.0-6.3), patients with typical bacteria had higher PCT concentrations (+/-viruses; n = 54; median, 6.10; IQR, 0.84-22.79 ng/mL) than those with atypical bacteria (+/-viruses; n = 82; median, 0.10; IQR, 0.06-0.39 ng/mL), viral pathogens only (n = 349; median, 0.33; IQR, 0.12-1.35 ng/mL), or no pathogen detected (n = 47; median, 0.44; IQR, 0.10-1.83 ng/mL) (P < .001 for all). No child with PCT <0.1 ng/mL had typical bacteria detected. Procalcitonin <0.25 ng/mL featured a 96% negative predictive value (95% confidence interval [CI], 93-99), 85% sensitivity (95% CI, 76-95), and 45% specificity (95% CI, 40-50) in identifying children without typical bacterial CAP. Conclusions: Lower PCT concentrations in children hospitalized with CAP were associated with a reduced risk of typical bacterial detection and may help identify children who would not benefit from antibiotic treatment.

      16. Influenza B virus infection and Stevens-Johnson syndromeExternal
        Tamez RL, Tan WV, O’Malley JT, Broder KR, Garzon MC, LaRussa P, Lauren CT.
        Pediatr Dermatol. 2018 Jan;35(1):e45-e48.

        A 2-year-old boy with influenza B infection and rapidly worsening targetoid skin lesions with mucosal involvement was diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and treated with oseltamivir and intravenous immunoglobulin, with resolution of illness. Subsequent quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was well tolerated. This case highlights the rarity of SJS in the setting of influenza B infection and addresses the safety of administering subsequent influenza vaccines to such individuals.

      17. We used the 2013 Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) database to estimate chlamydia testing rates separately for sexually active women aged 15-25 years who had, or had not, given birth in 2013. Approximately 9.2% of sexually active women aged 15-25 years gave birth in 2013. The Healthcare Effectiveness Data Information Set (HEDIS) annual chlamydia testing rate was significantly higher among women who had given birth than women who had not in 2013 (59.7 vs 29.4%, P<0.05). Our findings suggest a need for more research to understand how differences in population mix changes and preventive screening practices for pregnant and non-pregnant women affect publicly reported chlamydia screening rates.

      18. Melioidosis is in the Americas: A call to action for diagnosing and treating the diseaseExternal
        Torres AG, Montufar FE, Gee JE, Hoffmaster AR, Elrod MG, Duarte-Valderrama C, Huertas MG, Blaney DE.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jul 16.

        Melioidosis, a disease caused by the pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a significant underreported endemic disease found in tropical countries worldwide. Recent studies have demonstrated that human melioidosis cases have been increasingly recognized in the Americas. Therefore, the first Scientific Reunion of Melioidosis in the Americas was organized in Colombia, with the participation of health authorities of 11 Latin American countries and the United States. This report summarizes the topics reviewed during the meeting, including how to identify human infections and properly diagnose them, with the goal of increasing recognition of the disease in the Americas.

      19. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of death certificate data among deaths caused by Legionnaires’ Disease in New York City, 2008-2013External
        Tran OC, Lucero DE, Balter S, Fitzhenry R, Huynh M, Varma JK, Vora NM.
        Public Health Rep. 2018 Jan 1:33354918782494.

        OBJECTIVES: Death certificates are an important source of information for understanding life expectancy and mortality trends; however, misclassification and incompleteness are common. Although deaths caused by Legionnaires’ disease might be identified through routine surveillance, it is unclear whether Legionnaires’ disease is accurately recorded on death certificates. We evaluated the sensitivity and positive predictive value of death certificates for identifying deaths from confirmed or suspected Legionnaires’ disease among adults in New York City. METHODS: We deterministically matched death certificate data from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013, on New York City residents aged >/=18 years to surveillance data on confirmed and suspected cases of Legionnaires’ disease from January 1, 2008, through October 31, 2013. We estimated sensitivity and positive predictive value by using surveillance data as the reference standard. RESULTS: Of 294 755 deaths, 27 (<0.01%) had an underlying cause of death of Legionnaires’ disease and 33 (0.01%) had any mention of Legionnaires’ disease on the death certificate. Of 1211 confirmed or suspected cases of Legionnaires’ disease, 267 (22.0%) matched to a record in the death certificate data set. The sensitivity of death certificates that listed Legionnaires’ disease as the underlying cause of death was 17.3% and of death certificates with any mention of Legionnaires’ disease was 20.9%. The positive predictive value of death certificates that listed Legionnaires’ disease as the underlying cause of death was 70.4% and of death certificates with any mention of Legionnaires’ disease was 69.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Death certificates had limited ability to identify confirmed or suspected deaths with Legionnaires’ disease. Provider trainings on the diagnosis of Legionnaires’ disease, particularly hospital settings, and proper completion of death certificates might improve the sensitivity of death certificates for people who die of Legionnaires’ disease.

      20. HIV information needs of transgender people and their healthcare providersExternal
        Uhrig JD, Stryker JE, Bresee S, Gard Read J, Parvanta S, Ruiz F, DeLuca N.
        AIDS Care. 2018 Jul 18:1-7.

        Despite the disproportionate burden of HIV among transgender people in the United States, few HIV-related communication materials exist for transgender people or their healthcare providers. Our goal was to understand the barriers and facilitators transgender people face in accessing HIV prevention, testing, and care services and the potential implications for message development and dissemination. We reviewed the literature and interviewed nine key informants representing healthcare and service providers, researchers, and transgender advocates. Healthcare providers who care for transgender patients often demonstrate a lack of transgender competent care strategies. In addition, transgender people face many barriers to accessing HIV services. Although communication materials cannot address many of these barriers, materials specifically developed for transgender people and their healthcare providers would fill a gap and may increase uptake of HIV services. Materials for transgender people should include gender-affirming messaging and imagery, be framed in terms of resiliency, and present HIV information tailored to the needs of transgender people. Materials for healthcare providers should provide basic information to increase transgender competency and provision of comprehensive healthcare for transgender patients, inclusive of gender-affirming and HIV prevention, testing and care services. Channels for disseminating materials to transgender people and healthcare providers are described.

      21. Using eHealth to reach black and Hispanic men who have sex with men regarding treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis: Protocol for a small randomized controlled trialExternal
        van den Berg JJ, Silverman T, Fernandez MI, Henny KD, Gaul ZJ, Sutton MY, Operario D.
        JMIR Res Protoc. 2018 Jul 16;7(7):e11047.

        BACKGROUND: Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men in the United States continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS. Uptake of and knowledge about biobehavioral HIV prevention approaches, such as treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis, are especially low in these populations. eHealth campaigns and social media messaging about treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis may help to fill this gap in knowledge and lead to increased uptake of such strategies; however, no evidence exists of the effects of these targeted forms of communication on treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis uptake in these populations. OBJECTIVE: We describe the protocol for a 3-part study aiming to develop and evaluate an eHealth intervention with information about treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis for HIV-positive and HIV-negative black and Hispanic men who have sex with men. METHODS: Phases 1 and 2 will involve focus groups and cognitive interviews with members of the target populations, which we will use to create a culturally tailored, interactive website and applicable social media messaging for these men. Phase 3 will be a small randomized controlled trial of the eHealth intervention, in which participants will receive guided social media messages plus the newly developed website (active arm) or the website alone (control arm), with assessments at baseline and 6 months. RESULTS: Participant recruitment began in August 2017 and will end in August 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions are greatly needed to increase knowledge about and uptake of biobehavioral HIV prevention strategies such as treatment as prevention and preexposure prophylaxis among black and Hispanic men who have sex with men. eHealth communication campaigns offer a strategy for engaging these populations in health communication about biobehavioral HIV prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03404531; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03404531 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/70myofp0R). REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER: RR1-10.2196/11047.

      22. State requirements for prenatal syphilis screening in the United States, 2016External
        Warren HP, Cramer R, Kidd S, Leichliter JS.
        Matern Child Health J. 2018 Jul 17.

        Objectives This study assesses U.S. state laws related to prenatal syphilis screening, including whether these laws align with CDC screening recommendations and include legal penalties for failing to screen. Methods Statutes and regulations regarding syphilis screening during pregnancy and at delivery effective in 2016 were examined for all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC). Targeted search terms were used to identify laws in legal research databases. The timing of the screening mandates for each state law was coded for: (1) first visit, (2) third trimester, and (3) delivery. Descriptive statistics were calculated to examine the number of states with each type of requirement and whether requirements adhered to the CDC STD treatment guidelines. Results Only six states (11.8%) do not require prenatal syphilis screening. Of states with screening requirements (n = 45), the majority (84.3%) require testing at first prenatal visit or soon after. 17 states (33.3%) require screening during the third trimester with five requiring screening only if the patient is considered at high risk. 8 (15.7%) states require screening at delivery with five requiring testing only if the woman is at high risk. 14 (27.5%) states include punishments for failing to screen (civil penalties, criminal penalties and license revocation). Conclusions for Practice Most states had prenatal syphilis screening requirements; a minority corresponded to or extended CDC recommendations. States vary in when they require testing, who must be tested, and whether a failure to screen could result in a punishment for the provider.

