Publications and Resources
Clinical Fall Prevention can reduce fall-related hospitalizations. The CDC Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, & Injuries (STEADI) initiative encourages healthcare providers to screen, assess, and intervene to reduce older patient’s fall risk factors. A new study, published in The Gerontologist, found that a STEADI-based fall prevention program reduced future fall-related hospitalizations. Fewer hospitalizations means better health for older Americans.
- Johnston YA, Bergen G, Bauer M, Parker EM, Wentworth L, McFadden M, Reome C, Garnett M. Implementation of the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries Initiative (STEADI) in Primary Care: An Outcome Evaluation. Gerontologist (GERONT), 2018. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gny101
- Stevens JA, Lee R. The Potential to Reduce Falls and Avert Costs by Clinically Managing Fall Risk. The American Journal of Preventive Medicine (AJPM). Am J Prev Med 2018;55(3):290-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2018.04.035
- Haddad YK, Bergen G, Luo F. Reducing Fall Risk in Older Adults. The American Journal of Nursing (AJN). July 2018; 118(7):21-22. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000541429.36218.2d
- Haddad YK, Bergen G, Florence CS. Estimating the Economic Burden Related to Older Adult Falls by State. The Journal of Public Health Management and Practice (JPHMP), May 2018, DOI: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000816
- Florence CS, Bergen G, Atherly A, Burns ER, Stevens JA, Drake C. Medical Costs of Fatal and Nonfatal Falls in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 2018 March, DOI:10.1111/jgs.15304
- Eckstrom E, Parker EM, Lambert GH, Winkler G, Dowler D, Casey CM. Implementing STEADI in Academic Primary Care to Address Older Adult Fall Risk. Innovation in Aging, 2017 December 1, https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx028
- Sarmiento, K., & Lee, R., STEADI: CDC’s approach to make older adult fall prevention part of every primary care practice,
Journal of Safety Research (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsr.2017.08.003
- Lee R. The CDC’s STEADI Initiative: Promoting Older Adult Health and Independence Through Fall Prevention. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Aug 15;96(4):220-221.
- Stevens JA, Smith ML, Parker EM, Jiang L, Floyd FD. Implementing a Clinically Based Fall Prevention Program. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2017 July 5; DOI: 10.1177/1559827617716085.
- Schlotthauer AE, Mahoney JE, Christiansen AL, Gobel VL, Layde P, Lecey V, Mack KA, Shea T, Clemson L. Research on the Translation and Implementation of Stepping On in Three Wisconsin Communities. Frontiers in Public Health. 2017 Jun 12. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00128.
- Nishijima DK, Gaona SD, Waechter T, Maloney R, Bair T, Blitz A, Elms A, Farrales RD, Howard C, Montoya J, Bell JM, Faul M, Vinson DR, Garzon H, Holmes JF, Ballard DW. Out-of-Hospital Triage of Older Adults With Head Injury: A Retrospective Study of the Effect of Adding “Anticoagulation or Antiplatelet Medication Use” as a Criterion. Annals of Emergency Medicine . 2017 Feb 24. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.12.018.
- Haarbauer-Krupa J, Taylor CA, Yue JK, Winkler EA, Pirracchio R, Cooper SR, Burke JF, Stein MB, Manley GT. Screening for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in a Civilian Emergency Department Population with Traumatic Brain Injury. J Neurotrauma. 2017 Jan 1;34(1):50-58. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2015.4158.
- Burns ER, Stevens JA, Lee R. The direct costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults—United States, Journal of Safety Research. 2016.
- Casey CM, Parker EM, Winkler G, Liu X, Lambert GH, Eckstrom, E. Lessons Learned From Implementing CDC’s STEADI Falls Prevention Algorithm in Primary Care. The Gerontologist. 2016. DOI:10.1093/geront/gnw074.
- Faul M, Xu L, Sasser S. Hospitalized Traumatic Brain Injury: Low Trauma Center Utilization and High Interfacility Transfers among Older Adults. Prehospital Emergency Care. DOI:10.3109/10903127.2016.1149651.
- Carande-Kulis V, Stevens JA, Florence CS, Beattie BL, Arias I. A cost-benefit analysis of three older adult fall prevention interventions. J Safety Res. 2015 Feb;52:65-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2014.12.007.
- DeGrauw X, Annest JL, Stevens JA, Xu L, Coronado V. Unintentional injuries treated in hospital emergency departments among persons aged 65 years and older, United States, 2006-2011. J Safety Res. 2015. DOI:10.1016/j.jsr.2015.11.002.
- Houry D, Florence C, Baldwin G, Stevens J, McClure R. The CDC Injury Center’s Response to the Growing Public Health Problem of Falls Among Older Adults. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2015. DOI:1559827615600137.
- Kaniewski M, Stevens JA, Parker EM, Lee R. An Introduction to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Efforts to Prevent Older Adult Falls. Front Public Health. 2015 Apr 27;2:119. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00119.
