Volume 10, Issue 27, July 24, 2018

CDC Science Clips: Volume 10, Issue 27, July 24, 2018

Science Clips is produced weekly to enhance awareness of emerging scientific knowledge for the public health community. Each article features an Altmetric Attention scoreExternal to track social and mainstream media mentions!

  1. Top Articles of the Week

    Selected weekly by a senior CDC scientist from the standard sections listed below.

    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      • Emerging approaches in surveillance of type 1 diabetesExternal
        Saydah S, Imperatore G.
        Curr Diab Rep. 2018 Jul 11;18(9):61.

        PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Surveillance of type 1 diabetes provides an opportunity to address public health needs, inform etiological research, and plan health care services. We present issues in type 1 diabetes surveillance, review previous and current methods, and present new initiatives. RECENT FINDINGS: Few diabetes surveillance systems distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Most worldwide efforts have focused on registries and ages < 15 years, resulting in limited information among adults. Recently, surveillance includes use of electronic health information and national health surveys. However, distinguishing by diabetes type remains a challenge. Enhancing and improving surveillance of type 1 diabetes across all age groups could include validating questions for use in national health surveys. In addition, validated algorithms for classifying diabetes type in electronic health records could further improve surveillance efforts and close current gaps in our understanding of the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes.

    • Communicable Diseases
      • Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), paralytic cases associated with wild poliovirus (WPV) have fallen from approximately 350,000 in 1988 to 22 in 2017. WPV type 2 (WPV2) was last detected in 1999, WPV3 in 2012, and WPV1 appeared to be localized to Pakistan and Afghanistan in 2017. Through continuous refinement, the GPEI has overcome operational and biological challenges far more complex and daunting than originally envisioned. Operational challenges had led to sustained WPV endemicity in core reservoirs and widespread dissemination to polio-free countries. The biological challenges derive from intrinsic limitations to the oral poliovirus vaccine: (a) reduced immunogenicity in high-risk settings and (b) genetic instability, leading to repeated outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses and prolonged infections in individuals with primary immunodeficiencies. As polio eradication enters its multifaceted endgame, the GPEI, with its technical, operational, and social innovations, stands as the preeminent model for control of vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 5 is September 29, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

      • Reflections on the State of the Art series on TB and migration, and the way forwardExternal
        Shah S, Lange C, Lonnroth K.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Aug 1;22(8):829.

        [No abstract]

    • Food Safety
      • Salmonella enterica Serotype Javiana infections linked to a seafood restaurant in Maricopa County, Arizona, 2016External
        Venkat H, Matthews J, Lumadao P, Caballero B, Collins J, Fowle N, Kellis M, Tewell M, White S, Hassan R, Classon A, Joung Y, Komatsu K, Weiss J, Zusy S, Sunenshine R.
        J Food Prot. 2018 Jul 9:1283-1292.

        On 10 August 2016, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health identified culture-confirmed Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana isolates from two persons who reported eating at a seafood restaurant; seven additional cases were reported by 15 August. We investigated to identify a source and prevent further illness. We interviewed persons with laboratory-reported Salmonella Javiana infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole genome sequencing of isolates were performed. A case was defined as diarrheal illness in a person during July to September 2016; confirmed cases had Salmonella Javiana isolate yielding outbreak-related PFGE patterns; probable cases had diarrheal illness and an epidemiologic link to a confirmed case. Case finding was performed (passive surveillance and identification of ill meal companions). A case-control study assessed risk factors for Salmonella Javiana infection among restaurant diners; control subjects were chosen among meal companions. No restaurant workers reported illness. Foods were reportedly cooked according to the Food Code. Food and environmental samples were collected and cultured; Salmonella Javiana with an indistinguishable PFGE pattern was isolated from portioned repackaged raw shrimp, halibut, and a freezer door handle. We identified 50 Salmonella Javiana cases (40 confirmed and 10 probable); illness onset range was from 22 July to 17 September 2016. Isolates from 40 patients had highly related PFGE patterns. Thirty-three (73%) of 45 patients interviewed reported eating at the restaurant. Among 21 case patients and 31 control subjects, unfried cooked shrimp was associated with illness (odds ratio, 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 24.9; P = 0.004). Among restaurant diners, laboratory and case-control evidence indicated shrimp as the possible outbreak source; poor thermal inactivation of Salmonella on shrimp is theorized as a possible cause. Cross-contamination might have prolonged this outbreak; however, the source was not identified and highlights limitations that can arise during these types of investigations.

    • Immunity and Immunization
      • Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS), which is triggered by autoantibodies produced in response to antigenic stimuli such as certain infections and vaccinations, is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Campylobacter, the most common bacterial enteric infection in the USA, is reported to be the most commonly diagnosed antecedent of GBS, yet little information is available about the risk of post-Campylobacter GBS. Data collected through active, population-based surveillance in the Emerging Infections Program during the 2009-2010 novel Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination campaign allowed us to compare confirmed and probable GBS cases to non-cases to determine whether antecedent Campylobacter infection (or a diarrhoeal illness consistent with campylobacteriosis) was more common among cases and to assess the risk of GBS following Campylobacter infection. We estimate that 8-12% of GBS cases in the USA are attributable to Campylobacter infection (or a diarrhoeal illness consistent with campylobacteriosis), with 434-650 cases of post-diarrhoeal GBS annually and about 49 cases of GBS per 100 000 Campylobacter infections. These results provide updated estimates for post-Campylobacter GBS incidence in the USA and highlight an important benefit of effective measures to prevent Campylobacter infections.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      • Performance of treponemal tests for the diagnosis of syphilisExternal
        Park IU, Fakile YF, Chow JM, Gustafson KJ, Jost H, Schapiro JM, Novak-Weekley S, Tran A, Nomura JH, Chen V, Beheshti M, Tsai T, Hoover K, Bolan G.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 9.

        Background: Treponemal immunoassays are increasingly used for syphilis screening with the reverse sequence algorithm. There are little data describing performance of treponemal immunoassays compared to traditional treponemal tests in patients with and without syphilis. Methods: We calculated sensitivity and specificity of seven treponemal assays: 1) ADVIA Centaur (chemiluminescence immunoassay-CIA), 2) Bioplex 2200 (microbead immunoassay-MBIA), 3) fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS), 4) INNO-LIA (line immunoassay), 5) LIAISON CIA, 6) TP-PA (Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay), and 7) Trep-Sure (enzyme immunoassay-EIA), using a reference standard combining clinical diagnosis and serology results. Sera were collected between May 2012-January 2013. Cases were characterized as: 1) current clinical diagnosis of syphilis: primary, secondary, early latent, late latent 2) prior treated syphilis only, 3) no evidence of current syphilis, no prior history of syphilis and at least 4/7 treponemal tests negative. Results: Among 959 participants, 262 had current syphilis, 294 had prior syphilis, and 403 did not have syphilis. FTA-ABS was less sensitive for primary syphilis [78.2% (65.0-88.2%)], than the immunoassays or TP-PA (94.5-96.4%) (all p</=0.01). All immunoassays were 100% sensitive for secondary syphilis, 95.2-100% sensitive for early latent disease, and 86.8-98.5% sensitive in late latent disease. TP-PA had 100% specificity (99.0-100%). Conclusion: Treponemal immunoassays demonstrated excellent sensitivity for secondary, early latent, and seropositive primary syphilis. Sensitivity of FTA-ABS in primary syphilis was poor compared to the immunoassays and TP-PA. Given its high specificity and superior sensitivity, TP-PA is a better test to adjudicate discordant results with the reverse sequence algorithm than the FTA-ABS.

      • Investigation of dried blood sampling with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to confirm human exposure to nerve agentsExternal
        Shaner RL, Coleman RM, Schulze N, Platanitis K, Brown AA, Seymour C, Kaplan P, Perez J, Hamelin EI, Johnson RC.
        Analytica Chimica Acta.. 2018 .

        A method was developed to detect and quantify organophosphate nerve agent (OPNA) metabolites in dried blood samples. Dried blood spots (DBS) and microsampling devices are alternatives to traditional blood draws, allowing for safe handling, extended stability, reduced shipping costs, and potential self-sampling. DBS and microsamplers were evaluated for precision, accuracy, sensitivity, matrix effects, and extraction recovery following collection of whole blood containing five OPNA metabolites. The metabolites of VX, Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Cyclosarin (GF), and Russian VX (VR) were quantitated from 5.0 to 500 ng mL<sup>-1</sup> with precision of <=16% and accuracy between 93 and 108% for QC samples with controlled volumes. For unknown spot volumes, OPNA metabolite concentrations were normalized to total blood protein to improve interpretation of nerve agent exposures. This study provides data to support the use of DBS and microsamplers to collect critical exposure samples quickly, safely, and efficiently following large-scale chemical exposure events.

      • Detection of minority drug resistant mutations in Malawian HIV-1 subtype C-positive patients initiating and on first-line antiretroviral therapyExternal
        Zhou Z, Tang K, Zhang G, Wadonda-Kabondo N, Moyo K, Rowe LA, DeVos JR, Wagar N, Zheng DP, Guo H, Nkengasong J, Frace M, Sammons S, Yang C.
        Afr J Lab Med. 2018 ;7(1):708.

        Background: Minority drug resistance mutations (DRMs) that are often missed by Sanger sequencing are clinically significant, as they can cause virologic failure in individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs. Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of minor DRMs among patients enrolled in a Malawi HIV drug resistance monitoring survey at baseline and at one year after initiation of ART. Methods: Forty-one plasma specimens collected from HIV-1 subtype C-positive patients and seven clonal control samples were analysed using ultra-deep sequencing technology. Results: Deep sequencing identified all 72 DRMs detected by Sanger sequencing at the level of >/=20% and 79 additional minority DRMs at the level of < 20% from the 41 Malawian clinical specimens. Overall, DRMs were detected in 85% of pre-ART and 90.5% of virologic failure patients by deep sequencing. Among pre-ART patients, deep sequencing identified a statistically significant higher prevalence of DRMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) compared with Sanger sequencing. The difference was mainly due to the high prevalence of minority K65R and M184I mutations. Most virologic failure patients harboured DRMs against both NRTIs and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). These minority DRMs contributed to the increased or enhanced virologic failures in these patients. Conclusion: The results revealed the presence of minority DRMs to NRTIs and NNRTIs in specimens collected at baseline and virologic failure time points. These minority DRMs not only increased resistance levels to NRTIs and NNRTIs for the prescribed ART, but also expanded resistance to additional major first-line ART drugs. This study suggested that drug resistance testing that uses more sensitive technologies, is needed in this setting.

    • Maternal and Child Health
      • Case-control meta-analysis of blood DNA methylation and autism spectrum disorderExternal
        Andrews SV, Sheppard B, Windham GC, Schieve LA, Schendel DE, Croen LA, Chopra P, Alisch RS, Newschaffer CJ, Warren ST, Feinberg AP, Fallin MD, Ladd-Acosta C.
        Mol Autism. 2018 ;9:40.

        Background: Several reports have suggested a role for epigenetic mechanisms in ASD etiology. Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may shed light on particular biological mechanisms. However, studies of ASD cases versus controls have been limited by post-mortem timing and severely small sample sizes. Reports from in-life sampling of blood or saliva have also been very limited in sample size and/or genomic coverage. We present the largest case-control EWAS for ASD to date, combining data from population-based case-control and case-sibling pair studies. Methods: DNA from 968 blood samples from children in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED 1) was used to generate epigenome-wide array DNA methylation (DNAm) data at 485,512 CpG sites for 453 cases and 515 controls, using the Illumina 450K Beadchip. The Simons Simplex Collection (SSC) provided 450K array DNAm data on an additional 343 cases and their unaffected siblings. We performed EWAS meta-analysis across results from the two data sets, with adjustment for sex and surrogate variables that reflect major sources of biological variation and technical confounding such as cell type, batch, and ancestry. We compared top EWAS results to those from a previous brain-based analysis. We also tested for enrichment of ASD EWAS CpGs for being targets of meQTL associations using available SNP genotype data in the SEED sample. Findings: In this meta-analysis of blood-based DNA from 796 cases and 858 controls, no single CpG met a Bonferroni discovery threshold of p < 1.12 x 10(- 7). Seven CpGs showed differences at p < 1 x 10(- 5) and 48 at 1 x 10(- 4). Of the top 7, 5 showed brain-based ASD associations as well, often with larger effect sizes, and the top 48 overall showed modest concordance (r = 0.31) in direction of effect with cerebellum samples. Finally, we observed suggestive evidence for enrichment of CpG sites controlled by SNPs (meQTL targets) among the EWAS CpG hits, which was consistent across EWAS and meQTL discovery p value thresholds. Conclusions: No single CpG site showed a large enough DNAm difference between cases and controls to achieve epigenome-wide significance in this sample size. However, our results suggest the potential to observe disease associations from blood-based samples. Among the seven sites achieving suggestive statistical significance, we observed consistent, and stronger, effects at the same sites among brain samples. Discovery-oriented EWAS for ASD using blood samples will likely need even larger samples and unified genetic data to further understand DNAm differences in ASD.