      23. Prevalence of rotavirus and rapid changes in circulating rotavirus strains among children with acute diarrhea in China, 2009-2015External
        Yu J, Lai S, Geng Q, Ye C, Zhang Z, Zheng Y, Wang L, Duan Z, Zhang J, Wu S, Parashar U, Yang W, Liao Q, Li Z.
        J Infect. 2018 Jul 12.

        BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In China, the universal immunization of children with the rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced, and the two globally distributed vaccines (RotaTeq and Rotarix) are not licensed in the country. We aim to determine the prevalence and strain diversity of rotavirus in children with diarrhea aged </= five years across China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sentinel-based surveillance of acute diarrhea was conducted at 213 participating hospitals in China from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2015. Group A rotavirus (RVA) was tested by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and G- and P-genotype of RVA were tested by RT-PCR methods. RESULTS: Of 33,616 children with diarrhea, 10,089 (30%) were positive for RVA; RVA-associated diarrhea was identified in 2247 (39.5%, n=2247/5685) inpatients and 7842 (28.1%, n=7842/27931) outpatients. Children living in low-middle-income regions suffered from the highest burden of rotavirus, with 40.7% of diarrhea cases attributed to rotavirus infection, followed by 31.3% in upper-middle-income and 11.2% in high-income regions. The majority of children (88.9%, n=8976/10089) who tested positive for RVA were children aged </=2 years. The seasonal peak of RVA was in the winter. Among all 2533 RVA strains genotyped, five strain combinations, G9P[8], G3P[8], G1P[8], G2P[4] and G3P[4], contributed to 71.3% (1807/2533) of the RVA-associated diarrhea cases. The predominant strain of RVA has rapidly evolved from G3P[8] and G1P[8] to G9P[8] in the recent years, with the proportion of G9P[8] having increased remarkably from 3.4% in 2009 to 60.9% in 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of diarrhea attributed to rotavirus is high in China, highlighting the potential value of vaccination. The rapid shift of RVA strains highlights the importance of conducting rotavirus surveillance to ensure that currently marketed vaccines provide protective efficacy against the circulating strains.

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. The relapsing fever spirochete, Borrelia miyamotoi, is increasingly recognized as a cause of human illness (hard tick-borne relapsing fever) in the United States. We previously demonstrated that single nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, can transmit B. miyamotoi to experimental hosts. However, two recent epidemiological studies from the Northeastern United States indicate that human cases of hard tick-borne relapsing fever peak during late summer, after the spring peak for nymphal tick activity but coincident with the peak seasonal activity period of larval ticks in the Northeast. These epidemiological findings, together with evidence that B. miyamotoi can be passed from infected I. scapularis females to their offspring, suggest that bites by transovarially-infected larval ticks can be an important source of human infection. To demonstrate experimentally that transovarially-infected larval I. scapularis ticks can transmit B. miyamotoi, outbred Mus musculus CD1 mice were exposed to 1 or 2 potentially infected larvae. Individual fed larvae and mouse blood taken 10 d after larvae attached were tested for presence of B. miyamotoi DNA, and mice also were examined for seroreactivity to B. miyamotoi 8 wk after tick feeding. We documented B. miyamotoi DNA in blood from 13 (57%) of 23 mice exposed to a single transovarially-infected larva and in 5 (83%) of 6 mice exposed to two infected larvae feeding simultaneously. All 18 positive mice also demonstrated seroreactivity to B. miyamotoi. Of the 11 remaining mice without detectable B. miyamotoi DNA in their blood 10 d after infected larvae attached, 7 (64%) had evidence of spirochete exposure by serology 8 wk later. Because public health messaging for risk of exposure to Lyme disease spirochetes focuses on nymphal and female I. scapularis ticks, our finding that transovarially-infected larvae effectively transmit B. miyamotoi should lead to refined tick-bite prevention messages.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Development of the fetus is a complex process influenced by many factors including genetics, maternal health, and environmental exposures to toxic chemicals. Adverse developmental effects on the reproductive system have the potential to harm generations beyond those directly exposed. Here, we review the available literature in Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry toxicological profiles related to reproductive-developmental effects in animals following in utero exposure to chemicals. We attempt to identify windows of sensitivity. In the discussion, we correlate the findings with human development. The endpoints noted are fertility, estrus, anogenital distance, sex ratio, spermatogenesis, and mammary gland development. We identified some windows of sensitivity; however, the results were hampered by chronic-exposure studies designed to detect effects occurring throughout developmental, including multi-generational studies. This paper demonstrates the need for more acute studies in animals aimed at understanding time periods of development that are more susceptible to chemically induced adverse effects.

      2. Prenatal and early-life triclosan and paraben exposure and allergic outcomesExternal
        Lee-Sarwar K, Hauser R, Calafat AM, Ye X, O’Connor GT, Sandel M, Bacharier LB, Zeiger RS, Laranjo N, Gold DR, Weiss ST, Litonjua AA, Savage JH.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jul;142(1):269-278.e15.

        BACKGROUND: In cross-sectional studies triclosan and parabens, ubiquitous ingredients in personal care and other products, are associated with allergic disease. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between prenatal and early-life triclosan and paraben exposure and childhood allergic disease in a prospective longitudinal study. METHODS: Subjects were enrollees in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial. Triclosan, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben concentrations were quantified in maternal plasma samples pooled from the first and third trimesters and urine samples from children at age 3 or 4 years. Outcomes were parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma or recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization to food or environmental antigens based on serum specific IgE levels at age 3 years in high-risk children. RESULTS: The analysis included 467 mother-child pairs. Overall, there were no statistically significant associations of maternal plasma or child urine triclosan or paraben concentrations with asthma or recurrent wheeze or food or environmental sensitization at age 3 years. A trend toward an inverse association between triclosan and paraben exposure and allergic sensitization was observed. There was evidence of effect measure modification by sex, with higher odds of environmental sensitization associated with increasing paraben concentrations in male compared with female subjects. CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify a consistent association between prenatal and early-life triclosan or paraben concentrations and childhood asthma, recurrent wheeze, or allergic sensitization in the overall study population. The differential effects of triclosan or paraben exposure on allergic sensitization by sex observed in this study warrant further exploration.

      3. Exposure to perchlorate in lactating women and its associations with newborn thyroid stimulating hormoneExternal
        Ucal Y, Sahin ON, Serdar M, Blount B, Kumru P, Muhcu M, Eroglu M, Akin-Levi C, Keles ZZ, Turam C, Valentin-Blasini L, Morel-Espinosa M, Serteser M, Unsal I, Ozpinar A.
        Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018 ;9:348.

        Background: Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate can block iodide transport at the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and this can subsequently lead to decreased thyroid hormone production and hypothyroidism. NIS inhibitor exposure has been shown to reduce iodide uptake and thyroid hormone levels; therefore we hypothesized that maternal NIS inhibitor exposure will influence both maternal and newborn thyroid function. Methods: Spot urine samples were collected from 185 lactating mothers and evaluated for perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate concentrations. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from the same participants in the first 48 h after delivery. Thyroid hormones and thyroid-related antibodies (TSH, fT3, fT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg) were analyzed in maternal blood and perchlorate was analyzed in colostrum. Also, spot blood samples were collected from newborns (n = 185) between 48 and 72 postpartum hours for TSH measurement. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the effect of NIS inhibitors on thyroid hormone levels of lactating mothers and their newborns in their first 48 postpartum hours. Results: The medians of maternal urinary perchlorate (4.00 mug/g creatinine), maternal urinary thiocyanate (403 mug/g creatinine), and maternal urinary nitrate (49,117 mug/g creatinine) were determined. Higher concentrations of all three urinary NIS inhibitors (mug/g creatinine) at their 75th percentile levels were significantly correlated with newborn TSH (r = 0.21, p < 0.001). Median colostrum perchlorate level concentration of all 185 participants was 2.30 mug/L. Colostrum perchlorate was not significantly correlated with newborn TSH (p > 0.05); however, there was a significant correlation between colostrum perchlorate level and maternal TSH (r = 0.21, p < 0.01). Similarly, there was a significant positive association between colostrum perchlorate and maternal urinary creatinine adjusted perchlorate (r = 0.32, p < 0.001). Conclusion: NIS inhibitors are ubiquitous in lactating women in Turkey and are associated with increased TSH levels in newborns, thus signifying for the first time that co-exposure to maternal NIS inhibitors can have a negative effect on the newborn thyroid function.

      4. Prenatal and childhood exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and measures of attention, impulse control, and visual spatial abilitiesExternal
        Vuong AM, Braun JM, Yolton K, Wang Z, Xie C, Webster GM, Ye X, Calafat AM, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP, Chen A.
        Environ Int. 2018 Jul 14;119:413-420.