- Ory MG, Smith ML, Jiang L, Lee R, Chen S, Wilson AD, Stevens JA, Parker EM. Fall prevention in community settings: results from implementing stepping on in three States. Front Public Health. 2015 Apr 27;2:232. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00232.
- Phelan EA, Mahoney JE, Voit JC, Stevens JA. Assessment and management of fall risk in primary care settings. Med Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;99(2):281-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2014.11.004.
- Smith ML, Stevens JA, Ehrenreich H, Wilson AD, Schuster RJ, Cherry CO, Ory MG. Healthcare providers’ perceptions and self-reported fall prevention practices: findings from a large new york health system. Front Public Health. 2015 Apr 27;3:17. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2015.00017.
- Sleet DA, Baldwin GT. Can an evidence-based fall prevention program be translated for use in culturally diverse communities? (Commentary). J Sport Health Sci 2014; 3: 32-33. 10.1016/j.jshs.2013.11.001.
- Stevens JA, Mahoney JE, Ehrenreich H. Circumstances and outcomes of falls among high risk community-dwelling older adults. Injury Epidemiology 2014; 1: 1-5. DOI: 10.1186/2197-1714-1-5.
- Stevens JA, Rudd RA. Circumstances and contributing causes of fall deaths among persons aged 65 and older: United States, 2010. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Mar;62(3):470-5. DOI: 10.1111/jgs.12702.
- Stevens JA, Rudd RA. Comment on Cassell and Clapperton: A decreasing trend in fall-related hip fracture incidence in Victoria, Australia. Osteoporos Int. 2014 Jun;25(6):1817. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-013-2584-2.
- Stevens JA, Voukelatos A, Ehrenreich H. Preventing falls with Tai Ji Quan: a public health perspective. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2014; 3: 21-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2013.10.002.
- Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K, Stevens JA, Gladieux M, Chou Li-S, Carp K, Voit J. Implementing an evidence-based fall prevention program in an outpatient clinical setting. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2013 DOI: 10.1111/jgs.12509.
- Stevens JA. The STEADI tool kit: a fall prevention resource for healthcare providers. IHS Primary Care Provider. 2013;38(9):1–5.
- Stevens JA, Phelan EA. Development of STEADI: a fall prevention resource for health care providers. Health Promot Pract. 2013 Sep;14(5):706-14. DOI: 10.1177/1524839912463576.
- Stevens JA, Rudd RA. The impact of decreasing U.S. hip fracture rates on future hip fracture estimates. Osteoporosis International. 2013;24(10):2725–2728. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-013-2375-9.
- Stevens JA, Ballesteros MF, Mack KA, Rudd RA, DeCaro E, Adler G. Gender differences in seeking care for falls in the aged Medicare population. Am J Prev Med. 2012 Jul;43(1):59-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.03.008.
- Hartholt KA, Stevens JA, Polinder S, van der Cammen TJ, Patka P. Increase in fall-related hospitalizations in the United States, 2001-2008. J Trauma. 2011 Jul;71(1):255-8. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31821c36e7.
- Noonan RK, Sleet DA, Stevens JA. Closing the gap: a research agenda to accelerate the adoption and effective use of proven older adult fall prevention strategies. J Safety Res. 2011 Dec;42(6):427-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2010.12.002.
- Rubenstein LZ, Vivrette R, Harker JO, Stevens JA, Kramer BJ. Validating an evidence-based, self-rated fall risk questionnaire (FRQ) for older adults. J Safety Res. 2011 Dec;42(6):493-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2011.08.006.
- Stevens JA, Haas EN, Haileyesus T. Nonfatal bathroom injuries among persons aged >15 years—United States, 2008. JAMA. 2011;306(3):258-260.
- Blalock SJ, Demby KB, McCulloch KL, Stevens JA. Factors influencing hip protector use among community-dwelling older adults. Injury Prevention. 2010;16:235-239.
- Fox PJ, Vazquez L, Tonner C, Stevens JA, Fineman N, Ross LK. A randomized trial of a multifaceted intervention to reduce falls among community-dwelling adults. Health Educ Behav. 2010 Dec;37(6):831-48. DOI: 10.1177/1090198110366003.
- Stevens JA, Baldwin GT, Ballesteros MF, Noonan RK, Sleet DA. An older adult falls research agenda from a public health perspective. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 2010;26:767-779.
- Stevens JA, Noonan RK, Rubenstein LZ. Older Adult Fall Prevention: Perceptions, Beliefs, and Behaviors. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2010;4(1):16-20.
- Stevens JA, Rudd RA. Declining hip fracture rates in the United States. Age Ageing. 2010 Jul;39(4):500-3. DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afq044.
- Stevens JA, Teh SL, Haileyesus, T. Dogs and cats as environmental fall hazards. Journal of Safety Research. 2010; 41(1):69-73.
- Boyd R, Stevens JA. Falls and fear of falling: burden, beliefs and behaviours. Age Ageing. 2009 Jul;38(4):423-8. DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afp053.
- Stevens JA. What does an evidence-based fall-prevention program mean? Defining levels of evidence. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008 Feb;56(2):373-4. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01490.x.