      • Measuring trends in infant mortality due to unintentional suffocationExternal
        Womack LS, Pinckard JK, Shapiro-Mendoza CK.
        JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Jul 9.

        [No abstract]

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      • Severe illness associated with reported use of synthetic cannabinoids: a public health investigation (Mississippi, 2015)External
        Kasper AM, Ridpath AD, Gerona RR, Cox R, Galli R, Kyle PB, Parker C, Arnold JK, Chatham-Stephens K, Morrison MA, Olayinka O, Preacely N, Kieszak SM, Martin C, Schier JG, Wolkin A, Byers P, Dobbs T.
        Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2018 Jul 10:1-9.

        STUDY OBJECTIVES: In April 2015, a multistate outbreak of illness linked to synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use was unprecedented in magnitude and severity. We identified Mississippi cases in near-real time, collected information on cases to characterize the outbreak, and identified the causative SC. METHODS: A case was defined as any patient of a Mississippi healthcare facility who was suspected of SC use and presenting with >/=2 of the following symptoms: sweating, severe agitation, or psychosis during April 2-May 3, 2015. Clinicians reported cases to the Mississippi Poison Control Center (MPCC). We used MPCC data to identify cases at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) to characterize in further detail, including demographics and clinical findings. Biologic samples were tested for known and unknown SCs by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF/MS). RESULTS: Clinicians reported 721 cases (11 deaths) statewide; 119 (17%) were UMMC patients with detailed data for further analysis. Twelve (10%) were admitted to an intensive care unit and 2 (2%) died. Aggression (32%), hypertension (33%), and tachycardia (42%) were common. SCs were identified in serum from 39/56 patients (70%); 33/39 patients (85%) tested positive for MAB-CHMINACA (N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carb oxamide) or its metabolites. Compared to all patients tested for SCs, those positive for MAB-CHMINACA were more likely to have altered mental status on examination (OR = 3.3, p = .05). CONCLUSION: SC use can cause severe health effects. MAB-CHMINACA was the most commonly detected SC in this outbreak. As new SCs are created, new strategies to optimize surveillance and patient care are needed to address this evolving public health threat.

  2. CDC Authored Publications
    The names of CDC authors are indicated in bold text.
    Articles published in the past 6-8 weeks authored by CDC or ATSDR staff.
    • Chronic Diseases and Conditions
      1. OBJECTIVES: To determine factors associated with exercise capacity in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) and its relationship to hospitalizations and mortality. METHODS: A total of 223 participants in the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) (64% female, 70% hemoglobin SS/Sbeta(0) thalassemia, mean age 43.3 +/- 7.5 years) underwent maximal exercise testing using a treadmill protocol with a mean duration of 11.6 +/- 5.2 minutes. RESULTS: Female sex (beta = -3.34, 95% CI [-1.80, -4.88], p < 0.001), older age (beta = -0.14, 95% CI [-0.24, -0.04], p = 0.005), higher body mass index (beta = -0.23, 95% CI [-0.37, -0.10]; p = 0.001) and lower hemoglobin (beta = 0.56, 95% CI [0.08, 1.04], p = 0.02) were independently associated with lower fitness, while there was a trend with abnormal pulmonary function testing (beta = -1.42, 95% CI [-2.92, 0.07]; p = 0.06). Lower percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) was independently associated with lower fitness (beta = 0.08, 95% CI [0.03, 0.13], p = 0.001). Genotype and hospitalization rates for pain and acute chest syndrome (ACS) prior to testing were not associated with exercise capacity. Baseline exercise capacity predicted neither future pain or ACS nor survival in our cohort. Adults with SCD tolerated maximal exercise testing. CONCLUSIONS: Prospective studies are needed to further evaluate the impact of regular exercise and improved fitness on clinical outcomes and mortality in SCD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      2. [No abstract]

      3. Hypertension among youths – United States, 2001-2016External
        Jackson SL, Zhang Z, Wiltz JL, Loustalot F, Ritchey MD, Goodman AB, Yang Q.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jul 13;67(27):758-762.

        Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension in adolescents and young adults is associated with long-term negative health effects (1,2).* In 2017, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) released a new Clinical Practice Guideline (3), which updated 2004 pediatric hypertension guidance(dagger) with new thresholds and percentile references calculated from a healthy-weight population. To examine trends in youth hypertension and the impact of the new guideline on classification of hypertension status, CDC analyzed data from 12,004 participants aged 12-19 years in the 2001-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). During this time, prevalence of hypertension declined, using both the new (from 7.7% to 4.2%, p<0.001) and former (from 3.2% to 1.5%, p<0.001) guidelines, and declines were observed across all weight status categories. However, because of the new percentile tables and lower threshold for hypertension (4), application of the new guideline compared with the former guideline resulted in a weighted net estimated increase of 795,000 U.S. youths being reclassified as having hypertension using 2013-2016 data. Youths who were older, male, and those with obesity accounted for a disproportionate share of persons reclassified as having hypertension. Clinicians and public health professionals might expect to see a higher prevalence of hypertension with application of the new guideline and can use these data to inform actions to address hypertension among youths. Strategies to improve cardiovascular health include adoption of healthy eating patterns and increased physical activity (3).

      4. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mortality in the United States, 2011-2014External
        Larson TC, Kaye W, Mehta P, Horton DK.
        Neuroepidemiology. 2018 Jul 10;51(1-2):96-103.

        BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision (ICD-10) did not include a code specific for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) until 2017. Instead, code G12.2 included both ALS and other motor neuron diseases (MND). Our objective was to determine US mortality rates for ALS exclusively by excluding other MND and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: All mortality data coded as G12.2 under the pre-2017 rubric were obtained for 2011-2014. Deaths without ALS listed in one of the un-coded cause-of-death fields were excluded. ALS death rates per 100,000 persons were age-adjusted to the 2000 US standard population using the direct method. RESULTS: The proportion of excluded records coded G12.2 but not ALS was 0.21, resulting in 24,328 ALS deaths. The overall age-adjusted mortality rate was 1.70 (95% CI 1.68-1.72). The rate among males was 2.09 (95% CI 2.05-2.12) and females was 1.37 (95% CI 1.35-1.40). The overall rate among whites was 1.84, blacks 1.03, and other races 0.70. For both sexes and all races, the rate increased with age and peaked among 75-79 year-olds. Rates tended to be greater in states at higher latitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Previous reports of ALS mortality in the United States showed similar age, sex, and race distributions but with greater age-adjusted mortality rates due to the inclusion of other diseases in the case definition. When using ICD-10 data collected prior to 2017, additional review of multiple-cause of death data is required for the accurate estimation of ALS deaths.

      5. Prostate-specific antigen testing initiation and shared decision-making: Findings from the 2000 and 2015 National Health Interview SurveysExternal
        Li J, Ding H, Richards TB, Martin I, Kobrin S, Marcus PM.
        J Am Board Fam Med. 2018 Jul-Aug;31(4):658-662.

        PURPOSES: Despite recommendations against prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, about one-fourth of men age >/=40 years received PSA tests in 2015. This study aimed to answer 3 questions for men who had a PSA test in the past year: (1) What percentage of these men received the test first suggested by physicians? (2) What factors were associated with physician-initiated PSA testing (PIPT) versus patient/someone else-initiated testing? (3) What percentage of patients ever had shared decision-making when tests were initiated by physicians? METHODS: We analyzed the 2000 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey data. We calculated age-standardized prevalence of PIPT for both years. For 2015, we used logistic regression to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios for PIPT. We also calculated the prevalence of ever discussing both advantages and disadvantages. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of PIPT was significantly higher in 2015 (84.9%) than in 2000 (72.3%). In 2015, nearly 90% of PSA screenings for men aged >/=70 years were suggested by physicians. PIPT was positively associated with 2 or more comorbid conditions and number of patient visits to the doctor. Less than one-third of men reported they had ever participated in a discussion of advantages and disadvantages of PSA testing. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of men who had PSA testing in the past year reported that their physicians were the first to suggest testing, including men aged >/=70 years. Our study also points to the challenges and needs in conducting shared decision-making before PSA testing in clinical practice.

      6. Subjective cognitive decline among adults aged >/=45 years – United States, 2015-2016External
        Taylor CA, Bouldin ED, McGuire LC.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jul 13;67(27):753-757.

        Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is the self-reported experience of worsening or more frequent confusion or memory loss within the previous 12 months (1,2) and one of the earliest noticeable symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (Alzheimer’s), a fatal form of dementia (i.e., a decline in mental abilities severe enough to interfere with everyday life) (1). Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia, although not all memory loss results from Alzheimer’s (3). To examine SCD, CDC analyzed combined data from the 2015 and 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. Overall, 11.2% of adults aged >/=45 years reported having SCD, 50.6% of whom reported SCD-related functional limitations. Among persons living alone aged >/=45 years, 13.8% reported SCD; among persons with any chronic disease, 15.2% reported SCD. Adults should discuss confusion or memory loss with a health care professional who can assess cognitive decline and address possible treatments and issues related to chronic disease management, medical care, and caregiving.

    • Communicable Diseases
      1. Principles for developing innovative HIV digital health interventions: The case of Positive Health CheckExternal
        Burrus O, Gupta C, Ortiz A, Zulkiewicz B, Furberg R, Uhrig J, Harshbarger C, Lewis MA.
        Med Care. 2018 Jul 11.

        [No abstract]

      2. Background: Guidelines recommend that sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) including HIV-positive MSM be tested at least annually for syphilis; with testing every 3-6 months for MSM at elevated risk. We examined the proportion of HIV-positive MSM tested for syphilis in the past 3, 6, and 12 months by their HIV care provider during 2013-2014. Methods: Using medical record and interview data from the Medical Monitoring Project, a population-based HIV surveillance system, we evaluated the proportion of MSM who had documentation of being tested for syphilis by their HIV care provider in the past 3, 6, and 12 months. Results: During 2013-2014, 71% (95% CI: 69%-73%) of sexually active HIV-positive MSM were tested for syphilis in the past year. This proportion was higher among MSM at elevated risk: 75% (95% CI: 72%-78%) among men reporting condomless sex, and 77% (95% CI: 74%-79%) among men reporting >/= 2 sex partners, in the past 12 months. Among MSM reporting condomless sex, 49% (95% CI: 45%-53%) were tested in the past 6 months and 26% (95% CI: 22%-30%) in the past 3 months. Among MSM reporting >/= 2 sex partners, 49% (95% CI: 44%-54%) were tested in the past 6 months and 26% (95% CI: 22%-29%) in the past 3 months. Conclusions: Nearly one-third of sexually active HIV-positive MSM were not tested annually and many at increased risk were not tested at recommended frequencies. Efforts to improve compliance with screening guidelines for high risk HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

      3. Hepatitis A virus immunity and vaccination among at-risk persons receiving HIV medical careExternal
        DeGroote NP, Mattson CL, Tie Y, Brooks JT, Garg S, Weiser J.
        Preventive Medicine Reports. 2018 September;11:139-144.

        United States guidelines recommend hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccination for persons living with HIV (PLWH) who are at increased risk for HAV infection, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and persons who inject drugs (PWID). However, nationally representative estimates of vaccine coverage and immunity for this population are lacking. We used medical record and interview data from the 2009-2012 cycles of the Medical Monitoring Project, a nationally representative surveillance system of PLWH receiving HIV medical care in the United States, to estimate the prevalence of HAV immunity, defined as receipt of at least one dose of vaccine or laboratory documentation of anti-HAV antibodies, among 8695 MSM and PWID. Among HAV-nonimmune PLWH, we then examined factors associated with HAV vaccination during the 12-month retrospective observation period using Rao-Scott chi-square tests. Among MSM and PWID receiving HIV medical care, 64% had evidence of HAV immunity. Among those who were nonimmune, 10% were vaccinated during the 12-month retrospective observation period. Factors associated with vaccination during follow-up included younger age (i.e., 18-29 years), self-reported black non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, having detectable HIV RNA, and having been diagnosed with HIV within the past 5 years. Over one third of MSM and PWID receiving HIV medical care during 2009-2012 cycles were not immune to HAV. This analysis suggests that a sizeable proportion of at risk MSM and PWID receiving HIV medical care do not receive HAV vaccination, which is currently recommended.