        BACKGROUND: Despite evidence from toxicological studies describing the potential neurotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), their role in neurodevelopment remains uncertain amid inconsistent findings from epidemiological studies. METHODS: Using data from 218 mother-child dyads from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, we examined prenatal and childhood (3 and 8years) serum concentrations of four PFAS and inattention, impulsivity, and visual spatial abilities. At 8years, we used the Conners’ Continuous Performance Test-II to assess attention and impulse control and the Virtual Morris Water Maze (VMWM) to measure visual spatial abilities. RESULTS: In multiple informant models, there was no evidence to indicate that prenatal or childhood PFAS are associated with attention. However, there was an inverse association between prenatal ln-perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and errors of commission (beta=-2.0, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] -3.8, -0.3). Ln-perfluorononanoate (PFNA) at 3years was associated with longer (poorer) VMWM completion times of 3.6 seconds (CI 1.6, 5.6). However, higher concurrent concentrations of ln-perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (beta=-2.4s, 95% CI -4.4, -0.3) were associated with shorter (better) times. Higher prenatal PFHxS was positively associated with percentage of traveling distance in the correct quadrant (beta=4.2%, 95% CI 0.8, 7.7), indicating better performance. CONCLUSION: Findings were mixed for prenatal and childhood PFAS concentrations and visual spatial abilities. There is not enough evidence to support that PFAS are associated with visual spatial abilities as assessed by the VMWM or CPT-II measures of inattention or impulsivity in children at age 8years.

      5. A possible approach to improving the reproducibility of urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and phenols during pregnancyExternal
        Yazdy MM, Coull BA, Gardiner JC, Aguiar A, Calafat AM, Ye X, Schantz SL, Korrick SA.
        J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2018 Jul 17.

        In epidemiologic studies, classifying episodic exposures to chemicals with short half-lives, such as phthalates and phenols, is challenging. We assessed whether accounting for sources of variability unrelated to exposure pathways would improve the reproducibility of urine concentrations of select phthalate metabolites and phenols. In 2011, a subset of pregnant women (n = 19) enrolled in a prospective study provided first morning urine samples every 3-4 weeks between 16 and 36 weeks gestation. At the time of collection, we identified potential contributors to variations in urinary concentrations: weight gain, gestational age, time slept, time since awoke, time since last food/drink, and time since last void. We estimated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) among repeat urine concentrations with and without adjustment for sources of variability using a random intercept linear mixed model. Concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, butyl, and propyl parabens were the most reproducible (ICCs: 0.68, 0.56, and 0.56, respectively). However, adjustment for potential sources of variability unrelated to exposure pathways did not materially improve reproducibility nor the ability of a single sample to predict exposure based on average biomarker concentrations across pregnancy. Future studies should carefully consider the exposure timeframe and the reliability of using biomarker concentrations from a single time point to represent exposures over pregnancy.

    • Genetics and Genomics
      1. Molecular characterization of a human G20P[28] rotavirus a strain with multiple genes related to bat rotavirusesExternal
        Esona MD, Roy S, Rungsrisuriyachai K, Gautam R, Hermelijn S, Rey-Benito G, Bowen MD.
        Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Jan;57:166-170.

        Group A rotaviruses are the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of mammals and birds. This report describes characterization of an unusual G20P[28] rotavirus strain detected in a 24 month old child from Suriname. Genomic sequence analyses revealed that the genotype constellation of the Suriname strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] was G20-P[28]-I13-R13-C13-M12-A23-N13-T15-E20-H15. Genes VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP2, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 were recently assigned novel genotypes by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG). Three of the 11 gene segments (VP7, VP4, VP6) were similar to cognate gene sequences of bat-like human rotavirus strain Ecu534 from Ecuador and the VP7, NSP3 and NSP5 gene segments of strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] were found to be closely related to gene sequences of bat rotavirus strain 3081/BRA detected in Brazil. Although distantly related, the VP1 gene of the study strain and bat strain BatLi09 detected in Cameroon in 2014 are monophyletic. The NSP1 gene was found to be most closely related to human strain QUI-35-F5 from Brazil. These findings suggest that strain RVA/Human-wt/SUR/2014735512/2013/G20P[28] represents a zoonotic infection from a bat host.

      2. The draft genomes of Elizabethkingia anophelis of equine origin are genetically similar to three isolates from human clinical specimensExternal
        Johnson WL, Ramachandran A, Torres NJ, Nicholson AC, Whitney AM, Bell M, Villarma A, Humrighouse BW, Sheth M, Dowd SE, McQuiston JR, Gustafson JE.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(7):e0200731.

        We report the isolation and characterization of two Elizabethkingia anophelis strains (OSUVM-1 and OSUVM-2) isolated from sources associated with horses in Oklahoma. Both strains appeared susceptible to fluoroquinolones and demonstrated high MICs to all cell wall active antimicrobials including vancomycin, along with aminoglycosides, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Typical of the Elizabethkingia, both draft genomes contained multiple copies of beta-lactamase genes as well as genes predicted to function in antimicrobial efflux. Phylogenetic analysis of the draft genomes revealed that OSUVM-1 and OSUVM-2 differ by only 6 SNPs and are in a clade with 3 strains of Elizabethkingia anophelis that were responsible for human infections. These findings therefore raise the possibility that Elizabethkingia might have the potential to move between humans and animals in a manner similar to known zoonotic pathogens.

    • Health Economics
      1. We examined associations of health insurance status with self-perceived poor/fair health and frequent mental distress (FMD) among working-aged US adults from 42 states and the District of Columbia using data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. After multiple-variable adjustment, compared with adequately insured adults, underinsured and never insured adults were 39% and 59% more likely to report poor/fair health, respectively, and 38% more likely to report FMD. Compared with working-aged adults with employer-based insurance, adults with Medicaid/Medicare or other public insurance coverage were 28% and 13% more likely to report poor/fair health, respectively, and 15% more likely to report FMD. Increasing insurance coverage and reducing cost barriers to care may improve general and mental health.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Characteristics of primary care physicians associated with high outpatient antibiotic prescribing volumeExternal
        Fleming-Dutra KE, Bartoces M, Roberts RM, Hicks LA.
        Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;5(1).

        Our objective was to identify characteristics associated with high-volume antibiotic prescribing among office-based primary care physicians to target antibiotic stewardship efforts. Physicians aged 40 years and older who were male, located in the South, and in solo or 2-physician practices prescribed higher volumes of antibiotics than their peers by specialty.

      2. [No abstract]

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Background: Rotavirus disease dramatically declined among children under 5 years of age since the rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2006; population-level impacts remain to be fully elucidated. Methods: Data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database were used to conduct a time-series analysis of monthly hospital discharges across age groups for acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus from 2000-2013. Rate ratios were calculated comparing pre- and post-vaccine eras. Results: Following vaccine introduction, a decrease in rotavirus hospitalizations occurred with a shift towards biennial patterns across all ages. The 0-4 year age group experienced the largest decrease in rotavirus hospitalizations (RR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.09 – 0.23). The 5-19 and 20-59 year age groups experienced significant declines in rotavirus hospitalization rates overall; even post-vaccine calendar years were characterized by progressively lower rates while odd post-vaccine years were associated with reductions in rates that diminished over time. Those aged 60 years or older experienced the smallest change in rotavirus hospitalization rates overall, with significant reductions in even post-vaccine years compared to pre-vaccine years (RR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.39 – 0.66). Conclusions: Indirect impacts of infant rotavirus vaccination are apparent in the emergence of biennial patterns in rotavirus hospitalizations that extend to all age groups ineligible for vaccination. These observations are consistent with the notion that young children are of primary importance in disease transmission and that the initial post-vaccination period of dramatic population-wide impacts will be followed by more complex incidence patterns across the age range in the long-term.

      2. Notes from the field: Widespread transmission of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus identified by environmental surveillance and immunization response – Horn of Africa, 2017-2018External
        Eboh VA, Makam JK, Chitale RA, Mbaeyi C, Jorba J, Ehrhardt D, Durry E, Gardner T, Mohamed K, Kamugisha C, Borus P, Elsayed EA.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jul 20;67(28):787-789.

        [No abstract]

      3. Landscape plant selection criteria for the allergic patientExternal
        Green BJ, Levetin E, Horner WE, Codina R, Barnes CS, Filley WV.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 .

