Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content


Britton WJ, Lockwood NJ. Leprosy. Source: Lancet. 2004;363:1209-1219.

Bruce S, Schroeder TL, Ellner K, Rubin H, Williams T, Wolf JE Jr. Armadillo exposure and Hansen’s disease: an epidemiologic survey in southern Texas. Source: J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43(2 Pt1):223-228.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. CDC Immigration Requirements: Technical Instructions for Hansen’s Disease (Leprosy) for Panel Physicians. Last updated: 2012 Dec 17. Accessed: 2017 Jan 23.

Hartzell JD, Zapor M, Peng S, Straight T. Leprosy: a case series and review. Source: South Med J. 2004;97:1252-1256.

Martiniuk F, Rao SD, Rea TH, et al. Leprosy as Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-positive Persons. Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(9):1438-1440. doi:10.3201/eid1309.070301.

Nolen L, Haberling D, Scollard D, et al. Incidence of Hansen’s Disease — United States, 1994–2011. Source: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). 2014 / 63(43);969-972.

Ooi WW, Moschella SL. Update on leprosy in immigrants in the United States: status in the year 2000. Source: Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:930-937.

Scollard DM, Adams LB, Gillis TP, Krahenbuhl JL, Truman RW, Williams DL. The continuing challenges of leprosy. Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2006;19(2):338-381.

Truman, RW, Singh, P., Sharma, R, Busso, JP, Rougemont, J, Paniz-Mondolfi, A, Kapopoulou, A, Brisse, S, Scollard, DM, Gillis, TP, and Cole, ST. Probable Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southern United States. Source: N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1626-1633.

Williams D, Hagino T, Sharma R, et al. Primary Multidrug-Resistant Leprosy, United States. Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(1):179-181. doi:10.3201/eid1901.120864.

Woodall P, Scollard DM, Rajan L. Hansen Disease among Micronesian and Marshallese Persons Living in the United States. Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2011;17(7):1202-1208. doi:10.3201/eid1707.102036.

World Health Organization. Surveillance of drug resistance in leprosy: 2010. Source: Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2011;86:237–240.

World Health Organization. Global leprosy update, 2015: time for action, accountability and inclusion. Source: Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2016; 91:405–420.

Worobec SM. Current approaches and future directions in the treatment of leprosy. Source: Res Rep Trop Med. 2012;3:79–91.