      4. Clinical, environmental, and behavioral characteristics associated with Cryptosporidium infection among children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2008-2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS)External
        Delahoy MJ, Omore R, Ayers TL, Schilling KA, Blackstock AJ, Ochieng JB, Moke F, Jaron P, Awuor A, Okonji C, Juma J, Farag TH, Nasrin D, Panchalingam S, Nataro JP, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Oundo J, Roellig DM, Xiao L, Parsons MB, Laserson K, Mintz ED, Breiman RF, O’Reilly CE.
        PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Jul 12;12(7):e0006640.

        BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in young children in Africa. We examined factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection in MSD cases enrolled at the rural western Kenya Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) site from 2008-2012. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At health facility enrollment, stool samples were tested for enteric pathogens and data on clinical, environmental, and behavioral characteristics collected. Each child’s health status was recorded at 60-day follow-up. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Of the 1,778 children with MSD enrolled as cases in the GEMS-Kenya case-control study, 11% had Cryptosporidium detected in stool by enzyme immunoassay; in a genotyped subset, 81% were C. hominis. Among MSD cases, being an infant, having mucus in stool, and having prolonged/persistent duration diarrhea were associated with being Cryptosporidium-positive. Both boiling drinking water and using rainwater as the main drinking water source were protective factors for being Cryptosporidium-positive. At follow-up, Cryptosporidium-positive cases had increased odds of being stunted (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.06-2.57), underweight (aOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.34-3.22), or wasted (aOR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.21-3.43), and had significantly larger negative changes in height- and weight-for-age z-scores from enrollment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cryptosporidium contributes significantly to diarrheal illness in young children in western Kenya. Advances in point of care detection, prevention/control approaches, effective water treatment technologies, and clinical management options for children with cryptosporidiosis are needed.

      5. Treatment and outcomes in children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysisExternal
        Harausz EP, Garcia-Prats AJ, Law S, Schaaf HS, Kredo T, Seddon JA, Menzies D, Turkova A, Achar J, Amanullah F, Barry P, Becerra M, Chan ED, Chan PC, Ioana Chiotan D, Crossa A, Drobac PC, Fairlie L, Falzon D, Flood J, Gegia M, Hicks RM, Isaakidis P, Kadri SM, Kampmann B, Madhi SA, Marais E, Mariandyshev A, Mendez-Echevarria A, Moore BK, Nargiza P, Ozere I, Padayatchi N, Ur-Rehman S, Rybak N, Santiago-Garcia B, Shah NS, Sharma S, Shim TS, Skrahina A, Soriano-Arandes A, van den Boom M, van der Werf MJ, van der Werf TS, Williams B, Yablokova E, Yim JJ, Furin J, Hesseling AC.
        PLoS Med. 2018 Jul;15(7):e1002591.

        BACKGROUND: An estimated 32,000 children develop multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and rifampin) each year. Little is known about the optimal treatment for these children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To inform the pediatric aspects of the revised World Health Organization (WHO) MDR-TB treatment guidelines, we performed a systematic review and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis, describing treatment outcomes in children treated for MDR-TB. To identify eligible reports we searched PubMed, LILACS, Embase, The Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, and BioMedCentral databases through 1 October 2014. To identify unpublished data, we reviewed conference abstracts, contacted experts in the field, and requested data through other routes, including at national and international conferences and through organizations working in pediatric MDR-TB. A cohort was eligible for inclusion if it included a minimum of three children (aged <15 years) who were treated for bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed MDR-TB, and if treatment outcomes were reported. The search yielded 2,772 reports; after review, 33 studies were eligible for inclusion, with IPD provided for 28 of these. All data were from published or unpublished observational cohorts. We analyzed demographic, clinical, and treatment factors as predictors of treatment outcome. In order to obtain adjusted estimates, we used a random-effects multivariable logistic regression (random intercept and random slope, unless specified otherwise) adjusted for the following covariates: age, sex, HIV infection, malnutrition, severe extrapulmonary disease, or the presence of severe disease on chest radiograph. We analyzed data from 975 children from 18 countries; 731 (75%) had bacteriologically confirmed and 244 (25%) had clinically diagnosed MDR-TB. The median age was 7.1 years. Of 910 (93%) children with documented HIV status, 359 (39%) were infected with HIV. When compared to clinically diagnosed patients, children with confirmed MDR-TB were more likely to be older, to be infected with HIV, to be malnourished, and to have severe tuberculosis (TB) on chest radiograph (p < 0.001 for all characteristics). Overall, 764 of 975 (78%) had a successful treatment outcome at the conclusion of therapy: 548/731 (75%) of confirmed and 216/244 (89%) of clinically diagnosed children (absolute difference 14%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 8%-19%, p < 0.001). Treatment was successful in only 56% of children with bacteriologically confirmed TB who were infected with HIV who did not receive any antiretroviral treatment (ART) during MDR-TB therapy, compared to 82% in children infected with HIV who received ART during MDR-TB therapy (absolute difference 26%, 95% CI 5%-48%, p = 0.006). In children with confirmed MDR-TB, the use of second-line injectable agents and high-dose isoniazid (15-20 mg/kg/day) were associated with treatment success (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.9, 95% CI 1.0-8.3, p = 0.041 and aOR 5.9, 95% CI 1.7-20.5, p = 0.007, respectively). These findings for high-dose isoniazid may have been affected by site effect, as the majority of patients came from Cape Town. Limitations of this study include the difficulty of estimating the treatment effects of individual drugs within multidrug regimens, only observational cohort studies were available for inclusion, and treatment decisions were based on the clinician’s perception of illness, with resulting potential for bias. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that children respond favorably to MDR-TB treatment. The low success rate in children infected with HIV who did not receive ART during their MDR-TB treatment highlights the need for ART in these children. Our findings of individual drug effects on treatment outcome should be further evaluated.

      6. Epidemiology of rubella infection and genotyping of rubella virus in Cote d’Ivoire, 2012-2016External
        Kadjo HA, Waku-Kouomou D, Adagba M, Abernathy ES, Abdoulaye O, Adjogoua DE, Coulibaly-Traore F, Aboubacar S, Daniel E, Icenogle J, Dosso M.
        J Med Virol. 2018 Jul 8.

        BACKGROUND: Rubella is a contagious disease cause by the rubella virus (RuV) that can lead to serious birth defects when women are infected in early pregnancy. This work aimed to describe the epidemiology and genetic diversity of rubella viruses in Cote d’Ivoire (CIV). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood or oral fluid samples collected from suspected measles cases were first tested for the presence of measles specific IgM antibodies by ELISA. All measles IgM negative or indeterminate samples were tested for rubella IgM antibody using ELISA. Rubella- IgM positive samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for the presence of rubella virus RNA. Real-time RT-PCR positive RNA samples were used as template to amplify the 739-nt region used for rubella genotyping. PCR positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2016, 4121 serums and 126 oral fluids were collected through the measles surveillance system. Of these, 3823 and 108 respectively were measles IgM negative or indeterminate. Subsequent testing for rubella found that 690/3823 (18%) serum samples and 25/108 (23%) oral fluid samples were rubella IgM positive. The 739-nt segment of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified and sequenced for 2 serums and 7 oral fluids samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rubella viruses from CIV belonged to genotypes 1G (8 samples) and 2B (1 sample). CONCLUSION: Rubella virus genotype 2B was found in CIV for the first time. These data contribute to baseline information on rubella virus strains found in CIV prior to the introduction of rubella vaccine This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

      7. Survey of obstetrician-gynecologists in the United States about trichomoniasis, 2016External
        Liu EW, Workowski KA, Taouk L, Schulkin J, Secor WE, Jones JL.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Jul 7.

        PURPOSE: Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. It can present with vaginitis in women and urethritis in men, but is most often asymptomatic or occurs with minimal symptoms. It is associated with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), adverse pregnancy outcomes and pelvic inflammatory disease. For these reasons, healthcare provider awareness of trichomoniasis is of public health importance. METHODS: To assess practitioner knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning trichomoniasis management, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) conducted an online survey in 2016 of its members, and we analyzed results from 230 respondents. RESULTS: We note discrepancies between practice and recommendations amongst surveyed providers: a minority of respondents routinely screen HIV positive patients for trichomoniasis (10.7% “most of the time” 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.7-15.8, 33.0% “always” 95% CI: 26.5%-40.0%), treat trichomoniasis in HIV positive patients with the recommended dose of metronidazole 500 mg twice a day for 7 days (25.8% 95% CI: 20.0%-32.3%), or retest patients diagnosed with trichomoniasis 3 months after treatment (9.6% 95% CI: 6.1%-14.3R). Only 29.0% (95% CI: 23.0%-35.5%) retreat with metronidazole 500 mg twice a day for 7 days in patients who have failed prior treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Screening for and treatment of trichomoniasis in HIV positive patients, as well as retesting and retreatment for trichomoniasis in the general population appear to be suboptimal. Continuing education for providers is needed for this common but “neglected” STI.

      8. BACKGROUND: For HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known to reduce the mother’s risk of passing the infection to her child. However, concerns remain about possible associations between various components of different ART regimens and adverse fetal and infant outcomes. As part of a clinical trial in western Kenya for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, pregnant women received one of two different ART regimens. METHODS: The original PMTCT study conducted in Kenya enrolled 522 HIV-infected, ART-naive pregnant women. These women were assigned to receive an ART regimen that included either nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or nelfinavir, a protease inhibitor. This substudy involves 384 women from the original study who had baseline CD4 cell counts at least 250 cells/mul, and compares the risks of adverse fetal and infant outcomes between the two ART regimens. RESULTS: There were 386 live births (including multiples) and 7 (1.8%) stillbirths. Among live births, there were 67 preterm deliveries, 37 low-birth weight infants, and 14 infant deaths by 6 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the two ART regimens for any of the reported adverse outcomes. CONCLUSION: Although these data do not show significant differences between the NNRTI-based or protease inhibitor-based regimens in serious adverse fetal and infant outcomes, more studies need to be done and careful vigilance is needed to ensure infant safety.

      9. Epidemiology of meningococcal disease outbreaks in the United States, 2009-2013External
        Mbaeyi SA, Blain A, Whaley MJ, Wang X, Cohn AC, MacNeil JR.
        Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jun 30.

        Background: Although incidence of meningococcal disease is low in the United States, outbreaks remain a serious public health concern. In this evaluation, we identify and describe outbreaks of meningococcal disease. Methods: A retrospective review of all meningococcal disease cases reported from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 was performed by state health departments and CDC to identify meningococcal disease outbreaks. An outbreak was defined as 2 or more primary cases of the same serogroup in less than three months in an organization, or an at-least two-fold increase in disease rates in a community. Results: From 2009 to 2013, 3,686 cases of meningococcal disease were reported in the United States. Among these, 180 primary cases (4.9%) occurred as part of 36 outbreaks (17 organization-based and 19 community-based). Serogroup B accounted for 8 (47.1%) organization-based outbreaks, including 6 of 8 university outbreaks. Serogroup C accounted for 10 (52.6%) community-based outbreaks, including both of the 2 outbreaks identified among men who have sex with men. Organization- and community-based outbreaks differed in predominant serogroup, age distribution of cases, and clinical syndrome. Among 33 outbreaks with known information, a vaccination and/or expanded chemoprophylaxis campaign were conducted in 16 (48.5%). Conclusions: Outbreak-associated cases account for approximately 5% of all meningococcal disease cases in the United States. Serogroup B is the primary cause of organization-based outbreaks, with the majority of university outbreaks due to serogroup B, while serogroup C is the primary cause of community-based outbreaks.

      10. Trends, treatment outcomes, and determinants for attrition among adult patients in care at a large tertiary HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya: a 2004-2015 retrospective cohort studyExternal
        Mecha JO, Kubo EN, Nganga LW, Muiruri PN, Njagi LN, Ilovi S, Ngethe R, Mutisya I, Ngugi EW, Maleche-Obimbo E.
        HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2018 ;10:103-114.