        Patients with pollen-related allergies are concerned about the species within their landscape that provoke their symptoms. Allergists are often asked for guidance but few information sources are available to aid patients in the recognition of allergenic plants and strategies to avoid personal exposure to them. Landscaping and horticultural workers also have few reliable guidance references, and what is available usually extols the virtues of the plants rather than their negative features. The aim of this article was to provide the results of the Landscape Allergen Working Group that was formed by the AAAAI Aerobiology Committee, which aimed to fill these existing knowledge gaps and develop guidance on producing a low-allergenic landscape. Within the context that complete pollen avoidance is unrealistic, the workgroup introduces selection criteria, avoidance strategies, and guidance on low-allergenic plants that could be selected by patients to reduce the overall pollen burden in their landscape environment. Specific focus is placed on entomophilous plants, which require insects as dispersal vectors and generally produce lower quantities of pollen, compared with anemophilous (wind-pollinated) species. Other biological hazards that can be encountered while performing landscaping activities are additionally reviewed and avoidance methods presented with the aim of protecting gardeners, and workers in the landscape and horticulture industries. The guidance presented in this article will ultimately be a helpful resource for the allergist and assist in engaging patients who are seeking to reduce the burden of allergen in their landscape environment.

      4. The effect of probiotics and zinc supplementation on the immune response to oral rotavirus vaccine: A randomized, factorial design, placebo-controlled study among Indian infantsExternal
        Lazarus RP, John J, Shanmugasundaram E, Rajan AK, Thiagarajan S, Giri S, Babji S, Sarkar R, Kaliappan PS, Venugopal S, Praharaj I, Raman U, Paranjpe M, Grassly NC, Parker EP, Parashar UD, Tate JE, Fleming JA, Steele AD, Muliyil J, Abraham AM, Kang G.
        Vaccine. 2018 Jan 4;36(2):273-279.

        BACKGROUND: Strategies are needed to improve oral rotavirus vaccine (RV), which provides suboptimal protection in developing countries. Probiotics and zinc supplementation could improve RV immunogenicity by altering the intestinal microbiota and immune function. METHODS: Infants 5weeks old living in urban Vellore, India were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a 4-arm factorial design to assess the effects of daily zinc (5mg), probiotic (10(10)Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) or placebo on the immunogenicity of two doses of RV (Rotarix(R), GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) given at 6 and 10weeks of age. Infants were eligible for participation if healthy, available for the study duration and without prior receipt of RV or oral poliovirus vaccine other than the birth dose. The primary outcome was seroconversion to rotavirus at 14weeks of age based on detection of VP6-specific IgA at >/=20U/ml in previously seronegative infants or a fourfold rise in concentration. RESULTS: The study took place during July 2012 to February 2013. 620 infants were randomized equally between study arms and 551 (88.9%) completed per protocol. Seroconversion was recorded in 54/137 (39.4%), 42/136 (30.9%), 40/143 (28.0%), and 37/135 (27.4%) infants receiving (1) probiotic and zinc, (2) probiotic and placebo, (3) placebo and zinc, (4) two placebos. Seroconversion showed a modest improvement among infants receiving probiotic (difference between groups 1, 2 and 3, 4 was 7.5% (97.5% Confidence Interval (CI): -1.4%, 16.2%), p=0.066) but not zinc (difference between groups 1, 3 and 2, 4 was 4.4% (97.5% CI: -4.4%, 13.2%), p=0.272). 16 serious adverse events were recorded, none related to study interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc or probiotic supplementation did not significantly improve the low immunogenicity of rotavirus vaccine given to infants in a poor urban community in India. A modest effect of combined supplementation deserves further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in India (CTRI/2012/05/002677).

      5. Anxiety-related adverse events following immunization (AEFI): A systematic review of published clusters of illnessExternal
        Loharikar A, Suragh TA, MacDonald NE, Balakrishnan MR, Benes O, Lamprianou S, Hyde TB, McNeil MM.
        Vaccine. 2018 Jan 4;36(2):299-305.

        BACKGROUND: Clusters of anxiety-related adverse events following immunization (AEFI) have been observed in several countries and have disrupted country immunization programs. We conducted a systematic literature review to characterize these clusters, to generate prevention and management guidance for countries. METHODS: We searched seven peer-reviewed databases for English language reports of anxiety-related AEFI clusters (>/=2 persons) with pre-specified keywords across 4 categories: symptom term, cluster term, vaccine term, and cluster AEFI phenomenon term/phrase. All relevant reports were included regardless of publication date, case-patient age, or vaccine. Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and identified articles for full review. Data on epidemiologic/clinical information were extracted from full text review including setting, vaccine implicated, predominant case-patient symptoms, clinical management, community and media response, and outcome/impact on the vaccination program. RESULTS: Of 1472 abstracts reviewed, we identified eight published clusters, from all six World Health Organization (WHO) regions except the African Region. Seven clusters occurred among children in school settings, and one was among adult military reservists. The size and nature of these clusters ranged from 7 patients in one school to 806 patients in multiple schools. Patients’ symptoms included dizziness, headache, and fainting with rapid onset after vaccination. Implicated vaccines included tetanus (2), tetanus-diphtheria (1), hepatitis B (1), oral cholera (1), human papillomavirus (1), and influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (2). In each report, all affected individuals recovered rapidly; however, vaccination program disruption was noted in some instances, sometimes for up to one year. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety-related AEFI clusters can be disruptive to vaccination programs, reducing public trust in immunizations and impacting vaccination coverage; response efforts to restore public confidence can be resource intensive. Health care providers should have training on recognition and clinical management of anxiety-related AEFI; public health authorities should have plans to prevent and effectively manage anxiety-related AEFI clusters. Prompt management of these occurrences can be even more important in an era of social media, in which information is rapidly spread.

      6. Hepatitis B surface antigen seroprevalence among prevaccine and vaccine era children in BangladeshExternal
        Paul RC, Rahman M, Wiesen E, Patel M, Banik KC, Sharif AR, Sultana S, Rahman M, Liyanage J, Abeysinghe N, Kamili S, Murphy T, Luby SP, Mast EE.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jul 16.

        Bangladesh introduced hepatitis B vaccine in a phased manner during 2003-2005 into the routine childhood vaccination schedule. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine in Bangladesh by comparing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence among children born before and after vaccine introduction and to estimate the risk of vertical transmission of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from mother to infant. We also evaluated the field sensitivity and specificity of an HBsAg point-of-care test strip. We selected a nationally representative sample of 2,100 prevaccine era and 2,100 vaccine era children. We collected a 5-mL blood sample from each child. One drop of blood was used to perform rapid HBsAg testing. If a child had a positive HBsAg test result with the rapid test, a blood sample was collected from the mother of the HBsAg-positive child and from the mothers of two subsequently enrolled HBsAg-negative children. All samples were tested for serologic markers of HBV infection using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One (0.05%) child in the vaccine era group and 27 (1.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-1.7%) children in the prevaccine era group were HBsAg positive. Mothers of HBsAg-positive children were more likely to be HBsAg positive than mothers of HBsAg-negative children (odds ratios = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.0-21.7%). Sensitivity of the HBsAg rapid test was 91.2% (95% CI: 76.6-98.1%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI: 99.9-100%). The study results suggest that even without a birth dose, the hepatitis B vaccine program in Bangladesh was highly effective in preventing chronic HBV infection among children.

      7. BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) viruses found in poultry and wild birds occasionally infect humans and can cause serious disease. In 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed data from one licensed ASO3-adjuvanted influenza A(H5N1) vaccine for consideration of use during inter-pandemic periods among persons with occupational exposure. To guide vaccine policy decisions, we conducted a survey of laboratory workers to assess demand for HPAI vaccination. METHODS: We designed an anonymous web survey (EpiInfo 7.0) to collect information on demographics, type of work and time spent with HPAI viruses, and interest in HPAI vaccination. Eligible participants were identified from 42 entities registered with United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Select Agent program in 2016 and emailed electronic surveys. Personnel with Biosafety Level 3 enhanced (BSL-3E) laboratory access were surveyed. Descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS: Overall, 131 responses were received from 33 principal investigators, 26 research scientists, 24 technicians, 15 postdoctoral fellows, 6 students, and 27 others. The estimated response rate was 15% among the laboratory personnel of responding principal investigators. One hundred respondents reported working in a BSL-3E area where HPAI experiments occurred with a mean time of 5.1-11.7h per week. Overall, 49% were interested in receiving an A(H5N1) vaccine. By role, interest was highest among students (80%) and among those who spent >50% of their time in a BSL-3E area (64%). Most (61%) of those who said they might be or were not interested in vaccine believed it would not provide additional protection to current safety practices. CONCLUSIONS: Half of responding laboratory workers was interested in receiving an influenza A(H5N1) vaccine. HPAI vaccination of laboratory workers at risk of occupational exposure could be used along with existing safety practices to protect this population.

      8. Use of internet search data to monitor rotavirus vaccine impact in the United States, United Kingdom, and MexicoExternal
        Shah MP, Lopman BA, Tate JE, Harris J, Esparza-Aguilar M, Sanchez-Uribe E, Richardson V, Steiner CA, Parashar UD.
        J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2018 Feb 19;7(1):56-63.

