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Epidemiology & Geographic Distribution

In the United States, an average of 65 La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) neuroinvasive disease cases are reported each year. There is significant under-diagnosis and under-reporting of less severe cases of LACV disease, therefore reported LACV neuroinvasive disease cases are used to compare trends over time and place. To ensure standardization of reporting across the country, CDC recommends that the national surveillance case definition (standardized reporting criteria) be consistently applied by all state health departments.

LACV disease cases occur primarily from late spring through early fall, but in subtropical endemic areas (e.g., the Gulf states), rare cases can occur in winter. Historically, most cases of LACV neuroinvasive disease were reported from the upper Midwestern states (Ohio, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Indiana, Iowa, and Illinois). Recently, more cases have been reported from mid-Atlantic and southeastern states (North Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia, Georgia, Virginia, and Kentucky).

La Crosse virus neuroinvasive disease cases reported by year, 2008–2017

A line chart depicting La Crosse encephalitis cases by year starting from 2008 to 2017.

Source: ArboNET, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

La Crosse virus neuroinvasive disease cases reported by year, 2007–2016
Year Number of Reported Cases
2008 49
2009 44
2010 67
2011 116
2012 71
2013 77
2014 76
2015 51
2016 31
2017 63

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Data Table: In the United States, the number of La Crosse virus neuroinvasive disease cases reported each year varies. From 2008 through 2017, an average of 65 cases were reported annually (range 31–116).

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La Crosse virus neuroinvasive disease cases reported by state of residence, 2008–2017

A map of the continental United States depicting California Serogroup Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Cases reported by state, 2008 to 2017.

Source: ArboNET, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

La Crosse virus neuroinvasive disease cases reported by state of residence, 2008–2017
State Number of Reported Cases
Alabama 2
Florida 2
Georgia 14
Illinois 1
Indiana 6
Iowa 1
Kansas 1
Kentucky 2
Louisiana 2
Maryland 3
Michigan 3
Minnesota 19
Mississippi 4
Missouri 1
North Carolina 175
Ohio 179
South Carolina 4
Tennessee 101
Texas 4
Virginia 8
West Virginia 86
Wisconsin 27

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Data table: From 2008 through 2017, La Crosse virus neuroinvasive disease cases have been reported in Alabama (2), Florida (2), Georgia (14), Illinois (1), Indiana (6), Iowa (1), Kansas (1), Kentucky (2), Louisiana (2), Maryland (3), Michigan (3), Minnesota (19), Mississippi (4), Missouri (1), North Carolina (175), Ohio (179), South Carolina (4), Tennessee (101), Texas (4), Virginia (8), West Virginia (86) and Wisconsin (27).

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La Crosse virus neuroinvasive disease average annual incidence by county of residence, 2008–2017

A map of the continental United States depicting California Serogroup Virus Neuroinvasive Disease Average Annual Incidence by County, 2008 to 2017.

Source: ArboNET, Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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Data table: This map shows the distribution of La Crosse virus neuroinvasive disease (encephalitis and/or meningitis) average annual incidence by county of residence from 2008 through 2017. Counties are shaded according to incidences ranging from less than 1.00, 1.00 to 2.49, and greater than 2.50 per 100,000 population. Shaded counties are primarily distributed in eastern half of the country. Most of the highest incidence counties are along the Appalachian range.

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Additional Maps, Charts, and Tables

La Crosse virus disease cases and deaths reported to CDC by year and clinical presentation, 2008-2017

La Crosse virus disease cases and deaths reported to CDC by year and clinical presentation, 2008-2017
Neuroinvasive disease Non-neuroinvasive disease Total
Year Cases
No.
Deaths
No. (%)
Cases
No.
Deaths
No. (%)
Cases
No.
Deaths
No. (%)
2008  49 0  (0) 4 0  (0) 53 0  (0)
2009 44 1  (2) 6 0  (0) 50 1  (2)
2010 67 1  (1) 7 0  (0) 74 1  (1)
2011 116 1  (1) 14 0  (0) 130 1  (1)
2012 71 1  (1) 7 0  (0) 78 1  (1)
2013 77 2  (3) 8 0  (0) 85 2  (2)
2014 76 3  (4) 4 0  (0) 80 3  (4)
2015 51 0  (0) 4 0  (0) 55 0  (0)
2016 31 0  (0) 4 0  (0) 35 0  (0)
2017 63 0  (0) 0 0  (0) 63 0  (0)
Total 645 9  (1) 58 0  (0) 703 9 (<1)

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La Crosse virus disease cases reported to CDC by state of residence, 2008–2017

La Crosse virus disease cases reported to CDC by state of residence and year, 2008–2017
State 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Total
Alabama 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2
Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
California 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Colorado 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Connecticut 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Delaware 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dist. of Columbia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Florida 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3
Georgia 2 2 2 2 0 1 2 2 0 2 15
Hawaii 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Idaho 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Illinois 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Indiana 0 1 0 2 3 1 0 0 0 0 7
Iowa 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Kansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Kentucky 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Louisiana 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2
Maine 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Maryland 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3
Massachusetts 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Michigan 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Minnesota 1 0 1 1 4 5 4 1 3 1 21
Mississippi 3 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 7
Missouri 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Montana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nebraska 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nevada 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Hampshire 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Jersey 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Mexico 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New York 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
North Carolina 9 16 22 26 26 13 23 11 8 21 175
North Dakota 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ohio 9 5 24 50 13 16 31 24 9 13 194
Oklahoma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oregon 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pennsylvania 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Puerto Rico 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rhode Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
South Carolina 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 4
South Dakota 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tennessee 6 8 11 12 9 23 11 4 3 17 104
Texas 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 4
Utah 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vermont 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Virginia 2 1 0 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 10
Washington 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
West Virginia 14 14 8 26 14 11 2 4 8 4 105
Wisconsin 4 1 0 5 2 8 4 6 4 2 36
Wyoming 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 53 50 74 130 78 85 80 55 35 63 703

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