        Background: Understanding trends in patient profiles and identifying predictors for adverse outcomes are key to improving the effectiveness of HIV care and treatment programs. Previous work in Kenya has documented findings from a rural setting. This paper describes trends in demographic and clinical characteristics of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment cohorts at a large urban, referral HIV clinic and explores treatment outcomes and factors associated with attrition during 12 years of follow-up. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of HIV-infected adults who started ART between January 1, 2004, and September 30, 2015. ART-experienced patients and those with missing data were excluded. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to determine trends in baseline characteristics over time. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of baseline characteristics on attrition. Results: ART uptake among older adolescents (15-19 years), youth, and young adults increased over time (p=0.0001). Independent predictors for attrition included (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI]) male sex: 1.30 (1.16-1.45), p=0.0001; age: 15-19 years: 1.83 (1.26-2.66), p=0.0014; 20-24 years: 1.93 (1.52-2.44), p=0.0001; and 25-29 years: 1.31 (1.11-1.54), p=0.0012; marital status – single: 1.27 (1.11-1.44), p=0.0005; and divorced/separated: 1.56 (1.30-1.87), p=0.0001; urban residence: 1.40 (1.20-1.64), p=0.0001; entry into HIV care following hospitalization: 1.31 (1.10-1.57), p=0.0026, or transfer from another facility: 1.60 (1.26-2.04), p=0.0001; initiation of ART more than 12 months after the date of HIV diagnosis: 1.36 (1.19-1.55), p=0.0001, and history of a current or past opportunistic infection (OI): 1.15 (1.02-1.30), p=0.0284. Conclusion: Although ART uptake among adolescents and young people increased over time, this group was at increased risk for attrition. Single marital status, urban residence, history of hospitalization or OI, and delayed initiation of ART also predicted attrition. This calls for focused evidence-informed strategies to address attrition and improve outcomes.

      11. Strategies for identifying and linking HIV-infected infants, children, and adolescents to HIV treatment services in resource limited settingsExternal
        Medley AM, Hrapcak S, Golin RA, Dziuban EJ, Watts H, Siberry GK, Rivadeneira ED, Behel S.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Aug 15;78 Suppl 2:S98-s106.

        Many children living with HIV in resource-limited settings remain undiagnosed and at risk for HIV-related mortality and morbidity. This article describes 5 key strategies for strengthening HIV case finding and linkage to treatment for infants, children, and adolescents. These strategies result from lessons learned during the Accelerating Children’s HIV/AIDS Treatment Initiative, a public-private partnership between the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation (CIFF). The 5 strategies include (1) implementing a targeted mix of HIV case finding approaches (eg, provider-initiated testing and counseling within health facilities, optimization of early infant diagnosis, index family testing, and integration of HIV testing within key population and orphan and vulnerable children programs); (2) addressing the unique needs of adolescents; (3) collecting and using data for program improvement; (4) fostering a supportive political and community environment; and (5) investing in health system-strengthening activities. Continued advocacy and global investments are required to eliminate AIDS-related deaths among children and adolescents.

      12. Beyond early infant diagnosis: Changing the approach to HIV-exposed infantsExternal
        Modi S, Broyles LN, Montandon M, Itoh M, Ochanda B, Langat A, Sullivan D, Dale H.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Aug 15;78 Suppl 2:S107-s114.

        Despite dramatic global progress with implementing prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs, there were 160,000 new pediatric HIV infections in 2016. More than 50% of infant HIV infections now occur in the postpartum period, reflecting the relatively high coverage of interventions in the antenatal period and the need for greater attention to the breastfeeding mother and her HIV-exposed infant (HEI). Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to prevent morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children; however, early infant HIV testing rates remain low in most high HIV-burden countries. Furthermore, systematic retention and follow-up of HEI in the postpartum period and ascertainment of final HIV status remain major program gaps. Despite multiple calls to action to improve infant HIV testing rates, progress has been marginal due to a lack of focus on the critical health care needs of HEI coupled with health system barriers that result in fragmented services for HIV-infected mothers and their families. In this paper, we describe the available evidence on the health outcomes of HEI, define a comprehensive care package for HEI that extends beyond early HIV testing, and describe successful examples of integrated services for HEI.

      13. Screening Peter to Save Paul: The population-level effects of screening MSM for gonorrhea and chlamydiaExternal
        Ridpath A, Chesson H, Marcus JL, Kirkcaldy RD, Torrone E, Aral SO, Bernstein KT.
        Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Jul 7.

        [No abstract]

      14. Pediatric HIV treatment gaps in 7 east and southern African countries: Examination of modeled, survey, and routine program dataExternal
        Saito S, Chung H, Mahy M, Radin AK, Jonnalagadda S, Hakim A, Awor AC, Mwila A, Gonese E, Wadonda-Kabondo N, Rwehumbiza P, Ao T, Kim EJ, Frederix K, Nuwagaba-Birbomboha H, Musuka G, Mugurungi O, Mushii J, Mnisi Z, Munthali G, Jahn A, Kirungi WL, Sivile S, Abrams EJ.
        J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Aug 15;78 Suppl 2:S134-s141.

        BACKGROUND: Remarkable success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV infection has been achieved in the past decade. Large differences remain between the estimated number of children living with HIV (CLHIV) and those identified through national HIV programs. We evaluated the number of CLHIV and those on treatment in Lesotho, Malawi, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. METHODS: We assessed the total number of CLHIV, CLHIV on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and national and regional ART coverage gaps using 3 data sources: (1) Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS model-based estimates and national program data used as input values in the models, (2) population-based HIV impact surveys (PHIA), and (3) program data from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)-supported clinics. RESULTS: Across the 7 countries, HIV prevalence among children aged 0-14 years ranged from 0.4% (Uncertainty Bounds (UB) 0.2%-0.6%) to 2.8% (UB: 2.2%-3.4%) according to the PHIA surveys, resulting in estimates of 520,000 (UB: 460,000-580,000) CLHIV in 2016-2017 in the 7 countries. This compared with Spectrum estimates of pediatric HIV prevalence ranging from 0.5% (UB: 0.5%-0.6%) to 3.5% (UB: 3.0%-4.0%) representing 480,000 (UB: 390,000-550,000) CLHIV. CLHIV not on treatment according to the PEPFAR, PHIA, and Spectrum for the countries stood at 48% (UB: 25%-60%), 49% (UB: 37%-50%), and 38% (UB: 24%-47%), respectively. Of 78 regions examined across 7 countries, 33% of regions (PHIA data) or 41% of regions (PEPFAR data) had met the ART coverage target of 81%. CONCLUSIONS: There are substantial gaps in the coverage of HIV treatment in CLHIV in the 7 countries studied according to all sources. There is continued need to identify, engage, and treat infants and children. Important inconsistencies in estimates across the 3 sources warrant in-depth investigation.

      15. Defining a migrant-inclusive tuberculosis research agenda to end TBExternal
        Shete PB, Boccia D, Dhavan P, Gebreselassie N, Lonnroth K, Marks S, Matteelli A, Posey DL, van der Werf MJ, Winston CA, Lienhardt C.
        Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Aug 1;22(8):835-843.

        BACKGROUND: Pillar 3 of the End TB Strategy calls for the promotion of research and innovation at the country level to facilitate improved implementation of existing and novel interventions to end tuberculosis (TB). In an era of increasing cross-border migration, there is a specific need to integrate migration-related issues into national TB research agendas. The objective of the present review is to provide a conceptual framework to guide countries in the development and operationalization of a migrant-inclusive TB research agenda. METHODS: We conducted a literature review, complemented by expert opinion and the previous articles in this State of the Art series, to identify important themes central to migration-related TB. We categorized these themes into a framework for a migration-inclusive global TB research agenda across a comprehensive spectrum of research. We developed this conceptual framework taking into account: 1) the biomedical, social and structural determinants of TB; 2) the epidemiologic impact of the migration pathway; and 3) the feasibility of various types of research based on a country’s capacity. DISCUSSION: The conceptual framework presented here is based on the key principle that migrants are not inherently different from other populations in terms of susceptibility to known TB determinants, but that they often have exacerbated or additional risks related to their country of origin and the migration process, which must be accounted for in developing comprehensive TB prevention and care strategies. A migrant-inclusive research agenda should systematically consider this wider context to have the highest impact.

      16. Prevalence of missed opportunities for HIV testing among persons unaware of their infectionExternal
        Wejnert C, Prejean J, Hoots B, Hall HI, McCray E, Mermin J.
        Jama. 2018 Jun 26;319(24):2555-2557.

        [No abstract]

    • Disease Reservoirs and Vectors
      1. Rickettsia species isolated from Dermacentor occidentalis (Acari: Ixodidae) from CaliforniaExternal
        Paddock CD, Yoshimizu MH, Zambrano ML, Lane RS, Ryan BM, Espinosa A, Hacker JK, Karpathy SE, Padgett KA.
        J Med Entomol. 2018 Jun 30.

        The Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, 1892) is one of the most widely distributed and frequently encountered tick species in California. This tick is the primary vector of an unclassified spotted fever group rickettsial pathogen, designated currently as Rickettsia 364D, the etiologic agent of a recently recognized tick-borne rickettsiosis known as Pacific Coast tick fever. Despite intensified interest in this pathogen, important questions remain regarding its taxonomic status and possible variations in genotype among different strains that could influence its pathogenicity. Only the extensively passaged prototypical isolate (strain 364-D) is widely available to rickettsiologists and public health scientists worldwide. To achieve a larger, more geographically diverse, and contemporary collection of strains, 1,060 questing adult D. occidentalis ticks were collected from 18 sites across six counties in northern and southern California in 2016 and 2017. Fourteen ticks (1.3%) yielded DNA of Rickettsia 364D and from these, 10 unique isolates from Lake and Orange counties were obtained. Additionally, Rickettsia rhipicephali was detected in 108 (10.2%) ticks, from which eight isolates were obtained, and Rickettsia bellii in six (0.6%), from which three isolates were obtained. The panel of recently acquired, low-passage strains of Rickettsia 364D derived from this study could enhance opportunities for investigators to accurately determine the taxonomic standing of this agent and to develop specific diagnostic assays for detecting infections with Rickettsia 364D in ticks and humans.

    • Environmental Health
      1. Maternal and paternal preconception exposure to bisphenols and size at birthExternal
        Mustieles V, Williams PL, Fernandez MF, Minguez-Alarcon L, Ford JB, Calafat AM, Hauser R, Messerlian C.
        Hum Reprod. 2018 Jul 4.

        STUDY QUESTION: Are maternal and paternal preconception urinary bisphenol A (BPA) or bisphenol S (BPS) concentrations associated with offspring birth size? SUMMARY ANSWER: Maternal-but not paternal-preconception urinary BPA concentrations were associated with lower birth size among couples seeking fertility evaluation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Prenatal BPA exposure has been previously associated with reduced birth size in some but not all epidemiologic studies. However, the potential effect of BPA exposure before conception in either parent is unknown. Data on BPS is practically absent. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Ongoing prospective preconception cohort of women and men seeking fertility evaluation between 2005 and 2016 in a large fertility center in an academic hospital in Boston, MA, USA. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We examined the association between maternal and paternal preconception, as well as maternal prenatal urinary BPA and BPS concentrations, and size at birth among 346 singletons from couples recruited in the Environment and Reproductive Health (EARTH) Study using multivariable linear regression. Infant birth weight and head circumference were abstracted from delivery records. Mean preconception and prenatal exposures were estimated by averaging urinary ln-BPA and ln-BPS concentrations in multiple maternal and paternal urine samples collected before pregnancy, and maternal pregnancy samples collected in each trimester. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Maternal preconception urinary BPA concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight and head circumference in adjusted models: each ln-unit increase was associated with a decrease in birth weight of 119 g (95% CI: -212, -27), and a head circumference decrease of 0.72 cm (95% CI: -1.3, -0.1). Additional adjustment by gestational age or prenatal BPA exposure modestly attenuated results. Women with higher prenatal BPA concentrations had infants with lower mean birth weight (-75 g, 95% CI: -153, 2) although this did not achieve statistical significance. Paternal preconception urinary BPA concentrations were not associated with either birth weight or head circumference. No consistent patterns emerged for BPS concentrations measured in either parent. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We observed a strong negative association between maternal-but not paternal-preconception BPA concentrations and offspring birth size among a subfertile population. Although these results are overall consistent with prior studies on prenatal BPA exposure, these findings may not be generalizable to women without fertility concerns. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This study suggests that the unexplored maternal preconception period may be a sensitive window for BPA effects on birth outcomes. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): Work supported by Grants (ES R01 009718, ES 022955 and ES 000002) from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). C.M. was supported by a post-doctoral fellowship award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. There are no competing interests to declare.