        Background: Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for “rotavirus” and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Methods: We compared time series of internet searches for “rotavirus” from Google Trends with rotavirus laboratory reports from the United States and United Kingdom and with hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis in the United States and Mexico. Using time and location parameters, Google quantifies an internet query share (IQS) to measure the relative search volume for specific terms. We analyzed the correlation between IQS and laboratory and hospitalization data before and after national vaccine introductions. Results: There was a strong positive correlation between the rotavirus IQS and laboratory reports in the United States (R2 = 0.79) and United Kingdom (R2 = 0.60) and between the rotavirus IQS and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States (R2 = 0.87) and Mexico (R2 = 0.69) (P < .0001 for all correlations). The correlations were stronger in the prevaccine period than in the postvaccine period. After vaccine introduction, the mean rotavirus IQS decreased by 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-55%) in the United States and by 70% (95% CI, 55%-86%) in Mexico. In the United Kingdom, there was a loss of seasonal variation after vaccine introduction. Conclusions: Rotavirus internet search data trends mirrored national rotavirus laboratory trends in the United States and United Kingdom and gastroenteritis-hospitalization data in the United States and Mexico; lower correlations were found after rotavirus vaccine introduction.

      9. Evaluation of an adult immunization composite measure in the Indian Health ServiceExternal
        Weiser T, Bacon A, Corum B, Van Lew H, Groom A.
        Vaccine. 2018 .

        Background: Government agencies, healthcare accreditation bodies and quality improvement organizations support the development of new quality measures. Composite quality measures use more than one measure to develop a broader assessment of healthcare system function. Currently, no composite measures for adult immunization coverage exist. Development of such measures could facilitate improvements in adult immunization coverage by focusing on measurement of receipt of all age-recommended vaccines. Methods: We recruited five Indian Health Service (IHS) and Tribal health clinics to pilot an Adult Immunization Composite Measure (AICM). Data were collected monthly over seven months using a pre-programmed electronic health record (EHR) reporting tool (IHS sites); Tribal sites used third-party software or a programmable EHR reporting function. Data collected included: number of adults aged 19 years and over who were active users of the facility with at least two visits in the last three years; the cumulative number fully immunized per age-based recommendations for tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines, pertussis, zoster and pneumococcal vaccines; and the percent immunized for the AICM and for each individual vaccine. Coverage was calculated for three age groups: 19-59 years; 60-64 years; and 65 years and older. Results: All sites reported aggregate immunization data monthly from patient EHR records. For all adults 19 years and older, AICM coverage ranged from 49% to 87% at the end of the report period. Two sites showed increases in AICM coverage >= 3%. Improvements in zoster vaccine coverage accounted for most of the increase observed. One site specifically focused on improving zoster coverage as a result of using the AICM. Conclusions: We demonstrated the feasibility of implementing a composite measure of adult immunization coverage. This is the first measure capable of monitoring immunization completeness, coverage improvement and overall adult vaccine program effectiveness for adults who receive all recommended, age-based vaccines.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Cell culture keeps pace with influenza virusExternal
        Belser JA.
        Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Jul 9.

        [No abstract]

      2. OBJECTIVE: Epidemiology suggests that occupational exposure to hand-transmitted (segmental) vibration has local and systemic effects. This study used an animal model of segmental vibration to characterize the systemic effects of vibration. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to tail vibration for 10 days. Genes indicative of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell cycle, along were measured in the heart, kidney, prostate and liver. RESULTS: Vibration increased oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory gene expression, and decreased anti-oxidant enzymes in heart tissue. In the prostate and liver, vibration resulted in changes in the expression of pro-inflammatory factors and genes involved in cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSIONS: These changes are consistent with epidemiological studies suggesting that segmental vibration has systemic effects. These effects may be mediated by changes in autonomic nervous system function, and/or inflammation and oxidative stress.

      3. A new automated method for the analysis of aromatic amines in human urine by GC-MS/MSExternal
        Mazumder S, Ahamed RA, McGahee E, Wang L, Seyler TH.
        J Anal Toxicol. 2018 Jul 12.

        Cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases as well as premature death. Aromatic amines (AAs) such as o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene and 4-aminobiphenyl are found in cigarette smoke and are well-established human bladder carcinogens presumably acting via the formation of DNA adducts. These amines may be metabolized in the liver to acetylated or glucuronidated forms or oxidized to a hydroxylamine which may react with protein and DNA to form adducts. Free, acetylated and glucuronidated AAs are excreted in urine and can be measured as exposure biomarkers. Using isotope dilution GC-MS/MS, our laboratory quantifies six urinary AAs that are known or suspected carcinogens-o-toluidine, 2,6-dimethylaniline, o-anisidine, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene and 4-aminobiphenyl-for large population studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We also monitor two additional corresponding structural isomers-2-aminobiphenyl and 3-aminobiphenyl-to verify isomer separation. A new and improved automated sample preparation method was developed to quantify these AAs, in which, sample cleanup was done via Supported Liquid Extraction (SLE+ ISOLUTE(R)) on a Hamilton STAR workstation. This automated method increased sample throughput by reducing sample cleanup time from 8 to 4 h while maintaining precision (intra and inter-run coefficient of variation <7%) and accuracy (+/-17%). Recent improvements in our GC/MS method have enhanced our assay sensitivity and specificity, resulting in longer analytical column life and maintaining or reducing the limit of detection for all six analytes. Indigo ASCENTTM software (3.7.1, Indigo BioAutomation, Inc.) is used for peak integration, calibration and quantification. A streamlined sample data flow was created in parallel with the automated method, in which samples can be tracked from receiving to final laboratory information management system output with minimal human intervention, minimizing potential human error. This newly validated, automated method and sample data flow are currently applied in biomonitoring of AAs in the US noninstitutionalized population NHANES 2013-2014 cycle.

      4. Laboratory evaluation of a commercially available rapid syphilis testExternal
        Pereira LE, McCormick J, Dorji T, Kang J, Sun Y, Shukla M, Hopkins A, Deutsch J, Kersh EN, Bernstein K, Fakile YF.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Jul 18.

        Serological diagnosis of syphilis depends on assays that detect treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies. Laboratory certification and trained personnel are needed to perform most of these tests, while high costs and long turnaround time can hinder treatment initiation or linkage to care. A rapid treponemal syphilis test (RST) that is simple to perform, accessible and inexpensive would be ideal. The Syphilis Health Check (SHC) assay is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared and Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-waived RST in the US. In this study, 1,406 archived human sera were tested using SHC and traditional treponemal and non-treponemal assays. Rapid test results were compared with treponemal data alone, and with a laboratory test panel consensus defined as being reactive by both treponemal and non-treponemal assays for a given specimen, or nonreactive by both types of assays. Sensitivity and specificity of SHC when compared with treponemal tests alone were 88.7% (86.2-90.0%) and 93.1% (90.0-94.9%), respectively, while comparison with the laboratory test panel consensus showed 95.7% (93.6-97.2%) sensitivity and 93.2% (91.0-95.1%) specificity. The data were further stratified based on age, sex, pregnancy and HIV status. Sensitivity and specificity of SHC ranged from 66.7% (46.0-83.5%) to 91.7% (87.7-94.7%) and 88% (68.8-97.5%) to 100% (47.8-100%), respectively, across groups when compared to traditional treponemal assays, generally increasing for all groups except the HIV+ population when factoring the laboratory test panel consensus. These data contribute to current knowledge of SHC performance for distinct populations and may guide use in various settings.

      5. Using trunk posture to monitor heat strain at workExternal
        Quinn T, Seo Y, Yorio P, Aljaroudi A, Coca A, Kim JH, Roberge RJ, Williams WJ.
        Ergonomics. 2018 Jul 17:1-25.

        This study aimed to determine if trunk posture during walking is related to increases in rectal temperature (Tre). 24 males treadmill walked in one of four conditions (1: thirty minutes at 3.0 mph and 0% grade, 20 degrees C and 50% relative humidity (RH), wearing healthcare worker (HCW) PPE; 2: thirty minutes at 3.0 mph and 0% grade, 27.5 degrees C and 60% RH, HCW PPE; 3: thirty minutes at 3.0 mph and 0% grade, 32.5 degrees C and 70% RH, HCW PPE; and 4: forty minutes at 40% VO2max, 30 degrees C and 70% RH, wearing firefighter PPE). Trunk posture (Zephyr BioHarness 3) and Tre were measured continuously. Tre was positively related to trunk posture, controlling for covariates (B = 3.49, p < 0.001). BMI and age moderated this relationship (Tre*age, B = 0.76, p < 0.001; Tre*BMI, B=-1.85, p < 0.001). Trunk posture measurement may be useful in monitoring fall potential and magnitude of heat stress of workers in hot environments. Practitioner Summary: Occupational hyperthermia increases worker risk for heat illness and injury but is difficult to monitor in the field. This investigation shows that trunk posture is independently and positively related to core temperature. Non-invasive measurement or visual inspection of trunk posture could provide novel insight on individual heat strain level.

