Communicable Disease

Tuberculosis

According to the WHO Tuberculosis ProfileExternal, Iraq reported 8,664 new cases of tuberculosis in 2012 and a prevalence of 73 cases per 100,000 population (27). Within Iraq, 180 new cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis were confirmed as of 2012 27.

From 2008- 2013, 0.2% of Iraqi refugees arrived in the US with a TB class B1 which is TB fully treated using directly observed therapy, or abnormal chest x-ray with negative sputum smears and cultures, or extrapulmonary TB. Tuberculin skin tests (TST) are routinely performed on children aged 2-14 years and those with a positive TST are designated as TB class B2. Approximately 1% of children examined overseas had a positive TST from 2008-2013.

Infectious Hepatitis

While national-level data on hepatitis is limited, of 2,957 Iraqi refugees screened for hepatitis B in San Diego as part of the domestic medical examination, 21 (0.7%) were diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, which is comparable with the national average of hepatitis B in Iraq 26.

HIV and Syphilis

The prevalence of HIV in Iraq is less than 1%, but reported cases have been increasing, especially in areas close to Baghdad (21). According to EDN, of ~91,000 US-bound Iraqi refugees screened from 2008 through 2013 as part of the visa medical exam, 0.1% tested positive for syphilis and were treated prior to arrival.

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