      2. Childhood perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and executive function in children at 8 yearsExternal
        Vuong AM, Yolton K, Wang Z, Xie C, Webster GM, Ye X, Calafat AM, Braun JM, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP, Chen A.
        Environ Int. 2018 Jun 29;119:212-219.

        BACKGROUND: Toxicological studies highlight the potential neurotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) during fetal development. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the impact of childhood PFAS on neurodevelopment. METHODS: We employed data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a birth cohort (Cincinnati, OH), to examine associations of six serum PFAS concentrations measured at 3 and 8years with executive function assessed at 8years using the validated parent-completed Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function survey. We used multiple informant models to identify susceptible windows of neurotoxicity to PFAS and executive function. We investigated trajectories of PFAS concentrations and whether sex modified these associations. RESULTS: Each ln-increase in perfluorononanoate (PFNA) at 8years was associated with a 3.4-point increase (95% CI 0.4, 6.3) in metacognition score, indicating poorer function. Children with PFNA above the median at 8years had poorer global executive functioning compared to children with concentrations consistently below median levels (beta=6.5, 95% CI 0.2, 12.9). Higher concurrent PFNA was associated with poorer behavior regulation among males, while associations among females were null (pPFNAxsex=0.018). Children with higher concurrent perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) had increased odds of being at risk of having clinical impairments in metacognition (OR=3.18, 95% CI 1.17, 8.60). There were no associations between perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorohexane sulfonate and executive function. CONCLUSIONS: PFNA and PFOA at 8years, but not 3years, may be related to poorer executive function at 8years. Results need to be confirmed in cohort studies with larger sample sizes.

    • Healthcare Associated Infections
      1. Sternal surgical site infection in Egypt following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Incidence and risk factorsExternal
        Abdou E, Westercamp M, Girgis S, Sabry M, Sayyouh O, Talaat M.
        J Hosp Infect. 2018 Jul 5.

        [No abstract]

      2. [No abstract]

    • Immunity and Immunization
      1. Feasibility of jet injector use during inactivated poliovirus vaccine house-to-house vaccination campaignsExternal
        Farag NH, Mansour Z, Torossian L, Said R, Snider CJ, Ehrhardt D.
        Vaccine. 2018 Jul 3.

        BACKGROUND: To attain high coverage during polio vaccination campaigns, an outreach house-to-house strategy is used to administer oral poliovirus vaccine. Administering an injectable vaccine house-to-house requires a skilled work force and increases risks of needle stick injuries. Needle-free injection devices provide a safer alternative to needles and syringes for administering injectable vaccines. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a needle-free injection device to administer injectable poliovirus vaccine during a house-to-house vaccination outreach activity. METHODS: Vaccination teams administered injectable poliovirus vaccine using the Pharmajet(R) needle-free intramuscular jet injector to children ages 6-59months in 766 homes. Data on the feasibility of using the jet injector in an outreach campaign setting and the acceptability of the jet injector by caregivers and vaccinators were collected. RESULTS: A total of 993 injections were administered. Vaccinators faced challenges during device preparation in 16% (n=158) of injections; challenges were related to problems loading the injector and not having a flat surface to use for setup of the injector. Among 32 vaccinators interviewed after the vaccination campaign, the main reported advantage of the device was absence of sharps disposal (91%) while the main reported disadvantage was unacceptability by parents (90%) which was related to the vaccine, not the device. CONCLUSIONS: The needle-free jet injector was feasible for use in house-to-house campaigns. Acceptability by vaccinators was low as 81% stated that the jet injector was not easier to use than needle and syringe. Parental refusal related to frequent polio vaccination campaigns was the biggest challenge. In addition, novelty of the device posed a challenge to teams as they needed to reassure parents about safety of the device. To take full advantage of the ability to take injectable vaccines door-to-door during vaccination campaigns using a needle-free jet injector device, tailored social mobilization efforts are needed ahead of campaigns.

      2. Boosting of mucosal immunity after fractional-dose inactivated poliovirus vaccineExternal
        Gamage D, Mach O, Palihawadana P, Zhang Y, Weldon WC, Oberste MS, Gunasena S, Sutter RW.
        J Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 5.

        Background: Full-dose inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) boosts mucosal immunity in persons previously vaccinated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). We assessed whether fractional-dose IPV (fIPV, 1/5th of a full dose) administered intradermally also boosts mucosal immunity. Methods: Children 10-12 years of age, previously vaccinated with OPV, were enrolled in Sri Lanka and randomized to receive one dose of IPV, fIPV, or no IPV vaccine. One month later, they received a challenge dose of trivalent OPV (tOPV). Blood was collected at enrolment and before tOPV challenge; and stool was collected at 3, 7 and 14 days post OPV challenge. Sera were analysed for presence of poliovirus neutralizing antibodies; stool was analysed for presence of poliovirus. Results: We analysed 304/309 (98%) enrolled subjects. The serum antibody response in the IPV and fIPV study arms was 98-100% for all 3 poliovirus serotypes with no difference between arms. There were 16/97 (16%), 9/99 (9%), and 72/95 (76%) subjects excreting poliovirus at any time-point after tOPV challenge in the IPV, fIPV and “No IPV Vaccine” study arms, respectively (p<0.001 for comparison of IPV [or fIPV] vs “No IPV Vaccine”; p=0.1 for comparisons of fIPV vs IPV). These percentages translate in relative decreases in excretion prevalence of 80% and 88% to IPV and fIPV, respectively, compared with the “No IPV Vaccine” control arm. Interpretation: Our study demonstrated that a single fIPV dose boosts mucosal immunity to a similar degree as does a single full dose of IPV. This finding provides further evidence in support of fIPV for poliovirus outbreak response at the time of IPV global supply shortage.

      3. Estimation of the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines via the test-negative control study design has gained popularity over the past few years. In this study design, children with severe diarrhea who test positive for rotavirus infection are considered as cases, while children who test negative serve as controls. We use a simple probability model to evaluate and compare the test-negative control and the traditional case-control designs with respect to the bias of resulting estimates of rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE). Comparisons are performed under two scenarios, corresponding to studies performed in high-income and low-income countries. We consider two potential sources of bias: (a) misclassification bias resulting from imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the test used to diagnose rotavirus infection, and (b) selection bias associated with possible effect of rotavirus vaccination on the probability of contracting severe non-rotavirus diarrhea. Our results suggest that both sources of bias may produce VE estimates with substantial bias. Particularly, lack of perfect specificity is associated with severe negative bias. For example, if the specificity of the diagnostic test is 90% then VE estimates from both types of case-control studies may under-estimate the true VE by more than 20%. If the vaccine protects children against non-rotavirus diarrhea then VE estimates from test-negative control studies may be close to zero even though the true VE is 50%. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the enzyme immunoassay test currently used to diagnose rotavirus infections are both over 99%, and there is no solid evidence that the existing rotavirus vaccines affect the rates of non-rotavirus diarrhea. We therefore conclude that the test-negative control study design is a convenient and reliable alternative for estimation of rotavirus VE.

      4. A 2018 manufacturer post-licensure safety study identified a possible association between Rotarix (RV1) rotavirus vaccine and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in infants within 0-6 days following receipt of RV1 dose 1. We reviewed reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) of LRTI occurring 0-6 days and 0-29 days post vaccination following RotaTeq (RV5) or Rotarix (RV1) vaccinations in conjunction with either Prevnar (PCV7) or Prevnar 13 (PCV13), in infants aged 6 to 15 weeks. There was no significant difference in LRTI reports to VAERS in the 0-6 days and 0-29 days following receipt of either RV5 or RV1 given with either pneumococcal vaccine.

      5. Global distribution of invasive serotype 35D Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates following introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccineExternal
        Lo SW, Gladstone RA, van Tonder AJ, Hawkins PA, Kwambana-Adams B, Cornick JE, Madhi SA, Nzenze SA, du Plessis M, Kandasamy R, Carter PE, Eser OK, Ho PL, Elmdaghri N, Shakoor S, Clarke SC, Antonio M, Everett DB, von Gottberg A, Klugman KP, McGee L, Breiman RF, Bentley SD.
        J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Jul;56(7).

        A newly recognized pneumococcal serotype, 35D, which differs from the 35B polysaccharide in structure and serology by not binding to factor serum 35a, was recently reported. The genetic basis for this distinctive serology is due to the presence of an inactivating mutation in wciG, which encodes an O-acetyltransferase responsible for O-acetylation of a galactofuranose. Here, we assessed the genomic data of a worldwide pneumococcal collection to identify serotype 35D isolates and understand their geographical distribution, genetic background, and invasiveness potential. Of 21,980 pneumococcal isolates, 444 were originally typed as serotype 35B by PneumoCaT. Analysis of the wciG gene revealed 23 isolates from carriage (n = 4) and disease (n = 19) with partial or complete loss-of-function mutations, including mutations resulting in premature stop codons (n = 22) and an in-frame mutation (n = 1). These were selected for further analysis. The putative 35D isolates were geographically widespread, and 65.2% (15/23) of them was recovered after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13). Compared with serotype 35B isolates, putative serotype 35D isolates have higher invasive disease potentials based on odds ratios (OR) (11.58; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.42 to 94.19 versus 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.92) and a higher prevalence of macrolide resistance mediated by mefA (26.1% versus 7.6%; P = 0.009). Using the Quellung reaction, 50% (10/20) of viable isolates were identified as serotype 35D, 25% (5/20) as serotype 35B, and 25% (5/20) as a mixture of 35B/35D. The discrepancy between phenotype and genotype requires further investigation. These findings illustrated a global distribution of an invasive serotype, 35D, among young children post-PCV13 introduction and underlined the invasive potential conferred by the loss of O-acetylation in the pneumococcal capsule.

    • Injury and Violence
      1. Using opinion leaders to address intervention gaps in concussion prevention in youth sports: key concepts and foundational theoryExternal
        Kerr ZY, Register-Mihalik JK, Haarbauer-Krupa J, Kroshus E, Go V, Gildner P, Byrd KH, Marshall SW.
        Inj Epidemiol. 2018 Jul 9;5(1):28.

        Behavioral interventions to increase disclosure and proper management of concussion in youth sports have unrealized potential when it comes to preventing concussion. Interventions have focused on changing individual athlete behavior and have fallen short of the potential for sustained systemic behavioral change. One potentially critical reason for this shortfall is that other key determinants of risk behaviors at all levels of the socio-ecological model (e.g. interpersonal, community, policy) are not addressed in extant programming. There is a critical need for theory-driven interventions that address concussion prevention and education at the community level and target sustainable culture change. The Popular Opinion Leader (POL) intervention, a multi-level intervention model previously successfully employed in multiple public health contexts, is theoretically well positioned to affect such change. POL is based on the Diffusion of Innovations framework and involves identifying, recruiting, and training well-respected and trusted individuals to personally endorse prevention and risk-reduction within their social networks. Critical behavioral changes related to concussion disclosure and management have been shown to diffuse to others if enough opinion leaders endorse and support the behaviors. This article summarizes the concepts and principles of POL and describes how it could be adapted for and implemented in youth sport settings. For optimal impact, POL needs to adapt to several factors unique to youth sports settings and culture. First, adult involvement may be important, given their direct involvement in the athlete’s medical care. However, parents and coaches’ opinions on injury care-seeking, competition, and safety may affect their perceptions of POL. Second, youth sports are structured settings both physically and socioculturally. Games and practices may provide opportunities for the informal interactions that are critical to the success of POL. However, youth sport setting membership is transient as players get older and move to other sport settings; POL approaches need to be self-sustaining despite this turnover. Moreover, stakeholder value placed on athlete development and competition, alongside safety, must be considered. Formative research is needed to ensure that POL principles are translated into the youth sport setting while maintaining fidelity to the concepts and principles that have made POL successful for other health outcomes.

    • Laboratory Sciences
      1. Methodologies for in vitro and in vivo evaluation of efficacy of antifungal and antibiofilm agents and surface coatings against fungal biofilmsExternal
        Dijck PV, Sjollema J, Cammue BP, Lagrou K, Berman J, d’Enfert C, Andes DR, Arendrup MC, Brakhage AA, Calderone R, Canton E, Coenye T, Cos P, Cowen LE, Edgerton M, Espinel-Ingroff A, Filler SG, Ghannoum M, Gow NA, Haas H, Jabra-Rizk MA, Johnson EM, Lockhart SR, Lopez-Ribot JL, Maertens J, Munro CA, Nett JE, Nobile CJ, Pfaller MA, Ramage G, Sanglard D, Sanguinetti M, Spriet I, Verweij PE, Warris A, Wauters J, Yeaman MR, Zaat SA, Thevissen K.
        Microb Cell. 2018 Jun 14;5(7):300-326.