      6. INTRODUCTION: Accurate diagnosis of an inhibitor, a neutralizing antibody to infused factor VIII (FVIII), is essential for appropriate management of haemophilia A (HA). Low-titre inhibitors may be difficult to diagnose due to high rates of false-positive inhibitor results in that range. Transient low-titre inhibitors and false-positive inhibitors may be due to the presence of a lupus anticoagulant (LA) or other non-specific antibodies. Fluorescence immunoassay (FLI) to detect antibodies to FVIII is a sensitive method to identify inhibitors in HA. Evaluations of antibody profiles by various groups have demonstrated that haemophilic inhibitors detected by Nijmegen-Bethesda (NBA) and chromogenic Bethesda (CBA) assays correlate with positivity for anti-FVIII immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and G4. AIM: This study sought to determine whether FLI could distinguish false-positive FVIII inhibitor results related to LAs from clinically relevant FVIII inhibitors in HA patients. METHODS: Samples from haemophilic and non-haemophilic subjects were tested for LA, specific FVIII inhibitors by NBA and CBA, and anti-FVIII immunoglobulin profiles by FLI. RESULTS: No samples from LA-positive non-haemophilic subjects were positive by FLI for anti-FVIII IgG4. Conversely, 91% of NBA-positive samples from haemophilia subjects were positive for anti-FVIII IgG4. Two of 11 haemophilia subjects had samples negative for anti-FVIII IgG4 and CBA, which likely represented LA rather than FVIII inhibitor presence. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of anti-FVIII profiles along with the CBA may be useful to distinguish a clinically relevant low-titre FVIII inhibitor from a transient LA in HA patients.

      7. Molecular characterization of invasive meningococcal isolates in Burkina Faso as the relative importance of serogroups X and W increases, 2008-2012External
        Retchless AC, Congo-Ouedraogo M, Kambire D, Vuong J, Chen A, Hu F, Ba AK, Ouedraogo AS, Hema-Ouangraoua S, Patel JC, Traore RO, Sangare L, Wang X.
        BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 18;18(1):337.

        BACKGROUND: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A disease in Burkina Faso has greatly decreased following introduction of a meningococcal A conjugate vaccine in 2010, yet other serogroups continue to pose a risk of life-threatening disease. Capsule switching among epidemic-associated serogroup A N. meningitidis strains could allow these lineages to persist despite vaccination. The introduction of new strains at the national or sub-national levels could affect the epidemiology of disease. METHODS: Isolates collected from invasive meningococcal disease in Burkina Faso between 2008 and 2012 were characterized by serogrouping and molecular typing. Genome sequences from a subset of isolates were used to infer phylogenetic relationships. RESULTS: The ST-5 clonal complex (CC5) was identified only among serogroup A isolates, which were rare after 2010. CC181 and CC11 were the most common clonal complexes after 2010, having serogroup X and W isolates, respectively. Whole-genome phylogenetic analysis showed that the CC181 isolates collected during and after the epidemic of 2010 formed a single clade that was closely related to isolates collected in Niger during 2005 and Burkina Faso during 2007. Geographic population structure was identified among the CC181 isolates, where pairs of isolates collected from the same region of Burkina Faso within a single year had less phylogenetic diversity than the CC181 isolate collection as a whole. However, the reduction of phylogenetic diversity within a region did not extend across multiple years. Instead, CC181 isolates collected during the same year had lower than average diversity, even when collected from different regions, indicating geographic mixing of strains across years. The CC11 isolates were primarily collected during the epidemic of 2012, with sparse sampling during 2011. These isolates belong to a clade that includes previously described isolates collected in Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger from 2011 to 2015. Similar to CC181, reduced phylogenetic diversity was observed among CC11 isolate pairs collected from the same regions during a single year. CONCLUSIONS: The population of disease-associated N. meningitidis strains within Burkina Faso was highly dynamic between 2008 and 2012, reflecting both vaccine-imposed selection against serogroup A strains and potentially complex clonal waves of serogroup X and serogroup W strains.

      8. Parechovirus A3 (Par-A3, formerly human parechovirus 3) is an emerging viral infection of the central nervous system in children. We used an automated, homogeneous, cell based assay to identify itraconazole and posaconazole as inhibitors of Par-A3, with antiviral activity below concentrations clinically attainable in pediatric patients. Currently, there is no approved antiviral treatment for Par-A3 infection, despite numerous reports of serious Par-A3 disease in neonates and infants.

      9. Monoclonal antibody against N2 neuraminidase of cold adapted A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) enables efficient generation of live attenuated influenza vaccinesExternal
        Shcherbik S, Carney P, Pearce N, Stevens J, Dugan VG, Wentworth DE, Bousse T.
        Virology. 2018 Jul 12;522:65-72.

        Cold adapted influenza virus A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (H2N2) is a reliable master donor virus (Len/17-MDV) for preparing live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). LAIVs are 6:2 reasortants that contain 6 segments of Len/17-MDV and the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of contemporary circulating influenza A viruses. The problem with the classical reassortment procedure used to generate LAIVs is that there is limited selection pressure against NA of the Len/17-MDV resulting in 7:1 reassortants with desired HA only, which are not suitable LAIVs. The monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed against the N2 of Len/17-MDV were generated. 10C4-8E7 mAb inhibits cell-to-cell spread of viruses containing the Len/17-MDV N2, but not viruses with the related N2 from contemporary H3N2 viruses. 10C4-8E7 antibody specifically inhibited the Len/17-MDV replication in vitro and in ovo but didn’t inhibit replication of H3N2 or H1N1pdm09 reassortants. Our data demonstrate that addition of 10C4-8E7 in the classical reassortment improves efficiency of LAIV production.

      10. Antibody profiling by proteome microarray with multiplex isotype detection reveals overlap between human and Aotus nancymaae controlled malaria infectionsExternal
        Taghavian O, Jain A, Joyner CJ, Ketchum S, Nakajima R, Jasinskas A, Liang L, Fong R, King C, Greenhouse B, Murphy M, Bailey J, Galinski MR, Barnwell JW, Plowe CV, Davies DH, Felgner PL.
        Proteomics. 2018 Jan;18(2).

        The development of vaccines against malaria and serodiagnostic tests for detecting recent exposure requires tools for antigen discovery and suitable animal models. The protein microarray is a high-throughput, sample sparing technique, with applications in infectious disease research, clinical diagnostics, epidemiology, and vaccine development. We recently demonstrated Qdot-based indirect immunofluorescence together with portable optical imager ArrayCAM using single isotype detection could replicate data using the conventional laser confocal scanner system. We developed a multiplexing protocol for simultaneous detection of IgG, IgA, and IgM and compared samples from a controlled human malaria infection model with those from controlled malaria infections of Aotus nancymaae, a widely used non-human primate model of human malaria. IgG profiles showed the highest concordance in number of reactive antigens; thus, of the 139 antigens recognized by human IgG antibody, 111 were also recognized by Aotus monkeys. Interestingly, IgA profiles were largely non-overlapping. Finally, on the path toward wider deployment of the portable platform, we show excellent correlations between array data obtained in five independent laboratories around the United States using the multiplexing protocol (R(2) : 0.60-0.92). This study supports the use of this platform for wider deployment, particularly in endemic areas where such a tool will have the greatest impact on global human health.

      11. Incineration of nanoclay composites leads to byproducts with reduced cellular reactivityExternal
        Wagner A, White AP, Tang MC, Agarwal S, Stueckle TA, Rojanasakul Y, Gupta RK, Dinu CZ.
        Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 16;8(1):10709.

        Addition of nanoclays into a polymer matrix leads to nanocomposites with enhanced properties to be used in plastics for food packaging applications. Because of the plastics’ high stored energy value, such nanocomposites make good candidates for disposal via municipal solid waste plants. However, upon disposal, increased concerns related to nanocomposites’ byproducts potential toxicity arise, especially considering that such byproducts could escape disposal filters to cause inhalation hazards. Herein, we investigated the effects that byproducts of a polymer polylactic acid-based nanocomposite containing a functionalized montmorillonite nanoclay (Cloisite 30B) could pose to human lung epithelial cells, used as a model for inhalation exposure. Analysis showed that the byproducts induced toxic responses, including reductions in cellular viability, changes in cellular morphology, and cytoskeletal alterations, however only at high doses of exposure. The degree of dispersion of nanoclays in the polymer matrix appeared to influence the material characteristics, degradation, and ultimately toxicity. With toxicity of the byproduct occurring at high doses, safety protocols should be considered, along with deleterious effects investigations to thus help aid in safer, yet still effective products and disposal strategies.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      1. Identification of primary congenital hypothyroidism based on two newborn screens – Utah, 2010-2016External
        Jones DE, Hart K, Shapira SK, Murray M, Atkinson-Dunn R, Rohrwasser A.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jul 20;67(28):782-785.