- Stevens JA, Mack KA, Paulozzi LJ, Ballesteros MF. Self-reported falls and fall-related injuries among persons aged>or=65 years–United States, 2006. J Safety Res. 2008;39(3):345-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2008.05.002.
- Thomas KE, Stevens JA, Sarmiento K, Wald MM. Fall-related traumatic brain injury deaths and hospitalizations among older adults–United States, 2005. J Safety Res. 2008;39(3):269-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2008.05.001.
- Thurman DJ, Stevens JA, Rao JK; Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: Assessing patients in a neurology practice for risk of falls (an evidence-based review): report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2008 Feb 5;70(6):473-9. DOI: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000299085.18976.20.
- Stevens JA, Ryan G, Kresnow M. Fatalities and injuries from falls among older adults – United States, 1193-2003 and 2001-2005. MMWR reprinted in JAMA. 2007;297:32–33.
- Stevens JA, Thomas KE, Sogolow ED. Seasonal patterns of fatal and nonfatal falls among older adults in the U.S. Accid Anal Prev. 2007 Nov;39(6):1239-44.
- Dellinger AM, Stevens JA. The injury problem among older adults: mortality, morbidity and costs. J Safety Res. 2006;37(5):519-22.
- Paulozzi LJ, Ballesteros MF, Stevens JA. Recent trends in mortality from unintentional injury in the United States. J Safety Res. 2006;37(3):277-83.
- Stevens JA, Corso PS, Finkelstein EA, Miller TR. The costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults. Inj Prev. 2006 Oct;12(5):290-5.
- Finkelstein EA, Chen H, Miller TR, Corso PS, Stevens JA. A comparison of the case-control and case-crossover designs for estimating medical costs of nonfatal fall-related injuries among older Americans. Med Care. 2005 Nov;43(11):1087-91.
- Stevens JA. Falls among older adults–risk factors and prevention strategies. J Safety Res. 2005;36(4):409-11.
- Stevens JA, Corso PS, Finkelstein EA, Miller TR. Economic analysis of fall-related injuries among older adults. Injury Prevention. 2005;11: 274–276.
- Stevens JA, Sogolow ED. Gender differences for non-fatal unintentional fall related injuries among older adults. Inj Prev. 2005 Apr;11(2):115-9.
- Burns ER, Kakara R. Deaths from Falls Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years — United States, 2007–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:509-514. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6718a1
- Bergen G, Stevens MR, Burns ER. Falls and Fall Injuries Among Adults Aged ≥65 Years — United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:993–998. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6537a2.
- Falls Prevention Awareness Day — September 22, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:993. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6537a1.
- Crews JE, Chou CF, Stevens JA, Saaddine JB, Falls Among Persons Aged ≥65 Years With and Without Severe Vision Impairment — United States, 2014. MMWR 2016;65:433–7.
- Barbour KE, Stevens JA, Charles G. Helmick CG, et al. Falls and fall injuries among adults with arthritis – United States, 2012. MMWR 2014; 63: 379-383.
- QuickStats: Rate of Nonfatal, Medically Consulted Fall Injury Episodes, by Age Group.
- Nonfatal Bathroom Injuries Among Persons Aged ≥15 Years — United States, 2008. MMWR 2011; 60(22);729-733.
- QuickStats: Annual Rate of Injury Episodes† for Leading Causes of Injury, by Sex — National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2004–2007. MMWR 2010; 59(06);167.
- Stevens JA, Teh SL, Haileyesus T. Nonfatal Fall-Related Injuries Associated with Dogs and Cats — United States, 2001–2006
- Stevens JA, Ryan G, Kresnow M. Fatalities and injuries from falls among older adults—United States, 1993–2003 and 2001–2005. MMWR 2006;55(45):1222–1224.
- Stevens JA, Olson S. Reducing falls and resulting hip fractures among older women. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2000 Mar 31;49(RR-2):3-12.
Fall Prevention Resources
- Staying Safe with Falls Prevention Awareness Day
- Taking Steps to Prevent Falls Podcasts: Listen (0:59)(3:52)
- Older Adult Falls: CDC Feature Article
- Keeping Seniors Safe Podcasts: Listen (0:59) (3:50)
- Preventing Older Adult Falls and TBI Podcast: Listen (2:37)
Other Related Resources
Falls among older adults are not inevitable—they’re preventable. The Baltimore City Health Department is using data to identify communities in need, and working with partners to bring effective fall prevention strategies to those neighborhoods.
Geriatric Emergency Departments have undergone a new standard for improved care, thanks to recently-created guidelines and criteria. Injuries that were once treated are now prevented. Learn how the St. Joseph’s Healthcare System prevents falls among older adults.
- Important Facts about Falls
- Costs of Falls Among Older Adults
- Hip Fractures Among Older Adults
- Publications and Resources
- CDC Compendium of Effective Fall Interventions: What Works for Community-Dwelling Older Adults, 3rd Edition
- Preventing Falls: A Guide to Implementing Effective Community-Based Fall Prevention Programs
- STEADI Initiative for Health Care Providers