        Unlike superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails, which are the most common fungal diseases in humans, invasive fungal infections carry high morbidity and mortality, particularly those associated with biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices. Therapeutic management of these complex diseases is often complicated by the rise in resistance to the commonly used antifungal agents. Therefore, the availability of accurate susceptibility testing methods for determining antifungal resistance, as well as discovery of novel antifungal and antibiofilm agents, are key priorities in medical mycology research. To direct advancements in this field, here we present an overview of the methods currently available for determining (i) the susceptibility or resistance of fungal isolates or biofilms to antifungal or antibiofilm compounds and compound combinations; (ii) the in vivo efficacy of antifungal and antibiofilm compounds and compound combinations; and (iii) the in vitro and in vivo performance of anti-infective coatings and materials to prevent fungal biofilm-based infections.

      2. Evaluation and control of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) exposures are critical components of an effective mine industrial hygiene program. To provide more timely exposure data in the field, an end-of-shift Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry method has been developed for evaluation of direct-on-filter RCS. The present study aimed to apply this FT-IR method using field samples collected in three Northwestern U.S. metal/nonmetal mines and compare the results to traditional laboratory X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Seventy-five dust samples were analysed using both methods. Samples for each mine were split in half by random assignment, with half used to create a calibration factor for the FT-IR analysis and half used to apply the calibration. Non-parametric correlational and two-sample comparative tests were used to assess the strength of association and the level of agreement between the two methods. Strong, positive correlations were observed between FT-IR and XRD RCS concentrations, with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging between 0.84 and 0.97. The mean RCS concentrations determined though FT-IR analysis were lower than through XRD analysis, with mean differences ranging from -4 to -133 ug/m(3) and mean percent errors ranging from 12% to 28%. There was a statistically significant improvement in the level of agreement between log FT-IR and log XRD RCS concentrations following calibration at two of the three mines, with mean differences of -0.03 (p = 0.002) and -0.02 (p = 0.044) in the log scale. The reduction in mean difference following calibration at the other mine was not statistically significant (mean log scale difference = -0.05, p = 0.215), but the differences between FT-IR and XRD were not significantly different without calibration (mean log scale difference = -0.07, p = 0.534). The results indicate that mine-specific calibration factors can improve the level of agreement between RCS concentrations determined via a field-based, end-of-shift FT-IR method in metal/non-metal mines as compared to traditional XRD analysis.

      3. Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors and status of novel antivirals, 2016-2017External
        Lackenby A, Besselaar TG, Daniels RS, Fry A, Gregory V, Gubareva LV, Huang W, Hurt AC, Leang SK, Lee RT, Lo J, Lollis L, Maurer-Stroh S, Odagiri T, Pereyaslov D, Takashita E, Wang D, Zhang W, Meijer A.
        Antiviral Res. 2018 Jul 3;157:38-46.

        A total of 13672 viruses, collected by World Health Organization recognised National Influenza Centres between May 2016 and May 2017, were assessed for neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility by four WHO Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance Epidemiology and Control of Influenza. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for oseltamivir and zanamivir for all viruses, and for peramivir and laninamivir in a subset (n=8457). Of the viruses tested, 94% were obtained from the Western Pacific, Americas and European WHO regions, while limited viruses were available from the Eastern Mediterranean, African and South East Asian regions. Reduced inhibition (RI) by one or more neuraminidase inhibitor was exhibited by 0.2% of viruses tested (n=32). The frequency of viruses with RI has remained low since this global analysis began (2015/16: 0.8%, 2014/15: 0.5%; 2013/14: 1.9%; 2012/13: 0.6%) but 2016/17 has the lowest frequency observed to date. Analysis of 13581 neuraminidase sequences retrieved from public databases, of which 5243 sequences were from viruses not included in the phenotypic analyses, identified 58 further viruses (29 without phenotypic analyses) with amino acid substitutions associated with RI by at least one neuraminidase inhibitor. Bringing the total proportion to 0.5% (90/18915). This 2016/17 analysis demonstrates that neuraminidase inhibitors remain suitable for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus infections, but continued monitoring is important. An expansion of surveillance testing is paramount since several novel influenza antivirals are in late stage clinical trials with some resistance already having been identified.

      4. Laboratory medicine in Africa since 2008: then, now, and the futureExternal
        Nkengasong JN, Mbopi-Keou FX, Peeling RW, Yao K, Zeh CE, Schneidman M, Gadde R, Abimiku A, Onyebujoh P, Birx D, Hader S.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 3.

        The Maputo Declaration of 2008 advocated for commitment from global stakeholders and national governments to prioritise support and harmonisation of laboratory systems through development of comprehensive national laboratory strategies and policies in sub-Saharan Africa. As a result, HIV laboratory medicine in Africa has undergone a transformation, and substantial improvements have been made in diagnostic services, networks, and institutions, including the development of a competent workforce, introduction of point-of-care diagnostics, and innovative quality improvement programmes that saw more than 1100 laboratories enrolled and 44 accredited to international standards. These improved HIV laboratories can now be used to combat emerging continental and global health threats in the decades to come. For instance, the unprecedented Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa exposed the severe weaknesses in the overall national health systems in affected countries. It is now possible to build robust health-care systems in Africa and to combat emerging continental and global health threats in the future. In this Personal View, we aim to describe the remarkable transformation that has occurred in laboratory medicine to combat HIV/AIDS and improve global health in sub-Saharan Africa since 2008.

      5. Clinic-based evaluation study of the diagnostic accuracy of a dual rapid test for the screening of HIV and syphilis in pregnant women in NigeriaExternal
        Olugbenga I, Taiwo O, Laverty M, Ngige E, Anyaike C, Bakare R, Ogunleye V, Peterson Maddox BL, Newman DR, Gliddon HD, Ofondu E, Nurse-Findlay S, Taylor MM.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(7):e0198698.

        BACKGROUND: Screening pregnant women for HIV and syphilis is recommended by WHO in order to reduce mother-to-child transmission. We evaluated the field performance, feasibility, and acceptability of a dual rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for HIV and syphilis test in antenatal clinic settings in Nigeria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were recruited at 12 antenatal clinic sites in three states of Nigeria. All consenting individuals were tested according to the national HIV testing algorithm, as well as a dual RDT, the SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo Test (Alere, USA), in the clinic. To determine sensitivity, specificity and concordance, whole blood samples were obtained for repeat RDT performance in the laboratory, as well as reference tests for HIV and syphilis. Dual test acceptability and operational characteristics were assessed among participants and clinic staff. The prevalence of HIV among the 4,551 enrollees was 3.0% (138/4551) using the national clinic-based HIV testing algorithm. Positive and negative percent agreement of the HIV component of the dual RDT were 100.0% (95% CI 99.7-100.0) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.7-100.0) respectively, when compared with the national rapid testing algorithm. The prevalence of syphilis, using TPHA as the reference test, was low at 0.09% (4/4550). The sensitivity of the syphilis component of the dual RDT could not be calculated as no positive results were observed for patients that were positive for syphilis by TPHA. Each of the only four TPHA-positive specimens had RPR titers of 1:1 (neat), indicative of non-active syphilis. The specificity of the syphilis component of the dual RDT was 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-100.0). The dual RDT received favorable feasibility ratings among antenatal care clinic staff. Acceptability among study participants was high with most women reporting preference for rapid dual HIV/syphilis testing. CONCLUSIONS: The SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo Test showed a high overall diagnostic accuracy for HIV and a high specificity for syphilis diagnosis in antenatal clinic settings. This study adds to a growing body of evidence that supports the clinic-based use of dual tests for HIV and syphilis among pregnant women.

      6. Interlaboratory evaluation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Escherichia coli identification microarray for profiling shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coliExternal
        Patel IR, Gangiredla J, Lacher DW, Mammel MK, Bagi L, Baranzoni GM, Fratamico PM, Roberts EL, Deb R, Lindsey RL, V. Stoneburg D, Martin H, Smith P, Strockbine NA, Elkins CA, Scheutz F, Feng PC.
        J Food Prot. 2018 Jul 9:1275-1282.

        The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Escherichia coli Identification (FDA-ECID) microarray provides rapid molecular characterization of E. coli. The effectiveness of the FDA-ECID for characterizing Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) was evaluated by three federal laboratories and one reference laboratory with a panel of 54 reference E. coli strains from the External Quality Assurance program. Strains were tested by FDA-ECID for molecular serotyping (O and H antigens), Shiga toxin subtyping, and the presence of the ehxA and eae genes for enterohemolysin and intimin, respectively. The FDA-ECID O typing was 96% reproducible among the four laboratories and 94% accurate compared with the reference External Quality Assurance data. Discrepancies were due to the absence of O41 target loci on the array and to two pairs of O types with identical target sequences. H typing was 96% reproducible and 100% accurate, with discrepancies due to two strains from one laboratory that were identified as mixed by FDA-ECID. Shiga toxin (Stx) type 1 subtyping was 100% reproducible and accurate, and Stx2 subtyping was 100% reproducible but only 64% accurate. FDA-ECID identified most Stx2 subtypes but had difficulty distinguishing among stx2a, stx2c, and stx2d genes because of close similarities of these sequences. FDA-ECID was 100% effective for detecting ehxA and eae and accurately subtyped the eae alleles. This interlaboratory study revealed that FDA-ECID for STEC characterization was highly reproducible for molecular serotyping, stx and eae subtyping, and ehxA detection. However, the array was less useful for distinguishing among the highly homologous O antigen genes and the stx2a, stx2c, and stx2d subtypes.

      7. Snell dwarf mice (Pit1(dw/dw) ) exhibit deficiencies in growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone. Besides being an experimental model of hypopituitarism, these mice are long-lived (>40% lifespan extension) and utilized as a model of slowed/delayed aging. Whether this longevity is accompanied by a compromised quality of life in terms of muscular performance has not yet been characterized. In this study, we investigated nontrained and trained muscles 1 month following a general validated resistance-type exercise protocol in 3-month-old Snell dwarf mice and control littermates. Nontrained Snell dwarf gastrocnemius muscles exhibited a 1.3-fold greater muscle mass to body weight ratio than control values although muscle quality, maximum isometric torque normalized to muscle mass, and fatigue recovery were compromised. For control mice, training increased isometric torque (17%) without altering muscle mass. For Snell dwarf mice, isometric torque was unaltered by training despite decreased muscle mass that rendered muscle mass to body weight ratio comparable to control values. Muscle quality and fatigue recovery improved twofold and threefold, respectively, for Snell dwarf mice. This accompanied a fourfold increase in levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a mediator of progenitor cell recruitment, and muscle remodeling in the form of increased number of central nuclei, additional muscle fibers per unit area, and altered fiber type distribution. These results reveal a trade-off between muscle quality and longevity in the context of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency and that resistance-type training can diminish this trade-off by improving muscle quality concomitant with VCAM-1 upregulation and muscle remodeling.

      8. Evaluating latent tuberculosis infection diagnostics using latent class analysisExternal
        Stout JE, Wu Y, Ho CS, Pettit AC, Feng PJ, Katz DJ, Ghosh S, Venkatappa T, Luo R.
        Thorax. 2018 Jul 7.

        BACKGROUND: Lack of a gold standard for latent TB infection has precluded direct measurement of test characteristics of the tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma release assays (QuantiFERON Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB). OBJECTIVE: We estimated test sensitivity/specificity and latent TB infection prevalence in a prospective, US-based cohort of 10 740 participants at high risk for latent infection. METHODS: Bayesian latent class analysis was used to estimate test sensitivity/specificity and latent TB infection prevalence among subgroups based on age, foreign birth outside the USA and HIV infection. RESULTS: Latent TB infection prevalence varied from 4.0% among foreign-born, HIV-seronegative persons aged <5 years to 34.0% among foreign-born, HIV-seronegative persons aged >/=5 years. Test sensitivity ranged from 45.8% for the T-SPOT.TB among foreign-born, HIV-seropositive persons aged >/=5 years to 80.7% for the tuberculin skin test among foreign-born, HIV-seronegative persons aged >/=5 years. The skin test was less specific than either interferon-gamma release assay, particularly among foreign-born populations (eg, the skin test had 70.0% specificity among foreign-born, HIV-seronegative persons aged >/=5 years vs 98.5% and 99.3% specificity for the QuantiFERON and T-SPOT.TB, respectively). The tuberculin skin test’s positive predictive value ranged from 10.0% among foreign-born children aged <5 years to 69.2% among foreign-born, HIV-seropositive persons aged >/=5 years; the positive predictive values of the QuantiFERON (41.4%) and T-SPOT.TB (77.5%) were also low among US-born, HIV-seropositive persons aged >/=5 years. CONCLUSIONS: These data reinforce guidelines preferring interferon-gamma release assays for foreign-born populations and recommending against screening populations at low risk for latent TB infection. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01622140.