        Newborn screening for primary congenital hypothyroidism is part of the U.S. Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (1,2). Untreated congenital hypothyroidism can result in cognitive impairment and growth complications (decreased height/length). Initial newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism is typically performed 24-48 hours after birth. Fourteen states, including Utah, perform a routine second screen at approximately 2 weeks of age.* During 2010-2016, a total of 359,432 infants in Utah were screened for congenital hypothyroidism, and 130 cases were diagnosed; among these, 98 had an abnormal first screen, and 25 had an abnormal second screen (seven infants were excluded because of missing data). A retrospective examination of Utah’s screening data indicated that 20% of congenital hypothyroidism cases could not have been efficiently identified by a single screen alone. This study highlights the utility of a two-screen process and demonstrates that differential cutoff values for the first and second screens could optimize both screening sensitivity and specificity.

      2. Gestational weight loss: Comparison between the birth certificate and the medical record, Florida, 2012External
        Kim SY, Bailey MA, Richardson J, McFarland CA, Sappenfield WM, Luke S, Sharma AJ.
        Matern Child Health J. 2018 Jul 13.

        Objective Examine agreement with the medical record (MR) when gestational weight loss (GWL) on the Florida birth certificate (BC) is >/= 0 pounds (lbs). Methods In 2012, 3923 Florida-resident women had a live, singleton birth where BC indicated GWL >/= 0 lbs. Of these, we selected a stratified random sample of 2141 and abstracted from the MR prepregnancy and delivery weight data used to compute four estimates of GWL (delivery minus prepregnancy weight) from different sources found within the MR (first prenatal visit record, nursing admission record, labor/delivery records, BC worksheet). We assessed agreement between the BC and MR estimates for GWL categorized as 0, 1-10, 11-19, and >/= 20 lbs. Results Prepregnancy or delivery weight was missing or source not in the MR for 23-81% of records. Overall agreement on GWL between the BC and the four MR estimates ranged from 39.1 to 57.2%. Agreement by GWL category ranged from 10.6 to 38.0% for 0 lbs, 47.6 to 64.3% for 1-10 lbs, 49.5 to 60.0% for 11-19 lbs, and 47.8 to 67.7% for >/= 20 lbs. Conclusions Prepregnancy and delivery weight were frequently missing from the MR or inconsistently documented across the different sources. When the BC indicated GWL >/= 0 lbs, agreement with different sources of the MR was moderate to poor revealing the need to reduce missing data and better understand the quality of weight data in the MR.

      3. Relationship between advanced maternal age and timing of first developmental evaluation in children with autismExternal
        Rubenstein E, Durkin MS, Harrington RA, Kirby RS, Schieve LA, Daniels J.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018 Jul 12.

        OBJECTIVE: Mothers of advanced maternal age (AMA) at childbirth (age >/=35 years) may have different perceptions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk, independent of sociodemographic factors, that may affect ASD identification. We aimed to estimate associations between AMA and both age of a child’s first evaluation noting developmental concerns and time from first evaluation to first ASD diagnosis. METHODS: We used data for 8-year-olds identified with ASD in the 2008 to 2012 Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. We estimated differences in age at first evaluation noting developmental concerns and time to first ASD diagnosis by AMA using quantile and Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 10,358 children with ASD, 19.7% had mothers of AMA. AMA was associated with higher educational attainment and previous live births compared with younger mothers. In unadjusted analyses, AMA was associated with earlier first evaluation noting developmental concerns (median 37 vs 40 mo) and patterns in time to first evaluation (hazard ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.18). Associations between AMA and evaluation timing diminished and were no longer significant after adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. Children’s intellectual disability did not modify associations between AMA and timing of evaluations. CONCLUSION: Advanced maternal age is a sociodemographic factor associated with younger age of first evaluation noting developmental concerns in children with ASD, but AMA was not independently associated likely, because it is a consequence or cofactor of maternal education and other sociodemographic characteristics. AMA may be a demographic factor to consider when aiming to screen and evaluate children at risk for ASD.

    • Mining
      1. A magnetic proximity detection system is mounted on a mobile mining machine to prevent underground workers from being pinned or struck by machine motion. The system generates magnetic fields around the machine to determine safe working distances. The miner-worn component measures the magnetic field in order to approximate location. Large masses of steel, such as those from mining equipment, can alter the magnetic field distribution. This affects the locational accuracy of the system, thus adversely impacting worker safety. To examine this problem, U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers developed a method and test system to study the influence of a steel mass on the magnetic field distribution. The results show that a steel plate can strengthen the magnetic field perpendicular to the generator by up to 40 percent. Furthermore, they show that the degree of the influence on the field distribution is a function of distance. The results from this study can be used to further develop and improve the performance and reliability of electromagnetic proximity detection systems used in underground mining applications.

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. Background: Screen time (ST) behaviours, for example, television (TV) watching and computer use, among youth are associated with unhealthy eating, and these patterns track over time. A positive association between ST and TV watching with consumption of caffeinated foods and beverages has been described in national samples of children in a few European countries. The association of ST behaviours with caffeine intake has not been previously reported. We examined whether ST behaviours were associated with caffeine intake on a given day (% consumers and amount consumed) in a nationally representative sample of US children. Methods: Data on 3421 children (ages 6-11 years) from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were used. Time spent on TV watching and computer use was determined using questionnaires. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall by trained interviewers. Caffeine intake (mg) was estimated by using updated food and nutrient databases. Caffeine consumption was examined in relation to time spent (>/=2 vs<2 hours/day) on ST behaviours. Results: Children who watched TV >/=2 hours/day had significantly higher (~45% more) caffeine intake. Total ST or computer use was not associated with caffeine consumption in school-aged children. Conclusion: TV watching was positively associated with caffeine intake in school-aged children, suggesting the need for continued monitoring of ST and caffeine intake behaviours in children and adolescents as well as examining the correlates of these behaviours to inform nutrition and health policies.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Chromosome translocations and cosmic radiation dose in male U.S. commercial airline pilotsExternal
        Grajewski B, Yong LC, Bertke SJ, Bhatti P, Little MP, Ramsey MJ, Tucker JD, Ward EM, Whelan EA, Sigurdson AJ, Waters MA.
        Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018 Jul 1;89(7):616-625.

        BACKGROUND: Chromosome translocations are a biomarker of cumulative exposure to ionizing radiation. We examined the relation between the frequency of translocations and cosmic radiation dose in 83 male airline pilots. METHODS: Translocations were scored using fluorescence in situ hybridization chromosome painting. Cumulative radiation doses were estimated from individual flight records. Excess rate and log-linear Poisson regression models were evaluated. RESULTS: Pilots’ estimated median cumulative absorbed dose was 15 mGy (range 4.5-38). No association was observed between translocation frequency and absorbed dose from all types of flying [rate ratio (RR) = 1.01 at 1 mGy, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-1.04]. However, additional analyses of pilots’ dose from only commercial flying suggested an association (RR = 1.04 at 1 mGy, 95% CI 0.97-1.13). DISCUSSION: Although this is the largest cytogenetic study of male commercial airline pilots to date of which the authors are aware, future studies will need additional highly exposed pilots to better assess the translocation-cosmic radiation relation.

      2. Serum YKL-40 in workers at an indium-tin oxide production facilityExternal
        Harvey RR, Hawley BM, Virji MA, Cummings KJ.
        Respirology. 2018 Mar;23(3):341-342.

        [No abstract]

      3. Notes from the Field: Occupational carbon monoxide exposure in an industrial kitchen facility – Wisconsin, 2017External
        Wilson E, Tomasallo C, Meiman J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jul 20;67(28):786.

        [No abstract]

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. Continued increase in prevalence of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis in the United States, 1970-2017External
        Blackley DJ, Halldin CN, Laney AS.
        Am J Public Health. 2018 Jul 19:e1-e3.

        OBJECTIVES: To update prevalence estimates for coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) among working underground coal miners in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a prevalence study using radiographs collected from 1970 to 2017. We classified each radiograph using international standards. We defined CWP as the presence of small opacities, with profusion greater than or equal to subcategory 1/0, or the presence of a large opacity larger than 1 centimeter. RESULTS: Following a low point in the late 1990s, the national prevalence of CWP in miners with 25 years or more of tenure now exceeds 10%. In central Appalachia (Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia), 20.6% of long-tenured miners have CWP. When we excluded miners from central Appalachia, the prevalence for the remainder of the United States was lower, but an increase since 2000 remains evident. CONCLUSIONS: The national prevalence of CWP among working coal miners is increasing. This increase is most pronounced in central Appalachia. Current CWP prevalence estimates will likely be reflected in future trends for severe and disabling disease, including progressive massive fibrosis. Public Health Implications. Recently enacted protections to prevent coal mine dust exposure and identify CWP at its early stage remain essential to protect US coal miners. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print July 19, 2018: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304517).

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Schistosomiasis in Africa: Improving strategies for long-term and sustainable morbidity controlExternal
        French MD, Evans D, Fleming FM, Secor WE, Biritwum NK, Brooker SJ, Bustinduy A, Gouvras A, Kabatereine N, King CH, Rebollo Polo M, Reinhard-Rupp J, Rollinson D, Tchuem Tchuente LA, Utzinger J, Waltz J, Zhang Y.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Jun;12(6):e0006484.

        [No abstract]

      2. Travel history is important! A case of Trypanosoma cruzi identified by placental examinationExternal
        Heller DS, Romagano MP, Alzate-Duque L, Rubenstein S, Williams S, Madubuko A, Algarrahi K, Ritter JM, Faye-Petersen O.
        Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2018 Jan 1:1093526618789298.

        [No abstract]

      3. Identifying residual transmission of lymphatic filariasis after mass drug administration: Comparing school-based versus community-based surveillance – American Samoa, 2016External
        Sheel M, Sheridan S, Gass K, Won K, Fuimaono S, Kirk M, Gonzales A, Hedtke SM, Graves PM, Lau CL.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Jul 16;12(7):e0006583.

        INTRODUCTION: Under the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF), American Samoa conducted seven rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) from 2000-2006. The World Health Organization recommends systematic post-MDA surveillance using Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS) for epidemiological assessment of recent LF transmission. We compared the effectiveness of two survey designs for post-MDA surveillance: a school-based survey of children aged 6-7 years, and a community-based survey targeting people aged >/=8 years. METHODS: In 2016, we conducted a systematic school-based TAS in all elementary schools (N = 29) and a cluster survey in 28 villages on the two main islands of American Samoa. We collected information on demographics and risk factors for infection using electronic questionnaires, and recorded geo-locations of schools and households. Blood samples were collected to test for circulating filarial antigen (CFA) using the Alere Filariasis Test Strip. For those who tested positive, we prepared slides for microscopic examination of microfilaria and provided treatment. Descriptive statistics were performed for questionnaire variables. Data were weighted and adjusted to account for sampling design and sex for both surveys, and for age in the community survey. RESULTS: The school-based TAS (n = 1143) identified nine antigen-positive children and found an overall adjusted CFA prevalence of 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3-1.8). Of the nine positive children, we identified one microfilariaemic 7-year-old child. The community-based survey (n = 2507, 711 households) identified 102 antigen-positive people, and estimated an overall adjusted CFA prevalence of 6.2% (95% CI: 4.5-8.6). Adjusted village-level prevalence ranged from 0-47.1%. CFA prevalence increased with age and was higher in males. Of 86 antigen-positive community members from whom slides were prepared, 22 (25.6%) were microfilaraemic. School-based TAS had limited sensitivity (range 0-23.8%) and negative predictive value (range 25-83.3%) but had high specificity (range 83.3-100%) and positive predictive value (range 0-100%) for identifying villages with ongoing transmission. CONCLUSIONS: American Samoa failed the school-based TAS in 2016, and the community-based survey identified higher than expected numbers of antigen-positive people. School-based TAS was logistically simpler and enabled sampling of a larger proportion of the target population, but the results did not provide a good indication of the overall CFA prevalence in older age groups and was not sensitive at identifying foci of ongoing transmission. The community-based survey, although operationally more challenging, identified antigen-positive individuals of all ages, and foci of high antigen prevalence. Both surveys confirmed recrudescence of LF transmission.

    • Physical Activity
      1. Utility of the youth compendium of physical activitiesExternal
        Ainsworth BE, Watson KB, Ridley K, Pfeiffer KA, Herrmann SD, Crouter SE, McMurray RG, Butte NF, Bassett DR, Trost SG, Berrigan D, Fulton JE.
        Res Q Exerc Sport. 2018 Jul 18:1-9.

        PURPOSE: The purposes of this article are to: (a) describe the rationale and development of the Youth Compendium of Physical Activities (Youth Compendium); and (b) discuss the utility of the Youth Compendium for audiences in research, education, community, health care, public health, and the private sector. METHODS: The Youth Compendium provides a list of 196 physical activities (PA) categorized by activity types, specific activities, and metabolic costs (youth metabolic equivalents of task [METy]) as measured by indirect calorimetry. The utility of the Youth Compendium was assessed by describing ways in which it can be used by a variety of audiences. RESULTS: Researchers can use METy values to estimate PA levels and determine changes in PA in intervention studies. Educators can ask students to complete PA records to determine time spent in physical activities and to identify health-enhancing activities for classroom PA breaks. Community leaders, parents, and health care professionals can identify activity types that promote healthful behaviors. Public health agencies can use the METy values for surveillance and as a resource to inform progress toward meeting national physical activity guidelines. Applications for the private sector include the use of METy in PA trackers and other applications. CONCLUSION: The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Web site presents the Youth Compendium and related materials to facilitate measurement of the energy cost of nearly 200 physical activities in children and youth. The Youth Compendium provides a way to standardize energy costs in children and youth and has application for a wide variety of audiences.

    • Social and Behavioral Sciences
      1. Sources of socialization for interpersonal trust: an exploration of low-income Black adolescents’ experiencesExternal
        McElroy-Heltzel SE, Jordan TR, Futris TG, Barton AW, Landor AK, Sheats KJ.
        Journal of Youth Studies. 2018 :1-14.

        Much of the literature on interpersonal trust is quantitative in nature, using scales developed primarily with White middle-class and upper-class adults. To understand how another racial group of a different socioeconomic background and age views interpersonal trust, we considered the experiences of 22 low-income Black adolescents. The adolescents participated in a relationship education program and were interviewed about their interpersonal trust experiences. Results of a qualitative data analysis revealed that most adolescents defined interpersonal trust based on honesty and fidelity, with a particular emphasis on monogamy in romantic relationships. Adolescents identified direct messages from family members and personal relationship experiences as sources of socialization for interpersonal trust. Although some adolescents reported that the relationship education program enhanced their understanding of and willingness to trust, others maintained that trust can only be learned through personal experiences. Though the adolescents generally trusted family members, they experienced challenges trusting friends and romantic partners. Despite this, adolescents considered interpersonal trust a vital and a necessary part of romantic relationships. We discuss implications of the findings for relationship stability and satisfaction.

    • Zoonotic and Vectorborne Diseases
      1. Bunyavirus taxonomy: Limitations and misconceptions associated with the current ICTV criteria used for species demarcationExternal
        Blitvich BJ, Beaty BJ, Blair CD, Brault AC, Dobler G, Drebot MA, Haddow AD, Kramer LD, LaBeaud AD, Monath TP, Mossel EC, Plante K, Powers AM, Tesh RB, Turell MJ, Vasilakis N, Weaver SC.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jul;99(1):11-16.

        The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has implemented numerous changes to the taxonomic classification of bunyaviruses over the years. Whereas most changes have been justified and necessary because of the need to accommodate newly discovered and unclassified viruses, other changes are a cause of concern, especially the decision to demote scores of formerly recognized species to essentially strains of newly designated species. This practice was first described in the seventh taxonomy report of the ICTV and has continued in all subsequent reports. In some instances, viruses that share less than 75% nucleotide sequence identity across their genomes, produce vastly different clinical presentations, possess distinct vector and host associations, have different biosafety recommendations, and occur in nonoverlapping geographic regions are classified as strains of the same species. Complicating the matter is the fact that virus strains have been completely eliminated from ICTV reports; thus, critically important information on virus identities and their associated biological and epidemiological features cannot be readily related to the ICTV classification. Here, we summarize the current status of bunyavirus taxonomy and discuss the adverse consequences associated with the reclassification and resulting omission of numerous viruses of public health importance from ICTV reports. As members of the American Committee on Arthropod-borne Viruses, we encourage the ICTV Bunyavirus Study Group to reconsider their stance on bunyavirus taxonomy, to revise the criteria currently used for species demarcation, and to list additional strains of public and veterinary importance.

      2. More is not automatically better. Generation and accumulation of information reflecting the complexity of zoonotic diseases as ecological systems do not necessarily lead to improved interpretation of the obtained information and understanding of these complex systems. The traditional conceptual framework for analysis of diseases ecology is neither designed for, nor adaptable enough, to absorb the mass of diverse sources of relevant information. The multidirectional and multidimensional approaches to analyses form an inevitable part in defining a role of zoonotic pathogens and animal hosts considering the complexity of their inter-relations. And the more data we have, the more involved the interpretation needs to be. The keyword for defining the roles of microbes as pathogens, animals as hosts, and environmental parameters as infection drivers is “functional importance.” Microbes can act as pathogens toward their host only if/when they recognize the animal organism as the target. The same is true when the host recognizes the microbe as a pathogen rather than harmless symbiont based on the context of its occurrence in that host. Here, we propose conceptual tools developed in the realm of the interdisciplinary sciences of complexity and biosemiotics for extending beyond the currently dominant mindset in ecology and evolution of infectious diseases. We also consider four distinct hierarchical levels of perception guiding how investigators can approach zoonotic agents, as a subject of their research, representing differences in emphasizing particular elements and their relations versus more unified systemic approaches.

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019