      9. Field evaluation of a real time loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) for malaria diagnosis in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre, BrazilExternal
        Viana GM, Silva-Flannery L, Lima Barbosa DR, Lucchi N, do Valle SC, Farias S, Barbalho N, Marchesini P, Rossi JC, Udhayakumar V, Povoa MM, de Oliveira AM.
        PLoS One. 2018 ;13(7):e0200492.

        Conventional molecular methods, such as nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are very sensitive for detection of malaria parasites, but require advanced laboratory equipment and trained personnel. Real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp), a loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based molecular tool (LAMP), facilitates rapid target amplification at a single temperature setting, reducing the need for sophisticated equipment. We evaluated the performance of a field-adapted RealAmp assay for malaria diagnosis in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, Brazil, a remote area in Brazil with limited laboratory capabilities. We enrolled 1,000 patients with fever (axillary temperature >/= 37.5 C) or history of fever in last 24 h presenting for malaria diagnosis from February through June 2015. DNA was extracted from dried blood spots using a boil and spin method (heat treatment) at the sample processing site, and also using commercial kits at a Brazilian national reference laboratory. RealAmp was performed for Plasmodium genus, P. falciparum, and P. vivax identification. In addition, Giemsa-stained blood smears were prepared and examined by two independent well-trained study microscopists. A combination of Real-time PCR and nested PCR was used as reference test. The sensitivity and specificity of RealAmp in the field site laboratory were 94.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90.1-96.8) and 83.9% (95% CI: 81.1-86.4), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of local microscopy were 87.7% (95% CI: 82.6-91.7) and 98.9% (95% CI: 97.8-99.4), respectively, while study microscopy showed sensitivity of 96.4% (95% CI: 93.0-98.4) and specificity of 98.2% (95% CI: 97.0-99.0). None of the three tests detected 20 P. falciparum and P. vivax mixed infections identified by the reference test. Our findings highlight that it is possible to implement simple molecular tests in facilities with limited resources such as Cruzeiro do Sul in Brazil. RealAmp sensitivity was similar to that of microscopy performed by skilled professionals; both RealAmp and study microscopy performed poorly in detection of mixed infection. Attempts to develop and evaluate simpler molecular tools should continue, especially for the detection of malaria infection in remote areas.

      10. Advancing the public health applications of Chlamydia trachomatis serologyExternal
        Woodhall SC, Gorwitz RJ, Migchelsen SJ, Gottlieb SL, Horner PJ, Geisler WM, Winstanley C, Hufnagel K, Waterboer T, Martin DL, Huston WM, Gaydos CA, Deal C, Unemo M, Dunbar JK, Bernstein K.
        Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 5.

        Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. Trachoma is caused by ocular infection with C trachomatis and is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. New serological assays for C trachomatis could facilitate improved understanding of C trachomatis epidemiology and prevention. C trachomatis serology offers a means of investigating the incidence of chlamydia infection and might be developed as a biomarker of scarring sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. Therefore, serological assays have potential as epidemiological tools to quantify unmet need, inform service planning, evaluate interventions including screening and treatment, and to assess new vaccine candidates. However, questions about the performance characteristics and interpretation of C trachomatis serological assays remain, which must be addressed to advance development within this field. In this Personal View, we explore the available information about C trachomatis serology and propose several priority actions. These actions involve development of target product profiles to guide assay selection and assessment across multiple applications and populations, establishment of a serum bank to facilitate assay development and evaluation, and development of technical and statistical methods for assay evaluation and analysis of serological findings. The field of C trachomatis serology will benefit from collaboration across the public health community to align technological developments with their potential applications.

      11. Evaluation of a rapid point-of-care HIV screening program in an emergency department setting in Detroit, MichiganExternal
        Zhu W, Mumby K, Dankerlui D, Manteuffel J, Ham C, Huang YL, Peters PJ, Fakile YF, Markowitz N, Hoover KW.
        Journal of Clinical Virology. 2018 ;106:11-12.

        [No abstract]

    • Nutritional Sciences
      1. We estimated iodine status (median urinary iodine concentration (mUIC (&micro;g/L))) for the US population (6 years and over; n = 4613) and women of reproductive age (WRA) (15(-)44 years; n = 901). We estimated mean intake of key iodine sources by race and Hispanic origin. We present the first national estimates of mUIC for non-Hispanic Asian persons and examine the intake of soy products, a potential source of goitrogens. One-third of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants in 2011(-)2014 provided casual urine samples; UIC was measured in these samples. We assessed dietary intake with one 24-h recall and created food groups using the USDA&rsquo;s food/beverage coding scheme. For WRA, mUIC was 110 &micro;g/L. For both non-Hispanic white (106 &micro;g/L) and non-Hispanic Asian (81 &micro;g/L) WRA mUIC was significantly lower than mUIC among Hispanic WRA (133 &micro;g/L). Non-Hispanic black WRA had a mUIC of 124 &micro;g/L. Dairy consumption was significantly higher among non-Hispanic white (162 g) compared to non-Hispanic black WRA (113 g). Soy consumption was also higher among non-Hispanic Asian WRA (18 g compared to non-Hispanic black WRA (1 g). Differences in the consumption pattern of key sources of iodine and goitrogens may put subgroups of individuals at risk of mild iodine deficiency. Continued monitoring of iodine status and variations in consumption patterns is needed.

      2. Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices improved in 2 districts in Nepal during the scale-up of an integrated IYCF and micronutrient powder programExternal
        Locks LM, Dahal P, Pokharel R, Joshi N, Paudyal N, Whitehead RD, Chitekwe S, Mei Z, Lamichhane B, Garg A, Jefferds ME.
        Curr Dev Nutr. 2018 Jun;2(6):nzy019.

        Background: Three-quarters of the >/=50 programs that use micronutrient powders (MNPs) integrate MNPs into infant and young child feeding (IYCF) programs, with limited research on impacts on IYCF practices. Objective: This study assessed changes in IYCF practices in 2 districts in Nepal that were part of a post-pilot scale-up of an integrated IYCF-MNP program. Methods: This analysis used cross-sectional surveys (n = 2543 and 2578 for baseline and endline) representative of children aged 6-23 mo and their mothers in 2 districts where an IYCF program added MNP distributions through female community health volunteers (FCHVs) and health workers (HWs). Multivariable log-binomial models estimated prevalence ratios comparing reported IYCF at endline with baseline and at endline on the basis of exposure to different sources of IYCF information. Mothers who received FCHV-IYCF counseling with infrequent (</=1 time/mo) and frequent (>1 time/mo) interactions were compared with mothers who never received FCHV-IYCF counseling. The receipt of HW-IYCF counseling and receipt of MNPs from an FCHV (both yes or no) were also compared. Results: The prevalence of minimum dietary diversity (MDD) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) was significantly higher at endline than at baseline. In analyses from endline, compared with mothers who never received FCHV counseling, only mothers in the frequent FCHV-IYCF counseling group were more likely to report feeding the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and MAD, with no difference for the infrequent FCHV-IYCF counseling group in these indicators. HW-IYCF counseling was not associated with these indicators. Mothers who received MNPs from their FCHV were more likely to report initiating solid foods at 6 mo and feeding the child the MDD, MMF, and MAD compared with mothers who did not, adjusting for HW- and FCHV-IYCF counseling and demographic covariates. Conclusions: Incorporating MNPs into the Nepal IYCF program did not harm IYCF and may have contributed to improvements in select practices. Research that uses experimental designs should verify whether integrated IYCF-MNP programs can improve IYCF practices.

    • Occupational Safety and Health
      1. Standardizing industrial hygiene data collection forms used by workers’ compensation insurersExternal
        Babik KR, Shockey TM, Moore LL, Wurzelbacher SJ.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Jul 9:1-26.

        Workers’ compensation (WC) insurers collect large amounts of industrial hygiene (IH) data in the United States. The data collected is not easily accessible for research or surveillance purposes. Individual WC insurers are using computerized systems to standardize and store the IH data, leaving a gap in standardization among the different WC insurers. This study sought to standardize IH data collection among WC insurers and to determine the feasibility of pooling collected IH data. IH air and noise survey forms were collected from WC insurers. Data fields on the forms were evaluated for importance and a study list of core fields was developed. The core study list was presented to an IH review panel for review before finalization. The final core study list was compared to recommendations published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). Fifty-nine forms from 10 organizations were collected. Industrial hygienists from research organizations, state-based WC insurers, and private WC insurers participated in the data field evaluation and on the review panel. For both air and noise survey forms, more than half the data fields (55% and 54%, respectively) were ranked as “essential.” Three of the four fields in the worker and control observations category ranked “essential” were found less than half of the time on both types of survey forms. The study list of core data elements consisted of more than half of the data fields from both the air and noise survey forms. Three additional fields were added based on the comparison to the ACGIH-AIHA recommendations. Data fields essential to standardizing IH data collection were identified and verified. The “essential” data fields will be made available and have the potential to be incorporated into WC insurers electronic IH data management systems. Future research should focus on other IH survey forms, such as those used in ergonomic assessments and specific chemical exposures, and methods to transfer data fields to electronic platforms.

      2. A biomechanical shoulder strain index based on stabilizing demand of shoulder jointExternal
        Chowdhury SK, Nimbarte AD, Hsiao H, Gopalakrishnan B, Jaridi M.
        Ergonomics. 2018 Jul 12:1-38.

        Work-related shoulder joint disorders contribute considerably to absenteeism in the workplace. To identify the tasks that are stressful to the shoulder joint, a strain index was formulated based on the concept of concavity compression – a shoulder stabilizing mechanism. The magnitude and direction of the shoulder joint reaction forces were used in formulating the strain index. A two phase experiment was conducted. In phase 1, participants performed 30 different manual handling tasks. The tasks were categorized into low, medium, and high strain tasks based on their strain index values. In phase 2, out of the 30 tasks, repetitive exertions of three tasks (low, medium and high strain index values) were simulated using three external loads (0.91kg, 1.81kg, and 2.72kg). The muscle activity data recorded from eight shoulder muscles showed that tasks with higher strain index values induced significantly greater activation and muscle fatigue than tasks with lower strain index values. Practitioner Summary: The strain index developed in this study is a conclusive estimation of the concavity compression required for shoulder joint stabilization. It can be used to identify the activities that may contribute to the risks of shoulder disorders.

      3. Exposures during industrial 3-D printing and post-processing tasksExternal
        Du Preez S, Johnson A, LeBouf RF, Linde SJ, Stefaniak AB, Du Plessis J.
        Rapid Prototyping Journal. 2018 .

        Purpose This paper aims to measure exposures to airborne contaminants during three-dimensional (3-D) printing and post-processing tasks in an industrial workplace. Design/methodology/approach Contaminant concentrations were assessed using real-time particle number (0.007 to 1 ?m) and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) monitors and thermal desorption tubes during various tasks at a manufacturing facility using fused deposition modeling (FDMTM) 3-D printers. Personal exposures were measured for two workers using nanoparticle respiratory deposition samplers for metals and passive badges for specific VOCs. Findings Opening industrial-scale FDMTM 3-D printer doors after printing, removing desktop FDMTM 3-D printer covers during printing, acetone vapor polishing (AVP) and chloroform vapor polishing (CVP) tasks all resulted in transient increases in levels of submicrometer-scale particles and/or organic vapors, a portion of which enter the workers’ breathing zone, resulting in exposure. Personal exposure to quantifiable levels of metals in particles <300 nm were 0.02 mg/m3 for aluminum, chromium, copper, iron and titanium during FDMTM printing. Personal exposures were 0.38 to 6.47 mg/m3 for acetone during AVP and 0.18 mg/m3 for chloroform during CVP. Originality/value Characterization of tasks provided insights on factors that influenced contaminant levels, and in turn exposures to various particles, metals < 300 nm and organic vapors. These concentration and exposure factors data are useful for identifying tasks and work processes to consider for implementation of new or improved control technologies to mitigate exposures in manufacturing facilities using FDMTM 3-D printers.

      4. Parental occupational pesticide exposure and nonsyndromic orofacial cleftsExternal
        Suhl J, Romitti PA, Rocheleau C, Cao Y, Burns TL, Conway K, Bell EM, Stewart P, Langlois P.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Jul 11:1-32.

        Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects. Reported risks for orofacial clefts associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure are mixed. To examine the role of parental pesticide exposure in OFC development in offspring, this study compared population-based case-control data for parental occupational exposures to insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, alone or in combinations, during maternal (one month before through three months after conception) and paternal (three months before through three months after conception) critical exposure periods between orofacial cleft cases and unaffected controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, adjusted for relevant covariables, and 95% confidence intervals for any (yes, no) and cumulative (none, low [<median exposure level in controls], high [>/=median exposure level in controls]) occupational pesticide exposures and cleft lip +/- cleft palate and cleft palate. Compared to controls, associations for cleft lip +/- cleft palate tended to be near unity for maternal or paternal occupational pesticide exposures, except for low paternal exposure to any pesticide, which produced a statistically significant inverse association with this subtype. Associations for cleft palate tended to be near unity for maternal exposures and mostly positive, but non-significant, for paternal exposures; a significant positive association was observed between paternal low exposure to insecticide+herbicide+fungicide and cleft palate. Combined parental exposure produced non-significant associations near or below unity for all orofacial cleft cases combined and cleft lip +/- cleft palate and positive, but non-significant, associations for cleft palate. This study observed associations mostly near unity between maternal occupational pesticide exposure and orofacial clefts. Associations for paternal occupational pesticide exposures were mostly near or below unity for cleft lip +/- cleft palate, and mostly positive for cleft palate. However, due to the limitations of this study, these subtype-specific results should be interpreted cautiously. Future research examining parental occupational pesticide exposure and orofacial clefts should attempt to improve exposure assessment and increase sample size to better facilitate risk estimation.

      5. Occupational exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields and brain tumor risk in the INTEROCC study: An individualized assessment approachExternal
        Vila J, Turner MC, Gracia-Lavedan E, Figuerola J, Bowman JD, Kincl L, Richardson L, Benke G, Hours M, Krewski D, McLean D, Parent ME, Sadetzki S, Schlaefer K, Schlehofer B, Schuz J, Siemiatycki J, van Tongeren M, Cardis E.
        Environ Int. 2018 Jul 8;119:353-365.

        INTRODUCTION: In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), although the epidemiological evidence for the association between occupational exposure to RF-EMF and cancer was judged to be inadequate, due in part to limitations in exposure assessment. This study examines the relation between occupational RF and intermediate frequency (IF) EMF exposure and brain tumor (glioma and meningioma) risk in the INTEROCC multinational population-based case-control study (with nearly 4000 cases and over 5000 controls), using a novel exposure assessment approach. METHODS: Individual indices of cumulative exposure to RF and IF-EMF (overall and in specific exposure time windows) were assigned to study participants using a source-exposure matrix and detailed interview data on work with or nearby EMF sources. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate associations with glioma and meningioma risk. RESULTS: Overall, around 10% of study participants were exposed to RF while only 1% were exposed to IF-EMF. There was no clear evidence for a positive association between RF or IF-EMF and the brain tumors studied, with most results showing either no association or odds ratios (ORs) below 1.0. The largest adjusted ORs were obtained for cumulative exposure to RF magnetic fields (as A/m-years) in the highest exposed category (>/=90th percentile) for the most recent exposure time window (1-4 years before the diagnosis or reference date) for both glioma, OR=1.62 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 3.01) and meningioma (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 0.65, 3.55). CONCLUSION: Despite the improved exposure assessment approach used in this study, no clear associations were identified. However, the results obtained for recent exposure to RF electric and magnetic fields are suggestive of a potential role in brain tumor promotion/progression and should be further investigated.

      6. Occupational mercury exposure at a fluorescent lamp recycling facility – Wisconsin, 2017External
        Wilson E, Lafferty JS, Thiboldeaux R, Tomasallo C, Grajewski B, Wozniak R, Meiman J.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jul 13;67(27):763-766.

        On May 9, 2017, Public Health Madison & Dane County contacted the Wisconsin Division of Public Health for assistance with investigation of mercury exposure among workers at a fluorescent lamp recycling facility. Public Health Madison & Dane County had been contacted by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources as part of an investigation of potential environmental contamination at the facility. Fluorescent lamps are composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube containing mercury vapor and argon. During the recycling process, lamps are crushed, releasing mercury vapor and mercury-containing dusts. State and county health officials, in collaboration with Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, conducted an investigation of mercury exposure of workers and an environmental assessment of the facility, surrounding areas, and worker vehicles. All five workers who were tested had urine mercury levels exceeding the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) biologic exposure index of 20.0 mug/g creatinine, and two had tremor on physical exam. Workers wore inadequate personal protective equipment (PPE). Mercury levels in indoor air varied within the building, with a maximum of 207.4 mug/m(3) at floor level on the crushing platform, approximately eightfold higher than the ACGIH threshold limit value of 25 mug/m(3) (1). Mercury also was found in workers’ vehicles, indicating risk for take-home exposure. Workers at risk for mercury exposure need to have access to and consistently wear National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-approved respiratory protection for mercury vapor, nitrile or other suitable gloves to prevent contact exposure, and disposable suits with booties and change shoes before leaving the worksite to prevent take-home exposures.

    • Occupational Safety and Health – Mining
      1. Evaluating the use of a field-based silica monitoring approach with dust from copper minesExternal
        Cauda E, Chubb L, Reed R, Stepp R.
        J Occup Environ Hyg. 2018 Jul 9:1-28.

        Monitoring worker exposure to respirable crystalline silica in dusty environments is an important part of a proactive health and safety program. This is the case for surface copper mines in Arizona and New Mexico. The spatial and temporal variability of respirable dust and crystalline silica concentrations in those mines, coupled with the time lapse in obtaining crystalline silica analysis results from accredited laboratories, present a challenge for an effective exposure monitoring approach and the resulting intervention strategies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is developing a novel approach to be used at a mine site for the quantification of crystalline silica in respirable dust samples collected with traditional sampling techniques. The non-destructive analysis is carried out using a portable Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) unit. In this study, respirable dust samples were collected over two visits to each of five copper mines, for a total of ten datasets. The silica in each respirable dust sample was estimated by analyzing the sample with the portable FTIR unit. The quality of the estimation was assessed using the results of the NIOSH 7500 method on the same samples. The confounding effect of other minerals present in the respirable dust in the mines was also assessed, and two quantification approaches were investigated to address it: a sector-specific and a mine-specific approach. The results showed that the sector-specific approach is not effective due to the high variability of relative composition of the minerals among mines. For this approach the combined average relative difference was -13% (-17.6%, -8.9% CI) When using the mine-specific quantification approach, the average relative difference was as low as 2.8% (-3.7%, 9.3% CI); however, this approach was still affected by the variable relative composition of the minerals in the dust in each mine. The use of a multivariate approach on the analysis of each sample was proposed as the next step to achieve consistent low relative differences. This study demonstrates the potential of using a portable FTIR for estimation of crystalline silica in respirable dust samples for in-field exposure monitoring.

    • Parasitic Diseases
      1. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment failure in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria case imported from EthiopiaExternal
        Russo G, L’Episcopia M, Menegon M, Souza SS, Dongho BG, Vullo V, Lucchi NW, Severini C.
        Infection. 2018 Jul 6.

        Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) is the artemisinin combination therapy that was recently introduced for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum uncomplicated malaria, but emerging resistance in South-East Asia is threatening its use. This report describes a case of DHA-PPQ treatment failure in uncomplicated malaria occurring in an immigrant living in Italy, after a travel to Ethiopia. Thirty days after malaria recovery following DHA-PPQ therapy, the patient had malaria recrudescence. According to the genotyping analysis, the same P. falciparum was responsible for both episodes. Thus, it seems important to consider possible malaria recrudescence occurring after DHA-PPQ therapy in patients from African countries.

      2. Relative contribution of schistosomiasis and malaria to anemia in Western KenyaExternal
        Valice EM, Wiegand RE, Mwinzi PN, Karanja DM, Williamson JM, Ochola E, Samuels A, Verani JR, Leon JS, Secor WE, Montgomery SP.
        Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Jul 9.

        Because anemia is one of the markers of morbidity associated with schistosomiasis, it has been proposed as a potential measure to evaluate the impact of control programs. However, anemia is also a common consequence of malaria, and schistosomiasis and malaria are often co-endemic. To estimate the attributable fraction of anemia due to Schistosoma mansoni and Plasmodium falciparum infections, we applied a log-binomial model to four studies measuring these parameters of a combined 5,849 children in western Kenya. In our studies, malaria contributed 23.3%, schistosomiasis contributed 6.6%, and co-infection contributed 27.6% of the anemia. We conclude that in areas where S. mansoni and P. falciparum are co-endemic, the contribution of schistosomiasis to anemia is masked by anemia resulting from malaria, thus limiting anemia as a useful measure for schistosomiasis control programs in these settings.

    • Physical Activity
      1. CDC’s Active People, Healthy Nation(SM): Creating an Active America, TogetherExternal
        Fulton JE, Buchner DM, Carlson SA, Borbely D, Rose KM, O’Connor AE, Gunn JP, Petersen R.
        J Phys Act Health. 2018 Jul 1;15(7):469-473.

        Physical activity can reduce the risk of at least 20 chronic diseases and conditions and provide effective treatment for many of these conditions. Yet, physical activity levels of Americans remain low, with only small improvements over 20 years. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) considered what would accelerate progress and, as a result, developed Active People, Healthy Nation(SM), an aspirational initiative to improve physical activity in 2.5 million high school youth and 25 million adults, doubling the 10-year improvement targets of Healthy People 2020. Active People, Healthy Nation(SM) will implement evidence-based guidance to improve physical activity through 5 action steps centered on core public health functions: (1) program delivery, (2) partnership mobilization, (3) effective communication, (4) cross-sectoral training, and (5) continuous monitoring and evaluation. To achieve wide-scale impact, Active People, Healthy Nation(SM) will need broad engagement from a variety of sectors working together to coordinate activities and initiatives.

    • Social and Behavioral Sciences
      1. [No abstract]

    • Substance Use and Abuse
      1. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: cross-sectional data from the general population of Telemark, NorwayExternal
        Fell AK, Svendsen MV, Kim JL, Abrahamsen R, Henneberger PK, Toren K, Blanc PD, Kongerud J.
        BMC Public Health. 2018 Jul 6;18(1):843.

        BACKGROUND: In Norway, data on the association between second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home and respiratory symptoms in adults are limited. METHODS: We assessed the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among never-smokers aged 16 to 50 years from the general population who were included in a cross-sectional population-based study in Telemark County, Norway. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of symptoms among 8850 never-smokers who provided an affirmative response to questions regarding SHS; 504 (5.7%) of these reported that they lived in a home with daily or occasional indoor smoking. RESULTS: Productive cough and nocturnal dyspnoea were statistically associated with daily SHS exposure (ORs 1.5 [95% CI 1.04-2.0] and 1.8 [1.2-2.7], respectively). In analyses stratified by gender, nocturnal dyspnoea was associated with SHS among women (OR 1.8 [1.1-3.1]), but not among men (OR 0.93 [0.49-1.8]). Symptoms were not associated with occasional SHS exposure in the entire group, but infrequent exposure among men only was associated with increased prevalence of chronic cough; (OR 1.6; [1.04-2.6]) and was negatively associated with wheeze; (OR 0.44 [0.21-0.92)]. CONCLUSIONS: Daily SHS exposure in private homes was associated with productive cough and nocturnal dyspnoea. Our results suggest that preventive measures may be needed to reduce the respiratory effects of SHS at home. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02073708 Registered February 27. 2014.

      2. Notes from the field: Overdose deaths with carfentanil and other fentanyl analogs detected – 10 states, July 2016-June 2017External
        O’Donnell J, Gladden RM, Mattson CL, Kariisa M.
        MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Jul 13;67(27):767-768.

        [No abstract]

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DISCLAIMER: Articles listed in the CDC Science Clips are selected by the Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library to provide current awareness of the public health literature. An article’s inclusion does not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention nor does it imply endorsement of the article’s methods or findings. CDC and DHHS assume no responsibility for the factual accuracy of the items presented. The selection, omission, or content of items does not imply any endorsement or other position taken by CDC or DHHS. Opinion, findings and conclusions expressed by the original authors of items included in the Clips, or persons quoted therein, are strictly their own and are in no way meant to represent the opinion or views of CDC or DHHS. References to publications, news sources, and non-CDC Websites are provided solely for informational purposes and do not imply endorsement by CDC or DHHS.

Page last reviewed: January 31, 2019